oversight

Crime Technology: Federal Assistance to State and Local Law Enforcement

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1999-06-07.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                 United States General Accounting Office

GAO              Report to The Honorable
                 Mike DeWine, U.S. Senate



June 1999
                 CRIME
                 TECHNOLOGY
                 Federal Assistance to
                 State and Local Law
                 Enforcement




GAO/GGD-99-101
United States General Accounting Office                                                             General Government Division
Washington, D.C. 20548




                                    B-280998
                                    June 7, 1999

                                    The Honorable Mike DeWine
                                    United States Senate

                                    Dear Senator DeWine:

                                    This report responds to your request for information about crime
                                                          1
                                    technology assistance provided by the federal government to state and
                                    local law enforcement agencies. Specifically, for fiscal years 1996 through
                                    1998, you requested that we identify the types and amounts of such
                                    assistance provided by the Department of Justice, the Department of the
                                    Treasury, and the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP). Also,
                                    as agreed with you, we categorized the assistance into three types: (1)
                                    direct funding or grants; (2) access to support services and systems, such
                                    as the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) National Crime Information
                                    Center; and (3) in-kind (no cost) transfers of equipment or other assets.

                                    Identifiable crime technology assistance provided by Justice, Treasury,
Results in Brief                    and ONDCP to state and local law enforcement agencies during fiscal
                                    years 1996 through 1998 totaled an estimated $1.2 billion, as table 1 shows.
                                    This total is conservative because—given that these federal agencies are
                                    not required to, and do not specifically track crime technology assistance
                                    separately in their accounting systems—we included only amounts that
                                    could be identified or reasonably estimated by agency officials or us. As
                                    noted in table 1, this estimate was particularly conservative regarding
                                    multipurpose grants, such as Byrne Formula Grants and Local Law
                                    Enforcement Block Grants, which by design can be used for a variety of
                                    purposes. Further, as also noted in table 1, regarding applicable support
                                    services and systems, we did not include personnel costs.




                                    1
                                     In developing the information in this report, we defined “crime technology assistance” to include
                                    federal programs and funding to support a broad array of activities, ranging from upgrading criminal
                                    history records to establishing or improving fingerprint and ballistic identification systems (see app. I).




                                    Page 1
                                         B-280998




Table 1: Estimated Federal Funding for
Crime Technology Assistance, Fiscal      Dollars in millions
Years 1996 Through 1998                  Type of Assistance                                                                         Amount
                                         Direct single-purpose grants: Justice                                                       $ 255.1
                                                                             a
                                         Direct multipurpose grants: Justice                                                           746.3
                                                                               b
                                         Support services and systems: Justice                                                         146.6
                                                                                 b
                                         Support services and systems: Treasury                                                         15.9
                                         Technology transfers: ONDCP                                                                    13.0
                                         Total                                                                                      $1,176.9
                                         a
                                          Funding estimates for some purpose areas in the Byrne Formula Grants Program are for 10 states
                                         (the largest recipients); and, funding estimates for the Local Law Enforcement Block Grants Program
                                         are based on data voluntarily provided to Justice by substantially less than all grantees for only 2
                                         fiscal years—i.e., about 60 percent of the 1996 grantees and about 10 percent of the 1997 grantees.
                                         b
                                          For most services and systems, federal agency officials made estimates by prorating operating costs
                                         (excluding personnel costs) based on the number of queries or other usage measures.

                                         Source: Summary of data presented in appendixes II through V.


                                         The large majority of identified crime technology assistance to state and
                                         local law enforcement agencies—$1.0 billion or about 85 percent of the
                                         estimated $1.2 billion total during fiscal years 1996 through 1998—was
                                         grants, all of which were administered by Justice. The three largest crime
                                         technology assistance grants during the 3 fiscal years were the (1) Office
                                         of Community Oriented Policing Services’ Making Officer Redeployment
                                         Effective grants ($466.1 million), (2) Bureau of Justice Assistance’s Byrne
                                         Formula Grants ($188.0 million), and (3) the Bureau of Justice Statistics’
                                         National Criminal History Improvement Program ($147.2 million).

                                         As table 1 shows, support services and systems was estimated to be the
                                         second largest category of crime technology assistance provided to state
                                         and local law enforcement agencies. In this category, Justice was the
                                         major provider, with an estimated $146.6 million in assistance compared to
                                         Treasury’s $15.9 million.

                                         Regarding in-kind transfers, responses from the three agencies we
                                         reviewed indicated that only ONDCP had an established, relevant program.
                                         ONDCP’s technology transfer program totaled an estimated $13.0 million
                                         in assistance during fiscal year 1998, the first year of the program’s
                                         existence.

                                         Although states and localities have traditionally held the major
Background                               responsibility for preventing and controlling crime in the United States, a
                                         significant aspect of the federal government’s role has been its provision of
                                         financial and other assistance to state and local law enforcement agencies.
                                         Grants are the largest funding source of crime technology assistance to
                                         state and local law enforcement agencies.




                                         Page 2
              B-280998




              Of the three agencies we reviewed, only Justice provided grants for crime
              technology purposes. These grants fall into one of two categories: single-
              purpose and multipurpose. Single-purpose grants were clearly or
              completely for crime technology assistance. For example, the purpose of
              the State Identification Systems Grant Program, which was authorized by
              the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-132), is
              to enable states to develop computerized identification systems that are
              compatible and integrated with certain FBI databases.

              Multipurpose grants can be used by state and local law enforcement
              agencies for a number of purposes including, but not limited to, crime
              technology. For example, the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-570)
              established formula and discretionary grants to state and local law
              enforcement agencies for addressing crime related to illegal drugs and
              other purposes. The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 (P.L. 100-690) expanded
              the grant programs and named them the Edward Byrne Memorial State and
              Local Law Enforcement Assistance Programs. Byrne programs are to be
              used to improve criminal justice systems, to enhance anti-drug programs,
              and for other purposes.

              More recently, the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of
              1994 (P.L. 103-322) authorized $30.2 billion for law enforcement and crime
              prevention measures. In addition to authorizing additional funding for
              Byrne programs through fiscal year 2000, the 1994 Act established what is
              known as the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services within
              Justice and authorized $8.8 billion in related funding. Also, the Omnibus
              Consolidated Rescissions and Appropriations Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-134)
              provided funding for the Local Law Enforcement Block Grants Program,
              which provides funding to state and local governments to reduce crime
              and improve public safety.

              Nongrant federal assistance—such as providing state and local law
              enforcement with access to support services and systems—may be
              specifically authorized by legislation. For example, use of the Treasury
              Department’s Federal Law Enforcement Training Center by units of state
              and local government is authorized by P.L. 90-351, as amended.

              There is no formal or standardized definition of “crime technology
Scope and     assistance” used throughout the federal government. Therefore, for
Methodology   purposes of this review, we developed a working definition and discussed
              it with Justice, Treasury, and ONDCP officials, who indicated that the
              definition was appropriate. Also, because there is no overall requirement
              for agency accounting systems to track crime technology assistance, we



              Page 3
                      B-280998




                      largely relied upon agency estimates. We did not fully or independently
                      verify the accuracy and reliability of the funding data provided by agency
                      officials. However, to help ensure data quality, among other steps, we (1)
                      obtained information on and reviewed the processes used by agency
                      officials to calculate the estimated amounts of crime technology assistance
                      and (2) compared agency responses to primary source documents and
                      attempted to reconcile any differences with agency officials. Also, as
                      mentioned above, the funding totals presented in this report are
                      conservative, especially regarding multipurpose grants. That is, because
                      agency accounting systems did not specifically track crime technology
                      assistance, we included only amounts that could be reasonably estimated
                      by agency officials or by our reviews of agency information.

                      Appendix I presents more details about our objectives, scope, and
                      methodology. We requested comments on a draft of this report from the
                      Attorney General, the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Director of
                      ONDCP. Justice’s, Treasury’s, and ONDCP’s oral and written comments
                      are discussed near the end of this letter. We performed our work from
                      August 1998 to April 1999 in accordance with generally accepted
                      government auditing standards.

                      As table 1 shows, for the three federal agencies we reviewed, single-
Grant Programs Were   purpose grants ($255.1 million) and multipurpose grants ($746.3 million)
the Major Type of     were the major type of crime technology assistance provided to state and
Federal Assistance    local law enforcement agencies during fiscal years 1996 through 1998.

                      We identified 13 relevant single-purpose grant programs. Of these, one
                      program—the National Criminal History Improvement Program—
                      represented about 58 percent of the $255.1 million total. This program,
                      funded at about $147.2 million for fiscal years 1996 through 1998, wholly
                      involved crime technology assistance in that its purpose is to help states
                      upgrade the quality and completeness of criminal history records and to
                      increase compatibility with and access to FBI criminal information
                      databases. The other 12 single-purpose grant programs represented about
                      42 percent ($107.9 million) of the $255.1 million total and included
                      programs such as a DNA Laboratory Improvement Program and the
                      National Sex Offender Registry.

                      We identified 10 multipurpose grant programs that had some purposes
                      involving crime technology assistance to state and local law enforcement
                      agencies. Of these 10, the following 2 programs accounted for about 88
                      percent of the estimated $746.3 million total:




                      Page 4
                         B-280998




                       • Making Officer Redeployment Effective Grants ($466.1 million): This
                         program, administered by the Office of Community Oriented Policing
                         Services, allows law enforcement agencies to purchase equipment and
                         technology to help expand the time available for community policing by
                         current law enforcement officers.
                       • Byrne Formula Grant Program ($188.0 million): Three purpose areas in
                         this program—purpose areas 15(a), 15(b), and 25—specifically involved
                         crime technology assistance to state and local law enforcement agencies
                         during fiscal years 1996 through 1998. Purpose area 15(a) is for improving
                         drug-control technology; purpose area 15(b) is for criminal justice
                         information systems (including a 5-percent set-aside for improving
                         criminal justice records); and purpose area 25 is for developing DNA
                         analysis capabilities.

                         The other eight multipurpose grant programs represented 12 percent
                         ($92.2 million) of the estimated $746.3 million total funding through
                         multipurpose grants for crime technology assistance. Among many other
                         uses, grant recipients used these funds to develop (1) information
                         management systems for drug court programs and (2) integrated computer
                         systems for tracking domestic violence cases.

                         Appendix II provides more details about Justice’s single-purpose and
                         multipurpose grants that provided crime technology assistance to state
                         and local law enforcement agencies during fiscal years 1996 through 1998.

                         The second largest category of estimated crime technology assistance, as
Justice and Treasury     table 1 shows, was access to support services and systems provided by
Provided Access to       Justice and Treasury. Of these two agencies, Justice was the more
Support Services and     significant provider, with an estimated $146.6 million in assistance to state
                         and local law enforcement agencies, or about 90 percent of the $162.5
Systems                  million total during fiscal years 1996 through 1998.

                         For these 3 fiscal years, about 62 percent of Justice’s $146.6 million in
                         assistance was attributable to 4 of the 21 relevant support services or
                         systems we identified:

                       • Regional Information Sharing Systems ($50.3 million): Funded by the
                         Bureau of Justice Assistance, six regional criminal intelligence centers
                         provide state and local law enforcement with access to an Intelligence
                         Database Pointer, a National Gang Database, a secure intranet, and other
                         support services.




                         Page 5
  B-280998




• Combined DNA Index System ($16.7 million): The FBI’s index system
  contains DNA records of persons convicted of crimes. State and local
  crime laboratories can use the system to store and match DNA records.
• Law Enforcement On-Line ($12.6 million): Managed by the FBI, this
  intranet links the law enforcement community throughout the United
  States and supports broad, immediate dissemination of information.
• National Crime Information Center ($11.1 million): Managed by the FBI,
  this is the nation’s most extensive criminal justice information system. The
  system’s largest file, the Interstate Identification Index, provides access to
  millions of criminal history information records in state systems.

  Justice’s other 17 support services and systems represented 38 percent
  ($55.9 million) of the agency’s $146.6 million total assistance in this
  category. Two examples are (1) the Drug Enforcement Administration’s
  National Drug Pointer Index, which has an automated response capability
  to determine if a case suspect is under active investigation by a
  participating law enforcement agency and (2) the National Institute of
  Justice’s National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Centers,
  which offer technology and information assistance to law enforcement and
  corrections agencies by introducing promising technologies and providing
  technology training.

  Appendix III presents more detailed information about Justice’s support
  services and systems that provided crime technology assistance to state
  and local law enforcement agencies during fiscal years 1996 through 1998.

  Treasury’s support services and systems provided $15.9 million of
  assistance during this period, as table 1 shows. This assistance involved a
  total of 29 support services and systems. Of these, 14 were provided by one
  Treasury component—the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms
  (ATF), which accounted for $13.4 million (84 percent) of Treasury’s $15.9
  million total assistance in this category. Further, as indicated next, 3 of
  ATF’s 14 services and systems accounted for about two-thirds of the ATF’s
  support to state and local law enforcement:

• Arson/Explosives Incident System ($3.5 million): State and local agencies
  are able to query the system for information about component parts, stolen
  explosives, and device placement.
• Accelerant Detection Analysis ($2.7 million): This service involves the
  laboratory analysis of fire debris to detect and identify flammable liquids
  potentially used as accelerants in an incendiary fire.




  Page 6
                     B-280998




                   • Firearms Tracing System ($2.5 million): The National Tracing Center
                     traces firearms (from the manufacturer to the retail purchaser) for law
                     enforcement agencies.

                     Treasury’s other 15 relevant support services and systems accounted for
                     the remaining 16 percent ($2.5 million) of the $15.9 million total assistance.
                     Two examples are (1) the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network’s
                     Project Gateway, which helps state and local law enforcement agencies
                     combat money laundering and other financial crimes and (2) the Secret
                     Service’s Questioned Document Branch, which maintains a forensic
                     information system for analyzing handwriting samples.

                     Appendix IV presents more detailed information about Treasury’s support
                     services and systems that provided crime technology assistance to state
                     and local law enforcement agencies during fiscal years 1996 through 1998.

                     Based on information from Justice, Treasury, and ONDCP officials, we
In-Kind Transfer     specifically identified only one established, relevant in-kind transfer
Programs             program—i.e., an ONDCP technology transfer program that began in fiscal
                     year 1998. According to ONDCP officials, the program involved 18 projects
                     or systems that fit our definition of crime technology assistance, but only
                     15 of these were transferred to state and local law enforcement agencies in
                     fiscal year 1998. For that year, as table 1 shows, federal funding for the
                     transferred projects or systems totaled $13 million. Examples of
                     transferred technologies include (1) a vapor tracer device for detecting
                     and identifying small quantities of narcotics and explosives and (2) a
                     secure, miniaturized multichannel audio device for inconspicuous use
                     during covert operations. Appendix V provides further details about
                     ONDCP’s technology transfer program.

                     Justice and Treasury officials told us that their agencies routinely make
                     excess equipment available to other governmental and nongovernmental
                     users through the General Services Administration. However, the officials
                     said they had no readily available information regarding how much of the
                     excessed equipment was crime technology related and was subsequently
                     received by state and local law enforcement agencies. Similarly, General
                     Services Administration officials told us that their agency’s accounting
                     systems could not provide this type of information.

                     Treasury officials noted that there have been a few isolated or nonroutine
                     instances of direct transfers, as when the Secret Service directly excessed




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                        B-280998




                                                                                                                                2
                        some used automated data processing and communications equipment to
                        state and local law enforcement agencies in 1998. We did not include these
                        isolated or nonroutine transfers in the funding amounts presented in this
                        report.

                        Officials from Justice’s Office of Justice Programs and Office of Audit
Agency Comments and     Liaison met with us on May 13, 1999, and provided the following comments
Our Evaluation          on a draft of this report:

                      • In their written comments, Office of Justice Programs officials provided
                        several technical comments and clarifications, mostly centered on funding
                        amounts for certain National Institute of Justice programs presented in
                        table II.1 in appendix II. As appropriate, we made adjustments to table II.1
                        and also added some clarifying language to our scope and methodology
                        (app. I).
                      • The Director, Office of Audit Liaison, told us that the draft report had been
                        reviewed by officials in other relevant Justice components (including
                        INTERPOL–U.S. National Central Bureau and the Marshals Service) and
                        the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, and that these
                        officials had no comments.

                        Also, in written comments, the Drug Enforcement Administration, the FBI,
                        and the Immigration and Naturalization Service suggested technical
                        comments and clarifications, which have been incorporated in this report
                        where appropriate.

                        Treasury officials met with us on May 12, 1999, and provided oral
                        comments. More specifically:

                      • ATF, Customs Service, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, and
                        Financial Crimes Enforcement Network officials expressed agreement
                        with the information presented in the report.

                      • Secret Service officials had technical comments and clarifications, which
                        have been incorporated in this report where appropriate.

                      • A Treasury Office of Finance and Administration official indicated that,
                        although not in attendance at the May 12 meeting, IRS officials had
                        reviewed the draft report and had no comments.


                        2
                         Secret Service officials told us that the original acquisition costs of this equipment totaled about
                        $535,000 but that no depreciated values have been calculated or assigned regarding the transfer.




                        Page 8
B-280998




On May 13, 1999, the Director of ONDCP’s Counterdrug Technology
Assessment Center met with us and expressed agreement with the
information presented in the report. To provide additional perspective, he
suggested that appendix V reflect the fact that, as of December 1998, the 15
relevant ONDCP projects or systems involved a total of 202 recipient state
and local law enforcement agencies. We added this information to the
appendix.

As arranged with your office, unless you publicly announce the contents of
this report earlier, we plan no further distribution until 30 days after the
date of this letter. We are sending copies of this report to Senator Orrin G.
Hatch, Chairman, and Senator Patrick J. Leahy, Ranking Minority Member,
Senate Committee on the Judiciary; Representative Henry J. Hyde,
Chairman, and Representative John Conyers, Jr., Ranking Minority
Member, House Committee on the Judiciary; The Honorable Janet Reno,
Attorney General; The Honorable Robert E. Rubin, Secretary of the
Treasury; The Honorable Barry R. McCaffrey, Director of ONDCP; and The
Honorable Jacob Lew, Director, Office of Management and Budget. Copies
will also be made available to others upon request.

The major contributors to this report are listed in appendix VI. If you or
your staff have any questions about this report, please contact me on (202)
512-8777.

Sincerely yours,




Richard M. Stana
Associate Director
Administration of Justice Issues




Page 9
Contents



Letter                                                                                            1


Appendix I                                                                                       14
                         Objectives                                                              14
Objectives, Scope, and   Definition of “Crime Technology Assistance”                             14
Methodology              Overview of Scope and Methodology                                       14
                         Scope and Methodology Regarding Grant Programs                          16
                         Scope and Methodology Regarding Support Services and                    20
                           Systems
                         Scope and Methodology Regarding In-Kind Transfers                       22
                         Data Accuracy and Reliability                                           23


Appendix II                                                                                      24
                         Overview of Department of Justice Grant Programs                        24
Crime Technology         Descriptions of Justice Grant Programs                                  28
Assistance (Grants)
Provided by the
Department of Justice
Appendix III                                                                                     34
                         Overview of Department of Justice Support Services and                  34
Crime Technology           Systems
Assistance (Support      Descriptions of Justice’s Support Services and Systems                  36

Services and Systems)
Provided by the
Department of Justice
Appendix IV                                                                                      41
                         Overview of Department of the Treasury Support                          41
Crime Technology           Services and Systems
Assistance (Support      Descriptions of Treasury’s Support Services and Systems                 42

Services and Systems)
Provided by the
Department of the
Treasury



                         Page 10                                     GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
                         Contents




Appendix V                                                                                       48
                         Mission of ONDCP’s Counterdrug Technology                               48
Crime Technology           Assessment Center
Assistance (In-Kind      Overview of Technology Transfer Pilot Program                           48
                         Descriptions of Applicable Systems                                      49
Transfers) Provided by
the Office of National
Drug Control Policy
Appendix VI                                                                                      52

Major Contributors to
This Report
Tables                   Table 1: Estimated Federal Funding for Crime                             1
                           Technology Assistance, Fiscal Years 1996 Through
                           1998
                         Table II.1: Estimated Obligations of Department of                      25
                           Justice Single-Purpose Grants for Crime Technology
                           Provided to State and Local Law Enforcement
                           Agencies, Fiscal Years 1996 Through 1998
                         Table II.2: Estimated Obligations of Department of                      28
                           Justice Multipurpose Grants With Crime Technology as
                           a Permissible Use Provided to State and Local Law
                           Enforcement Agencies, Fiscal Years 1996 Through 1998
                         Table III.1: Estimated Obligations of Department of                     35
                           Justice Support Services and Systems Provided to State
                           and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, Fiscal Years
                           1996 Through 1998
                         Table IV.1: Estimated Obligations of Department of the                  41
                           Treasury Support Services and Systems Provided to
                           State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, Fiscal
                           Years 1996 Through 1998
                         Table V.1: ONDCP Crime Technology Assistance                            48
                           Provided to State and Local Law Enforcement
                           Agencies, Fiscal Year 1998




                         Page 11                                     GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
Contents




Abbreviations

ATF         Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms
CODIS       Combined DNA Index System
CTAC        Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center
DEA         Drug Enforcement Administration
FBI         Federal Bureau of Investigation
INS         Immigration and Naturalization Service
INTERPOL    International Criminal Police Organization
IRS         Internal Revenue Service
MORE        Making Officer Redeployment Effective
ONDCP       Office of National Drug Control Policy
STOP        Services Training Officers Prosecutors


Page 12                                        GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
Page 13   GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
Appendix I

Objectives, Scope, and Methodology


                        Senator Mike DeWine requested that we identify crime technology
Objectives              assistance provided by the federal government to state and local law
                        enforcement agencies. Specifically, for fiscal years 1996 through 1998,
                        Senator DeWine requested that we identify the types and amounts of such
                        assistance provided by the Departments of Justice and the Treasury and
                        the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP). As agreed with the
                        requester, we categorized the assistance into three types: (1) direct
                        funding or grants; (2) access to support services and systems, such as
                        automated criminal history records and forensics laboratories; and (3) in-
                        kind (no-cost) transfers of equipment or other assets.

                        Initially, we conducted a literature search to determine whether there was
Definition of “Crime    a commonly accepted definition of “crime technology assistance.” Since
Technology              our search did not yield a definition, we developed our own by reviewing
                                                                                                   1
Assistance”             (1) a then pending bill (S. 2022), which has since been enacted into law,
                        related to crime technology assistance introduced by Senator DeWine
                                                              th
                        during the second session of the 105 Congress, and its legislative history;
                        (2) his request letter to us and subsequent discussions with his staff; (3)
                        the General Services Administration’s Catalog of Federal Domestic
                        Assistance, a reference source of federal assistance programs, including
                        crime control programs; and (4) Congressional Research Service reports
                        on federal crime control assistance.

                        Accordingly, our definition of crime technology assistance was the
                        following: “Any technology-related assistance provided to state and local
                        law enforcement agencies, including those of Indian tribes, for establishing
                        and/or improving (1) criminal justice history and/or information systems
                        and specialized support services or (2) the availability of and capabilities
                        to access such services and systems related to identification, information,
                        communications, and forensics.” We discussed this definition with Justice,
                        Treasury, and ONDCP officials, who indicated that the definition was
                        appropriate and would be helpful in their efforts to compile the requested
                        information.

                        To determine the types and amounts of crime technology-related
Overview of Scope and   assistance for fiscal years 1996 to 1998, we reviewed (1) excerpts from the
Methodology             Budget of the United States Government, Appendices and Analytical
                        Perspectives for fiscal years 1998, 1999, and 2000, (2) agencies’ fiscal year
                        budget requests, (3) appropriations acts, and (4) budget execution reports
                        provided by the Office of Management and Budget. Also, as noted above,
                        we reviewed the General Services Administration’s Catalog of Federal
                        1
                            P.L. 105-251 (October 9, 1998).




                        Page 14                                        GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
  Appendix I
  Objectives, Scope, and Methodology




  Domestic Assistance (annual editions for 1996 through 1998) and
  Congressional Research Service reports on federal crime control
  assistance.

  We contacted the Justice, Treasury, and ONDCP components most likely
  to provide crime technology-related assistance. Within Justice, we
  contacted

• the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA);

• the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI);

• the Immigration and Naturalization Service;

• the INTERPOL - U.S. National Central Bureau;

• the U.S. Marshals Service;

• the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services; and

• the Office of Justice Programs and its components (i.e., the Bureau of
  Justice Assistance, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the Drug Courts
  Program Office, the National Institute of Justice, the Office of Juvenile
  Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and the Violence Against Women
  Grants Office).


  Within Treasury, we contacted

• the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF);

• the Customs Service;

• the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center;

• the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network;

• the Internal Revenue Service (IRS); and

• the Secret Service.




  Page 15                                        GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
                        Appendix I
                        Objectives, Scope, and Methodology




                        Within ONDCP, we contacted the Director of the Counterdrug Technology
                        Assessment Center.

                        From Justice, Treasury, and ONDCP, we obtained and reviewed relevant
                        program descriptions and related explanatory materials, such as catalogs
                        and program plans. Specifically, we reviewed (1) descriptions of grant
                        programs and support services and systems and (2) corresponding funding
                        data prepared by agency officials for this review.

                        Generally, in this report, our references to state and local law enforcement
                        agencies may include recipients of federal assistance in (1) the 50 states;
                        (2) the District of Columbia; (3) the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; and
                        (4) where applicable, the U.S. territories of American Samoa and Guam,
                        the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the U.S. Virgin
                        Islands.

                        During our review of grant programs, we identified many crime technology
Scope and               projects that were funded by federal grants distributed to entities other
Methodology             than state and local law enforcement agencies. These recipients included
Regarding Grant         federal agencies, private firms, colleges and universities, and others.
                        Specifically, under the Local Law Enforcement Block Grants Program, 1
Programs                percent of authorized appropriations ($20 million per year) was for law
                        enforcement technologies. According to a National Institute of Justice
                        official, this 1-percent set-aside supported 153 projects during fiscal years
                        1996 through 1998; and, of this total, 145 projects involved grant funding in
                        which state or local law enforcement agencies did not participate in the
                        specific project at all. Therefore, we did not include grant funding for these
                        145 projects in the data tables presented in appendix II. However, the
                        other eight projects directly involved state or local law enforcement
                        agencies. For these eight projects, we included grant funding (a total of
                        $2,325,600) in table II.1.

                        We determined that, of the three agencies we reviewed, only Justice
                        provided direct grant funding to state and local law enforcement agencies
                        for crime technology assistance. Within Justice, the Office of Community
                        Oriented Policing Services and the Office of Justice Programs
                        administered the majority of grant programs that included crime
                        technology assistance. We divided crime technology assistance grants into
                        two categories--single-purpose grants and multipurpose grants.

Single-Purpose Grants   We defined single-purpose grants as those that clearly or completely fell
                        within the definition of crime technology assistance. For single-purpose




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                        Appendix I
                        Objectives, Scope, and Methodology




                        grants, Justice was able to identify applicable grants and specifically
                        quantify funding amounts (see table II.1 in app. II).

                        As table II.1 shows, the National Institute of Justice is one of Justice’s
                        components that provided crime technology assistance. The Institute’s
                        role includes allocating funds for certain research and development
                        projects that may directly or indirectly involve crime technology assistance
                        to state and local law enforcement agencies. For purposes of our review
                        and table II.1, we included the Institute’s research and development
                        project costs for only those projects wherein the Institute was able to
                        identify that a state or local law enforcement agency was directly involved
                        or partnered with private firms, companies, universities, or federal
                        agencies. In commenting on a draft of this report, National Institute of
                        Justice officials noted that:

                      • Such partnerships are difficult to identify and quantify unless the state or
                        local agency is a subgrantee, which is something that is not electronically
                        tracked by the Office of Justice Programs or the National Institute of
                        Justice.
                      • Also, there are inherent difficulties in using research and development
                        project costs to quantify direct benefits to state and local law enforcement
                        agencies. For instance, partnering arrangements can result in a diffusion
                        of funds among various entities, in contrast to grants made directly to a
                        state or local law enforcement agency. Also, direct benefits may not be
                        immediately realized given that research and development efforts may
                        involve extended time frames and/or may not result in practical
                        implementation.

                        In further commenting on a draft of this report, National Institute of
                        Justice officials emphasized that, in providing funding input for table II.1,
                        they focused on crime technology assistance that involved information
                        systems or information-sharing systems. The officials noted that the
                        Institute is involved in other crime technology-related projects--such as
                        concealed weapons detection systems and less-than-lethal technologies--
                        that were not included in the funding figures provided to us.




Multipurpose Grants     We defined multipurpose grants as those that could be used for two or
                        more purposes, including crime technology assistance. Since Justice did
                        not have a system to track crime technology assistance, it was unable to
                        determine the exact amount of crime technology assistance provided to
                        state and local law enforcement agencies through multipurpose grants.



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                                Appendix I
                                Objectives, Scope, and Methodology




                                However, in many cases, Justice officials were able to estimate the
                                portions or amounts of multipurpose grants that involved technology
                                assistance, as indicated in following sections and reflected in table II.2 in
                                appendix II.

Byrne Formula Grants            Byrne Formula Grants may be used for a total of 26 purpose areas, 8 of
                                which could involve crime technology. According to the Bureau of Justice
                                Assistance, three of these eight purpose areas clearly consisted of crime
                                technology-related activities:

                              • Purpose area 15(a) was for improving drug-control technology.
                              • Purpose area 15(b) was for improving criminal justice information
                                systems.
                              • Purpose area 25 was for developing DNA analysis capabilities.

                                However, for the other five potentially relevant purpose areas, Justice was
                                unable to estimate the amounts of crime technology assistance provided
                                                                2
                                by the Byrne Formula Grants. Therefore, regarding these 5 purpose areas,
                                we conducted a file review of Byrne Formula Grants to determine the
                                amount of crime technology assistance provided to the 10 states that
                                received the most Byrne Formula Grants funds during fiscal year 1998. The
                                10 states (California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Michigan, New Jersey, New
                                York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas) received nearly half of all Byrne
                                Formula Grants funds during fiscal year 1998. Our findings concerning
                                these 10 states are not statistically projectable to the total universe of
                                recipients.

Local Law Enforcement Block     According to the Office of Justice Programs, one of seven purpose areas of
Grants Program                  the Local Law Enforcement Block Grants Program involves crime
                                technology assistance to state and local law enforcement agencies. This
                                purpose area is entitled “equipment and technology” and includes both
                                traditional law enforcement equipment (such as guns, vests, and batons)
                                and crime technology. During fiscal years 1996 through 1998, the Office of
                                Justice Programs obligated approximately $628 million for equipment and
                                technology. Since the Office of Justice Programs did not specifically track
                                how funding was allocated in the equipment and technology purpose area,
                                it was unable to determine how much of the approximately $628 million


                                2
                                 The 5 potentially relevant purpose areas are numbers 6, 7, 9, 10, and 26. Purpose area 6 is for
                                improving the investigations of white-collar crime; purpose area 7 is for improving the operational
                                effectiveness of law enforcement; purpose area 9 is for enhancing financial investigative capabilities;
                                purpose area 10 is for improving the operational effectiveness of the courts; and purpose area 26 is for
                                developing antiterrorism training and procuring equipment.




                                Page 18                                                         GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
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                               Objectives, Scope, and Methodology




                               obligated for fiscal years 1996 through 1998 was for traditional law
                               enforcement equipment and how much was for crime technology.

                               Although the Office of Justice Programs does not specifically track crime
                               technology assistance provided through the Local Law Enforcement Block
                               Grants Program, it asked grantees to complete reports describing how
                               grantees expended equipment and technology funds. Grantees completing
                               the reports classified their equipment and technology expenditures into 10
                               subcategories, 5 of which were most likely to include expenditures for
                                                  3
                               crime technology, according to the Office of Justice Programs. However,
                               since completion of the expenditure reports was not mandatory, at the
                               time of our review the Office of Justice Programs had received these
                               reports from only 60 percent of the 1996 grantees, about 10 percent of the
                               1997 grantees, and none of the 1998 grantees. The grantee expenditure
                               reports showed that approximately $63 million was obligated for
                               equipment and technology during fiscal years 1996 and 1997; and, of this
                               amount, about $33 million (or 52 percent) was for the 5 crime technology-
                               related categories.

Drug Courts Program Office     This office awarded three categories of grants under the Drug Court
                               Discretionary Grant Program: planning, implementation, and
                               enhancement. According to the Drug Courts Program Office, based on
                               experience to date, “enhancement” grants is the category most likely to
                               involve crime technology, especially grants for management information
                               systems.

                               The Office of Justice Programs conducted a word search for “crime
                               technology” of Drug Court Discretionary Grants. The word search
                               identified six Drug Court grants that involved crime technology. Office of
                               Justice Programs staff examined the six grants to determine how much
                               funding the grantees planned to allocate specifically for crime technology
                               purposes. Funding for these programs, three in fiscal year 1997 and three
                               in fiscal year 1998, is depicted in table II.2 in appendix II.

Office of Community Oriented   The Office of Community Oriented Policing Services had four programs
Policing Services              that included funding for crime technology assistance: (1) Making Officer
                               Redeployment Effective (MORE), (2) Advancing Community Policing, (3)
                               Problem-Solving Partnerships, and (4) Community Policing to Combat
                               Domestic Violence. Under MORE, grant funds could be used for hiring

                               3
                                The Office of Justice Programs described the five relevant subcategories as: (1) communications
                               equipment, (2) lab/forensic/drug-testing equipment, (3) systems hardware, (4) software, and (5)
                               systems improvements.




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                                Appendix I
                                Objectives, Scope, and Methodology




                                civilian personnel or obtaining crime technology. However, for purposes of
                                our review, agency officials specifically excluded personnel funding and
                                identified the funding obligated for crime technology during fiscal years
                                1996 through 1998.

Violence Against Women Grants   This Justice office administered two multipurpose grant programs that
Office                          could involve funding for crime technology: (1) Formula Grants for Law
                                Enforcement and Prosecution, also known as the STOP program, and (2)
                                Discretionary Grants to Encourage Arrest Policies.

                                The Office of Justice Programs conducted a word search for “crime
                                technology” that identified 4 STOP grants and 62 Grants to Encourage
                                Arrest Policies during fiscal years 1996 through 1998. The Office of Justice
                                Programs reviewed these grants to determine how much grantees planned
                                to specifically allocate for crime technology purposes.



                                For applicable support services and systems in Justice and Treasury, we
Scope and                       asked responsible officials to provide us with funding data regarding usage
Methodology                     related to meeting the needs of state and local law enforcement agencies.
Regarding Support               That is, for criminal history databases, forensics laboratories, and other
                                crime technology-related services and systems, we wanted to know what
Services and Systems            portions of the federal operating costs were used to support state and local
                                law enforcement. In response, Justice and Treasury officials provided us
                                with estimates for each applicable service and system. (See apps. III and
                                IV.)

Justice: 21 Support Services    Table III.1 in appendix III presents the 21 relevant Justice support services
                                and systems that we identified. For 15 of these services and systems--that
and Systems                     is, those provided by DEA, FBI, the Immigration and Naturalization
                                Service, and the INTERPOL-U.S. National Central Bureau--Justice officials
                                told us that in most cases they calculated funding estimates by prorating
                                total operating costs (excluding federal salaries and other personnel costs)
                                between federal and state/local law enforcement agencies based on the
                                number of queries or other usage measures.

                                Justice’s other six relevant support services and systems are under three
                                components--the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Bureau of Justice
                                Statistics, and the National Institute of Justice--that are not directly
                                involved in conducting criminal investigations. According to Justice
                                officials, these services and systems were established explicitly to benefit
                                state and local law enforcement agencies. As such, the officials said that



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                       Appendix I
                       Objectives, Scope, and Methodology




                       the funding figures provided to us represent total, nonprorated operating
                       costs (excluding personnel costs), even though federal law enforcement
                       agencies can be participants, as is the case with the Regional Information
                       Sharing Systems program.

Treasury: 29 Support   Table IV.1 in appendix IV presents the 29 relevant Treasury support
                       services and systems that we identified. Personnel costs were not included
Services and Systems   in any of the funding figures provided us by the Treasury Department
                       agencies.

                       ATF provided 14 of the 29 support services and systems to state and local
                       law enforcement. For 10 of these 14 support services and systems, ATF
                       prorated the obligated costs of crime technology assistance to state and
                       local law enforcement agencies. For the remaining four ATF support
                       services and systems, obligated costs were not prorated because all of
                       these costs supported state and local law enforcement.

                       The Customs Service provided one relevant support service and system,
                       the Treasury Enforcement Communications System, to state and local law
                       enforcement agencies. Customs prorated its expenditures based on the
                       number of state and local law enforcement transactions relative to the
                       total number of system transactions for each fiscal year from 1996 through
                       1998.

                       The Federal Law Enforcement Training Center provided 2 of Treasury’s 29
                       support services and systems to state and local law enforcement agencies.
                       The Center calculated the actual costs of the two training programs
                       provided.

                       The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network provided one support service
                       and system--the Gateway System--to state and local law enforcement
                       agencies. Since the Gateway system was designed to help state and local
                       law enforcement agencies pursue criminal investigations, all obligations
                       during fiscal years 1996 through 1998 applied to state and local law
                       enforcement.

                       IRS’ National Forensic Laboratory supports criminal investigations related
                       to tax and financial statutes. However, the laboratory has few resources to
                       support state and local law enforcement and does so only under
                       exceptional circumstances. Although no precise records existed regarding
                       assistance to state and local law enforcement agencies, an IRS official
                       estimated that during fiscal years 1996 through 1998, the laboratory
                       incurred annual costs of less than $1,000.



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                               Appendix I
                               Objectives, Scope, and Methodology




                               The Secret Service provided 10 of Treasury’s 29 support services and
                               systems. The Secret Service prorated costs for eight of its support services
                               and systems and provided us full or actual costs for the other two
                               (Identification Branch Training and Operation Safe Kids).

Other Federal Support Not      Also, it should be noted that the support services and systems listed in
                               appendixes III and IV do not include certain multiagency intelligence
Included in Funding Tables     organizations, such as the El Paso Intelligence Center, which was
                               established to collect, process, and disseminate intelligence information
                               concerning illicit drug and currency movement, alien smuggling, weapons
                               trafficking, and related activity. The Center’s 15 federal members include
                               various Justice (e.g., DEA and FBI), Treasury (e.g., Customs Service and
                               IRS), and Department of Transportation (e.g., Coast Guard and the Federal
                               Aviation Administration) components; the Departments of the Interior and
                               State; and liaison agencies such as the Central Intelligence Agency and the
                               Department of Defense. In addition, all 50 states are associate members.
                               The Center accepts queries from federal and state member agencies.

                               For their respective organizations, we asked officials at Justice, Treasury,
Scope and                      and ONDCP to identify any in-kind transfer programs that provided crime
Methodology                    technology assistance to state and local law enforcement agencies during
Regarding In-Kind              fiscal years 1996 through 1998. Responses from the three agencies
                               indicated that only ONDCP had an established, relevant in-kind transfer
Transfers                      program (see app. V).

                               Justice and Treasury officials told us that their agencies generally do not
                               directly transfer excess equipment--whether for crime technology or any
                               other purpose--to state and local law enforcement agencies. However,
                               Treasury officials noted that there have been a few isolated or nonroutine
                               instances whereby some equipment has been given directly to a state or
                               local law enforcement agency. For example, the officials noted that, during
                               fiscal year 1998:

                             • The Secret Service directly excessed about $535,000 worth of automated
                               data processing and communications equipment (based on original
                               acquisition cost) to state and local law enforcement agencies.
                             • The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network directly excessed 186 pieces
                               of computer equipment to state and local law enforcement agencies. The
                               original acquisition cost of this equipment was about $367,000.
                             • The Secret Service directly excessed two polygraph instruments (original
                               acquisition costs totaled about $8,900); one instrument was given to the St.
                               Joseph (MO) Police Department and the other to the Chicago (IL) Police
                               Department.



                               Page 22                                        GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
                      Appendix I
                      Objectives, Scope, and Methodology




                      Also, Justice and Treasury officials told us their agencies routinely make
                      excess equipment available to other users through the General Services
                      Administration, which is to make dispositions in the following priority
                      order: (1) distribution to other federal agencies, (2) donation to state and
                      local agencies, (3) sale to the general public, and (4) donation to nonprofit
                      organizations through a state agency for surplus property. The Justice and
                      Treasury officials said they had no readily available information regarding
                      how much of the excessed equipment was crime technology related and
                      was subsequently received by state and local law enforcement agencies.
                      Similarly, General Services Administration officials told us that their
                      accounting systems could not provide this type of information.

                      Generally, we relied on funding information that agency officials provided
Data Accuracy and     to us. Since agency accounting systems typically did not track crime
Reliability           technology assistance, agency officials used a number of methods to
                      estimate crime technology assistance. For example, the Office of Justice
                      Programs had its program managers calculate how much crime technology
                      assistance was in the multipurpose grant programs.

                      We did not fully or independently verify the accuracy and reliability of the
                      funding data provided by agency officials. However, to help ensure the
                      overall quality of the funding data, we

                    • compared agency responses to primary source documents and attempted
                      to reconcile any differences with agency officials,
                    • obtained information on and reviewed the processes used by agency
                      officials to calculate the estimated amounts of crime technology
                      assistance, and
                    • compiled the program and funding information we obtained into matrices
                      and asked agency officials to verify the accuracy of this information.

                      Finally, we note that the funding figures presented in this report are
                      conservative, particularly regarding multipurpose grants, such as Byrne
                      Formula Grants and Local Law Enforcement Block Grants, because we
                      included only amounts that could be reasonably estimated by agency
                      officials or by our reviews of agency information.




                      Page 23                                        GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
Appendix II

Crime Technology Assistance (Grants)
Provided by the Department of Justice

                          This appendix presents information about the types and amounts of crime
Overview of               technology-related grants provided by the Department of Justice to state
Department of Justice     and local law enforcement agencies during fiscal years 1996 through1998.
Grant Programs            Generally, as reflected in the following two sections, we categorized
                          applicable grants as being either single-purpose or multipurpose:

                        • Single-purpose grants are clearly for crime technology purposes--which
                          can include any number of a wide array of activities under the definition of
                          “crime technology assistance” provided in appendix I.
                        • Multipurpose grants, distributed funds that could be used by state and
                          local law enforcement agencies for a variety of purposes including, but not
                          limited to, crime technology assistance. Justice officials provided us with
                          estimates of the funding amounts related to crime technology assistance.

                          The last section in this appendix provides brief descriptions of applicable
                          grant programs.

Single-Purpose Grant      Table II.1 shows the types and amounts of grants provided by Justice
                          components to state and local law enforcement to be used expressly for
Programs                  crime technology-related purposes during fiscal years 1996 through 1998.
                          Grants for these purposes totaled about $255.1 million for the 3-year
                          period.




                          Page 24                                       GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
                                              Appendix II
                                              Crime Technology Assistance (Grants) Provided by the Department of Justice




Table II.1: Estimated Obligations of Department of Justice Single-Purpose Grants for Crime Technology Provided to State and
Local Law Enforcement Agencies, Fiscal Years 1996 Through 1998
Dollars in thousands
Component and program                                     1996                1997                 1998                  Total

Bureau of Justice Assistance
Drugfire                                                  $2,166.9                 $1,954.6                  $945.3                  $5,066.8
Local Law Enforcement Block Grants Program:                      0                  2,103.2                  9,843.8                 11,947.0
Technical assistance and training allocation
National White Collar Crime Center                              1.3                     30.1                     74.8                   106.2
State Identification Systems Grants Program                      0                  8,300.0                  9,908.0                 18,208.0
Subtotal                                                  $2,168.2                $12,387.9                $20,771.9                $35,328.0

Bureau of Justice Statistics
National Criminal History Improvement Program             48,895.0                 48,048.0                 50,230.0                147,173.0
National Sex Offender Registry                                   0                        0                 24,255.0                 24,255.0
State Justice Statistics Program for Statistical           1,920.0                  1,779.0                  1,939.0                  5,638.0
Analysis Centers
Subtotal                                                 $50,815.0                $49,827.0                $76,424.0              $177,066.0

National Institute of Justice
Counterterrorism Technology Program                              0                  1,127.0                  1,506.0                  2,633.0
Crime Act 1-Percent Set-Aside (funded by Local               159.6                  1,096.8                  1,069.2                  2,325.6
Law Enforcement Block Grants Program)
Forensic DNA Laboratory Improvement Programa               8,750.0                  2,952.0                 12,281.0                 23,983.0
Science and Technology Programs (funds from the            3,331.7                        0                        0                  3,331.7
Office of Community Oriented Policing Services)
Southwest Border States Anti-Drug Information                     0                   588.0                  5,821.5                  6,409.5
Systemb
 Subtotal                                                $12,241.3                 $5,763.8                $20,677.7                $38,682.8

Office of Justice Programs
Improved Training and Technical Automation                 4,062.2                         0                        0                 4,062.2
Grants

Justice total                                            $69,286.7                $67,978.7              $117,873.6               $255,139.0
                                              a
                                               The DNA Laboratory Improvement Program is a joint program with the FBI.
                                              b
                                               Fiscal year 1998 funding was based on a reimbursement from the Office of Community Oriented
                                              Policing Services.
                                              Source: GAO summary of data provided by Justice components.



Multipurpose Grant                            Table II.2 shows estimates of the funding amounts involving crime
                                              technology assistance in multipurpose grants for fiscal years 1996 through
Programs                                      1998. As shown, the funding totaled about $746.3 million for the 3 years.
                                              However, for some of the grant programs, including the Byrne Formula
                                              Grant Program and the Local Law Enforcement Block Grants Program, the
                                              amounts shown in the table do not represent all of the applicable funding



                                              Page 25                                                    GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
                                 Appendix II
                                 Crime Technology Assistance (Grants) Provided by the Department of Justice




                                 involving crime technology. Rather, as indicated below, the amounts are
                                 only a partial accounting.

Byrne Formula Grants:            State and local law enforcement agencies can use Byrne Formula Grant
Complete Data for Some           funds for a total of 26 purpose areas. Sample uses include demand-
Purpose Areas and Data for 10    reduction education programs and improving corrections systems. Eight of
States for Other Purpose Areas   the 26 purpose areas could involve crime technology. According to the
                                 Bureau of Justice Assistance, three of these eight purpose areas clearly
                                 consist of crime technology-related activities (see app. I for more
                                 information). The Bureau of Justice Assistance provided us with funding
                                 amounts for these 3 purpose areas for all recipients, which totaled about
                                 $183.0 million for the 3 fiscal years, as presented in table II.2.

                                 However, because its accounting systems do not specifically track crime
                                 technology assistance as a separate category, the Bureau of Justice
                                 Assistance was unable to provide us with an estimate for the other five
                                 purpose areas. Thus, for these five purpose areas, we reviewed grant files
                                 at the Bureau of Justice Assistance. Due to time constraints, we limited
                                 our review to the 10 states that received the largest amounts of Byrne
                                 Formula Grant funding in fiscal year 1998. Collectively, these 10 states
                                 received 48 percent of total Byrne Formula Grant funding in fiscal year
                                 1998. For these 10 states, we reviewed grants files for fiscal years 1996,
                                 1997, and 1998. The relevant funding for these five purpose areas (about
                                 $5.0 million total for the 3 years) is also included in table II.2. An analysis
                                 of grant files for the other 40 states, the District of Columbia, and U.S.
                                 territories would likely result in a higher funding total.

Local Law Enforcement Block      As shown in table II.2, the funding figures for the Local Law Enforcement
Grants Program: Partial Data     Block Grants Program totaled about $32.7 million and are based on data
from Grantees for Only 2 Years   from about 60 percent of fiscal year 1996 grantees and about 10 percent of
                                 fiscal year 1997 grantees. No data were available for fiscal year 1998. As
                                 indicated below, a more thorough accounting would likely result in a
                                 higher funding total for this grant program.

                                 According to the Bureau of Justice Assistance, only one purpose area of
                                 the Local Law Enforcement Block Grants Program involves crime
                                 technology assistance--that is, the purpose area called “equipment and
                                 technology.” However, by the Bureau’s definition, the “equipment” portion
                                 of this purpose area does not constitute crime technology assistance.
                                 Nonetheless, in response to our request, a Bureau of Justice Assistance
                                 official said that the Bureau’s accounting systems could not differentiate
                                 this portion of the purpose area from the “technology” portion.
                                 Alternatively, the official provided us with the following information:



                                 Page 26                                              GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
  Appendix II
  Crime Technology Assistance (Grants) Provided by the Department of Justice




• The equipment and technology purpose area has 10 subcategories. Of
  these, five subcategories--i.e., those pertaining to systems improvements
  (data linkage, criminal history records, etc.)--are most likely to include
  expenditures related to crime technology.
• For these five subcategories, actual expenditure data have been reported
  by some grantees for fiscal years 1996 and 1997. Specifically, based on
  reports from about 60 percent of fiscal year 1996 grantees, actual
  expenditures by these grantees for the five subcategories totaled about
  $28.9 million in 1996. Based on reports from about 10 percent of fiscal year
  1997 grantees, actual expenditures by these grantees for the five
  subcategories totaled about $3.7 million. There has been no reporting by
  fiscal year 1998 grantees.

  Thus, for the five subcategories, the reported actual expenditures at the
  time of our review totaled about $32.7 million, as reflected in table II.2.
  From these same 1996 and 1997 grantees, the total expenditures reported
  for all 10 subcategories at the time of our review was about $63.4 million.
  The reported actual expenditures for the five crime technology-related
  subcategories ($32.7 million) represent about 50 percent of the total
  reported actual expenditures for the “equipment and technology” purpose
  area ($63.4 million). During fiscal years 1996 to 1998, funds obligated for
  this purpose area totaled about $628 million. However, the 50-percent
  figure cannot be used to statistically project how much of this total
  involved crime technology assistance during fiscal years 1996 through
  1998.




  Page 27                                              GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
                                          Appendix II
                                          Crime Technology Assistance (Grants) Provided by the Department of Justice




Table II.2: Estimated Obligations of Department of Justice Multipurpose Grants With Crime Technology as a Permissible Use
Provided to State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, Fiscal Years 1996 Through 1998
Dollars in thousands
Component and program                                     1996                 1997                 1998               Total
Bureau of Justice Assistance
Byrne Discretionary Grants                            $3,667.0             $1,313.0             $5,485.0          $10,465.0
Byrne Formula Grants
  Purpose areas 15(a), 15(b), and 25a                 60,536.0             62,196.0             60,273.0          183,005.0
  Purpose areas 6,7,9,10, and 26b                        337.5              3,033.8              1,585.6             4,956.9
Local Law Enforcement Block Grants Programc           28,936.8              3,745.1        Not estimated           32,681.9
 Subtotal                                            $93,477.3            $70,287.9            $67,343.6         $231,108.8

Drug Courts Program Office
Drug Court Discretionary Grant Programd                        0                     190.6                      726.3                     916.9

Office of Community Oriented Policing
Services
Advancing Community Policing Grants                           0                  12,997.6                           0                 12,997.6
Community Policing to Combat Domestic Violence          7,640.8                         0                         N/A                  7,640.8
Grants
Making Officer Redeployment Effective Grants         126,937.1                  115,581.7                 223,532.6                 466,051.4
Problem-Solving Partnerships                                 0                   20,571.7                         0                  20,571.7
Subtotal                                            $134,577.9                 $149,151.0                $223,532.6                $507,261.5

Violence Against Women Grants Office
Grants to Encourage Arrest Policiesd                        5.7                   5,953.0                      974.0                   6,932.7
STOP Violence Against Women Formula Grantsd                14.0                         0                      104.4                     118.4
Subtotal                                                  $19.7                  $5,953.0                   $1,078.4                  $7,051.1

Justice total                                       $228,074.9                 $225,582.5                $292,680.9                $746,338.3
                                          a
                                           The amounts shown represent funding for three purpose areas: Purpose area 15(a) is for improving
                                          drug-control technology; purpose area 15(b) is for criminal justice information systems (including a 5-
                                          percent set-aside for improving criminal justice records); and purpose area 25 is for developing DNA
                                          analysis capabilities.
                                          b
                                            The figures shown are based on our review of grant files for 10 states that received the largest
                                          amount of Byrne Formula Grant funding. Funding for these 10 states represented approximately 48
                                          percent of total Byrne funding for fiscal year 1998.
                                          c
                                           The figures shown represent actual expenditures reported by 60 percent of the 1996 grantees and
                                          10 percent of the 1997 grantees. At the time of our review, 1998 grantees had not reported.
                                          d
                                            The figures shown are not obligations. Rather, they are planning amounts submitted by grantees
                                          during the application process. The Office of Justice Programs ascertained these amounts by (1)
                                          electronically conducting a word search (using the term “crime technology”) of applicable grant
                                          programs and (2) manually reviewing those files identified by the word search.
                                          Source: GAO summary of data provided by Justice components.

                                          Brief descriptions of Justice’s single-purpose and multipurpose grant
Descriptions of Justice                   programs are given next.
Grant Programs



                                          Page 28                                                        GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
                                 Appendix II
                                 Crime Technology Assistance (Grants) Provided by the Department of Justice




Single-Purpose Grants            Following are brief descriptions of the Justice single-purpose grants listed
                                 in table II.1. The grant programs are grouped by the applicable Justice
                                 component.

Bureau of Justice Assistance     The Bureau of Justice Assistance provided the following grants for crime
                                 technology assistance to state and local law enforcement agencies.

                               • Drugfire: This program consists of a “reimbursable agreement” from the
                                 FBI under which the Bureau of Justice Assistance administers grants to
                                 state and local law enforcement to purchase Drugfire software, equipment,
                                 and training. Drugfire is a database system providing the ability to
                                 exchange and compare images of fired ammunition casings and bullets.
                                 The database is capable of connecting shootings based on a comparison
                                 and matching of firearms-related evidence.
                               • Local Law Enforcement Block Grants - Technical Assistance and Training
                                 Allocation: This allocation supports investigative personnel in using
                                 surveillance equipment and information systems applications. The
                                 program also provides for technology training.
                               • National White Collar Crime Center: The Center provides limited “case
                                 funding” assistance to states and localities to track and investigate white-
                                 collar crimes. The focus is on improving information-sharing capabilities in
                                 multijurisdictional investigations.
                               • State Identification Systems Grants Program: These are formula grants to
                                 states to develop computerized identification systems integrated with
                                 FBI’s national identification databases. The FBI reimburses the Bureau of
                                 Justice Assistance to administer programs to integrate state systems with
                                 the national DNA database (CODIS), the National Crime Information
                                 Center, and the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System.

Bureau of Justice Statistics     The Bureau of Justice Statistics provided the following grants for crime
                                 technology assistance to state and local law enforcement agencies.

                               • National Criminal History Improvement Program: This program helps
                                 states upgrade the quality and completeness of criminal records and
                                 provides increased compatibility with and access to national crime
                                 information databases. A priority is to ensure that state criminal history
                                 records are complete and ready for access through the National Instant
                                 Criminal Background Check System.
                               • National Sex Offender Registry: This is a component of the National
                                 Criminal History Improvement Program but is separately funded. States
                                 use funds to identify, collect, and disseminate information on sexual



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                                  Crime Technology Assistance (Grants) Provided by the Department of Justice




                                  offenders within their jurisdictions. Funds are also available to enhance
                                  state access to the FBI’s sex offender database.
                                • State Justice Statistics Program for Statistical Analysis Centers: This
                                  program is designed to provide financial support to supplement state
                                  funding of a central state criminal justice statistics capability to carry out
                                  data collection and research that can benefit both the state and the nation.
                                  Grants are awarded to state statistics centers for data collection and
                                  analysis relating to identifiable themes, including technology-based
                                  research focusing on the analysis and use of machine-readable criminal
                                  history record data for tracking case-processing decisions, evaluation of
                                  record systems management, or studies related to the use of records to
                                  limit or control firearms acquisition by ineligible individuals.

National Institute of Justice     The National Institute of Justice provided the following grants for crime
                                  technology assistance to state and local law enforcement agencies.

                                • Counterterrorism Technology Program: This program assists state and
                                  local law enforcement by developing technologies to combat terrorism and
                                  improve public safety. The funding amounts presented in table II.1 are for
                                  a project (the “InfoTech” project) to develop a technology to allow law
                                  enforcement agencies to share information using their existing systems
                                  and networks.
                                • Crime Act 1-Percent Set-Aside: Under the Local Law Enforcement Block
                                  Grants Program, 1 percent ($20 million) per year--of the $2 billion annual
                                  authorizations for fiscal years 1996 through 1998--were set aside for use by
                                  the National Institute of Justice for new law enforcement technologies.
                                  According to National Institute of Justice officials, this 1-percent set-aside
                                  supported 153 projects during the 3 fiscal years; and, of this total, 8
                                                                                                          1
                                  projects directly benefited state or local law enforcement agencies.
                                  Funding for these eight projects (about $2,325,600) is reflected in table II.1.
                                • Forensic DNA Laboratory Improvement Program: This program is for
                                  improving the quality and availability of DNA analysis for law enforcement
                                  identification, such as by expanding on-line capabilities with the national
                                  DNA database.
                                • Science and Technology Programs: This broad grant category supports
                                  research, development, and evaluation of approaches, techniques, and
                                  systems to improve the criminal justice system. Funded by a transfer of
                                  funds from the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, state and
                                  local law enforcement grantees test and implement crime-fighting
                                  technologies that serve a community policing function.

                                  1
                                   Regarding the other 145 projects, as mentioned in appendix I, grant recipients were federal agencies,
                                  private firms, colleges and universities, and others.




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                                 Appendix II
                                 Crime Technology Assistance (Grants) Provided by the Department of Justice




                               • Southwest Border States Anti-Drug Information System: These grants can
                                 be used to construct or improve state databases, build interface
                                 capabilities with the overall information system, and help procure
                                 hardware and consulting services.

Office of Justice Programs       Improved Training and Technical Automation Grants: This is a general
                                 technology assistance program focusing on communications and
                                 information integration. Grant purposes include improving
                                 communications systems, establishing or improving ballistics
                                 identification programs, increasing access to automated fingerprint
                                 identification systems, and improving computerized collection of criminal
                                 records. This program transferred funds for the FBI’s Law Enforcement
                                 On-Line program in fiscal year 1996, which are reflected in table III.1.

Multipurpose Grants              Following are brief descriptions of Justice’s multipurpose grants listed in
                                 table II.2. Multipurpose grants have numerous criminal justice purposes
                                 established by law. State and local law enforcement can use the respective
                                 funds for a number of activities, including crime technology. The grant
                                 programs are grouped by the applicable Justice component.
Bureau of Justice Assistance
                               • Byrne Discretionary Grants: These grants are authorized to be awarded to
                                 state and local law enforcement, as well as private entities, for crime
                                 control and violence prevention activities. The grant program focuses
                                 specifically on education and training for criminal justice personnel,
                                 technical assistance, multijurisdictional projects (e.g., state records
                                 integration), and program demonstrations. Grants also support research
                                 and development projects.
                               • Byrne Formula Grants: States receive federal funds to improve the
                                 functioning of criminal justice systems. Amounts are based on a set
                                 percentage (0.25) per state, with the remaining funds allocated based on
                                 state population. Eligible uses of funds are categorized by 26 program
                                 purpose areas. Of these, eight contain or could encompass crime
                                 technology assistance. Three of these purpose areas--criminal justice
                                 information systems, drug-control technology, and DNA analysis--are
                                 singularly allocated for crime technology assistance. Included in the
                                 criminal justice information systems purpose area is the 5 percent of Byrne
                                 funds that states must allocate toward improving criminal justice records.
                                 In the remaining five purpose areas, a portion of funds could potentially be
                                 spent on crime technology.
                               • Local Law Enforcement Block Grants Program: General purpose law
                                 enforcement grants are distributed directly to localities. The amounts are
                                 determined by the number of violent crimes reported in the jurisdiction.
                                 The program has seven broad purpose areas. Of those, one contains a



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                                 Crime Technology Assistance (Grants) Provided by the Department of Justice




                                 specific funding stream for procuring equipment and technology. Funds
                                 cannot be used to purchase or lease tanks, fixed-wing aircraft, or other
                                 large items without direct law enforcement uses.

Drug Courts Program Office       Drug Court Discretionary Grant Program: This program provides financial
                                 and technical assistance to states and localities to develop and implement
                                 drug treatment courts that use a mix of treatment, testing, incentives, and
                                 sanctions to remove nonviolent offenders from the cycle of substance
                                 abuse and crime. Grant recipients can use funds to support the
                                 development of information management systems and accompanying
                                 software. Data sharing among drug courts is a primary focus.
Office of Community Oriented
Policing Services              • Advancing Community Policing: These grants assist state and local law
                                 enforcement in further developing community policing infrastructures.
                                 Grants can be used to purchase technology and equipment, statistical and
                                 crime-mapping software, and training services. Also, grants can be used to
                                 help law enforcement agencies overcome organizational obstacles and to
                                 establish demonstration centers that model current community policing
                                 methods.
                               • Community Policing to Combat Domestic Violence: These grants fund
                                 innovative community policing efforts to curb domestic violence by
                                 developing partnerships between law enforcement agencies and
                                 community organizations.
                               • Making Officer Redeployment Effective Grants: This program serves a
                                 broad purpose of increasing the deployment of law enforcement officers
                                 devoted to community policing by expanding available officer time without
                                 hiring new officers. Grants can be used to purchase equipment and
                                 technology to free up community policing resources. Grants fund up to 75
                                 percent of the cost of equipment and technology, with a 25-percent local
                                 match.
                               • Problem-Solving Partnerships: These grants fund problem-solving
                                 partnerships between police agencies and community organizations to
                                 address persistent crime problems, such as drug dealing and other public
                                 disorder problems. Grants can be used for technology training and
                                 procurement of equipment.
Violence Against Women
Grants Office                  • Grants to Encourage Arrest Policies: This grant program encourages states
                                 and localities to increase law enforcement attention to domestic abuse.
                                 Grants can support development of integrated computer tracking systems
                                 as well as provide training for police to improve tracking of domestic
                                 violence cases.




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  Appendix II
  Crime Technology Assistance (Grants) Provided by the Department of Justice




• STOP Violence Against Women Formula Grants: These formula grants are
  for creating a “coordinated, integrated” strategy involving all elements of
  the criminal justice system to respond to violent crimes against women.
  Broad program purposes include training for law enforcement and
  developing and implementing “services” to effectively address violent
  crimes against women.




  Page 33                                              GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
Appendix III

Crime Technology Assistance (Support
Services and Systems) Provided by the
Department of Justice
                        Department of Justice components provided crime technology assistance
Overview of             in the form of access to and use of specialized support services and
Department of Justice   systems. Table III.1 shows the specific types of assistance provided by the
Support Services and    Bureau of Justice Assistance, Bureau of Justice Statistics, DEA, FBI, the
                        Immigration and Naturalization Service, the INTERPOL-U.S. National
Systems                 Central Bureau, and the National Institute of Justice. As shown, regarding
                        support services and systems, Justice’s crime technology assistance to
                        state and local law enforcement agencies for fiscal years 1996 to 1998
                        totaled about $146.6 million. Marshals Service officials told us that their
                        organization did not have support services and systems that provided
                        crime technology assistance to state and local law enforcement.

                        The last section of this appendix provides brief descriptions of the support
                        services and systems presented in table III.1.




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                                             Appendix III
                                             Crime Technology Assistance (Support Services and Systems) Provided by the Department
                                             of Justice




Table III.1: Estimated Obligations of Department of Justice Support Services and Systems Provided to State and Local Law
Enforcement Agencies, Fiscal Years 1996 Through 1998
Dollars in thousands
Justice component       Assistance                                                      1996     1997        1998        Total
Bureau of Justice
Assistance              National Cybercrime Training Partnership                  $        0 $       0 $ 3,278.0 $ 3,278.0
                        National White Collar Crime Center                             864.3   1,822.1     2,400.6     5,087.0
                                                             a
                        Regional Information Sharing Systems                        13,610.6  13,407.8    23,295.0    50,313.4
  Subtotal                                                                        $14,474.9 $15,229.9 $28,973.6 $58,678.4

Bureau of Justice
Statistics              National Incident-Based Reporting System                                     0             0         955.4          955.4

                        Forensic laboratory analysis for District of Columbia
DEA                     Metropolitan Police                                                     94.6          103.3          110.8         308.7
                        National Drug Pointer Index                                                0           45.0           35.5          80.5
                        Training                                                               647.1        1,580.7        1,215.2       3,443.0
 Subtotal                                                                                     $741.7        $1729.0       $1,361.5      $3,832.2

FBI                     Combined DNA Index System                                             5,334.8       5,247.9        6,144.1      16,726.8
                        Computer Analysis Response Team                                         694.8       1,180.0        1,387.3       3,262.1
                        Criminal Justice Information
                                                      b
                        Services Wide Area Network                                                 0              0         153.7          153.7
                        Express                                                                    0              0          20.8           20.8
                                                             b
                        Fingerprint Identification Program                                     422.2        3,236.3       3,001.2        6,659.7
                                                           b
                        Identification Automated System                                        401.6          644.0       1,042.4        2,088.0
                        Law Enforcement On-Line                                              4,932.8          200.0       7,500.0       12,632.8
                                                               b
                        National Crime Information Center                                    3,631.0        3,664.3       3,783.0       11,078.3
                        National Integrated Ballistics Information Network                   1,476.3        1,424.4       2,712.5        5,613.2
                                 c
                        Training                                                               407.5          569.3         628.5        1,605.3
 Subtotal                                                                                  $17,301.0      $16,166.2     $26,373.5      $59,840.7

INS                     Law Enforcement Support Center                                        1,177.2          583.6       1,656.1        3,416.9

INTERPOL -U.S.
National Central
Bureau                  State Liaison Program                                                   654.0          583.0         773.0        2,010.0

National Institute of
Justice
                        National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology
                        Centers                                                               2,598.4       3,954.5        4,747.5      11,300.4
                                                                                   d
                        Southwest Border States Anti-Drug Information System                         0      2,705.6        3,840.2        6,545.8

  Subtotal                                                                                 $ 2,598.4      $ 6,660.1     $ 8,587.7 $17,846.2
Total                                                                                      $36,947.2      $40,951.8     $68,680.8 $146,579.8
                                             a
                                             The figures shown do not include program income (user fees)--about $3.2 million in total--collected
                                             by the six centers during fiscal years 1996 through 1998.
                                             b
                                              The amounts shown are actual expenditures.




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                         Appendix III
                         Crime Technology Assistance (Support Services and Systems) Provided by the Department
                         of Justice




                         c
                          Training consists of Forensic Services training (in obligations) and Criminal Justice Information
                         Services training (in expenditures).
                         d
                          Fiscal year 1997 funding was based on an earmark from the Local Law Enforcement Block Grants
                         Program. Fiscal year 1998 funding was based on an earmark on grant funds administered by the
                         Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.
                         Source: GAO summary of data provided by Justice components.




                         Following are brief descriptions of Justice’s crime technology assistance
Descriptions of          programs listed in table III.1. The descriptions are based on information
Justice’s Support        that the Justice components provided to us. The services and systems are
Services and Systems     grouped by the component providing them.




Bureau of Justice      • National Cybercrime Training Partnership: To address the changing role of
                         computers and the Internet in the commission of crimes, the National
Assistance               Cybercrime Training Partnership supports all levels of law enforcement
                         with “cyber-tools, research, and development.” The Partnership is
                         developing a nationwide communications network to serve law
                         enforcement by providing secure “interconnectivity” over the Internet.
                         Also, the Partnership focuses on training by (1) developing a cadre of
                         instructors capable of training law enforcement and (2) distributing
                         nontraditional modes of curricula, such as CD-ROMs, among other things.
                         In addition, the Partnership plans to serve as a clearinghouse for
                         information and experts available to law enforcement.

                       • National White Collar Crime Center: Headquartered in Richmond, VA, the
                         center maintains a national support system for state and local law
                         enforcement to facilitate multijurisdictional investigations of white-collar
                         and economic crimes. The center operates a training and research institute
                         that serves as a national resource for fighting economic crime.

                       • Regional Information Sharing Systems: Six regional criminal intelligence
                         centers focus on multijurisdictional criminal activities. Each center
                         operates in a mutually exclusive geographic area, a division designed to
                         more effectively support investigation and prosecution of regional crimes.
                         State and local law enforcement support services and systems include an
                         Intelligence Pointer Database, a National Gang Database (under
                         development), and a secure intranet. All six centers are electronically
                         connected, and state and local members (about 87 percent of total
                         membership as of December 31, 1997) are provided with access to the
                         secure intranet, which facilitates secure E-mail transmissions and access
                         to other databases. The centers also sponsor technical training



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                                 Appendix III
                                 Crime Technology Assistance (Support Services and Systems) Provided by the Department
                                 of Justice




                                 conferences. Member jurisdictions can be assessed a nominal annual fee
                                 that varies by center.

Bureau of Justice Statistics     National Incident-Based Reporting System: This system represents the
                                 next generation of crime data from federal, state, and local law
                                 enforcement agencies. Designed to replace the Uniform Crime Reporting
                                 Program initiated by the FBI in 1930, the development of the National
                                 Incident-Based Reporting System represents a joint effort of the Bureau of
                                 Justice Statistics and the FBI to encourage the presentation of higher
                                 quality data on a wider variety of crimes. The Bureau of Justice Statistics
                                 has played a significant role in fostering participation and developing
                                 techniques to assist jurisdictions in conforming to program requirements.
                                 Also, the Bureau of Justice Statistics funds the operation of a dedicated
                                 website and the formulation of model analytic strategies.

Drug Enforcement                 DEA provided the following crime technology assistance to state and local
                                 law enforcement agencies.
Administration
                               • Forensic laboratory analysis, District of Columbia Metropolitan Police:
                                 One of eight forensic laboratories located throughout the United States,
                                 the DEA’s Mid-Atlantic Laboratory provides forensic support to the
                                 District of Columbia Metropolitan Police.

                               • National Drug Pointer Index: This system provides participating law
                                 enforcement agencies with an automated response capability to determine
                                 if a case suspect is under active investigation by any other participating
                                 agency. If a match occurs, the system provides point-of-contact
                                 information for each identified record. Simultaneously, the system notifies
                                 each record owner that point-of-contact information has been released to
                                 the entry maker for that particular target. If the search finds no matching
                                 records, a negative response is returned.

                               • Training: DEA provided three training courses that were applicable to our
                                 definition of crime technology assistance. The Clandestine Laboratory Unit
                                 and the Specialized Training Unit both provided training on topics such as
                                 how to use technological devices to assess risks presented by chemicals
                                 found in laboratories. DEA also provided briefings to state and local law
                                 enforcement personnel on the National Drug Pointer Index and its
                                 benefits.




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                      Appendix III
                      Crime Technology Assistance (Support Services and Systems) Provided by the Department
                      of Justice




Federal Bureau of     The FBI Laboratory, which is one of the largest and most comprehensive
                      forensic laboratories in the world, and the FBI’s Criminal Justice
Investigation         Information Services Division provided various support services and
                      systems to state and local law enforcement agencies.

                    • Combined DNA Index System: An index containing DNA records from
                      persons convicted of crimes. State and local crime laboratories are able to
                      store and match DNA records.

                    • Computer Analysis Response Team: Technical assistance regarding
                      computer technology and computer forensics is provided to federal as well
                      as state and local law enforcement agencies.

                    • Criminal Justice Information Wide Area Network: This network supports
                      the electronic capture, submission, processing, matching, storage, and
                      retrieval of both criminal and civil fingerprints received by the FBI for use
                      in the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System
                      environment.

                    • Express: An explosives reference database, Express provides and
                      correlates information from bombing crime scenes and undetonated
                      explosive devices.

                    • Fingerprint Identification Program: An identification process that scans
                      fingerprint cards and captures fingerprint features for classification and
                      selects candidates for future manual comparison.

                    • Identification Automated System: A system containing the criminal history
                      records of persons arrested for the first time and reported to the FBI since
                      July 1974, as well as selected manual records that have been converted to
                      the automated system.

                    • Law Enforcement On-Line: As the intranet for the U.S. law enforcement
                      community, Law Enforcement On-Line links all levels of law enforcement
                      throughout the United States and supports broad, immediate
                      dissemination of information. Learning programs through electronic
                      sources are also delivered to local, state, and federal law enforcement
                      through this intranet.

                    • National Crime Information Center: This is the nation’s most extensive
                      computerized criminal justice information system. It consists of a central
                      computer at FBI headquarters, dedicated telecommunications lines, and a
                      coordinated network of federal and state criminal justice information



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                           Appendix III
                           Crime Technology Assistance (Support Services and Systems) Provided by the Department
                           of Justice




                           systems. The center provides users with access to files on wanted
                           persons, stolen vehicles, and missing persons. The system’s largest file, the
                           Interstate Identification Index, provides access to millions of criminal
                           history information records contained in state systems.

                         • National Integrated Ballistics Information Network: A joint effort between
                           the FBI and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, this national
                           database computer system allows laboratories across the country to
                           exchange and compare images of fired ammunition casings. The images of
                           microscopic marks that result after a gun is fired are stored in this
                           database.

                         • Training: The FBI Laboratory and the Criminal Justice Information
                           Services Division’s Education/Training Services Unit provide training to
                           the law enforcement community. Forensic laboratory training includes a
                           variety of topics such as management of forensic and technical services;
                           identification and comparison of latent fingerprints; explosives detection;
                           postblast bombing investigations; and responding to and resolving the
                           scientific, forensic, and technical elements of incidents involving chemical,
                           biological, and nuclear materials.

                           The Criminal Justice Information Services Division provides training on,
                           among other things, the National Crime Information Center, Uniform
                           Crime Reports, and the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification
                           System.




Immigration and            The Law Enforcement Support Center is accessible 24 hours a day to the
                           criminal justice community. The center provides state and local law
Naturalization Service     enforcement agencies with the ability to exchange information on the
                           immigration status of foreign-born suspects under arrest or investigation.
                           Information requests are submitted through the National Law Enforcement
                           Telecommunications System. Upon receipt of an inquiry, the center
                           searches INS and other criminal databases and transmits the findings to
                           the requester. Also, the center provides an important source of
                           information to each state conducting firearms purchaser inquiries
                           stemming from the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (Brady Act).
                           State firearms points of contact may query the center on prospective gun
                           purchasers and receive a “proceed” or “deny” recommendation using the
                           disqualifying criteria mandated by the Brady Act.




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                                  Appendix III
                                  Crime Technology Assistance (Support Services and Systems) Provided by the Department
                                  of Justice




INTERPOL – U.S. National          INTERPOL- U.S. National Central Bureau is a resource for state and local
                                  law enforcement agencies to conduct international investigations. The
Central Bureau                    bureau is electronically connected through a secure network to the
                                  national police agencies of 177 INTERPOL member countries and the
                                  INTERPOL General Secretariat (headquarters) in Lyons, France. Also, the
                                  bureau communicates with state offices that have liaisons responsible for
                                  contacting foreign police. Coordination between the liaison offices and
                                  member countries is maintained through the National Law Enforcement
                                  Telecommunications System.

National Institute of Justice   • National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Centers: The five
                                  regional centers and one national center identify and evaluate available
                                  technologies to determine law enforcement suitability, facilitate
                                  public/private partnerships to develop new technologies, and provide
                                  technology and information assistance to law enforcement and corrections
                                  agencies by introducing promising new technologies and providing
                                  technology training. According to a National Institute of Justice official,
                                  while the centers do not directly transfer crime technology, they serve as
                                  (1) brokers between crime technology manufacturers and state and local
                                  jurisdictions and (2) an information resource for law enforcement
                                  agencies.

                                • Southwest Border States Anti-Drug Information System: A secure law
                                  enforcement information sharing system that connects intelligence
                                  databases of four southwest border states (Arizona, California, New
                                  Mexico, and Texas); the three Regional Information Sharing Systems
                                  centers in that area; and the El Paso Intelligence Center. This system
                                  provides for secure E-mail transmissions and includes a preestablished
                                  query system. The system allows all participants to query the databases of
                                  all other participants and is composed of an administrative web server that
                                  offers key electronic services, such as providing agency contact
                                  information and system usage statistics.




                                  Page 40                                              GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
Appendix IV

Crime Technology Assistance (Support
Services and Systems) Provided by the
Department of the Treasury
                                          Department of the Treasury components provided crime technology
Overview of                               assistance to state and local law enforcement agencies in the form of
Department of the                         access to, and use of, specialized support services and systems, such as
Treasury Support                          computerized databases and forensics laboratories. Treasury components
                                          also provided training on the use of technology-related equipment to state
Services and Systems                      and local law enforcement agencies. Table IV.1 shows the specific types of
                                          crime technology assistance provided by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco
                                          and Firearms; the Customs Service; the Federal Law Enforcement Training
                                          Center; the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; IRS; and the Secret
                                          Service. As shown, Treasury’s crime technology assistance for fiscal years
                                          1996 to 1998 totaled about $15.9 million.

                                          The last section in this appendix provides brief descriptions of applicable
                                          support services and systems.


Table IV.1: Estimated Obligations of Department of the Treasury Support Services and Systems Provided to State and Local
Law Enforcement Agencies, Fiscal Years 1996 Through 1998
Dollars in thousands
Treasury component             Assistance                                   1996          1997          1998           Total
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco
and Firearms
                                Accelerant Detection Analysis            $ 816.0        $639.0      $1,292.0        $2,747.0
                                Advanced Serial Case Management             46.0          37.0          58.0           141.0
                                Arson CD-ROM                                    0             0        375.0           375.0
                                Arson/Explosives Incident System            97.0       2,614.0         835.0         3,546.0
                                Consolidated Gang Database                    4.0             0             0            4.0
                                Dipole Study                               150.0         150.0         150.0           450.0
                                Electronic Facial Identification
                                Technique                                    15.0          15.0          15.0           45.0
                                Explosive Forensics                        163.0         127.0         258.0           548.0
                                Federal Firearms License System               9.0             0           9.0           18.0
                                Firearms Tracing System                    768.0         507.0       1,216.0         2,491.0
                                Integrated Ballistics Identification
                                System                                          0        499.0         902.0         1,401.0
                                National (Arson and Explosives)
                                Repository                                      0        243.0         243.0           486.0
                                National Response Team                     250.0         250.0         250.0           750.0
                                Youth Crime Gun Interdiction
                                Initiative                                      0        255.0         150.0           405.0
  Subtotal                                                              $2,318.0      $5,336.0      $5,753.0      $13,407.0

Customs Service                Treasury Enforcement
                               Communications System                        1.2            1.6            1.7            4.5

Federal Law Enforcement        Advanced Airborne Counterdrug
Training Center                Operations Training Program                    0            7.6             0             7.6
                               Airborne Counterdrug Operations
                               Training Program                            30.7           46.0           76.8         153.5




                                          Page 41                                           GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
                                          Appendix IV
                                          Crime Technology Assistance (Support Services and Systems) Provided by the Department
                                          of the Treasury




Treasury component           Assistance                                           1996               1997               1998               Total
  Subtotal                                                                        $30.7              $53.6              $76.8             $161.1

Financial Crimes Enforcement
Network                      Project Gateway                                      472.7              621.6              518.3            1,612.6
                                                                                        a                    a                  a                  a
Internal Revenue Service     National Forensic Laboratory                    negligible         negligible         negligible         negligible

Secret Service
                             Audio/Image Enhancement                                 1.2                1.3                2.8                  5.3
                             Automated Fingerprint Identification
                             System                                                 5.9                5.8               4.5               16.2
                             Cellular Tracking Project                                0                  0              65.0               65.0
                             Computer Forensic Support                                0               40.0             220.0              260.0
                             Electronic Crimes Branch Support                      60.0               30.0              20.0              110.0
                             Encryption                                               0                  0              70.0               70.0
                             Identification Branch Training                        21.8               33.3               9.1               64.2
                             “Operation Safe Kids”                                    0               15.4               5.1               20.5
                             Polygraph examinations                                 6.4                8.5               7.0               21.9
                             Questioned Document Branch                            33.1               23.3              27.0               83.4
 Subtotal                                                                        $128.4             $157.6            $430.5             $716.5
Total                                                                          $2,951.0           $6,170.4          $6,780.3          $15,901.7
                                          a
                                           According to an IRS official, the cost of providing laboratory assistance was less than $1,000 per
                                          year.
                                          Source: GAO summary of data provided by Treasury components.


                                          Following are brief descriptions of the Treasury’s crime technology
Descriptions of                           assistance programs listed in table IV.1. The descriptions are based on
Treasury’s Support                        information that the Treasury components provided to us. The services
Services and Systems                      and systems are grouped by the component providing them.




Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco                ATF provided the following types of crime technology assistance to state
                                          and local law enforcement agencies:
and Firearms
                                      • Accelerant Detection Analysis: The laboratory analysis of fire debris to
                                        detect and identify flammable liquids potentially used as accelerants in an
                                        incendiary fire. ATF has offered on-site training in fire debris analysis to
                                        analysts from state and local laboratories and is currently assisting in fire
                                        debris analysis training provided by the National Fire Safety Training
                                        Center.
                                      • Advanced Serial Case Management: A case management and lead-tracking
                                        database designed to accept large volumes of data. The database analyzes
                                        information to assist investigators in identifying trends, patterns, and
                                        investigative leads for major federal or state incidents.




                                          Page 42                                                        GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
  Appendix IV
  Crime Technology Assistance (Support Services and Systems) Provided by the Department
  of the Treasury




• Arson CD-ROM: An interactive training tool, the CD-ROM/virtual reality
  training program is designed to elevate the overall investigative
  competency levels of all fire investigators in the United States and
  establish a consistent standard for fire investigation.
• Arson/Explosives Incident System: A clearinghouse for data collected from
  several agencies. The system produces statistical and investigative data
  that can be used real-time by arson and bomb investigators. State and
  local agencies can query the system for things such as component parts,
  stolen explosives, and device placement.
• Consolidated Gang Database: A database to track various types of
  information about outlaw motorcycle gangs, street and ethnic gangs, and
  antigovernment groups involved in criminal activity. Data are compiled
  from ATF investigative reports and state and local law enforcement
  agencies.
• Dipole Study: The Dipole Study is intended to assist state, local, and
  federal explosives investigators and building designers. For courtroom
  presentation purposes, the study produced a software package that will
  allow investigators to support their theory of an explosion and explain
  blast damage and fragmentary damage.
• Electronic Facial Identification Technique: A specialized software program
  that allows operators to create composite sketches of suspected
  perpetrators or unidentified persons who surface as suspects or potential
  witnesses during an investigation.
• Explosive Forensics: Examination of debris collected at the scene of an
  explosion or of suspected explosive material obtained from recovery or
  undercover purchase.
• Federal Firearms License System: The primary objective of this system is
  to produce a relational database of firearms and explosives licensing
  information. This system allows users to search for licensing information.
  On a semiannual basis, information is provided to state and local police
  departments identifying the federal firearms licensees in their geographical
  area of responsibility.
• Firearms Tracing System: The National Tracing Center traces firearms for
  federal, state, local, and foreign law enforcement agencies. The firearms
  are traced from the manufacturer to the retail purchaser.
• Integrated Ballistics Identification System: A system that allows firearms
  technicians to digitize and automatically correlate and compare bullet and
  shell casing signatures. The equipment quickly provides investigators with
  leads to solve greater numbers of crimes.
• National (Arson and Explosives) Repository: A database, the repository
  contains information regarding arson incidents and the actual and
  suspected criminal misuse of explosives throughout the United States.




  Page 43                                              GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
                            Appendix IV
                            Crime Technology Assistance (Support Services and Systems) Provided by the Department
                            of the Treasury




                            The information will be available for statistical analysis and research,
                            investigative leads, and intelligence.
                          • National Response Team: The National Response Team was established to
                            assist state and local police and fire departments in investigating large-
                            scale fires and explosions.
                          • Youth Crime Gun Interdiction Initiative: This initiative is a focused
                            component of the federal effort to combat firearms trafficking. Working
                            with state and local law enforcement agencies, the tracing of crime guns
                            provides leads to interdict the trafficking of firearms to youths and
                            juveniles. Among other things, this initiative makes ATF’s firearms trace
                            capabilities and data more accessible to state and local law enforcement
                            agencies.


Customs Service             The Treasury Enforcement Communications System has three programs
                            that provide crime technology-related assistance to state and local law
                            enforcement agencies:

                          • Diplomatic Licensing and Registration Program: Users may query vehicle
                            registration and drivers license information for persons and vehicles
                            licensed by the Department of State.
                          • Aircraft Registration and Tracking: Users may query information about
                            aircraft registered with the Federal Aviation Administration.
                          • Bank Secrecy Act Program: Provides information to state agencies
                            responsible for enforcing state money laundering statutes.

Federal Law Enforcement     The Federal Law Enforcement Training Center provides two training
                            programs involving use of crime technology-related equipment:
Training Center
                          • Advanced Airborne Counterdrug Operations Training Program: This
                            program provides students with the opportunity to use technical
                            equipment in darkness.
                          • Airborne Counterdrug Operations Training Program: This program teaches
                            students how to use equipment such as global positioning hand-held
                            devices and thermal imaging systems.




                            Page 44                                              GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
                        Appendix IV
                        Crime Technology Assistance (Support Services and Systems) Provided by the Department
                        of the Treasury




Financial Crimes        Project Gateway: Established to facilitate the exchange of Bank Secrecy
                                                                                        4
                        Act information with state and local law enforcement agencies. Gateway
Enforcement Network     incorporates custom-designed software to provide designated state
                        coordinators with rapid and direct on-line electronic access to Bank
                        Secrecy Act records, including suspicious activity reports.

Internal Revenue        National Forensic Laboratory: The laboratory primarily supports IRS
                        criminal investigations involving violations of federal tax law and related
Service                 financial crimes. According to IRS officials, a limited or negligible amount
                        of support (less than $1,000 per year) is provided to state and local law
                        enforcement. However, when provided, forensic support or assistance may
                        include (1) document and handwriting analyses, (2) polygraph
                        examinations, and (3) audio/video surveillance tape enhancements.

Secret Service          The Secret Service provided the following types of crime technology
                        assistance to state and local law enforcement agencies:

                      • Audio/Image Enhancement: Audio enhancements include 911 calls,
                        telephone answering machine recordings, court recordings, and gunfire
                        analysis. Image enhancements include images obtained from surveillance
                        cameras that recorded robberies of stores, banks, and ATMs, as well as
                        devices that recorded homicides in a variety of locations.

                      • Automated Fingerprint Identification System: This hybrid network of state
                        and local digitized fingerprint databases provides in excess of 20 million
                        fingerprint records to be searched by the Secret Service’s Identification
                        Branch.

                      • Cellular Tracking Project: Equipment is used to track cellular telephones.
                        The system is capable of identifying the suspect’s location. This system is
                        made available to federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies upon
                        request and, according to Secret Service officials, has proven to be very
                        successful in cases where state and local law enforcement officials have
                        requested this Secret Service equipment and expertise in murder,
                        carjacking, and kidnapping cases.

                      • Computer Forensic Support: Forensic examination of electronic evidence
                        is provided through the Electronic Crimes Special Agent Program. Special
                        agents, among other things, assist state and local law enforcement
                        4
                         Enacted in 1970, the Bank Secrecy Act requires, among other things, financial institutions to maintain
                        records and report certain domestic currency transactions and cross-border transportation of
                        currency. One purpose of such records and reports was to create a paper trail for investigators’ use in
                        tracing illicit funds.




                        Page 45                                                        GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
  Appendix IV
  Crime Technology Assistance (Support Services and Systems) Provided by the Department
  of the Treasury




  agencies in the examination of computers, computer systems, electronic
  communication systems, telecommunication systems and devices,
  electronic organizers, scanners, and other devices manufactured to
  intercept or duplicate telecommunications services.

• Electronic Crimes Branch Support: This branch supports law enforcement
  investigations involving computers, computer systems intrusions,
  electronic communication systems, and telecommunication systems and
  devices. Among the branch’s duties are the oversight of all
  telecommunications and computer fraud cases; establishment and
  operation of a forensic laboratory to process electronically stored data and
  telecommunications devices; and coordination of training initiatives for
  field office investigators, state and local police, and industry
  representatives.

• Encryption: Assistance is provided to state and local law enforcement
  agencies in decoding encrypted computer files.

• Identification Branch Training: This branch provides training to state and
  local law enforcement agencies on appropriate methods for operating
  computerized fingerprinting systems.

• Operation Safe Kids: This program is sponsored by the Secret Service at
  the request of state and local law enforcement agencies. Operation Safe
  Kids uses digital cameras and fingerprint scanning technology to provide
  parents with a printed document that contains a photograph and
  thumbprints of their child.

• Polygraph examinations: The Secret Service’s Polygraph Branch conducts
  polygraph examinations regarding criminal activities ranging from
  embezzlement to child molestation and homicide.

• Questioned Document Branch: Four branch sections (document
  examination, instrumental analysis, document authentication, and
  automated recognition) provide forensic science support. The branch
  maintains three databases that can support state and local law
  enforcement:

  1. The Forensic Information System for Handwriting is a software
     system where known and unknown writing samples are scanned,
     digitized, and subjected to mathematical algorithms against authors
     maintained in the database.




  Page 46                                              GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
Appendix IV
Crime Technology Assistance (Support Services and Systems) Provided by the Department
of the Treasury




2.    The Watermark Collection database contains over 23,000 watermarks
     enabling the identification of partial as well as complete watermarks.
     This database is updated several times a year as the paper industry
     submits new and updated watermarks.

3.    The Ink Collection database contains over 7,500 inks dating back to
     the 1920s. Chemical analysis of these inks allows for differentiation
     and identification of the first date a particular entry could have been
     made based on the first commercial availability date of the writing ink.
     This database is updated yearly through submissions from the ink
     industry.




Page 47                                              GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
Appendix V

Crime Technology Assistance (In-Kind
Transfers) Provided by the Office of National
Drug Control Policy
                                         ONDCP’s Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center (CTAC) was
Mission of ONDCP’s                       established to serve as the central counterdrug enforcement research and
Counterdrug                              development organization of the U.S. government. CTAC was established
Technology                               by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991 (P.L. 101-
                                         510), which amended the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 and placed CTAC
Assessment Center                        under the operating authority of the Director of ONDCP and required that
                                                                                                          1
                                         CTAC be headed by a Chief Scientist of Counterdrug Technology.

                                         CTAC’s mission is to advance technologies that support the national drug
                                         control goals by improving the effectiveness of law enforcement, drug
                                         interdiction, and substance abuse treatment research. As part of its
                                         mission, CTAC is to identify and define the scientific and technological
                                         needs of federal, state, and local drug enforcement agencies. According to
                                         ONDCP officials, in fiscal year 1998, CTAC implemented the Technology
                                         Transfer Pilot Program to assist state and local law enforcement agencies.

                                         According to ONDCP officials, for fiscal year 1998, the Technology
Overview of                              Transfer Pilot Program involved 18 projects or systems that fit our
Technology Transfer                      definition of crime technology assistance. However, only 15 of these
Pilot Program                            projects or systems were transferred or provided to state and local law
                                         enforcement agencies. According to the CTAC Director, as of December
                                         1998, these 15 projects or systems involved a total of 202 recipient state
                                         and local law enforcement agencies. As table V.1 shows, the fiscal year
                                         1998 obligations for these 15 projects or systems totaled $13 million.

Table V.1: ONDCP Crime Technology Assistance Provided to State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, Fiscal Year 1998
Dollars in thousands
Systems Provided Under the Technology Transfer Pilot
Program                                                                                                      Obligations
Air-Ground Surveillance Management System                                                                       $ 1,500.0
Body Worn                                                                                                           550.0
Borderline with VoiceBox System                                                                                   1,750.0
Data Locator System                                                                                                 250.0
Drugwipe                                                                                                            150.0
          a
GLADYS                                                                                                              350.0
Mini-Buster Contraband Detector                                                                                   1,300.0
Money Laundering Software                                                                                           250.0
Signcutter                                                                                                         $250.0
Small Look                                                                                                          850.0
Tactical Speech Collection and Analysis System                                                                      150.0
Thermal Imagers                                                                                                   1,500.0
Vapor Tracer                                                                                                      1,800.0
Video Stabilization System                                                                                          200.0

                                         1
                                          Drug Control: Planned Actions Should Clarify Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center’s Impact
                                         (GAO/GGD-98-28, Feb. 3, 1998).




                                         Page 48                                                    GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
                                        Appendix V
                                        Crime Technology Assistance (In-Kind Transfers) Provided by the Office of National Drug
                                        Control Policy




Systems Provided Under the Technology Transfer Pilot
Program                                                                                                                      Obligations
Wireless Interoperability System                                                                                                 1,400.0
Total                                                                                                                         $13,000.0

                                        a
                                         According to an ONDCP official, GLADYS is not an acronym; rather, the system’s title is based upon
                                        a fictional person’s name.
                                        Source: GAO summary of data provided by ONDCP.


                                        The Technology Transfer Pilot Program matched CTAC-sponsored systems
                                        with state or local law enforcement agency requirements and arranged for
                                        the transfer of those systems. In order to participate in the program, state
                                        and local law enforcement agencies submitted letters and a completed
                                        ONDCP questionnaire. When awarded, the recipients received a technical
                                        team, training, and technical assistance that was directly related to the
                                        technology product. The U.S. Army Electronic Proving Ground at Fort
                                        Huachuca, AZ, assisted CTAC by managing the Technology Transfer Pilot
                                        Program and providing engineering expertise in communications and
                                        electronics.

                                        The following are descriptions of the 15 CTAC crime technology assistance
Descriptions of                         systems (see table V.1) that were transferred to state and local law
Applicable Systems                      enforcement agencies in fiscal year 1998.

                                      • Air-Ground Surveillance Management System: This technology provides
                                        the ability to track and locate both field units (friendly assets) and
                                        suspects (targets) using a variety of remote sensors. Tracking and other
                                        information is graphically displayed and archived on a moving map display
                                        at the base station.
                                      • Body Worn: A miniaturized audio device (body wire). The secure
                                        multichannel transmitter, with voice privacy and low probability of
                                        detection capabilities, can be worn inconspicuously during covert
                                        operations.
                                      • Borderline With Voicebox System: A telephone intercept monitoring and
                                        recording system. The system digitally records telephone conversations,
                                        faxes, and computer data, plus any short notes typed by the
                                        monitor/operator. The recordings are then available for review and
                                        transcription and use in investigations.
                                      • Data Locator System: A software package that provides secure exchange
                                        of electronic mail, database input and extraction, and police intelligence
                                        analysis information over a standard internet connection.
                                      • Drugwipe: A surface residue test kit that identifies trace amounts of
                                        cannabis, cocaine, opiates, and amphetamines. Evidence of narcotic
                                        materials is identified by color change.



                                        Page 49                                                     GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
  Appendix V
  Crime Technology Assistance (In-Kind Transfers) Provided by the Office of National Drug
  Control Policy




• GLADYS: A computer-based system that uses telephone company billing
  records to analyze cellular phone traffic.
• Mini-Buster Contraband Detector: A portable contraband detection kit. A
  “Buster”detector indicates differences in density encountered when moved
  across a surface. The kit includes an ultrasonic range finder that measures
  distances up to 90 feet within 1-inch accuracy for detection of false walls
  or bulkheads. The flexible fiber optic scope contains a portable light
  source for remote viewing inside inaccessible spaces such as fuel tanks.
• Money Laundering Software: A software package used to detect suspicious
  financial transactions. The software identifies underlying patterns and
  trends associated with money laundering, including suspicious financial
  transactions within complex data sources, such as state and bank activities
  involving money transfers and currency exchanges.
• Signcutter: A system that tracks and locates vehicles using a tracking unit
  based on Global Positioning System technology. The unit may be used to
  track law enforcement vehicles or covertly track a “suspect” vehicle.
• Small Look: A miniaturized video surveillance system consisting of a
  miniature, solid-state electronic camera system. It captures, processes, and
  stores hundreds of digital picture images in nonvolatile memory.
• Tactical Speech Collection and Analysis System: A voice identification
  system that can store up to 25 voice samples on the system’s hard drive.
• Thermal Imagers: An infrared imaging surveillance system that provides
  night vision capabilities. Real-time video pictures are generated in all
  lighting conditions when the unit senses heat.
• Vapor Tracer: A hand-held detection system, this device is capable of
  detecting and identifying extremely small quantities of narcotics and
  explosives. This system works by drawing a sample of vapor into the
  detector where it is heated, ionized, and identified.
• Video Stabilization System: A surveillance video enhancement system.
  The system is used to eliminate jitter and camera motion, typically
  associated with surveillance video.
• Wireless Interoperability System: A computer-based interagency radio
  communications switching system. Computer-aided switching technology
  is used to connect numerous law enforcement agencies to a central radio
  system console for the purpose of improving interagency communications
  during counternarcotic investigations.

  Although available in fiscal year 1998, three other crime technology-related
  systems sponsored by ONDCP were not transferred to state and local law
  enforcement agencies:




  Page 50                                               GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
  Appendix V
  Crime Technology Assistance (In-Kind Transfers) Provided by the Office of National Drug
  Control Policy




• Secure Messaging and Investigative Information Transmission System: A
  system using a secure web server to upload, search, and distribute images
  using wireless transmission between field and police headquarters.
• Suspect Pointer Index Network: A relational database application to be
  used for the entry, retention, and analysis of multimedia data, such as
  images and text, supporting counterdrug operations, general case
  investigations, and crime analysis requirements.
• Tactical Video Communication System: An analog communication system
  for transmitting live video and audio from a forward area back to a
  command post.




  Page 51                                               GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
Appendix VI

Major Contributors to This Report


                        Danny R. Burton, Assistant Director
General Government      Mark A. Tremba, Evaluator-in-Charge
Division, Washington,   Seto J. Bagdoyan, Senior Evaluator
D.C.                    Chan My J. Battcher, Evaluator
                        Andrew B. Hoffman, Evaluator
                        David P. Alexander, Senior Social Science Analyst

                        Denise M. Fantone, Assistant Director
Accounting and
Information
Management Division,
Washington, D.C.
                        Jan B. Montgomery, Assistant General Counsel
Office of the General   Geoffrey R. Hamilton, Senior Attorney
Counsel, Washington,
D.C.




                        Page 52                                     GAO/GGD-99-101 Crime Technology
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