oversight

New Dollar Coin: Public Prefers Statue of Liberty Over Sacagawea

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1999-01-22.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                United States General Accounting Office

GAO             Report to the Honorable
                Michael N. Castle
                House of Representatives


January 1999
                NEW DOLLAR COIN
                Public Prefers Statue
                of Liberty Over
                Sacagawea




GAO/GGD-99-24
GAO                United States
                   General Accounting Office
                   Washington, D.C. 20548

                   General Government Division



                   B-281714

                   January 22, 1999

                   The Honorable Michael N. Castle
                   House of Representatives

                   Dear Mr. Castle:

                   This report responds to your request that we conduct a public opinion
                   survey regarding a design for the face of the new dollar coin authorized by
                   Public Law 105-124, the United States $1 Coin Act of 1997. As agreed with
                   your office, the objectives of our survey were to determine (1) the public’s
                   preference for either Sacagawea—a Shoshone interpreter who
                   accompanied the Lewis and Clark expedition—or the Statue of Liberty as
                   the image on the face of the new dollar coin, (2) how strongly the public
                   felt about their preference, and (3) reasons for their choice.

                   To address our objectives, we contracted with International
                   Communications Research (ICR), a national market research firm. ICR
                   conducted a statistically representative survey of 1,014 adults 18 years of
                   age or older. Survey participants were randomly selected from the
                   continental United States between November 18 and November 22, 1998.
                   We did not attempt to estimate the likely demand for the new dollar coin
                   or potential sales to collectors. We requested comments on a draft of this
                   report from the Secretary of the Treasury. The Treasury Department’s
                   comments are discussed near the end of this letter. We conducted our
                   audit work from November 1998 to January 1999 in accordance with
                   generally accepted government auditing standards. Appendix I provides
                   further details about our objectives, scope, and methodology.

                   The results of the ICR survey indicate that most adults 18 years of age or
Results in Brief   older in the continental United States would prefer the Statue of Liberty
                   rather than Sacagawea to be the image on the face of the new dollar coin.
                   When asked to choose, an estimated 65 percent said that they preferred
                   the Statue of Liberty, and 27 percent said that they preferred Sacagawea.
                   Another 2 percent said either choice was acceptable, about 3 percent said
                   neither was acceptable, and 3 percent said they had no opinion.

                   The survey results indicate that most respondents felt very or somewhat
                   strongly about their choice. Of those who stated a preference for the
                   Statue of Liberty, about 80 percent said they felt somewhat strongly or
                   very strongly about their choice. Of those who stated a preference for




                   Page 1                                           GAO/GGD-99-24 New Dollar Coin
             B-281714




             Sacagawea, about 84 percent said they felt somewhat strongly or very
             strongly about their choice.

             When asked to explain why they stated a preference for the Statue of
             Liberty or Sacagawea, respondents cited reasons that fell into two and
             three primary categories, respectively. For survey participants who
             preferred the Statue of Liberty, responses fell primarily into the
             “symbolism” and “familiarity/recognition” categories, respectively. For
             survey participants who chose Sacagawea, responses fell primarily into the
             “Native American,” “Different/A change,” and “History” categories.

             The new dollar coin, now slated to be issued in the year 2000, will carry the
Background   first new design by the U.S. Mint for a circulating dollar coin since the
             Susan B. Anthony dollar coin was issued in 1979. Between 1979 and 1981,
             the Mint produced 857 million Susan B. Anthony dollar coins, which were
             not widely accepted by the public.

             Even though the Susan B. Anthony dollar never achieved a wide
             circulation, increased use of the coin, including as a token by some
             metropolitan transit authorities and as change by vending machine and
             other machine operators, has led to a projected depletion in the stockpile
             of Susan B. Anthony dollars. On October 21, 1997, in his testimony
             concerning legislation for a new dollar coin before the House
             Subcommittee on Domestic and International Monetary Policy, the
             Director of the Mint estimated that the Mint’s supply of Susan B. Anthony
             dollars would last for about another 2-1/2 years, based on demand for the
             coin at the time.

             Faced with the prospect of minting additional quantities of a coin that was
             not widely accepted by the public, Congress enacted the United States $1
             Coin Act of 1997 on December 1, 1997. The act authorizes the U.S. Mint to
             develop a new dollar coin with a gold color, a distinctive edge, and visual
             and tactile features that would make it easy to identify. The Mint has
             announced that the new dollar coin will be similar in size to the Susan B.
             Anthony dollar coin. On October 21, 1997, in his testimony concerning
             legislation for a new dollar coin before the House Subcommittee on
             Domestic and International Monetary Policy, the Assistant to the Board,
             System Affairs, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, noted
             that existing vending machines would have to be modified at a
             considerable cost to the vending machine industry and its customers if a
             new dollar coin with significantly different dimensions was put into
             circulation.




             Page 2                                           GAO/GGD-99-24 New Dollar Coin
B-281714




While the United States $1 Coin Act of 1997 required a gold color and
distinctive edge for the new dollar coin, it did not call for specific designs
for the coin. Instead, the act authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to
select appropriate designs for the obverse (face) and reverse sides of the
dollar coin, in consultation with Congress.

On May 19, 1998, the Secretary of the Treasury established a Dollar Coin
Design Advisory Committee (DCDAC) to consider alternatives and select a
design concept for the obverse side of the new dollar coin. The DCDAC
was composed of a Vice Chair of the President’s Committee on the Arts
and the Humanities; the President of an architectural firm, who is also a
member of the President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities; the
President of the American Numismatic Society; the President of Trinity
College; the Under Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution; the Executive
Director, Business and Professional Women, USA; an artist with
experience in sculpture and drawing; and the Chairman of the House
Subcommittee on Domestic and International Monetary Policy. The
Director of the Mint acted as the (non-voting) chair of the committee.
According to Mint officials, the Committee Charter called for the DCDAC
to use the following parameters in making its recommendation: (1) the
design shall maintain a dignity befitting the nation’s coinage, (2) the design
shall have broad appeal to the citizenry of the nation and shall avoid
subjects or symbols that are likely to offend, (3) the design should not
include any inscriptions beyond those required by statute, and (4) the
design concept shall not depict a living person. In addition, the Secretary
determined that the obverse design should be a representation of one or
more women.

According to Mint officials, during a meeting of the DCDAC on June 8 and
9, 1998, in Philadelphia, the DCDAC heard formal presentations from the
public; received suggestions for designs from the public; reviewed
historical United States coin designs, and developed decision factors for
the design concept that, according to a description of the DCDAC by the
Mint, best represented America and comported with the parameters
established in the DCDAC charter. On June 12, the DCDAC recommended
that the new dollar coin bear a design of Liberty represented by a Native
American woman, inspired by Sacagawea. The DCDAC did not conduct a
public poll to compare public preference for Sacagawea with other design
candidates.

American artists were then invited to submit designs with Sacagawea
depicted on the obverse side and an eagle on the reverse of the new dollar
coin. According to Mint officials, 121 obverse and reverse designs were



Page 3                                             GAO/GGD-99-24 New Dollar Coin
                                        B-281714




                                        reviewed by Members of Congress, employees of the Mint, artists,
                                        educators, historians, and representatives from Native American
                                        organizations. On December 7, 1998, Mint officials announced six
                                        semifinalist obverse designs and seven semifinalist reverse designs. The
                                        officials then narrowed the field and submitted three finalist designs for
                                        the obverse and four finalist designs for the reverse side of the coin to the
                                        U.S. Commission of Fine Arts on December 17, 1998, for further
                                        consideration. According to Mint officials, the Secretary of the Treasury is
                                        scheduled to select a final design in January 1999.

                                        Mint officials estimated that as of November 30, 1998, the total inventory
                                        of Susan B. Anthony dollars in the U.S. Mint and the Federal Reserve was
                                        approximately 66 million coins. In November 1998, Mint officials said that
                                        the earliest possible date by which they could issue a new dollar coin
                                        would be January 2000. Under the United States $1 Coin Act of 1997, the
                                        Mint could produce more Susan B. Anthony dollars in the interim to avoid
                                        any shortfall in the supply of dollar coins until production of the new
                                        dollar coin begins. Mint officials said that a decision on the minting of
                                        additional Susan B. Anthony dollars is to be made by March 1999.

                                        The ICR survey results indicated that almost two-thirds of adults 18 years
Almost Two-thirds of                    of age or older in the continental United States would prefer the Statue of
Respondents Preferred                   Liberty for an image on the face of the new dollar coin. When asked to
the Statue of Liberty                   choose between Sacagawea and the Statue of Liberty, an estimated 65
                                        percent said that they preferred the Statue of Liberty, and 27 percent said
                                        that they preferred Sacagawea. Another 2 percent said either choice was
                                        acceptable, about 3 percent said neither was acceptable, and 3 percent had
                                        no opinion. (See table 1.)

Table 1: Responses to Survey Question
Regarding Preference for an Image on    “There are two choices for the image on the face of the coin: (1) Sacagawea, a
the Face of the New Dollar Coin.        Native American woman who guided the Lewis and Clark expedition, or (2) the
                                        Statue of Liberty. Which of these would you prefer for the image on this new dollar
                                        coin?”
                                                                                                                             a
                                        Response                                                                    Percent
                                        Statue of Liberty                                                                 65
                                        Sacagawea                                                                         27
                                        Either is acceptable                                                                2
                                        Neither is acceptable                                                               3
                                        No opinion                                                                          3
                                        Note: The interviewers conducting the survey read the following statement prior to reading the survey
                                        questions: “The U.S. Mint is planning to introduce a new coin worth one dollar. It will replace the
                                        Susan B. Anthony dollar coin. The new coin will be golden in color and will have an edge that will
                                        easily distinguish it from the quarter. However, the dollar bill will continue to be produced.”
                                        a
                                        Sampling errors are plus or minus 4 percentage points or less.
                                        Source: November 1998 ICR Survey.




                                        Page 4                                                           GAO/GGD-99-24 New Dollar Coin
                                        B-281714




                                        The survey also indicated that more adults said they preferred the Statue
                                        of Liberty to Sacagawea regardless of their income, gender, region, or age.
                                        (For results on survey data by demographic group, see appendix II.)

                                        The survey results indicated that most respondents felt very or somewhat
At Least 80 Percent of                  strongly about their choice of either the Statue of Liberty or Sacagawea. Of
Respondents Felt Very                   those who stated a preference for the Statue of Liberty, an estimated 80
                                                1
or Somewhat Strongly                    percent said that they felt somewhat strongly or very strongly about their
                                        choice. (See table 2.)
About Their Choice.
Table 2: Responses to Survey Question
on How Strongly Respondents Preferred   “How strongly do you feel about your selection of the Statue of Liberty to be on the
the Statue of Liberty                   new dollar coin?”
                                                                                                                             a
                                        Response                                                                     Percent
                                        Very strongly                                                                      47
                                        Somewhat strongly                                                                  34
                                        Not strongly                                                                       18
                                        Don’t know/No opinion                                                               2
                                        a
                                         Percentages do not add to 100 because of rounding. Sampling errors are plus or minus 5 percentage
                                        points or less.
                                        Source: November 1998 ICR Survey.


                                        Of those who stated a preference for Sacagawea, an estimated 84 percent
                                        said they felt somewhat strongly or very strongly about their choice. (See
                                        table 3.)

Table 3: Responses to Survey Question
on How Strongly Respondents Preferred   “How strongly do you feel about your selection of Sacagawea to be on the new
Sacagawea                               dollar coin?”
                                                                                                                          a
                                        Response                                                                  Percent
                                        Very strongly                                                                  41
                                        Somewhat strongly                                                              43
                                        Not strongly                                                                   14
                                        Don’t know/No opinion                                                           2
                                        a
                                            Sampling errors are plus or minus 7 percentage points or less.
                                        Source: November 1998 ICR Survey.


                                        Respondents were asked to briefly explain why they stated a preference
Respondents’ Reasons                    for the Statue of Liberty or Sacagawea. According to the ICR survey
for Their Preferences                   analysis, verbatim responses for the Statue of Liberty and Sacagawea
                                        choices fell into two and three primary categories, respectively.

                                        For survey participants who chose the Statue of Liberty, responses
                                        primarily fell into the “symbolism” and “familiarity/recognition” categories.
                                        Examples of responses under the “symbolism” category were that the
                                        1
                                            Percentage adds to 81 when rounding “Very strongly” and “Somewhat strongly” separately.




                                        Page 5                                                               GAO/GGD-99-24 New Dollar Coin
                                           B-281714




                                           Statue of Liberty is a symbol for the United States, a symbol of freedom
                                           and independence, and a symbol for liberty and justice. Included in
                                           responses under the “familiarity/recognition” category were statements
                                           that the Statue of Liberty was more recognizable and that more people
                                           identify with the Statue of Liberty. (See table 4.)

Table 4: Brief Explanation for Selecting
The Statue of Liberty Response             “Could you briefly explain why you selected the Statue of Liberty to be on the new
Category                                   dollar coin?”
                                                                                                                               a
                                           Major category/Subcategory                                                   Percent
                                           Symbolism
                                           Symbol for the United States                                                      27
                                           Symbol of freedom/independence                                                    10
                                           Symbol for liberty and justice                                                     6
                                           Represents all Americans                                                           6
                                           Familiarity/Recognition
                                           More recognizable/more people identify with it                                    13
                                           Not heard of Sacagawea/don’t know who she is                                       8
                                           More familiar with Statue of Liberty                                               5
                                           a
                                           Total of all subcategories does not add to 100 percent because subcategories totaling less than 5
                                           percent are not shown.
                                           Source: November 1998 ICR Survey.


                                           For survey participants who chose Sacagawea, responses primarily fell
                                           into the “Native American,” “different/a change,” and “history” categories.
                                           Among the reasons cited under the “Native American” category were that
                                           selecting Sacagawea would recognize or honor Native Americans.
                                           Examples of responses received under the “different/a change” category
                                           were that the Statue of Liberty was an image that is seen too often and that
                                           a Sacagawea image on the dollar coin would be different. Examples of
                                           responses received under the “history” category were that Sacagawea or
                                           Native Americans were here first, that Sacagawea was a part of history,
                                           and that she crossed the country with Lewis and Clark. (See table 5.)




                                           Page 6                                                          GAO/GGD-99-24 New Dollar Coin
                                           B-281714




Table 5: Brief Explanation for Selecting
Sacagawea Response Category                “Could you briefly explain why you selected Sacagawea to be on the new dollar
                                           coin?”
                                                                                                                           a
                                           Major category/Subcategory                                               Percent
                                           Native American
                                           Recognizes/honors Native Americans                                            12
                                           I/my family are Indian/Native American                                         8
                                           Make up for all bad things we did to them                                      7
                                           She is an Indian/Native American                                               7
                                           Different/A change
                                           Statue of Liberty is on everything/tired of Statue of Liberty                 14
                                           Would be different/a change                                                   10
                                           History
                                           Sacagawea or Native Americans were here first                                  6
                                           Sacagawea was a part of history                                                6
                                           Crossed with Lewis and Clark/traveled cross country                            5
                                           Subcategories not part of major category
                                           She’s a woman/great woman                                                      7
                                           She should be honored/recognized                                               5
                                           a
                                           Total of all subcategories does not add to 100 percent because subcategories totaling less than 5
                                           percent are not shown.
                                           Source: November 1998 ICR Survey.


                                           On December 21, 1998, we requested comments on a draft of this report
Agency Comments                            from the Secretary of the Treasury. We received written comments from
                                           the Assistant Secretary for Management and Chief Financial Officer of the
                                           Department of the Treasury on January 4, 1999, which are reprinted in
                                           appendix III. The Assistant Secretary noted that her comments represent
                                           the views of all offices within the Treasury Department, including the U.S.
                                           Mint.

                                           The Assistant Secretary said that, although the Department did not dispute
                                           the mechanics of the survey conducted for our report, it was concerned
                                           that the narrow scope of the survey was insufficient to justify the proposed
                                           conclusion that the public prefers the Statue of Liberty over Sacagawea.
                                           The Assistant Secretary said that, although the survey methodology used in
                                           our report was well described and the questionnaire did not appear to be
                                           biased, (1) the entire questionnaire used for the telephone survey was not
                                           included in the report; (2) the telephone survey omitted the substantial
                                           number of Americans without telephones, many of whom are ethnic
                                           minorities; and (3) there was no indication that the survey was conducted
                                           in any other language than English. We agree that it is important to include
                                           all questions regarding our survey of public preference for an image on the
                                           new dollar coin in the report, and we have done so. The survey questions
                                           were placed at the top of each table so that the survey question and the



                                           Page 7                                                          GAO/GGD-99-24 New Dollar Coin
B-281714




respondent’s answers to the question appeared together. We also
recognize that, in a telephone survey, the small percentage of the
population of the United States without a telephone, some of whom may
be ethnic minorities, are not included. However, we believe that a national
telephone survey was the best way to measure public opinion on a national
level in a short period of time and at a reasonable cost. Furthermore, the
use of a telephone survey, conducted in English, is a survey technique
commonly used to gauge public opinion.

 The Assistant Secretary stated that the Department’s main concern was
that our conclusion that the majority of citizens prefer the Statue of
Liberty was based solely on the telephone survey and that this finding runs
counter to the conclusion of the U.S. Mint, which she said was based on an
extensive public outreach effort. The Assistant Secretary pointed out the
various approaches Treasury used to obtain the public’s views on the
Sacagawea coin, including focus groups, a citizens advisory committee,
consultations with knowledgeable organizations and individuals, and
comments on proposed coin designs received on the Mint’s Web site.
Further, she pointed out that Sacagawea’s selection has dramatically
gained support as the public has become reacquainted with her story,
particularly among those who have seen the proposed designs for the coin.

Although we agree that the various approaches Treasury used to obtain
public input provided helpful information, Treasury provided no evidence
that those approaches, either individually or collectively, provided results
that were generalizable to the adult population of the continental United
States.

The Assistant Secretary also suggested technical changes that we made
where appropriate.

We are sending copies of this report to the Chairman and Ranking Minority
Member of the House Subcommittee, on Domestic and International
Monetary Policy the Chairman and Ranking Minority Member of the
Senate Banking Committee, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Director of




Page 8                                           GAO/GGD-99-24 New Dollar Coin
B-281714




the Mint, and other interested parties. We will also make copies available
to others upon request.

Major contributors to this report are listed in appendix IV. Please contact
me on (202) 512-8387 if you have any questions about this report.

Sincerely yours,



Bernard L. Ungar
Director, Government Business
  Operations Issues




Page 9                                           GAO/GGD-99-24 New Dollar Coin
Contents



Letter                                                                                            1


Appendix I                                                                                       12

Objectives, Scope, and
Methodology
Appendix II                                                                                      14

Demographic
Crosstabulation of
Survey Results
Appendix III                                                                                     15

Comments From the
Department of the
Treasury
Appendix IV                                                                                      18

Major Contributors to
This Report
Tables                   Table 1: Responses to Survey Question Regarding                          4
                           Preference for an Image on the Face of the New Dollar
                           Coin.
                         Table 2: Responses to Survey Question on How Strongly                    5
                           Respondents Preferred the Statue of Liberty
                         Table 3: Responses to Survey Question on How Strongly                    5
                           Respondents Preferred Sacagawea
                         Table 4: Brief Explanation for Selecting The Statue of                   6
                           Liberty Response Category
                         Table 5: Brief Explanation for Selecting Sacagawea                       7
                           Response Category
                         Table II.1: Survey Results by Gender and Age                            14
                         Table II.2: Survey Results by Household Income and                      14
                           Region
                         Table II.3: Survey Results by Education                                 14




                         Page 10                                       GAO/GGD-99-24 New Dollar Coin
Contents




           Abbreviations

           DCDAC       Dollar Coin Design Advisory Committee
           ICR         International Communications Research


           Page 11                                         GAO/GGD-99-24 New Dollar Coin
Appendix I

Objectives, Scope, and Methodology


              Our objectives were to determine the public’s preference for the image on
              the face of the new dollar coin, how strongly the public felt about their
              preference, and reasons for their choice. As agreed with your office, we
              limited the choice of images for the face of the new dollar coin to
              Sacagawea, the recommendation of the Secretary of the Treasury’s Dollar
              Coin Design Advisory Committee, and the Statue of Liberty, which was
              suggested as an image for the dollar coin in a previous legislative proposal.

              Given the time and cost constraints we faced, we contracted with
              International Communications Research (ICR) of Media, Pennsylvania, a
              national market research firm, to include our questions regarding the new
              dollar coin in one of the national telephone surveys conducted by ICR on a
              regular basis.

              The survey contained a set of three questions that asked respondents to
              state a preference for either Sacagawea or the Statue of Liberty as an
              image for the face of the new dollar coin, how strongly they felt about their
              preference, and why. The first two questions were closed-ended, with
              response options read to the respondents, and the last question was open-
              ended, with the respondents asked to briefly explain their choice. We
              instructed ICR to rotate the order in which the two possible choices were
              read so that half of the respondents were presented with Sacagawea as the
              first alternative and half with the Statue of Liberty.

              A total of 1,014 adults (18 and older) in the continental United States were
              interviewed between November 18 and 22, 1998. The contractor’s survey
              was made up of a random-digit-dialing sample of households with
              telephones. Once a household was reached, one adult was selected at
              random using a computerized procedure based on the birthday of
              household members. The survey was conducted over a 5-day period,
              including both weekdays and weekends, and up to four attempts were
              made to reach each telephone number.

              To ensure that survey results could be generalized to the adult population
              18 years of age and older in the continental United States, results from the
              survey were adjusted by ICR to account for selection probabilities and to
              match the characteristics of all adults in the general public according to
              demographic groups such as age, gender, region, and education.

              Because we surveyed a random sample of the population, the results of the
              survey have a measurable precision or sampling error. Sampling errors are
              stated at a certain confidence level. The overall results of our survey
              regarding the public’s preference for a new dollar coin are surrounded by



              Page 12                                          GAO/GGD-99-24 New Dollar Coin
Appendix I
Objectives, Scope, and Methodology




95 percent confidence levels of plus or minus 4 percentage points or less.
Estimates of how strongly respondents felt about their choices and the
tabulations by demographic groups in appendix II were calculated from
smaller numbers of respondents and are therefore subject to larger
sampling errors.

The practical difficulties of conducting any survey may introduce
nonsampling errors. As in any survey, differences in the wording of
questions, in the sources of information available to respondents, or in the
types of people who do not respond can lead to somewhat different
results. We took steps to minimize nonsampling errors. For example, we
developed our survey questions with the aid of a survey specialist and
pretested the questions prior to submitting them to ICR.

To obtain information about past production of the Susan B. Anthony
dollar coin, we reviewed our prior reports on the dollar coin and
congressional testimony on the $1 Coin Act of 1997. We also reviewed
relevant laws, legislative histories, and proposed legislation to obtain
information about the new dollar coin.

To obtain information about the existing inventory of the Susan B.
Anthony dollar coin and design and production plans for the new dollar
coin authorized by the $1 Coin Act of 1997, we reviewed agency
documents and interviewed officials at the U.S. Mint. We did not verify the
inventory level and depletion rate for the Susan B. Anthony dollar coin.

We did our audit work from November 1998 to January 1999 in accordance
with generally accepted government auditing standards.




Page 13                                          GAO/GGD-99-24 New Dollar Coin
Appendix II

Survey Results by Demographic Group



Table II.1: Survey Results by Gender and Age
                                                    Gender                                              Age group
                         Total                   Male   Female                   18-34          35-44        45-54            55-64           65+
Statue of Liberty         65%                    65%       65%                    71%            63%          54%              73%            66%
Sacagawea                   27                     27        27                     23             33           37               23             20
Either                       2                      2         3                      2              2            3                0              3
Neither                      3                      2         3                      2              1            3                0              4
No opinion                   3                      4         3                      3              2            2                4              7
                                           Note: Percentages may not add to 100 because of rounding. Sampling errors are plus or minus 4
                                           percentage points or less for total results, 5 percentage points or less for results based on gender,
                                           and 12 percentage points or less for results based on age group.
                                           Source: November 1998 ICR Survey.



Table II.2: Survey Results by Household Income and Region
                                                                a
                                               Household income                                                       Region
                                                                                                        North       North
                      Total         < 15   15-24.9      25-39.9       40-49.9       50+                  East      Central South             West
Statue of Liberty      65%          67%       69%          65%           68%        61%                  56%         66%     71%             63%
Sacagawea                27           22        24           30            25         32                   38          26      19              31
Either                    2            1         3            2             1          2                    1            4      2               1
Neither                   3            5         3            1             4          2                    5            1      3               1
No opinion                3            4         2            2             2          3                    1            3      4               5
                                           Note: Percentages may not add to 100 because of rounding. Sampling errors are plus or minus 4
                                           percentage points or less for total results, 13 percentage points or less for results based on household
                                           income, and 8 percentage points or less for results based on region.
                                           a
                                           In thousands of dollars.
                                           Source: November 1998 ICR Survey.



Table II.3: Survey Results by Education
                                                                                     Education
                        Total                     High school/Less                        Some college                             College/Post
Statue of Liberty        65%                                  69%                                 66%                                      55%
Sacagawea                  27                                   23                                  26                                       36
Either                      2                                    2                                   1                                        3
Neither                     3                                    2                                   4                                        1
No opinion                  3                                    3                                   3                                        4
                                           Note: Percentages may not add to 100 because of rounding. Sampling errors are plus or minus 4
                                           percentage points or less for total results and 7 percentage points or less for results based on
                                           education.
                                           Source: November 1998 ICR Survey.




                                           Page 14                                                            GAO/GGD-99-24 New Dollar Coin
Appendix III

Comments From the Department of the
Treasury




               Page 15         GAO/GGD-99-24 New Dollar Coin
Appendix III
Comments From the Department of the Treasury




Page 16                                        GAO/GGD-99-24 New Dollar Coin
Appendix III
Comments From the Department of the Treasury




Page 17                                        GAO/GGD-99-24 New Dollar Coin
Appendix IV

Major Contributors to This Report


                     John S. Baldwin, Sr., Assistant Director
General Government   Brad Dubbs, Evaluator-in-Charge
Division             Wendy Ahmed, Mathematical Statistician
                     Clair A. Hoffman, Jr., Manager, Finance and Administration
                     Stuart Kaufman, Senior Social Science Analyst
                     Sidney H. Schwartz, Senior Mathematical Statistician




                     Page 18                                       GAO/GGD-99-24 New Dollar Coin
Page 19   GAO/GGD-99-24 New Dollar Coin
Page 20   GAO/GGD-99-24 New Dollar Coin
Ordering Information

The first copy of each GAO report and testimony is free. Additional
copies are $2 each. Orders should be sent to the following address,
accompanied by a check or money order made out to the
Superintendent of Documents, when necessary. VISA and
MasterCard credit cards are accepted, also. Orders for 100 or more
copies to be mailed to a single address are discounted 25 percent.

Order by mail:

U.S. General Accounting Office
P.O. Box 37050
Washington, DC 20013

or visit:

Room 1100
     th                  th
700 4 St. NW (corner of 4 and G Sts. NW)
U.S. General Accounting Office
Washington, DC

Orders may also be placed by calling (202) 512-6000 or by using fax
number (202) 512-6061, or TDD (202) 512-2537.

Each day, GAO issues a list of newly available reports and testimony.
To receive facsimile copies of the daily list or any list from the past
30 days, please call (202) 512-6000 using a touch-tone phone. A
recorded menu will provide information on how to obtain these
lists.

For information on how to access GAO reports on the INTERNET,
send e-mail message with “info” in the body to:

info@www.gao.gov

or visit GAO’s World Wide Web Home Page at:

http://www.gao.gov
United States                       Bulk Rate
General Accounting Office      Postage & Fees Paid
Washington, D.C. 20548-0001           GAO
                                Permit No. G100
Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300

Address Correction Requested




(240335)