oversight

Surface Transportation: Regional Distribution of Federal Highway Funds

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1997-05-30.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                                                                                    ._
         United States
r   A0   General Accounting Oace
         Washington, D.C. 20548

         Resources, Community,     and
         Economic Development      Division


          B-276879



          May 30, 1997


          The Honorable Thad Co&ran
          The Honorable John B. Breaux
          United States Senate

          Subject:   Surface Transuortation:        Regional Distribution           of Federal Highwav
                     FIllIdS


          This report is in response to your request for information about the
          distribution of federal funds to the states under the Intermodal Surface
          Transportation    Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). Specifically, you asked that we
          provide information on the regional distribution of federal funds under ISTEA
          relative to selected indicators of the needs of the federal-aid highway system.
          The indicators are highway usage, the size of the highway system, and
          contributions   to the Highway Trust Fund. You also asked that we provide
          regional comparisons under the formula alternatives presented in our
          November 1995 report on the Department of Transportation’s       federal-aid
          highway funding formula.’

          BACKGROUND

          Federal highway funding is supported by federal highway-user taxes on, among
          other things, motor fuels, tires, and trucks. The revenues from these taxes are
          generally credited to the Highway Trust Fund’s highway account. The federal-
          aidhighway    formula is a series of mathematical calculations that determines
          how the federal highway funds are distributed among the states each year.
          The current formula determines the distribution of funds for 13 funding
          categories:   8 individual programs, such as interstate maintenance, and 5
          separate mechanisms for increasing individual states’ funding in order to
          achieve certain goals for equity among the states. The objectives of the


          ‘Highwav Funding: Alternatives          for Distributina     Federal Funds (GAORCED-
          96-6, Nov. 28, 1995).
                                 GAO/RCED/HEHS-97-167R    Regional   Distribution        of Federal   Highway   Funds
B-276879

formula include maintaining the existing highway infrastructure, returning the
majority of the funds contributed to the Highway Trust Fund to the state
where the revenue was generated, and safeguarding the states’ historical
funding shares.                                           _.

Since needs vary among states, the extent to which these objectives are met
also varies. Furthermore, while these objectives can to some extent be
mutually supporting, they also conflict in some cases. For example,
 safeguarding the states’ historical funding shares would limit targeting the
funding on the basis of highway need indicators or contributions     to the Trust
 Fund. Because the selection of a highway apportionment      formula is a
judgment for the Congress, we did not take a position on the appropriate goals
 or formula for the federal-aid highway program.

SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY

To compare federal funding on a regional basis, we grouped the states
according to the economic regions defined by the Bureau of Economic
Analysis in the Department of Commerce. (Enc. I is a map of the eight
regions.) We compared the Department of Transportation’s        (DOT) data on the
amount of funds that the regions received for fiscal year 1995 relative to
proxies for the highway system’s needs: usage-vehicle miles traveled; system
size-lane miles; and contributions to the Highway Trust Fund.” While other
factors could be used, our November 1995 report showed that these three had
the -highest correlation to the highway system’s needs. (See enc. II.) You also
asked that we provide state-by-state data on our analysis of these three factors
as well as a state-by-state analysis on the basis of additional indications of the
highway system’s need, such as population and motor fuel use, to show the
sensitivity of the data to other factors that could be used in a highway funding
formula. This analysis is provided in enclosure III.




‘Distributions   in fiscal year 1995 were used for our report because it was the
most recent year for which data were available at the time of our analysis.
However, different funding patterns may emerge on the basis of (1) the total
distributions over the life of ISTEA or (2) the choice of a different year. For
example, according to a DOT official, if fiscal year 1996 were used, the
Interstate Reimbursement Program would be factored into the computations
 and several states in the Mideast and New England regions would show higher
 app.ortionments, and thus the differences under some alternative formulas
 would be affected.

 2                GAO/RCED/HEHS-97-167R   Regional   Distribution   of Federal   Highway   Funds
B-276879

To provide regional comparisons under the five formula -titernatives presented
in -GAO’s November 1995 report, we calculated the amount received under
each alternative for each region. While we recognize that there are a myriad
of alternative formulas available to the Congress, our November 1995 report
analyzed a hypothetical redistribution  of the actual apportionments in fiscal
year 1995 according to a series of formula options to illustrate the
pervasiveness of funding shifts and the magnitude of gains and losses that
each state would experience. Our formula options used different factors to
illustrate what could be used and the impact on funding patterns. For
example, total lane miles and total vehicle miles traveled were used for one
option, while a subset of the total-lane miles on the National Highway System
and vehicle miles traveled on the Interstate System-was used for another
option.

SUMMARY

In-summary, the regional distribution of federal highway funds in relation to
the three proxies for highway needs varies by geographic region. For example,
the Southeast, Far West, and Great Lakes regions received several dollars less
than the national average relative to funding per vehicle mile traveled-$29.48;
the Southwest was just a few cents below the average. In relation to funding
per lane mile, different regions are affected-the Plains, Southwest, and Rocky
Mountain regions received from $7 to almost $14 less than the national
average-$31.95 per lane mile; the Southeast region was just a few cents below
the average.   Four regions-Southeast,    Southwest, Far West, and Great Lakes
received less ISTEA funding in Fiscal year 1995 than each region contributed
to the Highway Trust Fund. The differences ranged from .7 percent to 11.7
percent.

Three regions-Far West, Southeast, and Southwest-would        receive more
funding under all five of the formula options that we analyzed than they
received in fiscal year 1995 under ISTEA. The New England and Mideast
regions would have received less under all five options. The details of our
regional analyses are contained in tables II.1 through II.3 in enclosure II. We
have also included state-by-state data that relate to each of these tables in
enclosure III.

AGENCY COMMENTS

We provided DOT officials with draft copies of this report for their review and
comment. We discussed the draft with the Deputy Assistant Secretary for
Budget in the Office of the Secretary. He agreed with the information as


3                GAO/RCED/HEHS-97-167R   Regional   Distribution   of Federal   Highway   Funds
B-276879

presented and suggested a technical comment to clarify how the choice of a
different year for the basis of the analysis could affect tiding patterns, which
we have done.

                                       --m-v




Major contributors to this report are Bob Dinkelmeyer and Jerry Fastrup. If
you would like to discuss this material further, please call me at (202) 512-
3650.




Phyllis F. Scheinberg
Associate Director, Transportation    Issues

Enclosures   -3




 4                 GAO/RCED/HEHS-97-167R       Regional   Distribution   of Federal   Highway   Funds
,,
ENCLOSURiiI                                                                             ENCLOSURE             II

            THE DISTRIBUTION        OF FEDERAL      HIGHWAY FUNDS BY REGION

Table 11.1: Redional Distribution of ISTEA Fundina in Fiscal Year 1995 in Relation to Proxies for
Hiahwav Svstem Needs




Note: Table excludes Puerto Rico.

alSTEA funding excludes amounts for Interstate construction and demonstration projects because
fiscal year 1995 is the final year of funding for the Interstate Construction program; very few
states benefited from this program. The funds received for demonstration projects are outside of
the apportionment process.

 bAnnual vehicle miles of travel (VMT) are 1995 data based on the Interstate Highway System.

 ‘Amounts   computed using 1995 estimated lane miles on the National Highway System.

 dThe percentages for the regions represent how the regional funding per vehicle mile traveled and
 lane miles compared to the total for the United States.



 6                                  GAO/RCED/HEHS-97-167R    Regional   Distribution   of Federal   Highway        Funds
ENCLOSURE         II                                                                          ENCLOSURE           II

Sources: ISTEA funding described in note a is computed from Hiahwav Fundina: Alternatives for
Distributina Federal Funds (GAO/RCED-96-6, Nov. 28, 1995), pp. 58-63. Vehicle miles of travel
and lane mileage data are from Federal Highway Administration, Hiahway Statistics 1995,
November 1996, tables VM-3 and HM-48, respectively.

Table 11.2: Reaional Distribution   of Contributions   to the Hiahwav Trust Fund in Relation to ISTEA
Fundina in Fiscal Year 1995



                                Percentageshare of          Percentage share of
                                contributions to the    federal aid under ISTEA                           Percent
                                Highway Trust Fund                    (FY 1995)’                       difference
  United States                              100.0                         100.0                            0.0
 Region




Notes:

1. Table excludes Puerto Rico.

2. Percentage     shares may not sum to 100.0 because of rounding.

aShares of ISTEA funding are computed on the basis of the total amount minus amounts for
Interstate construction and demonstration projects.

Source: Shares are computed from Hiahway Fundina: Alternatives             for Distributina    Federal Funds
(GAO/RCED-96-6, Nov. 28, 1995), pp. 58-63.




                                     GAOBXEDMEHS-97-167R        Regional   Distribution   of Federal    Highway     Funds
ENCLOSURE        II                                                                                                                                           ENCLOSURE            II

Table 11.3: Reaional Distribution of Fundina Chanaes Resultina From Funding Alternative Formula Approaches                        Compared to Fiscal Year 1995
Reaional Fundina Under ISTEA

Dollars in millions                                                                                                                                                           ,

                               -
                                                                                    Change in funding
                                    Needs proxy             Needs proxy                                              Combined
                                      approach                approach               Return-to-origin                approach                        Combined approach
                                   alternative #I b        alternative #2”          (RTO) approachd               alternative #la                      alternative #2’
                    ISTEA
                  FY 1995
                                                 Percent                 Percent                   Percent                         Percent                                 Percent
                 funding”              Dollars   change        Dollars   change          Dollars   change         Dollars          change                  Dollars         change

 United               16,651       $         0       0.0   $         0       0.0     $         0       0.0    $         0                  0.0         $         0            0.0
 States
11Region
 New                   1,007       $ -164         -16.3    $ -215         -21.4       $ -264        -26.2     $ -268                 -26.7             $ -239                -23.7
 England
 Mideast              2,391        $ -351         -14.7    $ -269         -11.2      $      -79       -3.3    $ -495                 -20.7             $ -236                 -9.9
 Great                2,560        $ 113             4.4   $       39        1.5     $       17        0.7    $      -81               -3.1            $        -2            -0.1
 Lakes
 Plains                1,495       $ -225         -15.0    $       52        3.5     $ -189         -12.6     $ 168                   11.2             i$      25’   ”            1’.7

 Southeast            4,053        $ 327            8.1    $       81       2.0      $ 537           13.3     $ 295                        7.3         $ 252                      6.2
 Southwest            1,866        $       40       2.2    $ 115            6.2       $      85       4.6     $ 198,                  10.6             $ 110                      5.9



                                                                                   GAO/RCED/HEHS-9’7-167R    Regional       Distribution         of Federal     Highway   Funds
ENCLOSURE         II                                                                                                                                  ENCLOSURE             II


                                                                                 Change in funding
                                   veeds proxy            Needs proxy              ,                           Combined
                                     approach               approach               Return-to-origin            approkch                         Combi’ned approach
                                  alternative #lb        alternative #2”          (RTO) approachd           alternative #l e                      alternative #2’
                     ISTEA
                   FY 7995
                                              Percent                Percent                    Percent                       Percent                                 Percent
                  fundinga         Dollars                Dollars    change         Dollars     change      Dollars           change               Dollars            change
                                              change

    Rocky                755      $ -158       -20.9      $    -6       -0.8       $ -195         -25.9     $ 122                 16.2            $        2                0.3
    Mountain
    Far West            2,524     $ 418         16.6     $ 202             8.0      $   88          3.5     $     61                   2.4        $       87                3.5

Notes:

1. Amounts may not sum to total because of rounding.

2. Table excludes       Puerto Rico.

“ISTEA amounts include all funding categories except Interstate highway construction          and demonstration       projects.        Formula alternatives          were
proportionally increased, where necessary, to sum to the ISTEA total.

bNeeds proxy approach alternative #I is based on one-half total lane miles (LM) and one-half total vehicle miles traveled (VMT).
                                                                                                                                                               ’             t’
‘Needs proxy approach alternative #2 is based on one-third total LM, one-third Interstate VMT, and one-third population.

dThe return-to-origin    (RTO) approach would allocate 100 percent of ISTEA funding in proportion to contributions             to the Highway Trust Fund.

“The combined approach is based on blends of the needs approach and the return-to-origin approach: Alternative                     1 is 40 percent RTO, 30
percent LM on the National Highway System and 30 percent VMT on the Interstate highways.

9                                                                                GAO/RCED/HEHS-97-167R     Regional     Distribution         of Federal    Highway   Funds
0
-
ENCLOSURE               III                                                                                                 ENCLOSURE            III

                              THE DISTRIBUTIION      OF FEDERAL        HIGHWAY     FUNDS BY REGION           AND STATE

                                                                                         ,
Table 111.1: Distribution of ISTEA Fundina per Unit of Need Indicator. bv_ Bur eau o f Economic Analysis Reaion and State


                               MEA
                              FY 1995
                               ($ in
                                mll-
                               Ilons)

       United Slates              16,651         0      0.0        0         0.0         0        0.0             0           0.0            0            0.0
     Region/state:

     New England Region             1,007     -164    -16.3     -215       -21.4      -264      -26.2          -268         -26.7         -239          -23.7
       Connecticut                      341   -101    -29.7     -132       -38.6      -159      -46.5          -153         -44.7         -147          -43.1
       Maine                             90    -20    -22.6      -14       -15.9         0        0.0            -3          -3.7           -4           -4.2
       Massachusetts                    306     56     18.3       32        10.3         3        1.1           -12          -3.9           12            3.8
       New Hampshire                     86    -18    -21.2      -21       -25.0       -19      -22.3           -16         -18.6          -16          -16.1
       Rhode Island                     104    -45    -43.8      -46       -43.9       -55      -53.3           -58         -56.0          -53          -51.5
       Vermont                           80    -35    -43.6      -33       -41.6       -34      -43.2           -26         -33.2          -31          -39.4

     Mideast Region                2,391      -351    -14.7     -269       -11.2       -79       -3.3          -495         -20.7         -236           -9.9
       Delaware                          74   -40     -53.6      -41       -54.7       -26      -34.5           -40         -53.6          -36          -48.4
       District of Columbia              76   -55     -72.3      -53       -69.4       -53      -69.9           -60         -78.7          -54          -71.2
       Maryland                         244   106      43.6       67        27.5        58       23.8            36          15.0           47           19.4
       New Jersey                       453   -112    -24.6     -120       -26.5        -20       -4.3         -146         -32.2          -87          -19.2
       New York                         965   -224    -23.2     -146       -15.1      -184      -19.0          -298         -30.9         -176    ,     -18.3   ,I   ,
       Pennsylvania                     579    -27     -4.7       24         4.2       145      25.0             13           2.2           71         ’ 12.3

     Great Lakes Region            2,560      113       4.4       39         1.5        17        0.7           -81          -3.1           -2           -0.1
       Illinois                         645    -30     -4.7       15         2.3       -32       -5.0           -58          -9.0          -19           -3.0
       Indiana                          408      2      0.5      -43       -10.6        20        4.9           -32          -7.9          -26           -6.4
       Michigan                         501   115      22.9       89        17.7        58       11.5            53          10.6           67           13.4
       Ohio                             651    89      13.7       22         3.4         -5      -0.8           -20          -3.0            1            0.2
       Wisconsin                        355   -63     -17.7      -43       -12.2       -23       -6.4           -24          -6.8          -25           -7.0

11                                                                      GAO/RCED/HEHS-97-167R     Regional   Distribution    of Federal   Highway      Funds
ENCLOSURE           III                                                                                                                                                             ENCLOSURE                  III

                                                                                                              Change from ISTEA funding
                          ISTEA
                          FY 1995                             Needs proxy approach                                  Return- to-Orlgln                                  Comblned       approach
                           (S 4                 Alternatlve 1                   Alternative       2             ,       approach                        Alternative   1                     Alternative        2
                           mll-           Chg in amt.      Percent        Chg In amti                                                             Chg In amt.       Pdrcent           Chg In amt.                            ‘, 1
                           lions)         (S millions)         change         (t mlllions)                                                         (5 mllllons)        change         ($ mllllons)

 Plains Region                  1,495              -225             -15.0                    52         3.5             -189            -12.6                 166            11.2                    25                1.7
     Iowa                           219              -45            -20.6                    14         8.3              -30            -13.9                      9            3.9                   -5              -2.2
     Kansas                         206              -35            -16.9                    14         6.6              -21            -10.4                     36         17.6                    13                6.5
     Minnesota                      289                  10             3.5                  36        12.5              -25              -8.7                    29         10.0                    17                5.8
     Missouri                       403              24               6.1                    12         3.0               35              8.8                     52         12.9                    27                6.8
     Nebraska                       140              -39            -27.7                     3         1.8              -22            -15.5                     33         23.2                    12                8.6
     North Dakota                   112              -69            -61.6                    -4        -3.4              -56            -50.1                      3            2.9              -19                 -17.0
  South Dakota                      127              -72            -56.5                -22          -17.2              -69            -54.7                      6            5.0              -21                 -16.5
 Southeast Region              4,053                327                 6.1                  81         2.0              537             13.3       ’        295                7.3              252                   6.2
  Alabama                           303                  16             5.4                -5          -1.5               42             14.0                     41         13.4                    26                8.7
  Arkansas                          216             -47             -21.8                -29          -13.6               13              5.8                   9             4.0                     -4              -1.9
  Florida                           762              21              2.8                     -5        -0.6               82             10.7                 -80           -10.5                -22                  -2.9
  Georgia                           518             111             21.4                 35             6.7               71             13.7                     68         13.2                 38                   7.4
  Kentucky                          290               1              0.3                -20            -7.1               21              7.2                      8            2.6               -0                  -0.1
  Louisiana                         264                  5           2.0                 11             4.2               14              5.2                     17            6.6               17                  6.5
  Mississippi                       207             -36            -17.5                -17            -8.3               11              5.5                  10             4.8                  1                   0.6
 North Carolina                     460             -18              -4.0               -54           -11.6               40             8.6                  -22            -4.7                -12                  -2.7
 South Carolina                     191              83             43.8                 70           36.6                94            49.4                  93            48.8                     63              43.7
 Tennessee                          374              35              9.4                  5            1.4                23             6.2                  24              6.3                    10                2.5
 Virginia                           298            207              69.5                144            48.4             161              54.1                156             52.3                149                50.0
 West Virginia                      169             -51            -30.2                -54           -31.7             -35             -20.4                -29            -16.9                -33               -19.8        1’ ,




12                                                                                                GAO/RCED/HEHS-97-167R                         Regional     Distribution        of Federal          Highway         Funds
ENCLOSURE              III                                                                                                                                                                                         ENCLOSURE                      III
                                                                                                                             Chsnge    tram ISTEA tunding
                                     ISTEA
                                     FY199!5                           Needa proxy       spprorch                                  Return-         to-Orlgtn                                 Comblned        aptkoach
                                       (I In                Alternatlvo   1                     Atternattw     2                        approach                               Alternrtlve     1                    Alternative     2
                                     a mlt-          Chg In amt.         Percent         Chg In amt.         Percent          Chg In unt.              PUcelInt         Chg In amt.          Percent         Chg In amt.          Percent
                                      lions)         (i mltllons)        chaws           (S mllllons~        changs            (S mllllons)            change           ($ mlllions)         change          ($ mllllons)         change


       Southwest      Region               I.866                    40             2.2              115                6.2                    85                  4.6              199              10.6                 110                5.9
        Arizona                                267                   7             2.6                  9              3.5                     4                  1.6                  16              6.0                    7             2.6
        New Mexico                             191              -40           -21 .o                -20            -10.3                  -54                  -28.3                    7              3.7                  -20         -10.6
        Oklahoma                               256              -22              -8.6               -10               -3.8                    17                 6.7                   15              5.7                    3             1.2
        Texas                              1.152                    95             8.3              135             11.8                  118                   to.2               160              13.9                 120             10.4

       Rocky Mountain        Regiw             755            -158            -20.9                     -6            -0.8               -195                  -25.9               122              16.2                      2             0.3
        Colorado                               203                  34           17.0                66            32.6                        4                 2.0                   64          31.7                     47          23.2
        Idaho                                  127              -49           -36.4                 -22            -17.1                  -47                  -36.8                    2            1.6                    -17         -13.2
        Monlana                                175            -109            -61.6                 -51            -28.9                  -98                  -56.2                   -3           -1.6                    -39         -22.4
        Utah                                   134                  23         16.8                  29            21.4                   -10                   -7.2                   42          31 .o                    23           17.0
        Wyoming                                116              -58           -60.2                 -28            -24.3                  -45                  -38.6                   17           14.8                 -11               -9.9

       Far West ReQon                      2,524               418               16.6               202                8.0                    88                 3.5                   61              2.4                  87              3.5
        Alaska                                 231            -197            -85.0               -178             -77.0                -194                   -83.9              -153             -66.3                -167            -72.2
        Californi,a                        1,636               521               31.8               280             17.1                 259                    15.8                   65              4.0               149                9.1
        Hawaii                               121                -67           -55.5                 -73            -60.3                  -75                  -62.3               -70             -64.9                    -72         -59.3
        Nevada                                 111              -24           -21.8                   0             0.1                       -5                -4.7                   27          24.2                     11           10.1
        Oregon                                 109              35               18.7                54            26.6                       26                13.6                   85          45.1                     61          32.2
        Washington                             236             150               63.0               119            50.0                       70               32.9                116             49.0                  106            44.5
Note: All notes to table 1 ot enclosure II apply to this table.

Sources: ISTEA amounts based on GAO/RCED-96-6, Nov. 28, 1955, pp. 58-63. Highway need indicators are from the Federal Highway
Administration, “Highway Statistics 1995.”




13                                                                                                                  GAO/RCED/HEHS-97-167R                                   Regional         Distribution           of Federal          Highway         Funds
ENCLOSURE        III                                                                               ENCLOSURE           III
Table 111.2: Comoarison            of Distribution   of Funds Under ISTEA With Retur@to-Oriain               Aooroach




           United States                             100.0        100.0                0.0


          New England Region                           4.5          6.0              35.6
           Connecticut                                 1.1          2.0              87.0
            Maine-                                     0.5          0.5               -0.0
            Massachusetts                              1.9          1.8               -1.1
            New Hampshire                              0.4          0.5              28.7
            Rhode Island                               0.3          0.6             114.3
                                                       0.3          0.5              76.1

           Mideast Region                             13.9         14.4                3.4
            Delaware                                   0.3          0.4               52.6
            District of Columbia                       0.1          0.5             232.4
            Mar$and                                    1.8          1.5              -19.2
            New Jersey                                 2.6          2.7                4.5
            New York                                   4.7          5.8               23.5
            Pennsylvania                               4.3          3.5              -20.0

           Great Lakes Region                         15.5         15.4               -0.7
            Illinois                                   3.7          3.9                 5.3
            Indiana                                    2.6          2.4                -4.7
            Michigan                                   3.4          3.0              -10.3
            Ohio                                       3.9          3.9                 0.8
            Wisconsin                                  2.0          2.1                6.8
           Plains Region                               7.8          9.0               14.5
            Iowa                                       1 .l         1.3               16.1
            Kansas                                     1.1          1.2               11.6
            Minnesota                                  1.6          1.7                9.6
            Missouri                                   2.6          2.4               -8.0
            Nebraska                                   0.7          0.8               18.4
            North Dakota                               0.3          0.7              100.4
            South Dakota                               0.3          0.8              120.6




 14                                    GAOiRCEDhiEHS-97-167R     Regional   Distribution      of Federal   Highway   Funds
ENCLOSURE       III                                                                               ENCLOSURE          III




              Southeast Region                    27.6             24.3                 -11.7
               Alabama                             2.1                 1.8              -12.2
               Arkansas                            1.4                 1.3                -5.5
               Florida                             5.1                 4.6                -9.7
               Georgia                             3.5                 3.1              -12.1
               Kentucky                            1.9                 1.7                -6.7
               Louisiana                           1.7                 1.6                -4.9
               Mississippi                         1.3                 1.2                -5.2
               North Carolina                      3.0                 2.8                -7.9
               South Carolina                      1.7                 1.1              -33.1
                Tennessee                          2.4                 2.2                -5.9
               -Virginia                           2.8                 1.8              -35.1
               West Virginia                       0.8                 1.0               25.6

              Southwest Region                    11.7             11.2                   -4.4
               Arizona                             1.6                 1.6                -1.6
               New Mexico                          0.8                 1.1               39.5
              . Oklahoma                           1.6                 1.5               -6.3
                Texas                              7.6                 6.9               -9.3

              Rocky Mountain Region                3.4                 4.5               34.9
               Colorado                            1.2                 1.2                -2.0
               Idaho                               0.5                 0.8               58.1
               Montana                             0.5                 1.1              128.2
               Utah                                0.7                 0.8                7.7
               Wyoming                             0.4                 0.7               62.9

              Far West Region                     15.7             15.2                   -3.4
               Alaska                              0.2                 1.4              521.6
               California                         11.4                 9.8               -13.7
               Hawaii                              0.3                 0.7              165.3
               Nevada                              0.6                 0.7                 4.9
               Oregon                              1.3                 1.1              -12.0
               Washington                          1.9                 1.4              -24.8




Note: All notes to table 2 enclosure II apply to this table.

Source: Hiahwav Fundina: Alternatives         for Distributing   Federal Funds, pp. 57-63
(GAOIRCED-96-6).


15                               GAO/RCED/HBHS-97-167R      Regional     Distribution     of Federal   Highway   Funds
            ENCLOSURE     III                                                                                                                                                                    ENCLOSURE                III

            Table 111.3: ISTEA 1995 Distribution of Funds and Chanae Under Alternative GAO Formula Aowoaches.                                                                     bv Bureau of Economic
            Analvsis Region and State
-_--
                                                                 Allernatlve indicators        of hlghway iystem usage                                                     Indicators    of hlghway     system size              ,
                                   ISTEA per total                       ISTEA per                   ISTEA per hlghway                                                                                     ISTEA per
                                     vehicle-mile                   Interstate vehlcle-               motor fuel use (In            ISTEA per                             ISTEA per                    National Highway
                                       of travel                       mile of travel                mllllons of gallons)        1,OW population                       total lane mile                 System lane mile
                                $ per unll         As % of       $ per unit     As % of           t per unlt    As % of        $ per unit        As % of           $ per unlt       As % of        $ per unlt        As % of
                                 of need           US avg         of need        US avg            of need      .US avg         of need          US avg             of need          US avg           of need        US avg

  United States                        6.67             100            29.48              100          116.23         100                 63          100                  2.04            100            31.95                 100

Region/state:

New England Region                     8.96             130            33.64              114          158.44         136            75.64            119                  4.42            217            51.10                 160
 Connecticut                          12.17             177            39.58              134          234.15         201           104.24                i64              7.84            384            90.14                 282
  Maine                                7.16             104            39.03              132          124.82         107            72.56            115                  1.95               96          26.66                  63
 Massachusetts                         6.38                 93         22.60               77          111.15             96         50.46             80                  4.69            230            43.05                 135
 New Hampshire                         8.06             117            38.54              131          138.47         119           74.67             118                  2.76            135            37.15                 116
 Rhode Island                         15.03             219            55.95              190          249.84         215          104.88             165                  8.28            406           104.24                 326
 Vermont                              12.94             187            50.49              198          207.18         178          136.23             215                  2.73            134            37.65                 118

Mideast Region                         7.32             107            36.98              125          124.38         107           53.77                 85               3.72            182            45.31                 142
 Delaware                              9.90             144            60.25          204              181.35         156          103.74             164                  6.10            299            63.61                 200
 District of Columbia                 22.05             321           161.21          547             404.16          348          137.87             218                22.63           1109            218.95                 665
 Maryland                              5.43              79            18.38              62            99.03          85           48.35                 76              3.74             183            40.97                 128
 New Jersey                            7.42             108            40.56          138              116.27         100           56.99                 90              5.88            268             53.16                 166
 New York                              8.38            . 122           46.19          157              150.79         130           53.19                 84              4.06             199            51.64                 162
 Pennsylvania                          6.13               89           32.82          111               98.63          85           47.96                 76              2.34             115            31.97                 100

Great Lakes Region                     6.46              94            27.23              92           108.12          93           58.92                 93              2.14             105            3490,                 109‘   ’
 Illinois                              6.65             100            24.92              85          112.78           97           54.51                 86              2.25             110           34.12                  107
 Indiana                               6.31              92            28.08              95           106.41          92           70.23             111                 2.13             104           40.90                  128
 Michigan                              5.95              05            26.77              91            94.02          82           52.51              83                 2.03              99           30.13                   94
 Ohio                                  6.46              94           24.21               82          108.53           93           58.41              92                 2.70            132            41.71                  131
                                       6.91             101           44.41           151             124.89          107           69.32             109                 1.55             76            29.02                  91



            16                                                                                          GAO/RCED/HEHS-97-167R                  Regional         Distribution       of Federal      Highway        Funds
     ENCLOSURE     III                                                                                                                                                                            ENCLOSURE                         III


                                                          Alternative     indicators     of highway        system    usage                                            I           Indicators   of highway         system     size
                             ISTEA per total          I          ISTEA per                   1    ISTEAper hlghway                1                                                                        I        ISTEA per                   I
                            ’ vehicle-mile                  Interstate vehlclc                     mot& fuei use (In                  ’        ISTEA per                         ISTEA per                       National Hlghway
                                of travel                      mile of travel                     milllons of gallons)                       1,000 population                 total lane mile                    System lane mile
                         $ per unit       As % of         $ per unit      As%of                  $ per unit    As % of                    t per unit     As % of          $ per unit     As % of               $ per unit    As % of
                          of need       US avg             of need           US avg              of nead            US avg                 of need      US avg             of need          US avg              of need         US avg

Plains Region                   8.10           118               34.80                 118           128.38              110                   81.48            129               0.96               47             22.18                 69
 Iowa                           8.43           123               39.01                 132           120.96              104                   77.06            122               0.95               47             24.11                 75
 Kansas                         8.18           119               38.19                 130           133.99              115                   80.22            127               0.76               37             20.39                 64
 Minnesota                      6.55             95              29.09                  99           108.54                  93                62.61             99               1.08               53             23.36                 73
 Missouri                       6.79             99              25.44                  86           113.49                  98                75.64            119               1.60               79             30.43                 95
 Nebraska                       8.85           129               47.06                 160           128.22              110                   85.46            135               0.75               37             18.46                  58
 North Dakota                  17.14           249                85.68                291           239.94              206                  174.87            276               0.64               31              15.14                 47
 South Dakota                  16.55           241                65.52                222           238.05              205                  174.09            275               0.75                37             16.56                 52

Southeast Region                6.16             90               26.90                 91           102.97                  89                63.75            101               2.03            100                31.68                 99
 Alabama                        5.99            87               30.08                 102           101.77               88                   71.30            113               1.57                77             26.13                 82
 Arkansas                       8.12           118               40.54                 138           119.65              103                   87.14            138               1.38                68             29.11                 91
 Florida                        5.97             87              30.59                 104           102.00                  88                53.62             85               3.11            153                47.66                149
 Georgia                        6.07             88              22.56                  77           100.20                  66                71.99            114               2.22            109                33.11                104
 Kentucky                       7.05           103               28.72                  97           113.87                  98                75.02            118               1.92             94                29.36                 92
 Louisiana                      6.84            99               27.40                  93           109.65               94                   60.83             96               2.09            103                30.73                 96
 Mississippi                    7.02           102               39.89                 135           116.95              101                   76.91            121               1.38             67                24.72                 77
 North Carolina                 6.05            88               33.46                 114           105.76               91                   63.91            101               2.27            111                39.42                123
 South Carolina                 4.92             72              19.67                  67            79.21                  68                51.86             82               1.42                69             21.62                 68
 Tennessee                      6.65             97               24.71                 84           109.98                  95                71.14            112               2.09            102               ,34.25                ‘P7 ,
 Virginia                       4.26             62               15.49                 53            75.25                  65                44.97             71               2.00                98             21.&                   67
 West Virginia                  9.71           141                36.51                124           155.36              134                   92.57            146               2.34            115                32.91                103




     17                                                                                             GAO/RCED/HEHS-97-167R                            Regional      Distribution          of Federal        Highway        Funds
ENCLOSURE                III                                                                                                                                                                               ENCLOSURE               III

                                                                                                                                                                                                          ____.
                                                                Alternative    lndtcators        of hlghway system usage                                             lndlcators     of highway    system size
                                    ISTEA f~ total                     ISTEA per                      ISTEA per     hlghway                                                                         ISTEA per
                                      vehicle-mile                Interslate vehlcle-                  motor fuel    use (In            IsTEA per                    ISTEA per                   National Highway
                                        of travel                    mile of travel                + mllllons of    gallons)        1,006 population              total lane mile                System lane mile’
                                $ per unlt        As%of         S per unit      As%01               $ per unit        As $5 of    $ per unit    As%of         S per unit      As%of           S per unit     As % 01
                                 of need          USavg          of need        USavg                of need          usavg        of need      USavg          of need        US avg           01 need       us avg


     Soulhwest Region                  6.66                97          29.33                100          112.71              97         66.89           106          1.69              83           24.67             76
      Arizona                          6.74               98           29.27                 99          109.44              94         63.37           100          2.28             112           30.42             95
      NewMexico                        9.03               131          33.77                115          164.14             141        113.24           179          1.50              73           2105              66
      Cklahoma                         6.66                97          31.71                108          115.63              99         76.23           123          1.11              54           23.66             74
      Texas                            6.36               93           29.26                 96          107.29              92         61.52            97          1.64              90           24.85             76
     Rcckyhtountain    Region          9.14           133              33.46                114          152.13             131         91.92           145          1.26              62           1821              57
      Colorado                         5.70               84           23.47                80           101.36             a7         54.07            85           1.16              57           19.25             60
      Idaho                           10.34           150              46.16            163              170.01            153        109.25           172           1.05              51           20.05             63
      Montana                         10.63           271              76.62            260             266.55             246        201.10           317           1.23              60           1666              53
      Utah                             7.14           104              19.66             67             120.39             104         66.73           109           1.57              77           18.62            59
      Wyoming                         16.46           239              51.26            174             219.49             169        241.46           381           1.59              78           16.39            51

     Far Wssl Region                   6.61               96           26.15                89          117.49             101         56.04            92           2.98             146           39.76            125
     Alqka                           66.10            616            177.66             603             617.61             531        363.20           605          6.49             416           51.40          161
     California                       5.92             66             23.56              80             166.15              93         51.77            82          4.29             210           51.46          161
     Hawaii                          15.21            221             77.62             263             294.12             253        101.63           161         13.55             66-4         131.07          410
     Nevada                           7.93            115             30.76             104             120.24             103         72.42           114          1.20              59           16.66           59
     ONQCMl                           6.25                91          25.33                 66          107.07              92         59.78            94          1.10              54           1860            56
     washinglon                       4.62                70          17.99                 61           91.99              71         43.74            69          1.44              71           23.13             72




Note: All notes to table 3 of enclosure II apply to this table

Source: Hiahwav Fundina: Alternatives for Distributing Federal Funds, pp. 57-67 (GAO/RCED-96-6).


(342939)


18                                                                                                         GAO/RCED/HEHS-97-167R                       Regional     Distribution            of Federal      Highway        Funds
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