United States ‘GAL) General Accounting Office Washington, D.C. 20548 - Health, Education, and Human Services Division Es-277892 September2, 1997 The Honorable Jeff Sessions Chairman, Subcommittee on Youth Violence Committee on the Judiciary United States Senate Subject: At-Risk and Delinauent Youth: Fiscal Year 1996Programs D&r Mr. chw Poverty, unemployment, teen pregnancy, child abuse,violence, and substance abuse are common among the nation’s youths. Many yo.ungpeople are considered at-risk, and many have also had contact with the juvenile justice sys&ml Over the years, the Congresshas passed legislation creating numerous federal programs to address the needs of at-risk and delinquent youths. In 1996, we reported that 16 different departments and agenciesadministered 131 programs that could be used to benefit at-risk or delinquent youths. We also reported that appropriations estimated as used for youth programs in acal year 1995exceeded$4 billion.2 This correspondenceresponds to your request that we provide updated information on (1) the number of programs that served at-risk or delinquent youths in fiscal year 1996,(2) the amount of fiscal year 1996appropriations dedicated toward these youths, and (3) the services these programs provide. ‘The term “at-risk” can have different meanings in different contexts. We are using the term in a broad senseto refer to youths who, becauseof certain characteristics or experiences,are in the future statistically more likely than other youths to encounter certain problems-legal, social, financial.,educational, emotional, and health. %ee At-Risk and Delinauent Youth: MultiDle Federal Programs Raise Efficiencv Questions (GACVHEHS-g&34), Mar. 6, 1996. GAOIHEHS-97-211R At-Risk Youth Programs . B-277892 The table enclosed presents information from agency officials on their programs that serve at-risk or delinquent youths. We identied 15 federal departments and agencies that administered 127 at-risk youth programs in fiscal year 1996.3 One hundred ten (110) of these programs received funding in 1996 amounting to in excess of $4 billion. We could not, however, determine the precise amounts of funds going to youths in 30 of the 110 funded programs. Of the funded programs, we identified 97 as providing funding for multiple services, ranging Tom counseling to job training assistance to research and evaluation efforts. Among the 110 funded programs, 66 provided either substance abuse prevention or violence prevention services or both to youths they served. If you have any questions about this information, please call Eleanor L. Johnson, Assistant Director, at (202) 512-7209. Sincerely yours, S/V Carlotta C. Joyner - % Director, Education - and Employment Issues Enclosures - 2 % total includes six programs that existed in fiscal year 1995 but were not included in our previous report It also includes two programs-Youth Apprenticeship and Youth Development Initiative administered by the Department of Housing and Urban Development-that received multi-year appropriations for at-risk or delinquent youths in fiscal year 1994. This single appropriation provided funding for fiscal years 1995,1996, and beyond. 2 GAOIHEHS-97-211R At-Risk Youth Programs I ENCLOSURE I ENCLOSURE I 4 FEDERAL PROGRAM FUNDING FOR AT-RISK OR DELINQTJEN T YOUTtiS. FISCAL YEARS 1996 AND 1996 The table below provides information on the programs and services provided by the federal departments and agencies. The abbreviations for the types of services are: counseling (C), clearinghouse (CH), capital improvement (CI), job training assistance (JTA), mentoring (M), parental and family intervention (PFI), planning and program development (PPD), research and evaluation (RE), substance abuse prevention (SAP), substance abuse treatment (SAT), support service (SS), self-sufficiency skills (SSS), tutoring (T), training and technical assistance (WA), and violence prevention (VP). (Violence prevention includes conflict resolution, crime and violence intervention, focused activity, and gang intervention.) (See enclosure II for definitions of program services.) Agency and program FY 1996 F’Y 1996 Type of service funded in FY 1996 ($millions) ($millions) G 1 JTA 1~~~ Appalachian Regional Commission (1 program) Area DevelopmentProgram 0.7 0.3 x Subtotal 0.7 0.3 Corporation for National and Community Service (6 programs~ - - ! AmedCorps NIA” N/A X x’ x x Foster GrandparentProgram (FGP) 67.6 N/A x x Learn and Serve America-Higher N/A” N/A X ! x x Education I 3 GAO/HEHS-97-211R At-Risk Youth Programs . -. $X SC x x x E x x x x x X c x x x X X “I I I I I I I 3x x x 8 x 5 ,i,” IX (x -I X X x x X x x .g E g x x X X 8 ?3 Q, % K x x x x E z w x xx ‘SC X ENCLOSURE I ENCLOSURE I :==: Agency and program FY 1996 FY 1996 Type bf service funded in FY 1996 ($millions) ($I$llions) a-., c CH CI STA M PFl PPD RE SAP - Youth ConservationCorps” 3.0 3.5 Subtotal 76.2 76.6 Department of Education (8 programs) for HomelessChildren Family and Community Endeavor SchoolsGrant Program Safe and Drug Free Schools,Part A, Subpart 1, State Grants for Drug and Violence Prevention Department of Health and Human Services (69 programs) GAO/HEHS-97-211R At-Risk Youth Programs ENCLOSURE1 ENCLOSURE1 Type of service funded & F’Y 1996 DemonstrationProjectsand CommunityPartnerships(formerly Zommunity PreventionCoalitions 6 GAO/HEHS-97-211R At-Risk Youth Programs ENCLOSURE I ENCLOSURE I Agency and program FY 1996 FY 1996 Type ‘of service funded in FY 1996 ($millions) ($millions) PPD RE SAP Community ServicesBlock Grants N/A 1 N/A I I I IX ComprehensiveCommunity 0.6 Treatment - Program I Oe3I I I I CooperativeAgreementsfor 1.8 I Addiction Treatment and Recovery Systemsin Target Cities .- DemonstrationGrant Program for 2.0 17.2 X Residential Treatment for Women and Their Children .-* DemonstrationPartnership Program DemonstrationProgramsfor High Risk Youth EmergencyCommunity Services N/A 1 HomelessGrant Program O*OdI I I I - Family and Community Violence ! 6.9 X X PreventionProgram I 3*61 I I Ix, - Family Preservationand Support Services I 160.0 I 16O.OlXl 1 1 X X Family Support Center and Gateway DemonstrationPrograms 7.3 I O*Od I I I I 7 GAO/REHS-97-211R At-Risk Youth Programs ENCLOSURE I ENCLOSURE I Agency and program FY1998 FY1996 Type ‘of service funded in FY 1996 ($millions) ($milIions) C Family Violence Prevention and N/A N/A Services Grantsfor Comprehensive 30.0 69.9 CommunityMental Health Services for Children and Adolescents With SeriousEmotional Disturbances Health Care for the Homeless N/A N/A Program Health Care Services Demonstration 1.98 Modelsfor Youth Infected with HIV Initiative Health Servicesfor Residentsof 9.6 N/A Public Housing w HlV Service Delivery Models 0.8 CooperativeAgreement Initiative HomelessDemonstrations 0.0 NIA IndependentLiving Program 70.0 70.0 x Indian Child and Adolescent Mental 18.0 18.0 x Health Prevention and Treatment Services 8 GAO/HEW?-97”211R At-Risk Youth Programs ENCLOSURE I ENCLOSURE I :=- Agency and program- FY 1996 N 1996 Type ‘of service funded in N 1996 ($millions) ($millions) Indian Child Protection and Child Abuse Prevention Demonstration Projects Indian Health Service-Alcoholism and SubstanceAbuse Program Indian Health Service Research Grants Indian Youth Grant Program Injury Prevention and Control Researchand State Grant Projects Job Opportunities for Low-Income Individuals (JOLI) Maternal and Child Health Block Grant ServicesProgram Maternal and Child Health Block Grant ServicesProgram-Special Projects of Regionaland National Significance(SPRANS) Mental Health Block Granth Migrant Health Centers 9 GAOIHEHS-97-211R At-Risk Youth Programs ENCLOSURE I ENCLOSURE I Agency and program N 1996 F’Y 1996 Type ‘of service funded in N 1996 ($millions) ($millions) National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)-Research Programs National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-ResearchPrograms National Institute of Mental Health- ResearchPrograms NationalYouth Sports Program Native American Programs Pregnantand Postpartum Women and Infants DemonstrationProjects Projectsfor Assistancein Transition Prom Homelessness Runawayand HomelessYouth Programs-BasicCenters ServiceGrant Program for ResidentialTreatment for Pregnant md PostpartumWomen SpecialProjects of National 3ignificanceProgram 10 GAOBIEHS-97.211R At-Risk Youth Programs 2 x x x x x r- I I I I I I Ix 1X1X 1 X x x -I- -l-d-I4 X x x X x x x X X x x X x x X x x X ;x~ xx ENCLOSURE I ENCLOSURE I Agency and program Type of service funded in FY 1996 Youthbuild Subtotal Department of Interior (2 pro@ Indian Child Welfare Act (Title II 23.8 N/A X X X Grants) Indian Child Welfare Assistance 106.0 N/A X x * (Foster Care) - Subtotal 128.8 N/A Department of Justice (22 programs) Boot Camps,Part H 0.0 0.0I Zhildren’sJustice Act Program 0.0 0.0’ x kmts for Native American Indian l’ribes CommunityOutreach Program 0.3 0.2 2ommunityRelations Service 10.0 2.7 ‘nitiatives %ime Victim 0.0 0.d x bsistance/DiscretionaryGrants 12 GAO/HEHS-97-211R At-Risk Youth Programs ENCLOSURE I ENCLOSURE I Agency and program FY 1996 FY 1996 Type ‘of service funded in FY 1996 ($millions) ($millions) Crime Victim AssistanceFormula Grant Program Crime Victim Compensation Formula Grant Program DemandReduction Edward Byrne Memorial State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Programs-DiscretionaryGrant Edward Byrne Memorial State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Programs-Formula Grant Gang-FreeSchools and Communities-Community-Based Gang Intervention Justice Research,Development,and EvaluationProject Grants JuvenileJustice and Delinquency Prevention-Allocation to States (State Formula Grants) Part B 13 GAO/HEW-97-211R At-Risk Youth Programs ENCLOSURE I ENCLOSURE I Agency and program FY 1996 FY 1996 ‘l’ype ‘of service funded in FY 1996 ($millions) ($millions) JuvenileJustice and Delinquency PreventionJuvenile Mentoring, Part G JuvenileJustice and Delinquency PreventionNational Programs- DiscretionaryGrants, Part C JuvenileJustice and Delinquency Prevention-StateChallenge Activities, Part E Missing and Exploited Children Program (Title IV) Title II: Part A-Concentration of Federal Efforts Title V-Incentive Grants for Local DelinquencyPrevention Programs Treatmentfor Juvenile Offenders Who Are Victims of Child Abuse or Neglect,Part F Victims of Child Abuse Weedand SeedProgram Fund Subtotal 14 GAO/REHS-97-211R At-Risk Youth Programs ENCLOSURE I ENCLOSURE I .= Agency and program FY 1996 FY 1996 Type ,of service funded in FY 1996 ($millions) ($millions) C 1 F’Fl M 1 PI4 1 PPD 1 RE 1 SAP 1 SAT 1 SS 1 SdS m Department of Labor (9 programs) nd SeasonalFarmworker Department of Transportation (3 programs) GAO/HEHS-97-211R At-Risk Youth Programs ENCLOSURE I ENCLOSURE I Agency and program FY 1996 FY 1996 ‘Qpe of service funded in FY 1996 ($millions) - ($milllons) -_ c t:ii Cl JTA M PFI PPD RE SAP -.- Alcohol Traffic Safety and Drunk 6.1 6.1 x X x x Driving Prevention Incentive Grants State and Community Highway 16.6 16.6 X Safety Youth Impaired Driving Projects Subtotal Department of the Treasury (1 program) GangResistanceEducation and Training Projects Subtotal 16.2 Environmental Protection Agency (1 program) EnvironmentalEducation Grants 2.9 2.2 Subtotal , 2.9 2.2 National Endowment for the Arts (4 programs) Promotionof the Arts-Arts EducationInitiative 16 GAO/HEHS-97-2llR At-Risk Youth Programs ENCLOSURE I ENCLOSURE I Agency and program FY 1996 FY 1996 Type ‘of service funded in F’Y 1996 ($millions) @millions) Promotion of the Arts-Arts Education PartnershipGrants (formerly Promotion of the Arts- Arts in Education-Arts Corps) Promotion of the Ark-Leadership Initiatives Promotion of the Arts-State and RegionalProgram Subtotal President’s Crime Prevention Council (1 program) Ounceof Prevention Grant Program Subtotal State Justice Institute (1 program) StateJustice Institute Subtotal Grand total Note: N/A = Amount not available. Agency officials were unable 1;~determine the portion of funds spent on youths. 17 GAO/HEHS-97-211RAt-Risk Youth Programs ENCLOSURE I ENCLOSURE I “this program existed in fiscal year 1996 but was not included in our previous repor& “This program is funded through the departments of Agriculture, Interior, and Navy and the Environmental Protection Agency. Only two of the four agencies responded to our inqbiries; therefore: full fiscal year 1996 funding information was not available. “Officials at the Department of Agriculture said that our service definitions did not fit the objectives of this program. The program provides conservation of public lands and employment services. “The appropriation for this program was rescinded in fiscal year I9961 according to agency officials. “Funding level unknown. ‘No federal dollars are appropriated; funding is provided by the Department of Justice’s Crime Victim’s Fund, which is financed through forfeitures. gThis program began in fiscal year 1996; therefore, no funds were aj?propriated in fiscal year 1996. “Officials at the Department of Health and Human Services said that our service definitions did not fit the objectives of the Mental Health Block Grant. The program provides mental health services. ‘Officials at the Department of Health and Human Services said that this program does not provide the services listed. Instead, it conducts surveys and develops a database on youth behavior. JOfflcials at the Department of Housing and Urban Development said that this program received a one-time 6-year $10 million appropriation in fiscal year 1994, and the program began in fiscal year 1996. The program has not received any additional funding. ‘Officials at the Department of Housing and Urban Development saJd that this program received a one-time 3-S-year $6 million appropriation in fiscal year 1994, and the program began in fiscal year 1996. The program has not received any additional funding. ‘According to agency officials, the following programs, which totaled $119.6 million in fiscal year 1996, were terminated in fiscal year 1996, and therefore were not included in the table: Children, Youth, and Family Education Research Network (GYFERNETg; Child Development and Youth Programs--“At-Risk” Youth Program; i3omrnunity Outreach Pilot Program; Instruction in Civics, ’ Government, and the Law (formerly Civic Education Program); School Dropout Demonstration Assistance Program; Capacity 18 GAOfHEHS-97.211R At-Risk Youth Programs ENCLOSURE I ENCLOSURE I Expansion Program; Child and Adolescent Service System Program; Demonstration Grant Program for Model Comprehensive Treatment for Critical Populations; Drug Abuse Prevention for Runaway and Homeless Youth; Job Opportunities for Low-Income Individuals (JOBS); Model Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment for Incarcerated Populations, Non-Incarcerated Populations, and Juvenile Justice Populations; Youth Initiatives/Youth Grants; ‘Ycuth Sports/Public and Indian Housing Drug Elimination Program; Targeted Jobs Tax Credit Program; Promotion of the Arts-Arts for Youth; Promotion of the Arts-Expansion Arts-Arts Education Initiative. 19 GAOIHEHS-97-211R At-Risk Youth Programs ENCLOSURE II ENCLOSURE II DEl?lNlTIONS OF PROGRAM SERVICES In our review, we focus on 18 types of services or activities that programs could potentially provide to at-risk or delinquent youths. We used the following defjnitions for these services: Capital imnrovement Funding for the purchase of property, facilities, and equipment used in helping youths. Clearinghouse. Gathering and disseminating research and other information on youths. Conflict resolution Assisting individuals or groups in learning the principles of nonviolent solutions to disputes or providing trained leaders to work with individuals or groups seeking nonviolent sohrtions to disputes. Counseling. Youth counseling services to help resolve problems or diBiculties stemming from emotional problems, home or family conflicts, and interpersonal relationships. Crime and violence intervention Activities to reduce violence and crime perpetrated by or against youths .__ (except for gang violence). . . Focused activity. Activity for preventing juvenile delinquency by offering positive, alternative ways for youths to spend their time, such as in,recreation and sports. Gang intervention. Activities to help individuals, groups, or communities deter youths from joining gangs, encourage them to leave gangs, or reduce gang violence. Job training assistance. Activities focusing on helping youths prepare for or find jobs. Job search assistance includes providing instructions on job-seeking techniques, preparing a job-search plan, obtaining labor market information, and increasing motivation and self- confidence. Job placement assistance includes identifying job openings in the public or private sector and referring individuals to employers with such openings. On-the-job training is training provided to an employee in occupational or other skills essential to performing a specific job or group of jobs. Such training is generally used for entry-level employment and skill upgrades. Mentormg. Using adult role models to assist youths in career or educational planning and to provide encouragement and motivation. 20 GAOIEEHS-97-211R At-Risk Youth Programs ENCLOSURE II ENCLOSURE II Parental and familv intervention. Improving parenting skills and communication within families or otherwise promoting positive family and home life. Jncluded in f&is category are programs on youth pregnancy, youth parenting, and child abuse. Planning and nrogram develoument F’unding for planning and development activities related to youth programs. F&search and evaluation. Studies relating to innovative approaches for planning and implementing youth programs or evaluation of the effectiveness of such programs. Self-suffrciencv skills. Individual or group training in life skills (such as caring for a home, reading a bus schedule, and using a checking account) and remedial or basic skills training in academic subjects (such as mathematics or English, English as a second language, and literacy training). Substance abuse orevention. Services to prevent drug and alcohol abuse. Substance abuse treatment. Services to treat drug and alcohol abuse. SUDDOI-~ service. Assistance to individuals in overcoming barriers to participating in programs for at-risk and delinquent youths. Examples may include subsidizing the cost of child care or transportation or nro&ing financial support or reimbursement for medical expenses incurred by an individual or the individual’s family thereby facilitating program participation. Training and technical assistance. Training and technical assistance to people responsible for program management or service delivery. This could include information dissemination on youth programs. Tutoring. A&stance to individuals or groups in mastering academic subjects, such as reading or mathematics, including help with homework or school projects. Violence urevention. Conflict resolution, crime and violence intervention, focused activities, and gang intervention. (104897) 21 GAO/EJ3ES-97-211R At-Risk Youth Programs Ordering Information The first copy of each GAO report and testimony is free. Additional copies are $2 each. Orders should be sent to the following address, accompanied by a check or money order made out to the Superintendent of Documents, when necessary. VISA and Mastercard credit cards are accepted, also. Orders for 100 or more copies to be mailed to a single address are discounted 25 percent. Orders by mail: U.S. General Accounting Office P.O. Box 6015 Gaithersburg, MD 20884-6015 or vi& Room 1100 700 4th St. NW (corner of 4th and G Sts. 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At-Risk and Delinquent Youth: Fiscal Year 1996 Programs
Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1997-09-02.
Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)