oversight

At-Risk and Delinquent Youth: Fiscal Year 1996 Programs

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1997-09-02.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

        United States
‘GAL)   General Accounting  Office
        Washington, D.C. 20548
                                                                      -


        Health, Education, and
        Human Services Division



        Es-277892
        September2, 1997

        The Honorable Jeff Sessions
        Chairman, Subcommittee on Youth Violence
        Committee on the Judiciary
        United States Senate
        Subject: At-Risk and Delinauent Youth: Fiscal Year 1996Programs
        D&r Mr. chw
        Poverty, unemployment, teen pregnancy, child abuse,violence, and substance
        abuse are common among the nation’s youths. Many yo.ungpeople are
        considered at-risk, and many have also had contact with the juvenile justice
        sys&ml Over the years, the Congresshas passed legislation creating numerous
        federal programs to address the needs of at-risk and delinquent youths. In 1996,
        we reported that 16 different departments and agenciesadministered 131
        programs that could be used to benefit at-risk or delinquent youths. We also
        reported that appropriations estimated as used for youth programs in acal year
        1995exceeded$4 billion.2
        This correspondenceresponds to your request that we provide updated
        information on (1) the number of programs that served at-risk or delinquent
        youths in fiscal year 1996,(2) the amount of fiscal year 1996appropriations
        dedicated toward these youths, and (3) the services these programs provide.




        ‘The term “at-risk” can have different meanings in different contexts. We are
        using the term in a broad senseto refer to youths who, becauseof certain
        characteristics or experiences,are in the future statistically more likely than
        other youths to encounter certain problems-legal, social, financial.,educational,
        emotional, and health.
        %ee At-Risk and Delinauent Youth: MultiDle Federal Programs Raise Efficiencv
        Questions (GACVHEHS-g&34),  Mar. 6, 1996.
                                                   GAOIHEHS-97-211R       At-Risk Youth Programs
                                                             .
       B-277892
       The table enclosed presents information from agency officials on their programs
       that serve at-risk or delinquent youths. We identied 15 federal departments
       and agencies that administered 127 at-risk youth programs in fiscal year 1996.3
       One hundred ten (110) of these programs received funding in 1996 amounting to
       in excess of $4 billion. We could not, however, determine the precise amounts
       of funds going to youths in 30 of the 110 funded programs.

       Of the funded programs, we identified 97 as providing funding for multiple
       services, ranging Tom counseling to job training assistance to research and
       evaluation efforts. Among the 110 funded programs, 66 provided either
       substance abuse prevention or violence prevention services or both to youths
       they served.

       If you have any questions about this information, please call Eleanor L. Johnson,
       Assistant Director, at (202) 512-7209.

       Sincerely yours,




    S/V Carlotta C. Joyner                                                      -
%       Director, Education         -
         and Employment Issues

       Enclosures - 2




       %     total includes six programs that existed in fiscal year 1995 but were not
       included in our previous report It also includes two programs-Youth
       Apprenticeship and Youth Development Initiative administered by the
       Department of Housing and Urban Development-that received multi-year
       appropriations for at-risk or delinquent youths in fiscal year 1994. This single
       appropriation provided funding for fiscal years 1995,1996, and beyond.

        2                                         GAOIHEHS-97-211R   At-Risk Youth Programs
                                                                        I




ENCLOSURE I                                                                                                                         ENCLOSURE I


                                                        4
               FEDERAL PROGRAM FUNDING FOR AT-RISK OR DELINQTJEN
                                                               T YOUTtiS. FISCAL YEARS 1996 AND 1996

The table below provides information on the programs and services provided by the federal departments and agencies. The
abbreviations for the types of services are: counseling (C), clearinghouse (CH), capital improvement (CI), job training assistance
(JTA), mentoring (M), parental and family intervention (PFI), planning and program development (PPD), research and evaluation
(RE), substance abuse prevention (SAP), substance abuse treatment (SAT), support service (SS), self-sufficiency skills (SSS),
tutoring (T), training and technical assistance (WA), and violence prevention (VP). (Violence prevention includes conflict
resolution, crime and violence intervention, focused activity, and gang intervention.) (See enclosure II for definitions of program
services.)

          Agency and program           FY 1996         F’Y 1996                           Type of service funded in FY 1996
                                      ($millions)     ($millions)

                                                                    G           1 JTA 1~~~
    Appalachian Regional Commission (1 program)
    Area DevelopmentProgram                     0.7           0.3 x
    Subtotal                                   0.7            0.3
    Corporation for National and Community Service (6 programs~
                                                          -   -
                                           !


    AmedCorps                                  NIA”           N/A   X            x’   x      x
    Foster GrandparentProgram (FGP)            67.6           N/A                     x      x
    Learn and Serve America-Higher             N/A”           N/A   X       !    x    x
    Education                                                               I



3                                                                                                     GAO/HEHS-97-211R    At-Risk   Youth Programs
                                                                    . -.
        $X        SC    x                         x                            x

        E         x     x                x        x        x                   X

        c    x    x     x                         X                            X
                                “I   I        I       I         I          I       I
        3x        x     x
        8         x
        5


      ,i,”       IX    (x
                                -I                X                            X

                                         x        x        X                   x       x
.g
 E      g                                x        x        X                   X
 8
?3
 Q,     %         K         x            x        x                            x
E
        z         w         x            xx               ‘SC                  X
ENCLOSURE I                                                                                                                                ENCLOSURE I

                                                                         :==:
        Agency and program               FY 1996        FY 1996                                Type bf service funded in FY 1996
                                        ($millions)    ($I$llions)
                                                                         a-.,
                                                                     c   CH     CI   STA   M     PFl    PPD      RE   SAP
                                                                          -

 Youth ConservationCorps”                        3.0           3.5
 Subtotal                                       76.2         76.6
 Department of Education (8 programs)


            for HomelessChildren

 Family and Community Endeavor
 SchoolsGrant Program
 Safe and Drug Free Schools,Part A,
 Subpart 1, State Grants for Drug and
 Violence Prevention




 Department of Health and Human Services (69 programs)

                                                                                                              GAO/HEHS-97-211R   At-Risk   Youth Programs
ENCLOSURE1                                                                    ENCLOSURE1


                                     Type of service funded & F’Y 1996




    DemonstrationProjectsand




    CommunityPartnerships(formerly
    Zommunity PreventionCoalitions




6                                              GAO/HEHS-97-211R     At-Risk   Youth Programs
ENCLOSURE I                                                                                                                                               ENCLOSURE I


          Agency and program                 FY 1996              FY 1996                                     Type ‘of service funded in FY 1996
                                            ($millions)          ($millions)

                                                                                                                       PPD      RE   SAP


    Community ServicesBlock Grants                   N/A 1              N/A I     I         I   IX
    ComprehensiveCommunity                            0.6
    Treatment
    -          Program                                       I           Oe3I     I         I   I
    CooperativeAgreementsfor                          1.8 I
    Addiction Treatment and Recovery
    Systemsin Target Cities                                                           .-
    DemonstrationGrant Program for                    2.0               17.2                                                    X
    Residential Treatment for Women
    and Their Children                                                                .-*
    DemonstrationPartnership Program
    DemonstrationProgramsfor High
    Risk Youth
    EmergencyCommunity Services                       N/A 1
    HomelessGrant Program                                               O*OdI     I         I   I
                                                                                                      -
    Family and Community Violence                !    6.9                                                 X                          X
    PreventionProgram                                        I           3*61     I         I   Ix,   -
    Family Preservationand Support
    Services                            I            160.0
                                                             I
                                                                       16O.OlXl             1   1         X                          X


    Family Support Center and Gateway
    DemonstrationPrograms
                                                      7.3
                                                             I O*Od
                                                                I I I I
7                                                                                                                            GAO/REHS-97-211R   At-Risk   Youth   Programs
ENCLOSURE I                                                                                                        ENCLOSURE I



           Agency and program             FY1998         FY1996           Type ‘of service funded in FY 1996
                                         ($millions)    ($milIions)

                                                                      C



    Family Violence Prevention and               N/A           N/A
    Services
    Grantsfor Comprehensive                      30.0          69.9
    CommunityMental Health Services
    for Children and Adolescents With
    SeriousEmotional Disturbances
    Health Care for the Homeless                 N/A           N/A
    Program
    Health Care Services Demonstration                         1.98
    Modelsfor Youth Infected with HIV
    Initiative
    Health Servicesfor Residentsof                9.6          N/A
    Public Housing
                                                   w
    HlV Service Delivery Models                                0.8
    CooperativeAgreement Initiative
    HomelessDemonstrations                        0.0         NIA
    IndependentLiving Program                    70.0         70.0 x
    Indian Child and Adolescent Mental           18.0         18.0    x
    Health Prevention and Treatment
    Services



8                                                                                    GAO/HEW?-97”211R      At-Risk Youth Programs
ENCLOSURE I                                                                                                         ENCLOSURE I

                                                                    :=-
           Agency and program-           FY 1996       N 1996             Type ‘of service funded in N 1996
                                        ($millions)   ($millions)



    Indian Child Protection and Child
    Abuse Prevention Demonstration
    Projects
    Indian Health Service-Alcoholism
    and SubstanceAbuse Program
    Indian Health Service Research
    Grants
    Indian Youth Grant Program
    Injury Prevention and Control
    Researchand State Grant Projects
    Job Opportunities for Low-Income
    Individuals (JOLI)
    Maternal and Child Health Block
    Grant ServicesProgram
    Maternal and Child Health Block
    Grant ServicesProgram-Special
    Projects of Regionaland National
    Significance(SPRANS)
    Mental Health Block Granth
    Migrant Health Centers


9                                                                                     GAOIHEHS-97-211R    At-Risk   Youth Programs
ENCLOSURE I                                                                                                   ENCLOSURE I


        Agency and program               N 1996        F’Y 1996     Type ‘of service funded in N 1996
                                        ($millions)   ($millions)



 National Institute of Alcohol Abuse
 and Alcoholism (NIAAA)-Research
 Programs
 National Institute on Drug Abuse
 (NIDA)-ResearchPrograms
 National Institute of Mental Health-
 ResearchPrograms
 NationalYouth Sports Program
 Native American Programs
 Pregnantand Postpartum Women
 and Infants DemonstrationProjects
 Projectsfor Assistancein Transition
 Prom Homelessness
 Runawayand HomelessYouth
 Programs-BasicCenters
 ServiceGrant Program for
 ResidentialTreatment for Pregnant
 md PostpartumWomen
 SpecialProjects of National
 3ignificanceProgram


10                                                                             GAOBIEHS-97.211R     At-Risk   Youth   Programs
 2        x                     x                     x    x    x




 r-
      I       I             I       I   I   I
                                                 Ix       1X1X
  1                                                   X    x    x
-I-               -l-d-I4
                                                      X    x    x




                                                      X    x    x

                                                      x

                                                      X

                                                      X    x    x

                                                      X    x    x

                                                      X    x    x

                                                                X



                                                ;x~        xx
ENCLOSURE I                                                                                                        ENCLOSURE I


            Agency and program                                         Type of service funded in FY 1996




 Youthbuild
 Subtotal

 Department      of Interior    (2 pro@

 Indian Child Welfare Act (Title II             23.8   N/A     X         X                           X
 Grants)
 Indian Child Welfare Assistance               106.0   N/A               X                           x        *
 (Foster Care)                                                     -
 Subtotal                                      128.8   N/A
 Department      of Justice    (22 programs)

 Boot Camps,Part H                               0.0    0.0I
 Zhildren’sJustice Act Program                   0.0   0.0’ x
 kmts for Native American Indian
 l’ribes
 CommunityOutreach Program                       0.3   0.2
 2ommunityRelations Service                     10.0   2.7
 ‘nitiatives
 %ime Victim                                     0.0   0.d     x
 bsistance/DiscretionaryGrants



12                                                                                GAO/HEHS-97-211R       At-Risk   Youth Programs
ENCLOSURE I                                                                                                ENCLOSURE I


        Agency and program           FY 1996       FY 1996      Type ‘of service funded in FY 1996
                                    ($millions)   ($millions)



 Crime Victim AssistanceFormula
 Grant Program
 Crime Victim Compensation
 Formula Grant Program
 DemandReduction
 Edward Byrne Memorial State and
 Local Law Enforcement Assistance
 Programs-DiscretionaryGrant
 Edward Byrne Memorial State and
 Local Law Enforcement Assistance
 Programs-Formula Grant
 Gang-FreeSchools and
 Communities-Community-Based
 Gang Intervention
 Justice Research,Development,and
 EvaluationProject Grants
 JuvenileJustice and Delinquency
 Prevention-Allocation to States
 (State Formula Grants) Part B




13                                                                          GAO/HEW-97-211R      At-Risk   Youth Programs
ENCLOSURE I                                                                                                   ENCLOSURE I


         Agency and program            FY 1996       FY 1996      ‘l’ype ‘of service funded in FY 1996
                                      ($millions)   ($millions)



 JuvenileJustice and Delinquency
 PreventionJuvenile Mentoring, Part
 G
 JuvenileJustice and Delinquency
 PreventionNational Programs-
 DiscretionaryGrants, Part C
 JuvenileJustice and Delinquency
 Prevention-StateChallenge
 Activities, Part E
 Missing and Exploited Children
 Program (Title IV)
 Title II: Part A-Concentration of
 Federal Efforts
 Title V-Incentive Grants for Local
 DelinquencyPrevention Programs
 Treatmentfor Juvenile Offenders
 Who Are Victims of Child Abuse or
 Neglect,Part F
 Victims of Child Abuse
 Weedand SeedProgram Fund
 Subtotal

14                                                                            GAO/REHS-97-211R      At-Risk   Youth Programs
ENCLOSURE I                                                                                                                                ENCLOSURE I

                                                                      .=
       Agency and program            FY 1996       FY 1996                       Type ,of service funded in FY 1996
                                    ($millions)   ($millions)

                                                                C   1 F’Fl   M    1 PI4   1 PPD    1 RE   1 SAP   1 SAT   1 SS    1 SdS    m


 Department of Labor (9 programs)




        nd SeasonalFarmworker




 Department of Transportation   (3 programs)


                                                                                                  GAO/HEHS-97-211R               At-Risk       Youth Programs
ENCLOSURE I                                                                                                                                   ENCLOSURE I


        Agency and program               FY 1996           FY 1996                                ‘Qpe of service funded in FY 1996
                                        ($millions)     - ($milllons)
                                                                             -_
                                                                        c   t:ii   Cl   JTA   M     PFI    PPD      RE   SAP
                                                                             -.-

 Alcohol Traffic Safety and Drunk                 6.1             6.1       x                             X         x    x
 Driving Prevention Incentive Grants
 State and Community Highway                     16.6            16.6       X
 Safety
 Youth Impaired Driving Projects
 Subtotal
 Department of the Treasury (1 program)
 GangResistanceEducation and
 Training Projects
 Subtotal                                        16.2
 Environmental    Protection   Agency (1 program)
 EnvironmentalEducation Grants                    2.9            2.2
 Subtotal                                    ,   2.9             2.2
 National Endowment for the Arts       (4 programs)
 Promotionof the Arts-Arts
 EducationInitiative




16                                                                                                               GAO/HEHS-97-2llR   At-Risk   Youth Programs
ENCLOSURE I                                                                                                         ENCLOSURE I


        Agency and program              FY 1996       FY 1996                 Type ‘of service funded in F’Y 1996
                                       ($millions)   @millions)



 Promotion of the Arts-Arts
 Education PartnershipGrants
 (formerly Promotion of the Arts-
 Arts in Education-Arts Corps)
 Promotion of the Ark-Leadership
 Initiatives
 Promotion of the Arts-State and
 RegionalProgram
 Subtotal
 President’s Crime Prevention Council (1 program)
 Ounceof Prevention Grant Program
 Subtotal
 State Justice Institute (1 program)
 StateJustice Institute
 Subtotal
 Grand total

Note: N/A = Amount not available. Agency officials were unable 1;~determine the portion of funds spent on youths.


17                                                                                        GAO/HEHS-97-211RAt-Risk Youth Programs
ENCLOSURE I                                                                                                             ENCLOSURE I

 “this program existed in fiscal year 1996 but was not included in our previous repor&
 “This program is funded through the departments of Agriculture, Interior, and Navy and the Environmental Protection Agency.
 Only two of the four agencies responded to our inqbiries; therefore: full fiscal year 1996 funding information was not available.
 “Officials at the Department of Agriculture said that our service definitions did not fit the objectives of this program. The
 program provides conservation of public lands and employment services.
 “The appropriation for this program was rescinded in fiscal year I9961 according to agency officials.
 “Funding level unknown.
 ‘No federal dollars are appropriated; funding is provided by the Department of Justice’s Crime Victim’s Fund, which is financed
 through forfeitures.
 gThis program began in fiscal year 1996; therefore, no funds were aj?propriated in fiscal year 1996.
“Officials at the Department of Health and Human Services said that our service definitions did not fit the objectives of the Mental
Health Block Grant. The program provides mental health services.
‘Officials at the Department of Health and Human Services said that this program does not provide the services listed. Instead, it
conducts surveys and develops a database on youth behavior.
JOfflcials at the Department of Housing and Urban Development said that this program received a one-time 6-year $10 million
appropriation in fiscal year 1994, and the program began in fiscal year 1996. The program has not received any additional
funding.
‘Officials at the Department of Housing and Urban Development saJd that this program received a one-time 3-S-year $6 million
appropriation in fiscal year 1994, and the program began in fiscal year 1996. The program has not received any additional
funding.
‘According to agency officials, the following programs, which totaled $119.6 million in fiscal year 1996, were terminated in fiscal
year 1996, and therefore were not included in the table: Children, Youth, and Family Education Research Network (GYFERNETg;
Child Development and Youth Programs--“At-Risk” Youth Program; i3omrnunity Outreach Pilot Program; Instruction in Civics,            ’
Government, and the Law (formerly Civic Education Program); School Dropout Demonstration Assistance Program; Capacity




18                                                                                         GAOfHEHS-97.211R   At-Risk   Youth Programs
ENCLOSURE I                                                                                                   ENCLOSURE I


Expansion Program; Child and Adolescent Service System Program; Demonstration Grant Program for Model Comprehensive
Treatment for Critical Populations; Drug Abuse Prevention for Runaway and Homeless Youth; Job Opportunities for Low-Income
Individuals (JOBS); Model Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment for Incarcerated Populations, Non-Incarcerated Populations,
and Juvenile Justice Populations; Youth Initiatives/Youth Grants; ‘Ycuth Sports/Public and Indian Housing Drug Elimination
Program; Targeted Jobs Tax Credit Program; Promotion of the Arts-Arts for Youth; Promotion of the Arts-Expansion Arts-Arts
Education Initiative.




19                                                                                    GAOIHEHS-97-211R At-Risk Youth Programs
ENCLOSURE II                                                                 ENCLOSURE II


                         DEl?lNlTIONS OF PROGRAM SERVICES

In our review, we focus on 18 types of services or activities that programs could
potentially provide to at-risk or delinquent youths. We used the following defjnitions for
these services:

Capital imnrovement Funding for the purchase of property, facilities, and equipment
used in helping youths.

Clearinghouse. Gathering and disseminating research and other information on youths.

Conflict resolution Assisting individuals or groups in learning the principles of nonviolent
solutions to disputes or providing trained leaders to work with individuals or groups
seeking nonviolent sohrtions to disputes.

Counseling. Youth counseling services to help resolve problems or diBiculties stemming
from emotional problems, home or family conflicts, and interpersonal relationships.

Crime and violence intervention Activities to reduce violence and crime perpetrated by
or against youths
               .__ (except for gang violence).      . .
Focused activity. Activity for preventing juvenile delinquency by offering positive,
alternative ways for youths to spend their time, such as in,recreation and sports.

Gang intervention. Activities to help individuals, groups, or communities deter youths
from joining gangs, encourage them to leave gangs, or reduce gang violence.

Job training assistance. Activities focusing on helping youths prepare for or find jobs.
Job search assistance includes providing instructions on job-seeking techniques, preparing
a job-search plan, obtaining labor market information, and increasing motivation and self-
confidence. Job placement assistance includes identifying job openings in the public or
private sector and referring individuals to employers with such openings. On-the-job
training is training provided to an employee in occupational or other skills essential to
performing a specific job or group of jobs. Such training is generally used for entry-level
employment and skill upgrades.

Mentormg. Using adult role models to assist youths in career or educational planning and
to provide encouragement and motivation.




20                                                    GAOIEEHS-97-211R   At-Risk   Youth   Programs
ENCLOSURE II                                                                   ENCLOSURE II
Parental and familv intervention. Improving parenting skills and communication within
families or otherwise promoting positive family and home life. Jncluded in f&is category
are programs on youth pregnancy, youth parenting, and child abuse.

Planning and nrogram develoument      F’unding for planning and development activities
related to youth programs.

F&search and evaluation. Studies relating to innovative approaches for planning and
implementing youth programs or evaluation of the effectiveness of such programs.

Self-suffrciencv skills. Individual or group training in life skills (such as caring for a
home, reading a bus schedule, and using a checking account) and remedial or basic skills
training in academic subjects (such as mathematics or English, English as a second
language, and literacy training).

Substance abuse orevention. Services to prevent drug and alcohol abuse.

Substance abuse treatment. Services to treat drug and alcohol abuse.

SUDDOI-~  service. Assistance to individuals in overcoming barriers to participating in
programs for at-risk and delinquent youths. Examples may include subsidizing the cost of
child care or transportation or nro&ing financial support or reimbursement for medical
expenses incurred by an individual or the individual’s family thereby facilitating program
participation.

Training and technical assistance. Training and technical assistance to people responsible
for program management or service delivery. This could include information
dissemination on youth programs.

Tutoring. A&stance to individuals or groups in mastering academic subjects, such as
reading or mathematics, including help with homework or school projects.

Violence urevention. Conflict resolution, crime and violence intervention, focused
activities, and gang intervention.




(104897)

21                                                   GAO/EJ3ES-97-211R   At-Risk   Youth   Programs
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