United States General Accounting Office GAO Report to the Honorable Byron L. Dorgan, U.S. Senate December 1997 SCHOOL FACILITIES Reported Condition and Costs to Repair Schools Funded by Bureau of Indian Affairs GAO/HEHS-98-47 United States GAO General Accounting Office Washington, D.C. 20548 Health, Education, and Human Services Division B-278570 December 31, 1997 The Honorable Byron L. Dorgan United States Senate Dear Senator Dorgan: In 1995, we reported on the condition of the nation’s school buildings, but we did not separately describe the state of schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).1 On the basis of schools’ responses to our 1994 nationally representative survey regarding the condition of school facilities, we estimated that the nation’s schools needed about $112 billion2 to repair or upgrade facilities to good overall condition.3 Responses to our survey indicated that about 33 percent of America’s schools reported needing extensive repair or replacement of one or more buildings; almost 60 percent reported problems with at least one major building feature, such as plumbing; and about 50 percent reported unsatisfactory environmental conditions. Furthermore, many reported lacking critical physical capabilities to meet the functional requirements of education reform and key technology elements to support computers and communications technology. BIA has invested millions of dollars in schools to create an environment where Native American children can be educated and prepared for the future. Like other schools in the nation, the BIA schools require maintenance and capital investment and must be designed and equipped to meet the needs of today’s students and tomorrow’s workers. For these reasons, you asked for information on the physical condition of BIA schools similar to that presented in our earlier reports on the physical condition of the nation’s schools. In response to your request and subsequent discussions with your office, this report presents information on (1) the amount of funding that BIA reports is needed to repair educational facilities, (2) the condition of BIA school buildings and building features, (3) the adequacy of school environmental conditions, and (4) the 1 For more detailed discussion of the condition of the nation’s school buildings, including building features and environmental conditions, and their ability to meet the functional requirements of education reform and support technology, see School Facilities: Condition of America’s Schools (GAO/HEHS-95-61, Feb. 1, 1995) and School Facilities: America’s Schools Not Designed or Equipped for 21st Century (GAO/HEHS-95-95, Apr. 4, 1995), respectively. 2 Sampling error is plus or minus 6.61 percent. 3 “Good” condition means that only routine maintenance or minor repair is required. “Overall” condition includes both physical condition and the ability of the schools to meet the functional requirements of educational programs. Page 1 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools B-278570 extent to which schools are physically capable of meeting the functional requirements of education reform and computer and communications technology. To answer these questions, we obtained information from BIA about the cost of repairing all BIA schools. We also analyzed the responses of BIA schools to our 1994 School Facilities Survey and compared responding BIA schools with other groups of schools in the nation. In addition, we visited three BIA schools that had responded to our survey, and seven additional BIA schools. During our visits, we observed schools; interviewed school and tribal officials; and examined relevant documents related to facilities. (See app. I for a more detailed discussion of our methodology.) As was the case with the data reported in our previous reports, all data are self-reported, and we did not independently verify their accuracy. BIAreports that the cost of the total inventory of repairs4 needed for BIA Results in Brief education facilities is $754 million. This includes the cost of repairs to all school buildings,5 including dormitories for students and employee housing. Data from our 1994 National School Facilities Survey show that, compared with other schools nationally, responding BIA schools (1) are generally in poorer physical condition, (2) have more unsatisfactory environmental factors, (3) more often lack key facilities requirements for education reform, and (4) are less able to support computer and communications technology. While most Native American children attend regular public schools, about Background 10 percent attend BIA schools, which are funded by BIA and operated either by BIA or by various tribes through grants or contracts from BIA. BIA schools are found in 23 states but are highly concentrated in 5—North Dakota, South Dakota, Arizona, New Mexico, and Washington—as figure 1 shows. (See app. II for information on individual BIA schools by state.) 4 This does not include the costs of replacing school buildings. BIA’s priority list for constructing education facilities includes eight unfunded school replacement projects with a total estimated cost of $112 million. 5 Any one school may have more than one building. Page 2 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools B-278570 Figure 1: Locations of BIA Schools in School Year 1996-97 Source: Data are from BIA, Office of Indian Education Programs. BIA funded 173 schools6 (including boarding schools) in school year 1996-97, with a total enrollment of 47,214. The schools ranged in size from 15 to 1,144 students, with about one-half enrolling fewer than 200 pupils. Enrollment in BIA schools is growing and overall has increased 25 percent since 1987. Most of this growth has occurred in the last 5 years. Growth in BIA’s day schools,7 which do not provide student housing, has increased more rapidly—47 percent since 1987, 24 percent since 1992. BIAofficials told us that BIA schools are often located in isolated areas and have to provide and maintain extensive campus infrastructures because 6 BIA also funded 14 peripheral dormitories. 7 In school year 1996-97, BIA’s day schools enrolled 26,752 students. Page 3 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools B-278570 they are too far from population centers to have access to town or city services. For example, one school we visited had to house and maintain a fire truck on campus because it is too far from the nearest city to use its fire department. In addition, some schools must provide dormitory space for students and/or housing for faculty and staff because they are so distant from population centers. BIA officials told us that this isolation may also contribute to maintenance difficulties and costs when materials have to be shipped long distances and construction/repair staff have to be housed while on site. Officials also told us that about 25 percent of BIA school buildings are at least 50 years old,8 and many of these buildings are on the National Historic Register. BIA officials told us that this listing often restricts the ability to make education-related renovations and improvements. BIA reports that, as of October 1997, the cost of the total inventory of BIA Reports Needing repairs needed for education facilities at all BIA schools is $754 million. Millions to Improve This includes $693 million for repairs to school buildings, including Educational Facilities dormitories for students. It also includes $61.7 million in repairs needed for education quarters such as employee housing. BIA’s inventory of repairs needed—the facilities backlog—is an amalgam of information collected by architects, engineers, and BIA staff over the years. The inventory describes in detail individual work items required by national standards and codes such as the Uniform Building Code, National Fire Codes, and National Electrical Codes to repair the facilities. The facilities backlog contains the repair cost for deficiencies identified in a building or at a site. The deficiencies may involve safety and health, access for persons with disabilities, or noncompliance with other building codes. BIA is currently developing a new Facilities Management Information System and will be validating and reassessing the entire facilities backlog and inventory. The validation will include professional estimates of the cost of all backlog repair items and a determination of the relative economic values of repair versus replacement. The system development and validation projects are scheduled for completion in fiscal year 1999. Our 1994 survey asked school officials to estimate the total cost of all repairs, renovations, and modernizations required to put their school 8 In our previous work on school facilities, we found that building age alone is not significant; rather, building condition depends on how buildings are maintained. See GAO/HEHS-95-61, Feb. 1, 1995. Page 4 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools B-278570 buildings in good overall condition.9 The amounts reported by the 71 BIA schools responding to our survey were generally in agreement with BIA’s estimates of the costs required to address the inventory of repairs needed at these schools. Sixty-two percent of the BIA schools responding to our survey reported Most BIA Schools having at least one building in need of extensive repair or replacement. As Responding to Our shown in table 1, a greater number of the responding BIA schools reported Survey Reported Less having buildings in less than adequate condition than did rural/small town schools, central city schools, or all schools nationally. Than Adequate Conditions Table 1: Percentage of Schools With Buildings in Less Than Adequate National estimates for Condition Responding Rural/small Central city All Type of building BIA schools town schoolsa schoolsb schools Original buildings 46 24 31 26 Attached and/or detached permanent additions to original buildings 41 16 22 18 Temporary buildings 51 31 29 28 At least one building in less than adequate condition 62 30 38 33 a Rural/small town is defined as either a rural area (a place with a population of less than 2,500 and defined as rural by the Bureau of the Census) or a small town (a place not within a standard metropolitan statistical area (SMSA) with a population of less than 25,000 but greater than or equal to 2,500 and defined as urban by the Bureau of the Census). b Central city is defined as a large central city (a central city of a SMSA with population greater than or equal to 400,000 or a population density greater than or equal to 6,000 per square mile) or a mid-size central city (a central city of an SMSA but not designated a large central city). Officials at the three responding schools that we visited told us that although some repairs and improvements had been made, overall conditions had not changed materially since our 1994 survey. For example, one school was completing a new permanent addition that will provide classrooms for kindergarten, first, and second grades, but most of its students will remain in temporary buildings, that is, portable classrooms. 9 We asked respondents to rate the overall condition of their school buildings on a six-point scale: excellent, good, adequate, fair, poor, or replace. See GAO/HEHS-95-61, Feb. 1, 1995. Page 5 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools B-278570 In addition, our survey data generally showed that the responding BIA schools reported more inadequate building features and environmental conditions than did schools nationally. These data also showed that the responding BIA schools more often reported that they met the requirements and needs for educational reform “not well at all.”10 However, with regard to technology elements, the responding BIA schools were generally more comparable to schools nationally, particularly central city schools. Building Features As shown in table 2, relatively more responding BIA schools reported building features such as roofs; plumbing; and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems to be inadequate than did other schools. Almost four-fifths of the responding BIA schools reported having at least one inadequate building feature. In comparison, about one-half to two-thirds of the other groups of schools reported at least one inadequate building feature. Table 2: Percentage of Schools With Inadequate Building Features National estimates for Responding Rural/small Central city All Building feature BIA schools town schools schools schools Roofs 49 24 33 27 Framing, floors, and foundations 46 17 22 18 Exterior walls, finishes, windows, and doors 56 22 34 27 Interior finishes and trims 42 21 30 24 Plumbing 53 29 34 30 Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning 66 33 42 36 Electrical power 36 23 32 26 Electrical lighting 46 22 29 25 Life safety codes 59 16 22 19 At least one inadequate building feature 79 52 66 57 During our visits to three responding schools, school officials told us that some repairs had been made, but conditions had not changed substantially. These repairs were often referred to as “Band-Aids” that 10 Survey respondents rated the ability of their school facilities to meet the financial requirements of key education reform activities on the following scale: very well, moderately well, somewhat well, and not well at all. Page 6 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools B-278570 kept the school operating but did not permanently correct the deficiency. Officials from the responding schools as well as the other BIA schools we visited complained that the operations and maintenance funds budgeted for their school were insufficient to properly maintain their facilities. For example, several schools were using outdated, difficult to maintain heating systems, but funds were not budgeted for boiler replacements. Environmental Factors Generally, the responding BIA schools also reported more unsatisfactory environmental conditions than did schools nationwide. As table 3 shows, on almost every environmental factor, about twice as many responding BIA schools as all schools nationally reported having unsatisfactory environmental conditions. Almost all of the BIA schools reported having at least one unsatisfactory environmental condition, exceeding even the problems reported by central city schools. For example, several of the schools that we visited reported outdated or inadequate heating systems. These systems are difficult and costly to repair and are not energy efficient, officials told us. Table 3: Percentage of Schools With Unsatisfactory Environmental National estimates for Conditions Responding Rural/small Central city Environmental factor BIA schools town schools schools All schools Lighting 30 11 20 16 Heating 44 17 23 19 Ventilation 52 24 32 27 Indoor air quality 38 17 22 19 Acoustics for noise control 49 27 32 28 Flexibility of instructional space 67 52 60 54 Energy efficiency 61 39 46 41 Physical security of buildings 57 24 26 24 At least one unsatisfactory environmental condition 94 54 65 50 Educational Reform Responding BIA schools also more often reported that their facilities met Requirements the requirements and needs for educational reform “not well at all.” As table 4 shows, for many important educational reform activities—such as large-group instruction, laboratory science, and library/media Page 7 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools B-278570 center—substantially more of the responding BIA schools than other groups of schools reported that their facilities met the needs for educational reform “not well at all.” For example, one school we visited was originally designed for 250 students but now has 354. A school official told us that in order to accommodate the increased enrollment, the school has had to convert storage space to other uses. Table 4: Percentage of Schools Reporting They Meet the Functional National estimates for Requirements of Some Key Responding Rural/small Central city Educational Reform Activities “Not Activity BIA schools town schools schools All schools Well at All” Instructional activities Laboratory science 63 37 48 42 Large-group instruction 72 40 39 38 Storage of student assessment materials 59 31 30 31 Display student assessment materials 51 28 27 28 Library/media center 25 13 14 13 Small-group instruction 12 8 12 10 Support activities Day care 80 82 76 78 Before-/after-school care 67 66 54 59 Social and health care services 52 28 27 27 Parent support activities 43 23 24 24 Private areas for counseling and testing 42 23 30 26 Teacher planning 28 12 15 13 Technology Elements Finally, as table 5 shows, many of the responding BIA schools reported having insufficient capability in each of several communications technology elements needed to meet the functional requirements of modern educational technology. However, in this particular regard, these BIA schools were more comparable with other schools in the nation. For example, a little more than one-half of both the BIA schools and other schools reported insufficiency of telephone lines for modems, and more than 80 percent of all groups of schools reported insufficiency of fiber optic cable. Page 8 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools B-278570 Table 5: Percentage of Schools Reporting Insufficient Technology National estimates for Elements Responding Rural/small Central city Technology element BIA schools town schools schools All schools Computers for instructional use 31 21 32 25 Computer printers for instructional use 37 25 38 29 Computer networks for instructional use 62 46 61 52 Modems 70 54 65 58 Telephone lines for modems 59 52 61 56 Telephones in instructional areas 75 58 67 61 Television sets 26 13 19 16 VCR/laser disk players 34 31 39 34 Cable television 68 30 33 32 Conduits/raceways for computer/computer network cables 74 56 67 61 Fiber optic cable 88 84 90 87 Electrical wiring for computers/ communications technology 60 40 55 46 Electrical power for computers/ communications technology 41 28 43 35 During our visits to BIA schools and interviews with BIA officials, we were told that BIA schools had been acquiring additional computers for the past several years and, in many instances, had installed networks. Officials told us that many of the schools either have Internet access or expect to be connected in the near future. On the basis of these reports, it appears that our 1994 survey data on computers and communications technology may be somewhat outdated. In commenting on our draft report, the Department of the Interior Agency Comments generally agreed with our findings. Interior suggested several corrections in the numbers of schools and enrollment counts, which we incorporated in the report. Interior also emphasized the unique situation faced by BIA Page 9 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools B-278570 schools. It pointed out that, because of their locations, many BIA schools require extensive infrastructure, such as sewer lines and sewer lagoons, waterlines and elevated water storage tanks, fuel storage tanks, and electrical back-up generators. BIA funds the operation and maintenance of this infrastructure. Interior’s comments appear in appendix III. As agreed with your office, unless you release its contents earlier, we will make no further distribution of this report until 30 days after the date of this letter. At that time, we will send copies to the Secretary of the Interior and other interested parties. The major contributors to this report were D. Catherine Baltzell, Assistant Director, and Wayne M. Dow, Evaluator-in-Charge. Please call me at (202) 512-7014 if you or your staff have any questions about this report. Sincerely yours, Carlotta C. Joyner Director, Education and Employment Issues Page 10 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools Page 11 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools Contents Letter 1 Appendix I 14 Methodology Appendix II 15 BIA Schools for School Year 1996-97, by State Appendix III 22 Comments From the Department of the Interior Tables Table 1: Percentage of Schools With Buildings in Less Than 5 Adequate Condition Table 2: Percentage of Schools With Inadequate Building 6 Features Table 3: Percentage of Schools With Unsatisfactory 7 Environmental Conditions Table 4: Percentage of Schools Reporting They Meet the 8 Functional Requirements of Some Key Educational Reform Activities “Not Well at All” Table 5: Percentage of Schools Reporting Insufficient Technology 9 Elements Figure Figure 1: Locations of BIA Schools in School Year 1996-97 3 Abbreviations BIA Bureau of Indian Affairs SMSA standard metropolitan statistical area Page 12 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools Page 13 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools Appendix I Methodology In the spring of 1994, we undertook a survey to determine the physical condition of America’s 80,000 schools. All Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools were included in our survey sample. We surveyed a nationally representative sample of about 10,000 public schools in over 5,000 school districts. We asked about (1) the physical condition of buildings and major building features, such as roofs, framing, floors, and foundations; (2) the status of environmental conditions, such as lighting, heating, and ventilation; (3) the ability of schools to meet selected functional requirements of education reform, such as having space for small- and large-group instruction; and (4) the sufficiency of data, voice, and video technologies and the infrastructure to support these technologies.11 Findings from the 1994 survey have been statistically adjusted (weighted) to produce estimates that are representative nationally, as appropriate. (The sampling errors for the national estimates contained in this report do not exceed plus or minus 5 percentage points unless otherwise stated.) However, although all BIA-funded schools were included in our sample, only 41 percent, or 71, responded to the survey. This response rate is too low to permit us to make estimates for all BIA schools. Therefore, we have not weighted the BIA data, but rather have reported only on the responding BIA schools. We augmented the 1994 survey with more recent visits to selected school districts and schools. In September 1997, we visited three BIA schools that had responded to our survey, and seven additional BIA schools. During our visits, we observed schools; interviewed school and tribal officials; and examined relevant documents related to facilities. We also interviewed BIA officials, and examined data from BIA’s Facilities Management System. All data are self-reported, and we did not independently verify their accuracy. We conducted our study of BIA schools between August 1997 and December 1997 in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. 11 See School Facilities: America’s Schools Report Differing Conditions (GAO/HEHS-96-103, June 14, 1996) for a copy of the survey and discussion of the sampling strategy. Page 14 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools Appendix II BIA Schools for School Year 1996-97, by State Number of Enrollment, Percentage change portable Name City Grades FY 1997 Since FY 1987 Since FY 1992 classrooms Arizona Casa Blanc Day School Bapchule K-4 332 148 36 6 Wide Ruins Boarding School Chambers K-6 242 69 30 3 Black Mesa Community Chinle K-8 93 79 16 2 School Cottonwood Day School Chinle K-8 250 –7 30 0 Low Mountain Boarding Chinle K-5 245 83 28 2 School a Rough Rock Community Chinle K-12 349 –9 –25 School Cibecue Community School Cibecue K-12 468 138 75 13 Blackwater Community Coolidge K-2 63 19 0 1 School Dennehotso Boarding School Dennehotso K-8 342 36 13 1 Theodore Roosevelt School Fort Apache 6-8 110 31 41 0 Greasewood Springs Ganado K-8 384 –13 10 0 Community School Kinlichee Boarding School Ganado K-6 139 15 –1 1 Nazlini Boarding School Ganado K-6 131 –9 –1 0 Hotevilla Bacavi Community Hotevilla K-7 132 33 15 3 School Pine Springs Boarding Houck K-4 89 89 33 0 School Kaibeto Boarding School Kaibeto K-8 455 8 35 0 Chilchinbeto Day School Kayenta K-8 126 –5 –7 0 Kayenta Boarding School Kayenta K-8 444 –3 19 3 Hopi High School Keams Canyon 7-12 476 –15 –9 1 Keams Canyon Boarding Keams Canyon K-6 115 –21 95 0 School Hopi Day School Kykotsmovi K-6 86 –16 41 0 Rocky Ridge Boarding Kykotsmovi K-8 206 –2 –15 1 School Gila Crossing Day School Laveen K-6 111 –24 12 3 Lukachukai Boarding School Lukachukai K-8 421 1 7 0 Chinle Boarding School Many Farms K-8 513 –12 –7 0 Many Farms High School Many Farms 9-12 351 –25 –2 23 Polacca Day School Polacca K-6 177 3 38 7 Cove Day School Red Valley K-6 74 14 19 0 a Red Rock Day School Red Valley K-8 238 –7 6 (continued) Page 15 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools Appendix II BIA Schools for School Year 1996-97, by State Number of Enrollment, Percentage change portable Name City Grades FY 1997 Since FY 1987 Since FY 1992 classrooms Rock Point Community Rock Point K-12 547 25 16 0 School Salt River Day School Scottsdale K-6 228 24 51 2 Second Mesa Day School Second Mesa K-6 241 1 10 8 San Simon School Sells K-8 286 –11 –10 0 Santa Rosa Boarding School Sells K-8 331 –27 –7 2 b Tohono O’Odham High Sells 9-12 166 –17 0 School Shonto Preparatory School Shonto K-8 656 –13 5 0 Hunters Point Boarding St Michaels K-5 124 –2 8 0 School Havasupai School Supai K-8 95 25 8 2 T’iis Nazbas Community Teecnospos K-8 357 –18 –13 0 School Tonalea (Red Lake) Day Tonalea K-8 310 –9 7 3 School Greyhills High School Tuba City 9-12 434 –4 –3 0 Moencopi Day School Tuba City K-6 179 281 52 4 Tuba City Boarding School Tuba City K-8 1,110 23 28 1 Santa Rosa Ranch School Tucson K-8 127 28 3 2 John F. Kennedy Day School White River K-8 185 23 6 3 Dilcon Boarding School Winslow K-8 417 –28 –6 0 Leupp Boarding School Winslow K-12 421 13 7 0 Little Singer Community Winslow K-6 99 102 29 0 School Seba Dalkai Boarding School Winslow K-6 165 –22 –5 0 California Sherman Indian High School Riverside 9-12 518 –2 36 0 b b Noli School Santa Jacinto 6-12 47 0 Florida Ahfachkee Day School Clewiston K-12 80 67 33 0 a Miccosukee Indian School Miami K-12 82 58 5 Iowa Sac & Fox Settlement School Tama K-8 80 8 27 3 Idaho a Coeur D’Alene Tribal School De Smet K-8 80 45 82 a Shoshone-Bannock School Fort Hall 7-12 186 389 88 Kansas a Kickapoo Nation School Powhattan K-12 100 25 35 (continued) Page 16 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools Appendix II BIA Schools for School Year 1996-97, by State Number of Enrollment, Percentage change portable Name City Grades FY 1997 Since FY 1987 Since FY 1992 classrooms Louisiana Chitimacha Day School Jeanerette K-8 53 51 13 1 Maine Indian Island School Old Town K-8 89 3 –12 1 a Beatrice Rafferty School Perry K-8 109 –19 –17 Indian Township School Princeton K-8 134 41 –6 2 Michigan b b Bahweting Anishinabe Sault Sainte K-8 175 1 Marie Hannahville Indian School Wilson K-12 157 85 112 0 Minnesota Bug-O-Nay-Ge Shig School Cass Lake K-12 430 40 –16 0 Fond Du Lac Ojibway School Cloquet K-12 141 62 –15 5 Nay Ah Shing School Onamina K-12 323 773 546 0 Circle of Life Survival School White Earth K-12 168 102 24 2 Mississippi Red Water Elementary School Carthage K-8 109 22 31 2 Conehatta Elementary School Conehatta K-8 199 30 39 0 Boque Chitto Elementary Philadelphia K-8 126 8 –5 1 School b Choctaw Central High School Philadelphia 9-12 402 59 0 b Choctaw Central Middle Philadelphia 7-8 142 11 1 School b Pearl River Elementary Philadelphia K-6 464 40 3 School Tucker Elementary School Philadelphia K-8 89 –7 –19 0 Standing Pine Elementary Walnut Grove K-6 80 60 23 0 School Montana Busby School Busby K-12 190 –7 27 0 Two Eagle River School Pablo 7-12 138 151 55 0 Nevada Duckwater Shoshone Duckwater K-8 15 0 –25 0 Elementary Pyramid Lake High School Nixon 9-12 48 –4 41 2 New Mexico Sky City Community Schoolc Acoma K-8 312 5 30 1 Dzilth-Na-O-Dith-Hle Bloomfield K-8 344 4 –4 4 Community School (continued) Page 17 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools Appendix II BIA Schools for School Year 1996-97, by State Number of Enrollment, Percentage change portable Name City Grades FY 1997 Since FY 1987 Since FY 1992 classrooms Dibe Yazhi Habitiin Olta Inc. Crownpoint K-8 244 18 32 0 Lake Valley Navajo School Crownpoint K-8 119 1 –2 0 Mariano Lake Community Crownpoint K-6 261 101 39 3 School T’ iists’ oozi’ Bi’ O’ lta Crownpoint K-8 573 28 34 0 Tse’ ii’ ahi’ Community School Crownpoint K-4 168 167 47 3 Na’ Neelzhiin Ji’ Olta Cuba K-8 393 16 7 0 (Torreon) Ojo Encino Day School Cuba K-8 240 20 17 0 Pueblo Pintado Community Cuba K-8 345 70 33 3 School Santa Clara Day School Espanola K-6 129 13 –4 2 Navajo Preparatory School Farmington 9-12 174 –21 10 0 Wingate Elementary School Fort Wingate K-8 670 28 36 6 Wingate High School Fort Wingate 9-12 634 –14 4 1 Nenahnezad Community Fruitland K-7 392 –12 –6 2 School Bread Springs Day School Gallup K-3 159 66 28 3 Isleta Elementary Schoolc Isleta K-6 210 –23 –5 10 Jemez Day School Jemez Pueblo K-6 181 –1 –8 1 Laguna Elementary Schoolc Laguna K-5 370 b 3 7 c b Laguna Middle School Laguna 6-8 191 198 0 To’ hajiilee-he (Canoncito)c Canoncito K-12 376 22 12 2 Alamo Navajo School Magdalena K-12 371 2 5 0 b Mescalero Apache School Mescalero K-12 439 121 4 Crystal Boarding School Navajo K-6 168 24 –2 0 Tohaali Community School Newcomb K-8 263 –37 –5 0 Pine Hill Schools Pine Hill K-12 501 37 34 3 Baca Community School Prewitt K-4 166 54 14 2 San Felipe Pueblo San Felipe K-6 349 15 10 4 Elementary Schoolc Pueblo a Ohkay Owingeh Community San Juan K-6 59 –16 37 Pueblos Sanostee Day School Sanostee K-3 110 31 38 4 San Ildefonso Day School Santa Fe K-6 24 –29 –23 2 c Santa Fe Indian School Santa Fe 7-12 545 13 –4 0 TeTsu Geh Oweenge Day Sante Fe K-6 56 24 12 3 Schoolc Atsa’ Biya’ a’ zh Community Shiprock K-6 181 202 97 2 (continued) Page 18 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools Appendix II BIA Schools for School Year 1996-97, by State Number of Enrollment, Percentage change portable Name City Grades FY 1997 Since FY 1987 Since FY 1992 classrooms Beclabito Day School Beclabito K-4 99 –6 –12 4 Shiprock Northwest High Shiprock 9-12 159 49 2 0 School Taos Day School Taos K-7 164 82 40 0 Dlo’ Ay Azhi Community Thoreau K-6 151 34 30 1 School Chuska/Tohatchi Tohatchi K-8 635 13 15 0 Consolidated School Chi-Ch’ il-tah/Jones Ranch Vanderwagon K-8 261 61 17 0 Zia Day School Zia Pueblo K-6 84 6 –6 3 North Carolina Cherokee Central School Cherokee K-12 1,128 19 15 10 North Dakota Ojibwa Indian Schoolc Belcourt K-8 340 –3 –1 25 Turtle Mountain Elementary Belcourt K-8 1,144 28 16 0 and Middle School Turtle Mountain High School Belcourt 9-12 572 57 25 2 Theodore Jamerson Bismarck K-8 108 35 14 0 Elementary Dunseith Day Schoolc Dunseith K-8 237 45 44 0 Tate Topa Tribal School Fort Totten K-8 464 21 13 4 Standing Rock Community Fort Yates K-12 597 32 7 7 School Twin Buttes Day School Halliday K-8 35 –24 6 6 Mandaree Day School Mandaree K-12 250 37 20 1 White Shield School Roseglen K-12 179 35 13 1 b b Trenton School Trenton K-12 77 0 Circle of Nations School Wahpeton 4-8 198 –33 –18 1 Oklahoma Riverside Indian School Anadarko 4-12 355 14 11 3 Sequoyah High School Tahlequah 9-12 297 49 41 0 Oregon Chemawa Indian School Salem 9-12 341 –5 –1 0 South Dakota a Tiospa Zina Tribal School Agency Village K-12 432 118 79 American Horse School Allen K-8 187 43 8 0 Rock Creek Day School Bullhead K-8 84 –6 1 2 Cheyenne-Eagle Butte Eagle Butte K-12 1,009 12 17 3 School (continued) Page 19 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools Appendix II BIA Schools for School Year 1996-97, by State Number of Enrollment, Percentage change portable Name City Grades FY 1997 Since FY 1987 Since FY 1992 classrooms Flandreau Indian School Flandreau 9-12 500 –14 –17 4 Crow Creek Sioux Tribal Fort Thompson K-5 198 32 6 4 Elem. a Swift Bird Day School Gettysburg K-8 54 32 –16 b Takini School Howes K-12 309 20 5 Little Wound Day School Kyle K-12 818 60 20 4 Little Eagle Day School Little Eagle K-8 100 –3 20 1 Lower Brule Day School Lower Brule K-12 350 28 6 2 Wounded Knee School Manderson K-8 203 12 –10 0 District Marty Indian School Marty K-12 301 9 10 0 a Promise Day School Mobridge K-8 19 –32 73 Loneman Day School Oglala K-8 397 111 58 2 Pierre Indian Learning Center Pierre 1-8 253 35 54 3 Pine Ridge School Pine Ridge K-12 863 51 16 0 Porcupine Day School Porcupine K-8 152 103 79 0 St. Francis Indian School St. Francis K-12 583 33 22 0 Crow Creek Reservation High Stephan 6-12 352 133 56 6 Crazy Horse School Wanblee K-12 358 21 12 0 Enemy Swim Day School Waubay K-8 81 224 153 3 a White Horse Day School White Horse K-8 37 –23 –3 Utah Aneth Community School Montezuma K-6 278 24 28 0 Creek Navajo Mountain Boarding Tonalea K-8 131 –10 7 0 School Washington Muckleshoot Tribal School Auburn K-8 102 437 108 2 b b Lummi High School Bellingham 9-12 84 6 Lummi Tribal School System Bellingham K-8 225 196 39 7 Quileute Tribal School La Push K-12 79 52 98 3 a Wah-He-Lute Indian School Olympia K-9 51 82 9 Paschal Sherman Indian Omak K-8 166 78 20 3 School Chief Leschi School System Puyallup K-12 759 420 93 0 Yakima Tribal School Toppenish 7-12 89 78 98 1 Wisconsin Lac Courte Oreilles Ojibway Hayward K-12 300 91 56 0 School (continued) Page 20 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools Appendix II BIA Schools for School Year 1996-97, by State Number of Enrollment, Percentage change portable Name City Grades FY 1997 Since FY 1987 Since FY 1992 classrooms b Menominee Tribal School Neopit K-8 251 27 0 Oneida Tribal School Oneida K-12 587 299 125 0 Wyoming St. Stephens Indian School St. Stephens K-12 286 –11 –18 1 Total 47,214 25 18 302 Note: Schools listed in this table exclude peripheral dormitories. a Not reported. b Not applicable. c School visited by GAO. Page 21 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools Appendix III Comments From the Department of the Interior Now on p. 3. Now footnote 7. Now on p. 4. Now on p. 3. Page 22 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools Appendix III Comments From the Department of the Interior (104896) Page 23 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools Ordering Information The first copy of each GAO report and testimony is free. Additional copies are $2 each. Orders should be sent to the following address, accompanied by a check or money order made out to the Superintendent of Documents, when necessary. VISA and MasterCard credit cards are accepted, also. Orders for 100 or more copies to be mailed to a single address are discounted 25 percent. Orders by mail: U.S. General Accounting Office P.O. Box 37050 Washington, DC 20013 or visit: Room 1100 700 4th St. NW (corner of 4th and G Sts. 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School Facilities: Reported Condition and Costs to Repair Schools Funded by Bureau of Indian Affairs
Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1997-12-31.
Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)