oversight

School Facilities: Reported Condition and Costs to Repair Schools Funded by Bureau of Indian Affairs

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1997-12-31.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                 United States General Accounting Office

GAO              Report to the Honorable
                 Byron L. Dorgan, U.S. Senate



December 1997
                 SCHOOL FACILITIES
                 Reported Condition
                 and Costs to Repair
                 Schools Funded by
                 Bureau of Indian
                 Affairs




GAO/HEHS-98-47
      United States
GAO   General Accounting Office
      Washington, D.C. 20548

      Health, Education, and
      Human Services Division

      B-278570

      December 31, 1997

      The Honorable Byron L. Dorgan
      United States Senate

      Dear Senator Dorgan:

      In 1995, we reported on the condition of the nation’s school buildings, but
      we did not separately describe the state of schools funded by the Bureau
      of Indian Affairs (BIA).1 On the basis of schools’ responses to our 1994
      nationally representative survey regarding the condition of school
      facilities, we estimated that the nation’s schools needed about $112 billion2
       to repair or upgrade facilities to good overall condition.3 Responses to our
      survey indicated that about 33 percent of America’s schools reported
      needing extensive repair or replacement of one or more buildings; almost
      60 percent reported problems with at least one major building feature,
      such as plumbing; and about 50 percent reported unsatisfactory
      environmental conditions. Furthermore, many reported lacking critical
      physical capabilities to meet the functional requirements of education
      reform and key technology elements to support computers and
      communications technology.

      BIA has invested millions of dollars in schools to create an environment
      where Native American children can be educated and prepared for the
      future. Like other schools in the nation, the BIA schools require
      maintenance and capital investment and must be designed and equipped
      to meet the needs of today’s students and tomorrow’s workers. For these
      reasons, you asked for information on the physical condition of BIA
      schools similar to that presented in our earlier reports on the physical
      condition of the nation’s schools. In response to your request and
      subsequent discussions with your office, this report presents information
      on (1) the amount of funding that BIA reports is needed to repair
      educational facilities, (2) the condition of BIA school buildings and building
      features, (3) the adequacy of school environmental conditions, and (4) the

      1
       For more detailed discussion of the condition of the nation’s school buildings, including building
      features and environmental conditions, and their ability to meet the functional requirements of
      education reform and support technology, see School Facilities: Condition of America’s Schools
      (GAO/HEHS-95-61, Feb. 1, 1995) and School Facilities: America’s Schools Not Designed or Equipped
      for 21st Century (GAO/HEHS-95-95, Apr. 4, 1995), respectively.
      2
       Sampling error is plus or minus 6.61 percent.
      3
       “Good” condition means that only routine maintenance or minor repair is required. “Overall”
      condition includes both physical condition and the ability of the schools to meet the functional
      requirements of educational programs.



      Page 1                                                  GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools
                   B-278570




                   extent to which schools are physically capable of meeting the functional
                   requirements of education reform and computer and communications
                   technology.

                   To answer these questions, we obtained information from BIA about the
                   cost of repairing all BIA schools. We also analyzed the responses of BIA
                   schools to our 1994 School Facilities Survey and compared responding BIA
                   schools with other groups of schools in the nation. In addition, we visited
                   three BIA schools that had responded to our survey, and seven additional
                   BIA schools. During our visits, we observed schools; interviewed school
                   and tribal officials; and examined relevant documents related to facilities.
                   (See app. I for a more detailed discussion of our methodology.)

                   As was the case with the data reported in our previous reports, all data are
                   self-reported, and we did not independently verify their accuracy.


                   BIAreports that the cost of the total inventory of repairs4 needed for BIA
Results in Brief   education facilities is $754 million. This includes the cost of repairs to all
                   school buildings,5 including dormitories for students and employee
                   housing. Data from our 1994 National School Facilities Survey show that,
                   compared with other schools nationally, responding BIA schools (1) are
                   generally in poorer physical condition, (2) have more unsatisfactory
                   environmental factors, (3) more often lack key facilities requirements for
                   education reform, and (4) are less able to support computer and
                   communications technology.


                   While most Native American children attend regular public schools, about
Background         10 percent attend BIA schools, which are funded by BIA and operated either
                   by BIA or by various tribes through grants or contracts from BIA. BIA schools
                   are found in 23 states but are highly concentrated in 5—North Dakota,
                   South Dakota, Arizona, New Mexico, and Washington—as figure 1 shows.
                   (See app. II for information on individual BIA schools by state.)




                   4
                    This does not include the costs of replacing school buildings. BIA’s priority list for constructing
                   education facilities includes eight unfunded school replacement projects with a total estimated cost of
                   $112 million.
                   5
                    Any one school may have more than one building.



                   Page 2                                                 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools
                                          B-278570




Figure 1: Locations of BIA Schools in School Year 1996-97




                                          Source: Data are from BIA, Office of Indian Education Programs.




                                          BIA funded 173 schools6 (including boarding schools) in school year
                                          1996-97, with a total enrollment of 47,214. The schools ranged in size from
                                          15 to 1,144 students, with about one-half enrolling fewer than 200 pupils.
                                          Enrollment in BIA schools is growing and overall has increased 25 percent
                                          since 1987. Most of this growth has occurred in the last 5 years. Growth in
                                          BIA’s day schools,7 which do not provide student housing, has increased
                                          more rapidly—47 percent since 1987, 24 percent since 1992.

                                          BIAofficials told us that BIA schools are often located in isolated areas and
                                          have to provide and maintain extensive campus infrastructures because

                                          6
                                           BIA also funded 14 peripheral dormitories.
                                          7
                                           In school year 1996-97, BIA’s day schools enrolled 26,752 students.



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                         B-278570




                         they are too far from population centers to have access to town or city
                         services. For example, one school we visited had to house and maintain a
                         fire truck on campus because it is too far from the nearest city to use its
                         fire department. In addition, some schools must provide dormitory space
                         for students and/or housing for faculty and staff because they are so
                         distant from population centers. BIA officials told us that this isolation may
                         also contribute to maintenance difficulties and costs when materials have
                         to be shipped long distances and construction/repair staff have to be
                         housed while on site.

                         Officials also told us that about 25 percent of BIA school buildings are at
                         least 50 years old,8 and many of these buildings are on the National
                         Historic Register. BIA officials told us that this listing often restricts the
                         ability to make education-related renovations and improvements.


                         BIA reports that, as of October 1997, the cost of the total inventory of
BIA Reports Needing      repairs needed for education facilities at all BIA schools is $754 million.
Millions to Improve      This includes $693 million for repairs to school buildings, including
Educational Facilities   dormitories for students. It also includes $61.7 million in repairs needed
                         for education quarters such as employee housing.

                         BIA’s inventory of repairs needed—the facilities backlog—is an amalgam of
                         information collected by architects, engineers, and BIA staff over the years.
                         The inventory describes in detail individual work items required by
                         national standards and codes such as the Uniform Building Code, National
                         Fire Codes, and National Electrical Codes to repair the facilities. The
                         facilities backlog contains the repair cost for deficiencies identified in a
                         building or at a site. The deficiencies may involve safety and health, access
                         for persons with disabilities, or noncompliance with other building codes.
                         BIA is currently developing a new Facilities Management Information
                         System and will be validating and reassessing the entire facilities backlog
                         and inventory. The validation will include professional estimates of the
                         cost of all backlog repair items and a determination of the relative
                         economic values of repair versus replacement. The system development
                         and validation projects are scheduled for completion in fiscal year 1999.

                         Our 1994 survey asked school officials to estimate the total cost of all
                         repairs, renovations, and modernizations required to put their school



                         8
                          In our previous work on school facilities, we found that building age alone is not significant; rather,
                         building condition depends on how buildings are maintained. See GAO/HEHS-95-61, Feb. 1, 1995.



                         Page 4                                                   GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools
                                      B-278570




                                      buildings in good overall condition.9 The amounts reported by the 71 BIA
                                      schools responding to our survey were generally in agreement with BIA’s
                                      estimates of the costs required to address the inventory of repairs needed
                                      at these schools.


                                      Sixty-two percent of the BIA schools responding to our survey reported
Most BIA Schools                      having at least one building in need of extensive repair or replacement. As
Responding to Our                     shown in table 1, a greater number of the responding BIA schools reported
Survey Reported Less                  having buildings in less than adequate condition than did rural/small town
                                      schools, central city schools, or all schools nationally.
Than Adequate
Conditions


Table 1: Percentage of Schools With
Buildings in Less Than Adequate                                                                        National estimates for
Condition                                                                  Responding           Rural/small           Central city   All
                                      Type of building                     BIA schools       town schoolsa              schoolsb schools
                                      Original buildings                               46                   24                   31         26
                                      Attached and/or detached
                                      permanent additions to
                                      original buildings                               41                   16                   22         18
                                      Temporary buildings                              51                   31                   29         28
                                      At least one building in less
                                      than adequate condition                          62                   30                   38         33
                                      a
                                       Rural/small town is defined as either a rural area (a place with a population of less than 2,500
                                      and defined as rural by the Bureau of the Census) or a small town (a place not within a standard
                                      metropolitan statistical area (SMSA) with a population of less than 25,000 but greater than or
                                      equal to 2,500 and defined as urban by the Bureau of the Census).
                                      b
                                       Central city is defined as a large central city (a central city of a SMSA with population greater
                                      than or equal to 400,000 or a population density greater than or equal to 6,000 per square mile) or
                                      a mid-size central city (a central city of an SMSA but not designated a large central city).



                                      Officials at the three responding schools that we visited told us that
                                      although some repairs and improvements had been made, overall
                                      conditions had not changed materially since our 1994 survey. For example,
                                      one school was completing a new permanent addition that will provide
                                      classrooms for kindergarten, first, and second grades, but most of its
                                      students will remain in temporary buildings, that is, portable classrooms.


                                      9
                                       We asked respondents to rate the overall condition of their school buildings on a six-point scale:
                                      excellent, good, adequate, fair, poor, or replace. See GAO/HEHS-95-61, Feb. 1, 1995.



                                      Page 5                                                  GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools
                                      B-278570




                                      In addition, our survey data generally showed that the responding BIA
                                      schools reported more inadequate building features and environmental
                                      conditions than did schools nationally. These data also showed that the
                                      responding BIA schools more often reported that they met the
                                      requirements and needs for educational reform “not well at all.”10
                                      However, with regard to technology elements, the responding BIA schools
                                      were generally more comparable to schools nationally, particularly central
                                      city schools.


Building Features                     As shown in table 2, relatively more responding BIA schools reported
                                      building features such as roofs; plumbing; and heating, ventilation, and
                                      air-conditioning systems to be inadequate than did other schools. Almost
                                      four-fifths of the responding BIA schools reported having at least one
                                      inadequate building feature. In comparison, about one-half to two-thirds of
                                      the other groups of schools reported at least one inadequate building
                                      feature.

Table 2: Percentage of Schools With
Inadequate Building Features                                                                          National estimates for
                                                                          Responding           Rural/small          Central city   All
                                      Building feature                    BIA schools        town schools              schools schools
                                      Roofs                                           49                   24                  33         27
                                      Framing, floors, and
                                      foundations                                     46                   17                  22         18
                                      Exterior walls, finishes,
                                      windows, and doors                              56                   22                  34         27
                                      Interior finishes and trims                     42                   21                  30         24
                                      Plumbing                                        53                   29                  34         30
                                      Heating, ventilation, and
                                      air-conditioning                                66                   33                  42         36
                                      Electrical power                                36                   23                  32         26
                                      Electrical lighting                             46                   22                  29         25
                                      Life safety codes                               59                   16                  22         19
                                      At least one inadequate
                                      building feature                                79                   52                  66         57

                                      During our visits to three responding schools, school officials told us that
                                      some repairs had been made, but conditions had not changed
                                      substantially. These repairs were often referred to as “Band-Aids” that

                                      10
                                       Survey respondents rated the ability of their school facilities to meet the financial requirements of
                                      key education reform activities on the following scale: very well, moderately well, somewhat well, and
                                      not well at all.



                                      Page 6                                                 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools
                                      B-278570




                                      kept the school operating but did not permanently correct the deficiency.
                                      Officials from the responding schools as well as the other BIA schools we
                                      visited complained that the operations and maintenance funds budgeted
                                      for their school were insufficient to properly maintain their facilities. For
                                      example, several schools were using outdated, difficult to maintain heating
                                      systems, but funds were not budgeted for boiler replacements.


Environmental Factors                 Generally, the responding BIA schools also reported more unsatisfactory
                                      environmental conditions than did schools nationwide. As table 3 shows,
                                      on almost every environmental factor, about twice as many responding BIA
                                      schools as all schools nationally reported having unsatisfactory
                                      environmental conditions. Almost all of the BIA schools reported having at
                                      least one unsatisfactory environmental condition, exceeding even the
                                      problems reported by central city schools. For example, several of the
                                      schools that we visited reported outdated or inadequate heating systems.
                                      These systems are difficult and costly to repair and are not energy
                                      efficient, officials told us.

Table 3: Percentage of Schools With
Unsatisfactory Environmental                                                           National estimates for
Conditions                                                      Responding      Rural/small     Central city
                                      Environmental factor      BIA schools   town schools         schools      All schools
                                      Lighting                          30              11               20             16
                                      Heating                           44              17               23             19
                                      Ventilation                       52              24               32             27
                                      Indoor air quality                38              17               22             19
                                      Acoustics for noise
                                      control                           49              27               32             28
                                      Flexibility of
                                      instructional space               67              52               60             54
                                      Energy efficiency                 61              39               46             41
                                      Physical security of
                                      buildings                         57              24               26             24
                                      At least one
                                      unsatisfactory
                                      environmental condition           94              54               65             50



Educational Reform                    Responding BIA schools also more often reported that their facilities met
Requirements                          the requirements and needs for educational reform “not well at all.” As
                                      table 4 shows, for many important educational reform activities—such as
                                      large-group instruction, laboratory science, and library/media



                                      Page 7                                       GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools
                                     B-278570




                                     center—substantially more of the responding BIA schools than other
                                     groups of schools reported that their facilities met the needs for
                                     educational reform “not well at all.” For example, one school we visited
                                     was originally designed for 250 students but now has 354. A school official
                                     told us that in order to accommodate the increased enrollment, the school
                                     has had to convert storage space to other uses.

Table 4: Percentage of Schools
Reporting They Meet the Functional                                                      National estimates for
Requirements of Some Key                                         Responding      Rural/small     Central city
Educational Reform Activities “Not   Activity                    BIA schools   town schools         schools      All schools
Well at All”
                                     Instructional activities
                                     Laboratory science                  63              37               48             42
                                     Large-group instruction             72              40               39             38
                                     Storage of student
                                     assessment materials                59              31               30             31
                                     Display student
                                     assessment materials                51              28               27             28
                                     Library/media center                25              13               14             13
                                     Small-group instruction             12               8               12             10
                                     Support activities
                                     Day care                            80              82               76             78
                                     Before-/after-school
                                     care                                67              66               54             59
                                     Social and health care
                                     services                            52              28               27             27
                                     Parent support activities           43              23               24             24
                                     Private areas for
                                     counseling and testing              42              23               30             26
                                     Teacher planning                    28              12               15             13



Technology Elements                  Finally, as table 5 shows, many of the responding BIA schools reported
                                     having insufficient capability in each of several communications
                                     technology elements needed to meet the functional requirements of
                                     modern educational technology. However, in this particular regard, these
                                     BIA schools were more comparable with other schools in the nation. For
                                     example, a little more than one-half of both the BIA schools and other
                                     schools reported insufficiency of telephone lines for modems, and more
                                     than 80 percent of all groups of schools reported insufficiency of fiber
                                     optic cable.




                                     Page 8                                         GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools
                                    B-278570




Table 5: Percentage of Schools
Reporting Insufficient Technology                                                   National estimates for
Elements                                                     Responding      Rural/small     Central city
                                    Technology element       BIA schools   town schools         schools      All schools
                                    Computers for
                                    instructional use                31              21               32             25
                                    Computer printers for
                                    instructional use                37              25               38             29
                                    Computer networks for
                                    instructional use                62              46               61             52
                                    Modems                           70              54               65             58
                                    Telephone lines for
                                    modems                           59              52               61             56
                                    Telephones in
                                    instructional areas              75              58               67             61
                                    Television sets                  26              13               19             16
                                    VCR/laser disk players           34              31               39             34
                                    Cable television                 68              30               33             32
                                    Conduits/raceways for
                                    computer/computer
                                    network cables                   74              56               67             61
                                    Fiber optic cable                88              84               90             87
                                    Electrical wiring for
                                    computers/
                                    communications
                                    technology                       60              40               55             46
                                    Electrical power for
                                    computers/
                                    communications
                                    technology                       41              28               43             35

                                    During our visits to BIA schools and interviews with BIA officials, we were
                                    told that BIA schools had been acquiring additional computers for the past
                                    several years and, in many instances, had installed networks. Officials told
                                    us that many of the schools either have Internet access or expect to be
                                    connected in the near future. On the basis of these reports, it appears that
                                    our 1994 survey data on computers and communications technology may
                                    be somewhat outdated.


                                    In commenting on our draft report, the Department of the Interior
Agency Comments                     generally agreed with our findings. Interior suggested several corrections
                                    in the numbers of schools and enrollment counts, which we incorporated
                                    in the report. Interior also emphasized the unique situation faced by BIA




                                    Page 9                                      GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools
B-278570




schools. It pointed out that, because of their locations, many BIA schools
require extensive infrastructure, such as sewer lines and sewer lagoons,
waterlines and elevated water storage tanks, fuel storage tanks, and
electrical back-up generators. BIA funds the operation and maintenance of
this infrastructure. Interior’s comments appear in appendix III.


As agreed with your office, unless you release its contents earlier, we will
make no further distribution of this report until 30 days after the date of
this letter. At that time, we will send copies to the Secretary of the Interior
and other interested parties.

The major contributors to this report were D. Catherine Baltzell, Assistant
Director, and Wayne M. Dow, Evaluator-in-Charge. Please call me at
(202) 512-7014 if you or your staff have any questions about this report.

Sincerely yours,




Carlotta C. Joyner
Director, Education and
  Employment Issues




Page 10                                   GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools
Page 11   GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools
Contents



Letter                                                                                              1


Appendix I                                                                                         14

Methodology
Appendix II                                                                                        15

BIA Schools for
School Year 1996-97,
by State
Appendix III                                                                                       22

Comments From the
Department of the
Interior
Tables                 Table 1: Percentage of Schools With Buildings in Less Than                   5
                         Adequate Condition
                       Table 2: Percentage of Schools With Inadequate Building                      6
                         Features
                       Table 3: Percentage of Schools With Unsatisfactory                           7
                         Environmental Conditions
                       Table 4: Percentage of Schools Reporting They Meet the                       8
                         Functional Requirements of Some Key Educational Reform
                         Activities “Not Well at All”
                       Table 5: Percentage of Schools Reporting Insufficient Technology             9
                         Elements

Figure                 Figure 1: Locations of BIA Schools in School Year 1996-97                    3




                       Abbreviations

                       BIA        Bureau of Indian Affairs
                       SMSA       standard metropolitan statistical area


                       Page 12                                 GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools
Page 13   GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools
Appendix I

Methodology


              In the spring of 1994, we undertook a survey to determine the physical
              condition of America’s 80,000 schools. All Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)
              schools were included in our survey sample. We surveyed a nationally
              representative sample of about 10,000 public schools in over 5,000 school
              districts. We asked about (1) the physical condition of buildings and major
              building features, such as roofs, framing, floors, and foundations; (2) the
              status of environmental conditions, such as lighting, heating, and
              ventilation; (3) the ability of schools to meet selected functional
              requirements of education reform, such as having space for small- and
              large-group instruction; and (4) the sufficiency of data, voice, and video
              technologies and the infrastructure to support these technologies.11

              Findings from the 1994 survey have been statistically adjusted (weighted)
              to produce estimates that are representative nationally, as appropriate.
              (The sampling errors for the national estimates contained in this report do
              not exceed plus or minus 5 percentage points unless otherwise stated.)
              However, although all BIA-funded schools were included in our sample,
              only 41 percent, or 71, responded to the survey. This response rate is too
              low to permit us to make estimates for all BIA schools. Therefore, we have
              not weighted the BIA data, but rather have reported only on the responding
              BIA schools.


              We augmented the 1994 survey with more recent visits to selected school
              districts and schools. In September 1997, we visited three BIA schools that
              had responded to our survey, and seven additional BIA schools. During our
              visits, we observed schools; interviewed school and tribal officials; and
              examined relevant documents related to facilities. We also interviewed BIA
              officials, and examined data from BIA’s Facilities Management System.

              All data are self-reported, and we did not independently verify their
              accuracy. We conducted our study of BIA schools between August 1997 and
              December 1997 in accordance with generally accepted government
              auditing standards.




              11
               See School Facilities: America’s Schools Report Differing Conditions (GAO/HEHS-96-103, June 14,
              1996) for a copy of the survey and discussion of the sampling strategy.



              Page 14                                              GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools
Appendix II

BIA Schools for School Year 1996-97, by
State


                                                                                                              Number of
                                                              Enrollment,      Percentage change                portable
Name                         City                    Grades      FY 1997    Since FY 1987 Since FY 1992      classrooms
Arizona
Casa Blanc Day School        Bapchule                K-4             332             148              36               6
Wide Ruins Boarding School   Chambers                K-6             242               69             30               3
Black Mesa Community         Chinle                  K-8              93               79             16               2
School
Cottonwood Day School        Chinle                  K-8             250               –7             30               0
Low Mountain Boarding        Chinle                  K-5             245               83             28               2
School
                                                                                                                        a
Rough Rock Community         Chinle                  K-12            349               –9            –25
School
Cibecue Community School     Cibecue                 K-12            468             138              75              13
Blackwater Community         Coolidge                K-2              63               19              0               1
School
Dennehotso Boarding School   Dennehotso              K-8             342               36             13               1
Theodore Roosevelt School    Fort Apache             6-8             110               31             41               0
Greasewood Springs           Ganado                  K-8             384             –13              10               0
Community School
Kinlichee Boarding School    Ganado                  K-6             139               15             –1               1
Nazlini Boarding School      Ganado                  K-6             131               –9             –1               0
Hotevilla Bacavi Community   Hotevilla               K-7             132               33             15               3
School
Pine Springs Boarding        Houck                   K-4              89               89             33               0
School
Kaibeto Boarding School      Kaibeto                 K-8             455                8             35               0
Chilchinbeto Day School      Kayenta                 K-8             126               –5             –7               0
Kayenta Boarding School      Kayenta                 K-8             444               –3             19               3
Hopi High School             Keams Canyon            7-12            476             –15              –9               1
Keams Canyon Boarding        Keams Canyon            K-6             115             –21              95               0
School
Hopi Day School              Kykotsmovi              K-6              86             –16              41               0
Rocky Ridge Boarding         Kykotsmovi              K-8             206               –2            –15               1
School
Gila Crossing Day School     Laveen                  K-6             111             –24              12               3
Lukachukai Boarding School   Lukachukai              K-8             421                1              7               0
Chinle Boarding School       Many Farms              K-8             513             –12              –7               0
Many Farms High School       Many Farms              9-12            351             –25              –2              23
Polacca Day School           Polacca                 K-6             177                3             38               7
Cove Day School              Red Valley              K-6              74               14             19               0
                                                                                                                        a
Red Rock Day School          Red Valley              K-8             238               –7              6
                                                                                                              (continued)


                                           Page 15                                GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools
                                              Appendix II
                                              BIA Schools for School Year 1996-97, by
                                              State




                                                                                                                            Number of
                                                                     Enrollment,           Percentage change                  portable
Name                          City                      Grades          FY 1997         Since FY 1987 Since FY 1992        classrooms
Rock Point Community          Rock Point                K-12                  547                  25             16                0
School
Salt River Day School         Scottsdale                K-6                   228                  24             51                2
Second Mesa Day School        Second Mesa               K-6                   241                   1             10                8
San Simon School              Sells                     K-8                   286                –11             –10                0
Santa Rosa Boarding School    Sells                     K-8                   331                –27              –7                2
                                                                                                        b
Tohono O’Odham High           Sells                     9-12                  166                                –17                0
School
Shonto Preparatory School     Shonto                    K-8                   656                –13               5                0
Hunters Point Boarding        St Michaels               K-5                   124                  –2              8                0
School
Havasupai School              Supai                     K-8                    95                  25              8                2
T’iis Nazbas Community        Teecnospos                K-8                   357                –18             –13                0
School
Tonalea (Red Lake) Day        Tonalea                   K-8                   310                  –9              7                3
School
Greyhills High School         Tuba City                 9-12                  434                  –4             –3                0
Moencopi Day School           Tuba City                 K-6                   179                281              52                4
Tuba City Boarding School     Tuba City                 K-8                 1,110                  23             28                1
Santa Rosa Ranch School       Tucson                    K-8                   127                  28              3                2
John F. Kennedy Day School    White River               K-8                   185                  23              6                3
Dilcon Boarding School        Winslow                   K-8                   417                –28              –6                0
Leupp Boarding School         Winslow                   K-12                  421                  13              7                0
Little Singer Community       Winslow                   K-6                    99                102              29                0
School
Seba Dalkai Boarding School   Winslow                   K-6                   165                –22              –5                0
California
Sherman Indian High School    Riverside                 9-12                  518                  –2             36                0
                                                                                                        b              b
Noli School                   Santa Jacinto             6-12                   47                                                   0
Florida
Ahfachkee Day School          Clewiston                 K-12                   80                  67             33                0
                                                                                                                                     a
Miccosukee Indian School      Miami                     K-12                   82                  58              5
Iowa
Sac & Fox Settlement School   Tama                      K-8                    80                   8             27                3
Idaho
                                                                                                                                     a
Coeur D’Alene Tribal School   De Smet                   K-8                    80                  45             82
                                                                                                                                     a
Shoshone-Bannock School       Fort Hall                 7-12                  186                389              88
Kansas
                                                                                                                                     a
Kickapoo Nation School        Powhattan                 K-12                  100                  25             35
                                                                                                                           (continued)


                                              Page 16                                         GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools
                                                Appendix II
                                                BIA Schools for School Year 1996-97, by
                                                State




                                                                                                                              Number of
                                                                       Enrollment,           Percentage change                  portable
Name                             City                     Grades          FY 1997         Since FY 1987 Since FY 1992        classrooms
Louisiana
Chitimacha Day School            Jeanerette               K-8                    53                  51             13                1
Maine
Indian Island School             Old Town                 K-8                    89                   3            –12                1
                                                                                                                                       a
Beatrice Rafferty School         Perry                    K-8                   109                –19             –17
Indian Township School           Princeton                K-8                   134                  41             –6                2
Michigan
                                                                                                          b              b
Bahweting Anishinabe             Sault Sainte             K-8                   175                                                   1
                                 Marie
Hannahville Indian School        Wilson                   K-12                  157                  85            112                0
Minnesota
Bug-O-Nay-Ge Shig School         Cass Lake                K-12                  430                  40            –16                0
Fond Du Lac Ojibway School       Cloquet                  K-12                  141                  62            –15                5
Nay Ah Shing School              Onamina                  K-12                  323                773             546                0
Circle of Life Survival School   White Earth              K-12                  168                102              24                2
Mississippi
Red Water Elementary School      Carthage                 K-8                   109                  22             31                2
Conehatta Elementary School      Conehatta                K-8                   199                  30             39                0
Boque Chitto Elementary          Philadelphia             K-8                   126                   8             –5                1
School
                                                                                                          b
Choctaw Central High School      Philadelphia             9-12                  402                                 59                0
                                                                                                          b
Choctaw Central Middle           Philadelphia             7-8                   142                                 11                1
School
                                                                                                          b
Pearl River Elementary           Philadelphia             K-6                   464                                 40                3
School
Tucker Elementary School         Philadelphia             K-8                    89                  –7            –19                0
Standing Pine Elementary         Walnut Grove             K-6                    80                  60             23                0
School
Montana
Busby School                     Busby                    K-12                  190                  –7             27                0
Two Eagle River School           Pablo                    7-12                  138                151              55                0
Nevada
Duckwater Shoshone               Duckwater                K-8                    15                   0            –25                0
Elementary
Pyramid Lake High School         Nixon                    9-12                   48                  –4             41                2
New Mexico
Sky City Community Schoolc       Acoma                    K-8                   312                   5             30                1
Dzilth-Na-O-Dith-Hle             Bloomfield               K-8                   344                   4             –4                4
Community School
                                                                                                                             (continued)


                                                Page 17                                         GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools
                                                Appendix II
                                                BIA Schools for School Year 1996-97, by
                                                State




                                                                                                                            Number of
                                                                       Enrollment,           Percentage change                portable
Name                             City                     Grades          FY 1997         Since FY 1987 Since FY 1992      classrooms
Dibe Yazhi Habitiin Olta Inc.    Crownpoint               K-8                   244                  18             32               0
Lake Valley Navajo School        Crownpoint               K-8                   119                   1             –2               0
Mariano Lake Community           Crownpoint               K-6                   261                101              39               3
School
T’ iists’ oozi’ Bi’ O’ lta       Crownpoint               K-8                   573                  28             34               0
Tse’ ii’ ahi’ Community School   Crownpoint               K-4                   168                167              47               3
Na’ Neelzhiin Ji’ Olta           Cuba                     K-8                   393                  16              7               0
(Torreon)
Ojo Encino Day School            Cuba                     K-8                   240                  20             17               0
Pueblo Pintado Community         Cuba                     K-8                   345                  70             33               3
School
Santa Clara Day School           Espanola                 K-6                   129                  13             –4               2
Navajo Preparatory School        Farmington               9-12                  174                –21              10               0
Wingate Elementary School        Fort Wingate             K-8                   670                  28             36               6
Wingate High School              Fort Wingate             9-12                  634                –14               4               1
Nenahnezad Community             Fruitland                K-7                   392                –12              –6               2
School
Bread Springs Day School         Gallup                   K-3                   159                  66             28               3
Isleta Elementary Schoolc        Isleta                   K-6                   210                –23              –5              10
Jemez Day School                 Jemez Pueblo             K-6                   181                  –1             –8               1
Laguna Elementary Schoolc        Laguna                   K-5                   370                       b
                                                                                                                     3               7
                             c                                                                            b
Laguna Middle School             Laguna                   6-8                   191                                198               0
To’ hajiilee-he (Canoncito)c     Canoncito                K-12                  376                  22             12               2
Alamo Navajo School              Magdalena                K-12                  371                   2              5               0
                                                                                                          b
Mescalero Apache School          Mescalero                K-12                  439                                121               4
Crystal Boarding School          Navajo                   K-6                   168                  24             –2               0
Tohaali Community School         Newcomb                  K-8                   263                –37              –5               0
Pine Hill Schools                Pine Hill                K-12                  501                  37             34               3
Baca Community School            Prewitt                  K-4                   166                  54             14               2
San Felipe Pueblo                San Felipe               K-6                   349                  15             10               4
Elementary Schoolc               Pueblo
                                                                                                                                      a
Ohkay Owingeh Community          San Juan                 K-6                    59                –16              37
                                 Pueblos
Sanostee Day School              Sanostee                 K-3                   110                  31             38               4
San Ildefonso Day School         Santa Fe                 K-6                    24                –29             –23               2
                             c
Santa Fe Indian School           Santa Fe                 7-12                  545                  13             –4               0
TeTsu Geh Oweenge Day            Sante Fe                 K-6                    56                  24             12               3
Schoolc
Atsa’ Biya’ a’ zh Community      Shiprock                 K-6                   181                202              97               2
                                                                                                                            (continued)


                                                Page 18                                         GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools
                                            Appendix II
                                            BIA Schools for School Year 1996-97, by
                                            State




                                                                                                                          Number of
                                                                   Enrollment,           Percentage change                  portable
Name                          City                    Grades          FY 1997         Since FY 1987 Since FY 1992        classrooms
Beclabito Day School          Beclabito               K-4                    99                  –6            –12                4
Shiprock Northwest High       Shiprock                9-12                  159                  49              2                0
School
Taos Day School               Taos                    K-7                   164                  82             40                0
Dlo’ Ay Azhi Community        Thoreau                 K-6                   151                  34             30                1
School
Chuska/Tohatchi               Tohatchi                K-8                   635                  13             15                0
Consolidated School
Chi-Ch’ il-tah/Jones Ranch    Vanderwagon             K-8                   261                  61             17                0
Zia Day School                Zia Pueblo              K-6                    84                   6             –6                3
North Carolina
Cherokee Central School       Cherokee                K-12                1,128                  19             15               10
North Dakota
Ojibwa Indian Schoolc         Belcourt                K-8                   340                  –3             –1               25
Turtle Mountain Elementary    Belcourt                K-8                 1,144                  28             16                0
and Middle School
Turtle Mountain High School   Belcourt                9-12                  572                  57             25                2
Theodore Jamerson             Bismarck                K-8                   108                  35             14                0
Elementary
Dunseith Day Schoolc          Dunseith                K-8                   237                  45             44                0
Tate Topa Tribal School       Fort Totten             K-8                   464                  21             13                4
Standing Rock Community       Fort Yates              K-12                  597                  32              7                7
School
Twin Buttes Day School        Halliday                K-8                    35                –24               6                6
Mandaree Day School           Mandaree                K-12                  250                  37             20                1
White Shield School           Roseglen                K-12                  179                  35             13                1
                                                                                                      b              b
Trenton School                Trenton                 K-12                   77                                                   0
Circle of Nations School      Wahpeton                4-8                   198                –33             –18                1
Oklahoma
Riverside Indian School       Anadarko                4-12                  355                  14             11                3
Sequoyah High School          Tahlequah               9-12                  297                  49             41                0
Oregon
Chemawa Indian School         Salem                   9-12                  341                  –5             –1                0
South Dakota
                                                                                                                                   a
Tiospa Zina Tribal School     Agency Village          K-12                  432                118              79
American Horse School         Allen                   K-8                   187                  43              8                0
Rock Creek Day School         Bullhead                K-8                    84                  –6              1                2
Cheyenne-Eagle Butte          Eagle Butte             K-12                1,009                  12             17                3
School
                                                                                                                         (continued)


                                            Page 19                                         GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools
                                               Appendix II
                                               BIA Schools for School Year 1996-97, by
                                               State




                                                                                                                             Number of
                                                                      Enrollment,           Percentage change                  portable
Name                            City                     Grades          FY 1997         Since FY 1987 Since FY 1992        classrooms
Flandreau Indian School         Flandreau                9-12                  500                –14             –17                4
Crow Creek Sioux Tribal         Fort Thompson            K-5                   198                  32              6                4
Elem.
                                                                                                                                      a
Swift Bird Day School           Gettysburg               K-8                    54                  32            –16
                                                                                                         b
Takini School                   Howes                    K-12                  309                                 20                5
Little Wound Day School         Kyle                     K-12                  818                  60             20                4
Little Eagle Day School         Little Eagle             K-8                   100                  –3             20                1
Lower Brule Day School          Lower Brule              K-12                  350                  28              6                2
Wounded Knee School             Manderson                K-8                   203                  12            –10                0
District
Marty Indian School             Marty                    K-12                  301                   9             10                0
                                                                                                                                      a
Promise Day School              Mobridge                 K-8                    19                –32              73
Loneman Day School              Oglala                   K-8                   397                111              58                2
Pierre Indian Learning Center   Pierre                   1-8                   253                  35             54                3
Pine Ridge School               Pine Ridge               K-12                  863                  51             16                0
Porcupine Day School            Porcupine                K-8                   152                103              79                0
St. Francis Indian School       St. Francis              K-12                  583                  33             22                0
Crow Creek Reservation High     Stephan                  6-12                  352                133              56                6
Crazy Horse School              Wanblee                  K-12                  358                  21             12                0
Enemy Swim Day School           Waubay                   K-8                    81                224             153                3
                                                                                                                                      a
White Horse Day School          White Horse              K-8                    37                –23              –3
Utah
Aneth Community School          Montezuma                K-6                   278                  24             28                0
                                Creek
Navajo Mountain Boarding        Tonalea                  K-8                   131                –10               7                0
School
Washington
Muckleshoot Tribal School       Auburn                   K-8                   102                437             108                2
                                                                                                         b              b
Lummi High School               Bellingham               9-12                   84                                                   6
Lummi Tribal School System      Bellingham               K-8                   225                196              39                7
Quileute Tribal School          La Push                  K-12                   79                  52             98                3
                                                                                                                                      a
Wah-He-Lute Indian School       Olympia                  K-9                    51                  82              9
Paschal Sherman Indian          Omak                     K-8                   166                  78             20                3
School
Chief Leschi School System      Puyallup                 K-12                  759                420              93                0
Yakima Tribal School            Toppenish                7-12                   89                  78             98                1
Wisconsin
Lac Courte Oreilles Ojibway     Hayward                  K-12                  300                  91             56                0
School
                                                                                                                            (continued)


                                               Page 20                                         GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools
                                            Appendix II
                                            BIA Schools for School Year 1996-97, by
                                            State




                                                                                                                               Number of
                                                                       Enrollment,              Percentage change                portable
Name                         City                        Grades           FY 1997          Since FY 1987 Since FY 1992        classrooms
                                                                                                              b
Menominee Tribal School      Neopit                      K-8                     251                                   27               0
Oneida Tribal School         Oneida                      K-12                    587                    299           125               0
Wyoming
St. Stephens Indian School   St. Stephens                K-12                    286                    –11           –18               1
Total                                                                        47,214                       25           18             302

                                            Note: Schools listed in this table exclude peripheral dormitories.
                                            a
                                            Not reported.
                                            b
                                                Not applicable.
                                            c
                                            School visited by GAO.




                                            Page 21                                                GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools
Appendix III

Comments From the Department of the
Interior




Now on p. 3.




Now footnote 7.




Now on p. 4.




Now on p. 3.




                  Page 22   GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools
           Appendix III
           Comments From the Department of the
           Interior




(104896)   Page 23                               GAO/HEHS-98-47 Condition of BIA Schools
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