oversight

Veterans' Employment and Training: Services Provided by Labor Department Programs

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1997-10-17.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                United States General Accounting Office

GAO             Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee
                on Benefits, Committee on Veterans’
                Affairs, House of Representatives


October 1997
                VETERANS’
                EMPLOYMENT AND
                TRAINING
                Services Provided by
                Labor Department
                Programs




GAO/HEHS-98-7
      United States
GAO   General Accounting Office
      Washington, D.C. 20548

      Health, Education, and
      Human Services Division

      B-275189

      October 17, 1997

      The Honorable Jack Quinn
      Chairman, Subcommittee on Benefits
      Committee on Veterans’ Affairs
      House of Representatives

      Dear Mr. Chairman:

      The Congress has made it clear that employment services for veterans is a
      national responsibility and has passed legislation providing this assistance
      specifically for veterans. Although the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)
      is responsible for most veterans’ services, the Department of Labor’s
      Veterans’ Employment and Training Service (VETS) administers programs
      and other activities, including grants, designed to help veterans find jobs
      and job training. The Congress established VETS under the Office of the
      Assistant Secretary in 1980 to carry out the national policy set forth in
      U.S.C. title 38 that veterans receive employment and training
      opportunities, giving priority to disabled veterans and Vietnam-era
      veterans.1

      VETS, budgeted at about $182 million for fiscal year 1997, funds two
      primary veterans’ employment assistance grants to states—the Disabled
      Veterans’ Outreach Program (DVOP) specialists and the Local Veterans’
      Employment Representative (LVER).2 The DVOP and LVER staff, whose
      positions are federally funded, are part of states’ employment service
      systems and provide direct employment services to eligible veterans. This
      report responds to your request for descriptive information on the use of
      these grant funds. Specifically, you asked us to obtain information on
      (1) national funding trends for DVOP and LVER staff and how funds are
      allocated to the states; (2) how state performance is measured;
      (3) position requirements for DVOP and LVER staff and characteristics of
      DVOP and LVER staff; and (4) how DVOP and LVER staff spend their time and
      integrate their services with other veterans’ employment service programs,




      1
       Federal laws pertaining to veterans’ issues are in title 38 of the U.S. Code. The portions relating to the
      employment and training services are in chapters 41, 42, and 43.
      2
       VETS’ fiscal year 1997 appropriation of about $182 million included $82 million for DVOP specialists
      and $75 million for LVER staff. This appropriation also included $23 million for VETS’ administrative
      costs and $2 million for the National Veterans’ Training Institute, which trains service providers’ staff
      and managers.



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                   such as the Vocational Rehabilitation and Counseling Program (VR&C)3 and
                   the Transition Assistance Program (TAP)4 for separating service members.

                   To address your request, we met with VETS officials responsible for state
                   grants that support the DVOP and LVER staff. We reviewed legislation,
                   regulations, program operating procedures, and program management
                   reports. We visited two states, Colorado and Pennsylvania—selected to
                   reflect different sizes and regions—to understand how DVOP and LVER staff
                   work within their employment service system. We also conducted
                   telephone surveys with all VETS’ directors in each of the 50 states, the
                   District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands to obtain
                   state-specific information about the operation of these two grants.5
                   Additionally, we administered a mail survey to all DVOP and LVER staff
                   (2,862 as of March 1997) to obtain information about their personal
                   characteristics, education and training, and military and work experience
                   as well as how they serve veterans. (Further information on our scope and
                   methodology is in app. I.)


                   Over a 10-year period, the appropriations for VETS, when adjusted for
Results in Brief   inflation, have declined by 11 percent. Moreover, since 1990,
                   appropriations for the DVOP and LVER grants have not supported the
                   number of positions authorized by the statutory funding formulas. States
                   receive their DVOP and LVER grant funding from VETS through multiyear
                   grants, and funding is estimated by figuring the amount required to
                   support the number of statutorily determined staff positions. In allocating
                   DVOP positions to states, the statutory formula provides one DVOP specialist
                   for each 6,900 veterans in a state who are either Vietnam-era,
                   post-Vietnam-era, or disabled veterans. The statutory LVER funding
                   provides for a total of 1,600 full-time LVER staff, and allocation is primarily
                   based on the number of LVER staff as of January 1, 1987, in each state.
                   When appropriations are not sufficient to support the number of positions
                   authorized, VETS reduces each state’s allocation proportionately. For
                   example, in fiscal year 1997, the appropriation funded 440 fewer DVOP

                   3
                    The VR&C program, administered by the Department of Veterans Affairs, provides certain services
                   and equipment for disabled veterans that may be required for beginning employment. They may also
                   receive educational and vocational training and special rehabilitative services.
                   4
                    TAP activities generally involve workshops on such topics as conducting successful job searches,
                   career decision-making, current occupational and labor market conditions, and resumé and cover
                   letter preparation to help military personnel and their spouses make decisions as they move from
                   military service to civilian life and to transfer military experience into a civilian job or career. TAP
                   operates as a partnership between the Departments of Labor, Defense, and Veterans Affairs.
                   5
                   For this report, we use the word “states” to refer to the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto
                   Rico, and the Virgin Islands.


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specialists and 260 fewer LVER staff than authorized by the statutory
formulas.

VETS’ performance measures for states’ DVOP and LVER staffing grants focus
more on process than results and require states to provide a higher level of
service to veterans than nonveterans rather than establish goals for
absolute levels of performance. Thus, a state that has a poor level of
service to nonveterans would be held to a lower standard for service to
veterans than a state with better overall performance. For program year
1995, the national job placement rate for veterans (26.1 percent) exceeded
the placement rate for nonveterans (20.4 percent). VETS is working to
develop new performance measurements under the Government
Performance and Results Act of 1993 that will put greater emphasis on
results, in addition to comparing services provided to veterans and
nonveterans. VETS is uncertain whether it will establish absolute levels for
its performance measurements.

Federal law prescribes eligibility requirements for appointing LVER staff
and DVOP specialists based on veteran status. For example, first preference
for the appointment of DVOP specialists is given to qualified disabled
veterans of the Vietnam era, and first preference for LVER staff is given to
qualified veterans with service-connected disabilities. We found that
95 percent of DVOP specialists and 62 percent of LVER staff were disabled
veterans. Additionally, 93 percent of DVOP specialists and 84 percent of
LVER staff were Vietnam-era veterans. Beyond veteran status, DVOP and LVER
staff qualifications, including educational requirements, differ according to
each state’s civil service system requirements. We found that half of DVOP
specialists had a 4-year college degree and a slightly higher percentage of
LVER staff (56 percent) had at least a 4-year college degree.


The law prescribes various duties for DVOP and LVER staff to provide
veterans with job search plans and referrals and job training opportunities.
According to our survey, the duties both DVOP and LVER staff spent the most
time on were (1) job search and referral and (2) intake and assessment.
DVOP and LVER staff reported that they would like to spend more time
performing job search and referral as well as employer outreach and
individual case management. Most clients served by DVOP and LVER staff
need minimal assistance, but DVOP and LVER staff spend relatively more
time with clients needing extensive services, such as case management.
Additionally, 70 percent of DVOP specialists and 60 percent of LVER staff
reported that they served VR&C clients, but most DVOP and LVER staff
reported that their VR&C client caseload accounted for less than 5 percent



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             of all their clients. Fewer DVOP and LVER staff—less than
             25 percent—reported that they had TAP duties; 70 percent of these DVOP
             specialists and 85 percent of these LVER staff spent between less than a day
             to 6 days a month on TAP activities.


             VETS’mission is to help veterans, reservists, and National Guard members
Background   obtain employment and protect their employment rights and benefits. The
             key elements of VETS’ mission include enforcement of veterans’ preference
             and reemployment rights, employment and training assistance, public
             information services, interagency liaison, and training for those assisting
             veterans. VETS provides states with grants for DVOP and LVER staff to
             provide veterans and eligible persons6 employment and training
             opportunities, with priority given to the needs of disabled veterans and
             veterans of the Vietnam era, through the states’ employment service
             systems established under the Wagner-Peyser Act.7 As part of the DVOP and
             LVER grant agreements, states must provide or ensure veterans’ priority
             and other special considerations in the provision of services to veterans at
             every point where the public employment and training delivery system
             services are available. The grant agreements provide the following order of
             priority for serving veterans: first, special disabled veterans8; then,
             Vietnam-era veterans; followed by disabled veterans other than special
             disabled veterans; last, all other veterans and eligible persons.

             VETS carries out its responsibilities through a nationwide network that
             includes representation in each of Labor’s 10 regions and in each state.
             The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Veterans’ Employment and
             Training administers VETS’ activities through regional administrators and a
             VETS director in each state.9 These federally paid VETS staff are the link
             between VETS and the states’ employment service system and ensure that

             6
              Certain nonveterans, who are dependents of veterans, are also eligible for priority service. These
             nonveterans are called “eligible persons” and include, for example, the spouse of any person who died
             of a service-connected disability or the spouse of any person who has a total disability permanent in
             nature resulting from a service-connected disability. For the purposes of this report, we will use the
             term “veterans” to include eligible people.
             7
              The Wagner-Peyser Act of 1933 created a national system of public employment service offices.
             Federal Wagner-Peyser funds support this employment service system, which is operated by the states
             with a network of over 1,900 local offices providing employment services to individuals seeking
             employment and to employers seeking workers.
             8
              A special disabled veteran is (1) a veteran who is entitled to compensation (or who, but for the receipt
             of military retired pay, would be entitled to compensation) under laws administered by the VA for a
             disability rated at 30 percent or more or (2) a person who was discharged or released from active duty
             because of a service-connected disability.
             9
              In larger states, an assistant director is appointed for every 250,000 veterans in the state.



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    states carry out their obligations to provide service to veterans under
    various federally funded programs, including the services provided under
    the DVOP and LVER grants.

    LVER staff were first authorized under the original G.I. Bill, the
    Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944. DVOP specialists were initially
    established by executive order in 1977 and later authorized by the
    Veterans’ Rehabilitation and Education Amendments of 1980.10 Although
    DVOP and LVER staff are employees of their states’ employment service
    systems, their positions are funded by grants to the states administered by
    VETS, and they are to serve veterans exclusively. Furthermore, the duties of
    DVOP and LVER staff are specified by federal law and include


•   outreach to locate veterans,
•   job development for veterans,
•   networking in the community for employment and training programs,
•   providing labor exchange services to veterans,
•   making referrals to support services, and
•   case management.

    The state VETS directors monitor local employment offices to determine
    whether DVOP and LVER staff are carrying out these duties. For example,
    they examine the performance of assigned DVOP and LVER staff in such
    areas as job development assistance, employer visits, and case
    management. DVOP and LVER staff have many similar job duties—such as
    networking with employers, veterans’ organizations, federal agencies, and
    community-based organizations. The primary focus for DVOP specialists is
    on locating veterans with disabilities and other barriers to employment
    and assisting them in removing barriers and finding jobs and job training
    opportunities. LVER staff, on the other hand, are the local employment
    offices’ primary resource for policies and procedures regarding priority
    service to veterans and are responsible for reporting on compliance with
    laws and regulations concerning veterans’ issues.

    States’ employment service systems provide priority service for veterans
    in a variety of ways. The DVOP and LVER grant agreements include




    10
     Before the establishment of VETS, the DVOP and LVER grants were administered by Labor’s
    Employment and Training Administration, which administers the Wagner-Peyser grants to states.



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                     assurances by states that LVER staff11 and DVOP specialists serve eligible
                     veterans exclusively. Under federal law, all state employment service staff
                     must give priority to veterans over nonveterans for services; the
                     assignment of DVOP or LVER staff does not relieve other local employment
                     office staff of their requirement to provide priority service to veterans. To
                     implement this priority service, for example, states may place a 24-hour
                     “hold” on a new “job order” received from an employer until veterans can
                     be identified and contacted. Generally, states first search their electronic
                     job file for qualified veteran applicants and then contact the veterans
                     regarding the employment opportunity.


                     Over a 10-year period, appropriations for VETS,12 adjusted for inflation,
National Funding     have declined 11 percent. (See fig. 1.) In comparison, the inflation-adjusted
Trend for DVOP and   Wagner-Peyser appropriations for states’ employment service systems
LVER Grants          declined by 26 percent over the same 10-year period.




                     11
                       Full-time LVER staff are assigned to every local office where at least 1,100 eligible veterans and
                     eligible persons are registered. Offices with less than 1,100, but at least 350, registered veterans and
                     eligible persons may be assigned a half-time LVER. The half-time LVER staff must serve veterans for a
                     minimum of half their time; the other half may be used for other employment service duties. We found
                     that 23 percent of LVER staff were in half-time LVER positions.
                     12
                      The VETS appropriation includes funding for the DVOP and LVER grants as well as for administrative
                     costs and the National Veterans’ Training Institute.



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Figure 1: VETS’ Actual and
Inflation-Adjusted Budget, Fiscal Years   Dollars in Millions
1987-96
                                          200

                                          180

                                          160

                                          140

                                          120

                                          100

                                           80

                                           60

                                           40

                                           20

                                            0

                                             1987          1988      1989          1990        1991     1992    1993     1994     1995       1996

                                             Fiscal Year


                                                            Actual Appropriation
                                                            Inflation-Adjusted Appropriation



                                          Note: Appropriation numbers are adjusted for inflation using the gross domestic product deflator
                                          for nondefense spending with 1996 as the base year.

                                          Source: Data for actual appropriation from VETS; inflation-adjusted appropriation calculated by
                                          GAO.




                                          During fiscal years 1990 through 1997, the amount appropriated for DVOP
                                          and LVER grants did not fund the number of statutorily authorized DVOP or
                                          LVER positions. (See figs. 2 and 3, and see app. II for actual numbers of
                                          DVOP and LVER positions authorized and funded.) For example, in fiscal
                                          year 1997, the number of DVOP specialist positions funded (1,568) was
                                          78 percent of the statutory number of positions (2,008), and the number of
                                          LVER staff positions funded (1,340) was 84 percent of the statutory number
                                          of positions (1,600). Furthermore, funding for the DVOP grant, adjusted for
                                          inflation, declined by 19 percent over the past 10 years. The LVER funding
                                          trend was more variable, with increases and decreases over the same time
                                          period, but the inflation-adjusted appropriation showed a decline of about
                                          8 percent between 1987 and 1996.




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Figure 2: Authorized and Funded
DVOP Positions for Fiscal Years   Number of Positions
1990-97
                                  2000


                                  1750


                                  1500


                                  1250


                                  1000


                                   750


                                   500


                                   250


                                     0

                                     1990          1991          1992         1993          1994          1995         1996          1997

                                     Year

                                                  Authorized
                                                  Funded



                                  Note: Funded positions are the number of positions that states reported they could fill with the
                                  appropriated funds.

                                  Source: VETS.




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Figure 3: Authorized and Funded LVER
Positions for Fiscal Years 1990-97              Number of Positions
                                       2000


                                       1750


                                       1500


                                       1250


                                       1000


                                        750


                                        500


                                        250


                                            0

                                            1990         1991         1992          1993         1994          1995          1996          1997

                                            Year

                                                        Authorized
                                                        Funded



                                       Note: Funded positions are the number of positions states reported they could fill with the
                                       appropriated funds.

                                       Source: VETS.




Process Used to Allocate               States receive DVOP and LVER funding from VETS through multiyear grants,
DVOP and LVER Funds to                 generally for a period of 2 to 5 years.13 Before the beginning of each grant
States                                 period, VETS invites states to apply for DVOP and LVER funding. At that time,
                                       VETS publishes the number of positions each state should receive
                                       according to the statutory funding level for both DVOP and LVER grants.
                                       Based on this information, states submit requests for funding on a
                                       worksheet that documents, for each grant, the number of positions, the
                                       cost of salaries and benefits, the state’s cost per position for DVOP and LVER
                                       staff, and the total funds the state is requesting. As part of the allocation
                                       request, states are required to calculate the proportion of the DVOP and




                                       13
                                        For the period of our review, VETS’ multiyear grant was for fiscal year 1995 through fiscal year 1997;
                                       VETS’ next multiyear grant period will begin in fiscal year 1998 and run through fiscal year 2000, with
                                       an option to extend the grant period for additional years.



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LVER grants used for administrative and support expenses.14 Administrative
and support expenses associated with the DVOP and LVER grants differ
across the states. These expenses include costs such as travel, supplies, a
portion of central office personnel, communications, rent, and utilities.
When appropriations for the DVOP and LVER grants do not support the
number of statutorily authorized positions, each state’s share of the
appropriation is calculated on the basis of a proportionate reduction.15

Because DVOP and LVER grants are multiyear grants, the grant funds are
adjusted annually. After the first year of a grant period, states submit a
modification or revised request for funds that includes a new worksheet
reflecting updated costs for each year of the grant cycle. In fiscal year
1995, for example, states requested funding according to the statutory
funding levels. However, in fiscal year 1996, VETS directed states to submit
grant modifications based on a 5-percent reduction from their initial 1995
grant award. In fiscal year 1997, VETS directed states to submit proposed
modifications based on VETS’ estimated amount for each grant by state.

After VETS notifies states of their actual grant allocations, the states must
submit state fiscal operating plans that show planned quarterly DVOP and
LVER spending plans. This becomes an important document as the states
proceed through the grant year because VETS uses these documents to
adjust each state’s grant amount, if necessary, during the year. Each
quarter, VETS reviews state obligations and expenditures against state fiscal
operating plans. VETS has the authority to reallocate up to 95 percent of
unobligated DVOP and LVER funds at the end of each quarter16 from states




14
 To avoid excessive spending, VETS generally limits the percentage states may use of their DVOP and
LVER grant for administrative and support costs. However, VETS may approve exceptions if a state
can show good cause for support and administrative spending beyond the cap.
15
 State allocations are adjusted for some DVOP and LVER grant expenses paid centrally by VETS
(postage costs, travel to the National Veterans’ Training Institute, and the payment management
system). Other costs may be subtracted before VETS allocates the grant funding to the states. For
example, if a state is conducting a pilot project that VETS has required or approved, VETS will put
aside the cost of that pilot for that particular state before allocating funds to the states for DVOP and
LVER staff. For fiscal years 1995 and 1996, VETS also awarded some states additional funds to conduct
TAP activities.
16
  According to Veterans’ Program Letter Number 9-89, VETS can recapture 95 percent of all DVOP and
LVER unobligated funds at the end of each quarter with the following three exceptions: (1) if a state
can document and certify that an amount was expended but not reflected in the official cost
accounting reports, (2) if the state can document and certify that an amount was not obligated during a
quarter due to extenuating circumstances and the funds will be utilized later in the fiscal year, and
(3) if a state’s initial request for funds was unilaterally reduced due to a limitation in funding
availability.


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                         with excess funds to states that request additional funding through a grant
                         modification.17


DVOP State Allocations   VETS uses the formula specified in the law—one DVOP specialist for each
                         6,900 veterans residing in the state who are either veterans of the Vietnam
                         era, veterans who first entered active duty as a member of the armed
                         forces after May 7, 1975, or disabled veterans—together with cost
                         information from each state to determine the amount of funding for each
                         state. First, VETS determines (1) the number of veterans residing in a state
                         who are Vietnam- and post-Vietnam-era veterans and (2) the number of
                         disabled veterans residing in a state—those receiving either VA
                         compensation or receiving military disability compensation through a
                         medical discharge or retirement. These two factors are added—which may
                         result in some double counting—and the sum is divided by 6,900 to
                         determine the number of DVOP specialists for the state. The state’s funding
                         allocation is computed by multiplying the number of DVOP specialists by
                         the state’s cost per position. This allocation is then adjusted
                         proportionately on the basis of the actual funds appropriated—which has
                         generally supported fewer positions than the number of positions
                         determined by statute. For example, the state with the largest DVOP
                         population, California, should have had 256 DVOP specialists by statute in
                         fiscal year 1997 but projected that funding would support 180 positions, or
                         30 percent fewer. (See app. III for an example of the formula calculation
                         and the underlying data used to calculate the number of statutory DVOP
                         positions for fiscal year 1997.)

                         The cost per DVOP position varies from state to state. In fiscal year 1997,
                         the average projected cost per DVOP position was $51,431 but ranged from
                         $24,222 to $67,333. Of the 50 states, those with the highest costs per DVOP
                         position (over $65,000) included Alaska, Colorado, Connecticut, New
                         York, and Wisconsin; those with the lowest costs per DVOP position were
                         Kentucky, Louisiana, South Carolina, and West Virginia. The variation in
                         cost across the states results from the differences in each state’s salary
                         and administrative and support expenses. For example, for fiscal year
                         1997, the average administrative and support costs for the DVOP grant were
                         25.3 percent of the grant but were as high as about 35 percent in Wisconsin
                         and as low as 18 percent in Alaska and Delaware (see figs. 4 and 5). (See


                         17
                           States can also carry unexpended fourth quarter funds into the first quarter of the new fiscal year for
                         the purpose of funding DVOP and LVER staff at approved levels. VETS continues to go through its
                         budgetary adjustment process for the first three quarters of each fiscal year, recapturing 95 percent of
                         unobligated funds but does not generally recapture and redistribute fourth-quarter funds that can be
                         used under its “fifth-quarter” funding authority.



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                                          app. IV for—by state, for fiscal year 1997—the DVOP grant award, the
                                          number of projected DVOP positions, cost per DVOP position, and percentage
                                          of administrative and support costs.)


Figure 4: Cost per DVOP Position, Fiscal Year 1997




                                          Source: VETS.




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Figure 5: DVOP Administration and
Support Expenses as a Percentage of   Number of States
the Total Grant, Fiscal Year 1997     25




                                      20




                                      15




                                      10




                                       5




                                       0

                                             Under       20-24   25-29   30-34     35+
                                             20
                                             Percentage Spent on Administration and Support



                                      Source: VETS.




                                      DVOP positions are not distributed in proportion to the civilian labor force
                                      because the relevant veteran population varies across the states. For
                                      example, although nationally the DVOP population18 was 10.3 percent of the
                                      total civilian labor force, some states had a DVOP population that was
                                      12 percent or more of their civilian labor force—including Alaska, Maine,
                                      New Hampshire, New Mexico, Virginia, Washington, and West Virginia.
                                      States with a lower percentage—less than 9 percent—included Illinois,
                                      Iowa, New Jersey, New York, Utah, and Wisconsin. (These percentages, by
                                      state, are included in app. III.)


LVER State Allocations                Beginning with fiscal year 1988, the law specifies that LVER grant funds
                                      available to states should be sufficient to support the appointment of 1,600
                                      full-time LVER staff and the states’ administrative expenses associated with
                                      the appointment of those staff. It also sets forth a two-part LVER formula


                                      18
                                       DVOP population is used here to be the veterans’ population in the DVOP formula—Vietnam- and
                                      post-Vietnam-era veterans plus disabled veterans.



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for allocating the LVER staff positions among the states. The first part of the
formula provides that each state receive the number of LVER positions it
had on board as of January 1, 1987, plus 1 additional position, bringing the
national total to 1,439. The second part of the formula dictates how the
remaining 161 positions will be allocated across the states by taking an
average of three factors relating to the number of veterans in a state, the
number of veterans registered for employment assistance, and the number
of full-service local employment service offices.19 Like the DVOP funding,
VETS adjusts state allocations proportionately according to actual
appropriations. For example, the state with the most LVER positions by
statute—California, with 121 positions—projected that it could fund 100.5
LVER positions with the fiscal year 1997 appropriation. (See app. V for an
example of the LVER formula calculation and the underlying data used to
calculate the number of LVER formula positions for fiscal year 1997.)

The cost per LVER position varies across the states. The projected fiscal
year 1997 cost per LVER position averaged $54,729 and ranged from $25,625
to $77,235. Of the 50 states, those with the highest cost (above $71,000) per
LVER position included Colorado, Connecticut, Michigan, and Wisconsin;
those states with the lowest cost per LVER position were Kentucky,
Louisiana, South Dakota, and West Virginia. The variation in cost across
the states results from the differences in each state’s salary and
administrative and support costs. For example, in fiscal year 1997, the
average administrative and support costs for LVER grants was 24.4 percent
of the total grant and ranged from about 13 percent in Louisiana to about
34 percent in Wisconsin. (See figs. 6 and 7.)




19
  First, VETS calculates, for each state, the percentage of veterans residing in each state in relation to
the total number of veterans in the United States. Next, VETS calculates the percentage of all veterans
in each state who have registered for assistance in the state’s local employment service offices in
relation to the total number of veterans in the United States who have registered for assistance in local
service employment offices. The last percentage calculation is the percentage of each state’s
full-service local employment service offices in relation to the total number of full-service local
employment services offices in the United States. Once these three percentages have been determined
for each state, VETS averages the percentages for each state and applies that average to the 161
positions.



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Figure 6: Cost per LVER Position, Fiscal Year 1997




                                          Source: VETS.




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Figure 7: LVER Administration and
Support Expenses as a Percentage of   Number of States
the Total Grant, Fiscal Year 1997     25




                                      20




                                      15




                                      10




                                       5




                                       0

                                             Under       20-24   25-29   30-34     35+
                                             20
                                             Percentage Spent on Administration and Support



                                      Source: VETS.




                                      (See app. VI for—by state, for fiscal year 1997—the LVER grant award, the
                                      number of projected positions, cost per position, and percentage of
                                      administrative and support costs.)


                                      Performance standards for the DVOP and LVER grants are measured in terms
Performance                           of providing a higher level of service and achieving better results for
Measurements for                      veterans than is achieved by a state’s employment service system for its
DVOP and LVER                         nonveteran applicants. In recent testimony,20 we criticized VETS’ current
                                      performance standards because they focus more on process than on
Staffing Grants                       results and noted that performance is evaluated only in relative, not
                                      absolute, terms. VETS officials are aware of weaknesses in the current
                                      performance measurement system and are currently assessing better ways
                                      to measure services provided to veterans and to evaluate the impact of
                                      those services. VETS would like to put greater emphasis on results, but VETS


                                      20
                                       Veterans’ Employment and Training Service: Focusing on Program Results to Improve Agency
                                      Performance (GAO/T-HEHS-97-129, May 7, 1997).



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                   is uncertain whether it will develop measures based on absolute levels of
                   service to veterans. Several states are conducting pilot programs to
                   measure alternative ways of measuring performance; however, states are
                   being held accountable to the current performance standards during the
                   pilot period.


VETS Performance   As required by federal law, VETS has established performance standards to
Measures           determine state compliance with requirements to provide employment
                   services to veterans, evaluating states in five service categories:
                   (1) veterans placed in or obtaining employment, (2) Vietnam-era veterans
                   and special disabled veterans placed in jobs on the Federal Contractor Job
                   Listing, (3) veterans counseled, (4) veterans placed in training, and
                   (5) veterans who received some reportable service. To ensure priority
                   service to veterans, VETS expects veterans to be served at a rate exceeding
                   the service to nonveterans. Veterans and eligible persons should be served
                   at a rate 15 percent higher than nonveterans, Vietnam-era veterans at a
                   rate 20 percent higher, and disabled veterans at a rate 25 percent higher.
                   Placement rates for special disabled veterans in jobs listed by federal
                   contractors should also be 25 percent higher than the rate for nonveterans.
                   Thus, if a state’s placement rate for nonveterans was 8.55 percent, the
                   placement rate for veterans should be 9.83, or 15 percent higher than the
                   nonveteran placement rate.

                   For program year 1995,21 the national placement rate for nonveterans was
                   20.4 percent and so the veterans’ placement standard was 23.5 percent.
                   The actual placement rate for veterans was 26.1 percent, which exceeded
                   the standard. (See table 1.) The only area where a substantial number of
                   states failed to meet the standards was in “reportable services.” In over
                   half of these cases, the state’s standard was at 100 percent or more. Iowa,
                   for instance, categorizes formulating employment development
                   plans—which also involves counseling and interviewing—as a reportable
                   service; because this is done for every employment service client, it is
                   impossible for veterans to be served at a higher rate than nonveterans.
                   (See app. VII for program year 1995 performance, by state, for all five
                   service categories.)




                   21
                    While DVOP and LVER funds are appropriated on a fiscal year basis, the grants operate on a program
                   year that runs from July 1 to June 30. For example, program year 1995 started on July 1, 1995, and
                   ended on June 30, 1996.



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Table 1: VETS National Performance
Standards and Results, Program Year                                                                              Standard          Actual
1995                                                                                                             (percent)      (percent)
                                      Placed/obtained employment
                                           Veterans and eligibles                                                      23.5           26.1
                                           Vietnam-era veterans                                                        24.5           25.2
                                           Disabled veterans                                                           25.5           30.5
                                      Federal Contractor Job Listing placements
                                           Vietnam-era veterans                                                        N/A             2.6
                                           Special disabled veterans                                                   N/A             4.4
                                      Counseled
                                           Veterans and eligibles                                                       4.3            7.2
                                           Vietnam-era veterans                                                         4.5            7.6
                                           Disabled veterans                                                            4.7           11.4
                                      Placed in training
                                           Veterans and eligibles                                                       0.6            1.1
                                           Vietnam-era veterans                                                         0.7            1.2
                                           Disabled veterans                                                            0.7            2.3
                                      Received reportable services
                                           Veterans and eligibles                                                      87.1           82.4
                                           Vietnam-era veterans                                                        90.9           82.3
                                           Disabled veterans                                                           94.6           85.4
                                      Note: N/A = not available.

                                      Source: VETS data.



                                      States must meet the minimum goals but can negotiate higher goals with
                                      the VETS state director.22 For program year 1995, 24 states negotiated
                                      higher goals for one or more of the veteran groups. For example, New
                                      York increased each goal by 1 percentage point simply because the state
                                      wanted to do a bit better than the floor levels established by VETS. Idaho
                                      increased all of its performance standard goals by 5 percentage points and
                                      met its goals. Wisconsin had increased all goals but failed to meet several
                                      performance standards during program year 1995; for program year 1996,
                                      Wisconsin renegotiated its goals to the minimum required level.



                                      22
                                        The minimum performance standards were used to calculate the national data in table 1, and this
                                      information was provided by VETS. Since each state VETS director negotiates the standards with the
                                      state employment service system, the national data are not a true compilation. Additionally, the
                                      information was derived from a report that blocked the Federal Contractor Job Listing placement data;
                                      therefore, Federal Contractor Job Listing standards could not be calculated.



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                                      The current system for measuring service to veterans sets the base
                                      standard to the number of nonveteran applicants served. Consequently, a
                                      state that has a poor level of service to nonveterans would be held to a
                                      lower standard for service to veterans than a state with a better overall
                                      performance. For example, in one state with a low placement rate for
                                      nonveteran applicants (5.62 percent) for program year 1995, the state was
                                      required to place 363 veteran applicants, or 6.47 percent of its total veteran
                                      applicants. In this instance, the state met its performance standard by
                                      placing 416 of its veteran applicants. On the other hand, a state with a
                                      higher placement rate for nonveterans did not meet its performance
                                      standard even though it placed nearly 22 percent of its veteran applicants.
                                      (See fig. 8.)


Figure 8: Placement Rates for
Nonveterans and Veterans/Eligibles,   30   Number of States
Program Year 1995

                                      25



                                      20



                                      15



                                      10



                                       5



                                       0

                                            0-10                    11-20     21-30           31-40            41-50
                                            Percentage Placed



                                                      Nonveterans

                                                      Veterans/Eligibles



                                      Source: VETS.




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                       VETS officials monitor state compliance with the performance standards
                       and are required to report annually to the Congress on the states’ success
                       in meeting the performance standards. If a state does not meet a
                       performance standard, VETS officials must decide either to accept the
                       state’s “good cause” explanation or to require a corrective action plan.
                       During program year 1995, VETS determined that all but 15 states met their
                       performance standards.23 Failure to meet one or more of the quantitative
                       performance standards, however, does not itself constitute failure to
                       provide priority services to veterans. State and regional VETS officials
                       identify other factors that may affect the delivery of quality services before
                       making any noncompliance determinations. For example, a state’s
                       placement rate for nonveteran applicants may be artificially inflated. In
                       particular, one state has numerous migrant seasonal farmworkers
                       registered at local employment service offices, thereby establishing an
                       artificially high baseline against which placement rates for veterans are
                       measured.


VETS Plans to Revise   VETS has directed its field staff and state partners to provide input
Performance Measures   regarding the development, piloting, and evaluation of new performance
                       measurement systems. VETS officials have characterized the present
                       measurement system as activity- and volume-driven, providing states little
                       incentive to focus services on those veterans who are marginally job ready
                       or are most in need of intensive employability development services.
                       According to the Acting Assistant Secretary for VETS, absolute levels of
                       performance would be desirable, but it would be difficult to establish
                       absolute standards that could take into account variances in state
                       situations such as economic factors and geographic size. However, VETS is
                       currently testing new ways of measuring performance. The states that are
                       piloting new initiatives are Connecticut, Idaho, Illinois, Montana, Nevada,
                       North Dakota, Ohio, and Utah. The proposed implementation plans for
                       each pilot must include intended start and ending dates, a full 12 months
                       of data, and pilot evaluation activity completed by July 31, 1998. During
                       the pilot testing period, states are still to be evaluated using the current
                       performance standards and goals.




                       23
                        Of these, 14 states were able to show good cause for their inability to meet the standards (Colorado,
                       Hawaii, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Dakota,
                       Utah, Virgin Islands, and West Virginia). The remaining state—Wisconsin—provided VETS with an
                       acceptable corrective action plan.



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                Federal eligibility requirements for appointing LVER and DVOP staff are
DVOP and LVER   based on veteran status. The law requires that each DVOP specialist be a
Position        veteran, and preference is given to disabled Vietnam-era veterans. If a
Requirements    qualified disabled Vietnam-era veteran is not available, preference is given
                to other disabled veterans. If no qualified disabled veteran is available, the
                appointment may be given to an otherwise qualified veteran. LVER staff
                appointed on or after July 1, 1988, must be veterans.24 Preference for LVER
                staff appointments is first accorded to veterans with service-connected
                disabilities; then, if no such disabled veteran is available, to qualified
                eligible veterans; and, if no such eligible veteran is available, then to
                qualified eligible nonveterans.

                Because DVOP and LVER staff are state employees, states are responsible for
                hiring staff, but the state VETS director is responsible for ensuring that the
                selected DVOP and LVER staff meet the federal eligibility requirements.
                When filling DVOP and LVER staff positions, states generally make a priority
                list from qualified and available candidates and, if candidates cannot be
                found that fit the federal eligibility requirements, the state would present
                the list to the state VETS director for concurrence. For example, one state
                VETS director said that he has never approved a nondisabled veteran for a
                DVOP specialist position, but he has approved a non-Vietnam-era veteran
                for one.

                In addition to federal eligibility requirements regarding veteran status,
                DVOP and LVER staff are hired in accordance with each state’s civil service
                merit system, which may include other position requirements and vary
                from state to state. Most states have educational requirements for both
                DVOP and LVER positions, usually requiring a Bachelor’s degree. (See fig. 9.)
                Over half the states (57 percent) required a 4-year college degree for LVER
                staff, and 44 percent of the states required a 4-year college degree for DVOP
                specialists; however, 15 states had no educational requirements for DVOP
                specialists, and 12 states had no educational requirements for LVER staff.




                24
                  Prior to this date, LVER staff were not required to be veterans. Nonveteran LVER staff already
                employed were “grandfathered” and allowed to keep their LVER positions. Six percent of the LVER
                staff reported they were not veterans.



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Figure 9: State Educational
Requirements for DVOP and LVER   Number of States
Staff                            30



                                 25



                                 20



                                 15



                                 10



                                  5



                                  0

                                        None                High School       Some College or   4-Year College
                                                            Diploma/GED       2-Year Degree     Degree
                                        Educational Requirement



                                                DVOP

                                                LVER



                                 Note: GED = general equivalency diploma.

                                 Source: GAO survey and interviews of state VETS directors.




                                 The majority of states required prior work experience, but generally states
                                 allowed the substitution of job experience for educational requirements or
                                 vice versa. For example, in New Mexico, the minimum qualification is a
                                 high school or general equivalency diploma (GED) plus any combination of
                                 college education and experience in social welfare, employment,
                                 manpower programs, or veterans programs, equivalent to 4 years.
                                 Delaware has no specific educational or experience requirements, but the
                                 job announcement requires that the applicants know the principles of
                                 interviewing and be able to communicate effectively both orally and in
                                 writing. A written examination is also given, and interviews are granted on
                                 the basis of applicants’ scores. Minnesota has no educational or
                                 experience requirements—nor has it any testing requirements.



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The LVER position generally had slightly higher requirements. For example,
in Hawaii, a Bachelor’s degree was required for both the DVOP and LVER
staff positions, but the DVOP specialist position required 1-1/2 years’
experience (in employment services, personnel administration, or related
fields and/or professional experience in social work or related fields),
while the LVER staff position required 3-1/2 years’ experience. In Illinois,
the DVOP specialist needed 1 year of college or equivalent experience, and
the LVER staff needed 2 years of college or equivalent experience. And in
South Carolina, there were no educational or prior work experience
requirements for the DVOP specialists; however, minimum requirements for
LVER staff were a Bachelor’s degree and 2 years’ experience in employment
security program areas, 1 year of which must have been in an
administrative capacity; or a high school diploma and 6 years in
employment security program areas, 1 year of which must have been in a
supervisory or administrative capacity.

DVOP  and LVER staff salaries varied from state to state. For example, at the
time we obtained our information, of the 50 states, the starting salary for
DVOP specialists ranged from $15,768 in Louisiana to $30,438 in Colorado,
with the average starting salary at $21,846.25 The full performance salary
for DVOP specialists ranged from $23,650 in South Dakota to $46,128 in
Colorado, with the average at $32,308. The starting salary for LVER staff
ranged from $15,768 in Louisiana to $32,544 in Hawaii, with the average
starting salary at $23,001. The full-performance salary of LVER staff ranged
from $23,650 in South Dakota to $56,061 in Colorado, with an average of
$34,739. (See fig. 10, and see app. VIII for starting and full-performance
DVOP and LVER staff salaries by state.)




25
 The range of salaries is representative of the 50 states; the averages represent the 50 states, the
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. We did not include the District of Columbia,
Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands in the ranges because Puerto Rico consistently had the lowest
salaries.



Page 23                                      GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
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Figure 10: DVOP and LVER Staff
Average Starting and Full-Performance   Dollars
Salaries                                35000


                                        30000


                                        25000


                                        20000


                                        15000


                                        10000


                                         5000


                                            0

                                                   DVOP               LVER
                                                   Average Salary



                                                           Starting

                                                           Full Performance



                                        Source: GAO surveys and interviews of state VETS directors.



                                        As federal law prescribes, virtually all DVOP specialists, at the time of our
DVOP and LVER Staff                     survey, were disabled, Vietnam-era veterans, but a slightly lower
Characteristics                         percentage of LVER staff were disabled, Vietnam-era veterans. All DVOP
                                        specialists were veterans and nearly all—95 percent—were disabled
                                        veterans. Ninety-three percent of DVOP specialists were Vietnam-era
                                        veterans. Nearly all LVER staff were veterans (94 percent), and 62 percent
                                        were disabled veterans. Although federal law does not prescribe that LVER
                                        staff be Vietnam-era veterans, 84 percent of all LVER staff were. DVOP and
                                        LVER staff had primarily served in the military for either 4 years or less, or
                                        20 years or more. (See fig. 11.) Many DVOP and LVER staff (33 and
                                        40 percent, respectively) had separated or retired from active military
                                        service during the 1970s. (See fig. 12.)




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Figure 11: DVOP and LVER
Staff—Length of Military Service, as of   50   Percentage
April/May 1997
                                          45

                                          40

                                          35

                                          30

                                          25

                                          20

                                          15

                                          10

                                           5

                                           0

                                                Up to 2   >2-4        >4-8   >8-12     >12-20   Over 20
                                                Years of Military Service



                                                            DVOP

                                                            LVER



                                          Source: GAO survey of DVOP and LVER staff.




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Figure 12: DVOP and LVER
Staff—Decade Separated/Retired From   50   Percentage
Active Duty, as of April/May 1997
                                      45

                                      40

                                      35

                                      30

                                      25

                                      20

                                      15

                                      10

                                       5

                                       0

                                            1940s    1950s    1960s    1970s       1980s   1990s
                                            Decade Separated/Retired



                                                        DVOP

                                                        LVER



                                      Source: GAO survey of DVOP and LVER staff.




                                      Half of all DVOP specialists had a 4-year college degree, and a slightly higher
                                      percentage of all LVER staff (56 percent) had a 4-year degree. (See fig. 13.)
                                      Many of these DVOP and LVER staff had some graduate school training, and
                                      nearly 10 percent of both DVOP and LVER staff had obtained Master’s
                                      degrees.




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Figure 13: Educational Attainment of
DVOP and LVER Staff, as of             50   Percentage
April/May 1997
                                       45

                                       40

                                       35

                                       30

                                       25

                                       20

                                       15

                                       10

                                        5

                                        0

                                             High School        Some College or     4-Year College   Graduate School
                                             Degree/GED         2-Year Degree       Degree
                                             Education Level



                                                         DVOP

                                                         LVER



                                       Source: GAO survey of DVOP and LVER staff.




                                       Over half of the DVOP specialists and 46 percent of LVER staff reported that
                                       they had been in their positions for less than 5 years. A quarter of all DVOP
                                       specialists and about a third of all LVER staff had been in their positions
                                       more than 5 but less than 10 years. Roughly similar proportions of DVOP
                                       specialists (12 percent) and LVER staff (10 percent) had been in their
                                       positions over 15 years.

                                       Generally, DVOP and LVER staff were white, male, and over 45. For DVOP
                                       specialists, 9 percent reported that they were of Spanish or Hispanic
                                       descent, 20 percent were African American, and 71 percent were white.
                                       For LVER staff, 7 percent reported that they were of Spanish or Hispanic
                                       descent, 13 percent were African American, and 81 percent were white.
                                       Additionally, the vast majority of DVOP specialists (94 percent) and LVER
                                       staff (92 percent) were male. Few DVOP and LVER staff were under the age




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                                   of 40, and about a third of DVOP and LVER staff were aged 46 to 50. (See fig.
                                   14.)


Figure 14: Ages of DVOP and LVER
Staff, as of April/May 1997        50   Percent

                                   45

                                   40

                                   35

                                   30

                                   25

                                   20

                                   15

                                   10

                                    5

                                    0

                                         40 and   41-45    46-50    51-55       56-60   Over 60
                                         Under
                                         Age Groups



                                                  DVOP

                                                  LVER



                                   Source: GAO survey of DVOP and LVER staff.



                                   Although the authorizing legislation lists many job duties for DVOP and LVER
DVOP and LVER Staff                staff serving veterans, DVOP and LVER staff reported spending the majority
Duties and Activities              of their time on two duties. Most clients served by DVOP and LVER staff need
                                   minimal assistance, but DVOP and LVER staff spend relatively more time
                                   with clients needing extensive services like case management. DVOP and
                                   LVER staff work with employers, veterans’ organizations, federal agencies,
                                   and community-based organizations to match veterans with jobs and
                                   training opportunities. For example, as a part of networking efforts with
                                   other veterans’ employment services, DVOP and LVER staff work with VR&C
                                   clients to find employment opportunities, and some participate in TAP
                                   activities for separating service members.




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Few Activities                          According to our survey, the two duties that both DVOP and LVER staff spent
Predominate                             the most time on were (1) job search and referral and (2) intake and
                                        assessment. (See table 2.)

Table 2: Activities on Which DVOP and
LVER Staff Spent Most of Their Time,    Numbers in percent
as of April/May 1997                    Activity                                                            DVOP         LVER
                                        Job search and referral                                               71.7        76.7
                                        Intake and assessment                                                 55.3        61.7
                                        Outreach activities to locate and assist veterans                     23.6          2.8
                                        Job development for a specific veteran                                18.9        16.6
                                        Vocational guidance (labor market information)                        16.5        20.2
                                        Veterans’ counseling (choice, change, adjustment)                     15.9        13.6
                                        Referral to other services for a veteran’s specific needs             15.9        12.0
                                        Individual case management (case file)                                14.9          7.5
                                        Employer outreach (such as federal contractors,
                                        federal/state/local government, private industry)                     13.8        13.3
                                        Coordinate and/or facilitate the TAP workshops                         7.9          3.0
                                        Coordinating with VA on VR&C clients                                   6.3          1.3
                                        Networking within the local community on behalf of veterans            6.0          5.2
                                        Career counseling                                                      4.5          3.4
                                        Monitoring and reporting on veterans’ services                         2.0        15.2
                                        Functionally supervising the provision of veterans’ services
                                        within the local employment services office                            1.3        24.2
                                        Developing apprenticeship and on-the-job training
                                        opportunities                                                          0.6          0.7
                                        Educating employment service staff on services to veterans             0.4          3.5
                                        Source: GAO survey of DVOP and LVER staff.



                                        Representative of their different job duties, DVOP specialists’ third most
                                        time-consuming activity was outreach activities to locate and assist
                                        veterans, while LVER staff reported that functionally supervising the
                                        provision of veterans’ services within their local employment service
                                        office was the third most time-consuming activity. Even though job search
                                        and referral was reported by both DVOP and LVER staff as the activity on
                                        which they spent the most time, they reported that they would like to have
                                        more time for this activity. The DVOP and LVER staff also reported that they
                                        needed more time for employer outreach and individual case management.
                                        Additionally, DVOP and LVER staff reported spending about 83 percent of
                                        their time on their top three activities.




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                         In response to our survey, more than half of DVOP and LVER staff provided
                         unsolicited comments. Several comments related to needing more time to
                         perform certain duties. For example, one respondent commented that he
                         is often “spread too thinly” to do an adequate job in case management and
                         must concentrate on serving the walk-in traffic because the local
                         employment office staff has dwindled as a result of budget reductions.
                         Another respondent offered a similar comment regarding time for
                         employer outreach; he noted that, because of office downsizing, he was
                         unable to visit employers and had to rely on the telephone to perform
                         outreach. Another respondent stated that it is a struggle to get the
                         necessary time for outreach activities because the local office manager
                         wants the staff in the office attending to veterans. Additionally, although
                         the law specifies that DVOP specialists provide assistance to veterans
                         exclusively and VETS’ policy requires that LVER staff (except for half-time
                         LVER staff) serve veterans exclusively, DVOP and LVER staff—about 8 percent
                         of the sampled respondents—noted that they were required to provide
                         employment services to nonveterans. (See app. IX for a content analysis of
                         a sample of DVOP and LVER survey comments.)


Client Characteristics   DVOP  and LVER staff classified the proportion of their clients into three
                         levels of need. Level I clients were defined as job ready and able to serve
                         themselves; level II clients were those that needed minimal information
                         and direction such as assistance with job search, resume preparation, or
                         interview skills; and level III clients had barriers to employment, needing
                         extensive services like case management. DVOP and LVER staff mainly
                         served level II clients (44 and 47 percent, respectively), but DVOP
                         specialists served more level III clients (28 percent) than did LVER staff
                         (21 percent). However, DVOP and LVER staff spent relatively more time with
                         level III clients (40 and 34 percent, respectively)—those needing more
                         extensive assistance—than with level I clients (20 and 21 percent,
                         respectively). (See figs. 15 and 16.)




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Figure 15: DVOP Client Characteristics
and Time Allocated to Clients by DVOP    50   Percentage
Specialists, as of April/May 1997

                                         40




                                         30




                                         20




                                         10




                                          0

                                               Level I                 Level II             Level III
                                               Client Level



                                                           Percentage of Clients Served

                                                           Percentage of Time Spent



                                         Source: GAO survey of DVOP and LVER staff.




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Figure 16: LVER Client Characteristics
and Time Allocated to Clients by LVER    50   Percentage
Staff, as of April/May 1997

                                         40




                                         30




                                         20




                                         10




                                          0

                                                Level I                Level II             Level III
                                                Client Level



                                                           Percentage of Clients Served

                                                           Percentage of Time Spent



                                         Source: GAO survey of DVOP and LVER staff.




Many DVOP and LVER                       About 70 percent of DVOP specialists and 60 percent of LVER staff serve VR&C
Staff Serve VR&C Clients;                clients;26 however, individual DVOP and LVER staff reported serving
Fewer Work With TAP                      relatively few VR&C clients in the 6-month period covered by our survey.
                                         Sixty percent of DVOP specialists served seven or fewer VR&C clients during
                                         this period, and 70 percent of LVER staff served seven or fewer VR&C clients.
                                         State VETS directors explained that since a memorandum of understanding
                                         was signed August 1, 1995, between VETS and VR&C, networking efforts
                                         between DVOP and LVER staff and VR&C staff have generally improved. They
                                         said a point of contact is usually established within the state’s employment
                                         service office and this individual obtains information from VR&C regarding

                                         26
                                           VR&C clients are veterans who have been identified by VA as having a 20-percent or higher
                                         service-connected disability and having an employment handicap—defined as an impairment of a
                                         veteran’s ability to prepare for, obtain, or retain employment. Veterans with a 10-percent
                                         service-connected disability may also be eligible for VR&C services if they have a serious employment
                                         handicap. Veterans found eligible for VR&C service can receive up to 48 months of benefits during a
                                         12-year period. While in the VR&C program, veterans receive services and equipment that may be
                                         required for beginning employment. They may also receive educational and vocational training and
                                         special rehabilitative services.



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                                        clients who are job ready; the point of contact then refers the client to the
                                        appropriate DVOP or LVER staff in the area where the client would like to
                                        work. One respondent said that, since the latest agreement between VETS
                                        and VR&C, there is better cooperation between VR&C staff and the DVOP and
                                        LVER staff; this allows all parties to do the work for which they are most
                                        qualified—the VR&C staff are specialists in counseling and providing
                                        training, and the DVOP and LVER staff have the contacts with local
                                        employers and other advocates to help veterans find gainful employment.
                                        At the time of our survey, four states had 90 percent or more of their staff
                                        providing some assistance to VR&C clients, while six states had less than
                                        half their staff providing some assistance to VR&C clients. (See fig. 17.)


Figure 17: Percentage of DVOP and
LVER Staff Assisting VR&C Clients, as   20   Number of States
of April/May 1997


                                        15




                                        10




                                         5




                                         0

                                              0-50      50.1-60   60.1-70   70.1-80    80.1-90   90.1+
                                              Percentage of Staff Assisting VR&C Clients



                                        Source: GAO survey of DVOP and LVER staff.




                                        Less than a quarter of both DVOP and LVER staff performed TAP duties.
                                        Seventy percent of those DVOP specialists and 85 percent of those LVER staff
                                        spent up to 6 days per month on TAP activities. TAP operates as a
                                        partnership between the Departments of Labor, Defense, and Veterans
                                        Affairs, and its activities generally involve conducting workshops to help
                                        military personnel and their spouses make decisions as they move from



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                                       military service to civilian life and to help transfer military experience into
                                       a civilian job or career. Workshops include instruction in conducting
                                       successful job searches, career decision-making, current occupational and
                                       labor market conditions, and resumé and cover letter preparation. A
                                       respondent to our survey noted that TAP is vital for military members
                                       separating from the service and there is a high success rate of veterans
                                       finding jobs that have had TAP classes. Another respondent noted that both
                                       programs—VR&C and TAP—are invaluable and result in putting informed,
                                       productive workers into the labor pool or directly into jobs with
                                       employers. Because TAP activities are related to the presence of military
                                       bases in a state, nine states at the time of our survey had relatively few
                                       staff engaged in TAP activities, while nine states had 30 percent or more of
                                       their DVOP and LVER staff engaged in some TAP activities. (See fig. 18.)


Figure 18: Percentage of DVOP and
LVER Staff Providing TAP Assistance,   20    Number of States
as of April/May 1997


                                       15




                                       10




                                        5




                                        0
                                               .5



                                                            .0



                                                                      .5



                                                                                .0



                                                                                          .5



                                                                                                  .6+
                                             0-7



                                                       -15




                                                                  22



                                                                            30



                                                                                      37



                                                                                                 37
                                                                 .1-



                                                                           .6-



                                                                                     .1-
                                                      7.6



                                                                 15



                                                                           22



                                                                                     30




                                            Percentage of Staff Providing TAP Assistance



                                       Source: GAO survey of DVOP and LVER staff.



                                       In commenting on our draft report, the Assistant Secretary-designate said
Agency Comments                        that Labor had no disagreement with the information it contained. He
                                       suggested three minor wording changes to help clarify information, and



                                       Page 34                                            GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
B-275189




we incorporated these changes, as appropriate, in the report. Furthermore,
in reacting to comments on our questionnaire from DVOP and LVER staff,
Labor said that VETS does not allow DVOP and LVER staff to provide services
to nonveterans and will recapture funds from states if office reviews
uncover evidence of this activity. Labor also commented that our report
showed a number of DVOP and LVER staff responding that their computer
capability was insufficient, and VETS said that it will continue to encourage
states to address this issue. Finally, Labor noted that comments indicated
improved coordination between DVOP and LVER staff and the VR&C program.
The Department’s comments are printed in appendix XI.


We are sending copies of this report to the Secretary of Labor and the
Secretary of the Department of Veterans Affairs, relevant congressional
committees, and other interested parties. Copies will be made available to
others upon request.

If you or your staff have any questions concerning this report, please call
me at (202) 512-7014 or Sigurd R. Nilsen at (202) 512-7003. GAO contacts
and staff acknowledgments are listed in appendix XII.

Sincerely yours,




Carlotta C. Joyner
Director, Education and
  Employment Issues




Page 35                          GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
Contents



Letter                                                                         1


Appendix I                                                                    42

Scope and
Methodology
Appendix II                                                                   44

DVOP and LVER
Authorized and
Funded Positions,
Fiscal Years 1990-97
Appendix III                                                                  45

Statutory Formula for
DVOP Specialist
Positions and
Statutory Positions
for Fiscal Year 1997
Appendix IV                                                                   48

Fiscal Year 1997
DVOP Positions, Cost
per Position,
Administration and
Support Percentage,
and Initial Grant
Award




                        Page 36   GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                        Contents




Appendix V                                                                     50

Statutory Formula for
LVER Staff Positions
and Statutory
Positions for Fiscal
Year 1997
Appendix VI                                                                    53

Fiscal Year 1997 LVER
Positions, Cost per
Position,
Administration and
Support Percentage,
and Initial Grant
Award
Appendix VII                                                                   55

Program Year 1995
Applicants and
Veterans’
Performance
Standards
Appendix VIII                                                                  65

DVOP and LVER
Starting and
Full-Performance
Salaries




                        Page 37    GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                         Contents




Appendix IX                                                                                         67

Content Analysis of
DVOP and LVER
Survey Comments
Appendix X                                                                                          74

Tables Supporting
Figures in Report Text
Appendix XI                                                                                         78

Comments From the
Department of Labor
Appendix XII                                                                                        80

GAO Contacts and
Staff
Acknowledgments
Tables                   Table 1: VETS National Performance Standards and Results,                  18
                           Program Year 1995
                         Table 2: Activities on Which DVOP and LVER Staff Spent Most of             29
                           Their Time, as of April/May 1997
                         Table III.1: Statutory DVOP Positions for Fiscal Year 1997                 46
                         Table V.1: Statutory LVER Positions for Fiscal Year 1997                   50
                         Table VII.1: Number of Applicants for Program Year 1995                    55
                         Table VII.2: Percentage Placed/Obtaining Employment for                    56
                           Program Year 1995
                         Table VII.3: Percentage of Federal Contractor Job Listing                  58
                           Placements
                         Table VII.4: Percentage Counseled in Program Year 1995                     60
                         Table VII.5: Percentage Placed in Training in Program Year 1995            61
                         Table VII.6: Percentage Receiving Reportable Services in                   63
                           Program Year 1995
                         Table IX.1: Major Categories of Comments Analyzed                          68
                         Table X.1: Data for Figure 4—1997 Cost per DVOP Position                   74




                         Page 38                        GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
          Contents




          Table X.2: Data for Figure 5—1997 DVOP Administrative and                  74
            Support Expenses
          Table X.3: Data for Figure 6—1997 Cost per LVER Position                   74
          Table X.4: Data for Figure 7—1997 LVER Administrative and                  75
            Support Expense
          Table X.5: Data for Figure 8—Placement Rate for Nonveterans                75
            and Veterans
          Table X.6: Data for Figure 9—DVOP and LVER Educational                     75
            Requirements
          Table X.7: Data for Figure 10—DVOP and LVER Average Starting               75
            and Full-Performance Salaries
          Table X.8: Data for Figure 11—DVOP and LVER Length of                      75
            Military Service
          Table X.9: Data for Figure 12—DVOP and LVER Decade                         76
            Separated/Retired From Active Duty
          Table X.10: Data for Figure 13—Educational Attainment of DVOP              76
            and LVER Staff
          Table X.11: Data for Figure 14—Age of DVOP and LVER Staff                  76
          Table X.12: Data for Figure 15—DVOP Client Characteristics and             76
            Time Allocation
          Table X.13: Data for Figure 16—LVER Client Characteristics and             77
            Time Allocation
          Table X.14: Data for Figure 17—Percentage of DVOP and LVER                 77
            Staff Assisting VR&C Clients
          Table X.15: Data for Figure 18—Percentage of DVOP and LVER                 77
            Staff Providing TAP Assistance

Figures   Figure 1: VETS’ Actual and Inflation-Adjusted Budget, Fiscal                7
            Years 1987-96
          Figure 2: Authorized and Funded DVOP Positions for Fiscal Years             8
            1990-97
          Figure 3: Authorized and Funded LVER Positions for Fiscal Years             9
            1990-97
          Figure 4: Cost per DVOP Position, Fiscal Year 1997                         12
          Figure 5: DVOP Administration and Support Expenses as a                    13
            Percentage of the Total Grant, Fiscal Year 1997
          Figure 6: Cost per LVER Position, Fiscal Year 1997                         15
          Figure 7: LVER Administration and Support Expenses as a                    16
            Percentage of the Total Grant, Fiscal Year 1997
          Figure 8: Placement Rates for Nonveterans and                              19
            Veterans/Eligibles, Program Year 1995




          Page 39                        GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
Contents




Figure 9: State Educational Requirements for DVOP and LVER                 22
  Staff
Figure 10: DVOP and LVER Staff Average Starting and                        24
  Full-Performance Salaries
Figure 11: DVOP and LVER Staff—Length of Military Service, as              25
  of April/May 1997
Figure 12: DVOP and LVER Staff—Decade Separated/Retired                    26
  From Active Duty, as of April/May 1997
Figure 13: Educational Attainment of DVOP and LVER Staff, as of            27
  April/May 1997
Figure 14: Ages of DVOP and LVER Staff, as of April/May 1997               28
Figure 15: DVOP Client Characteristics and Time Allocated to               31
  Clients by DVOP Specialists, as of April/May 1997
Figure 16: LVER Client Characteristics and Time Allocated to               32
  Clients by LVER Staff, as of April/May 1997
Figure 17: Percentage of DVOP and LVER Staff Assisting VR&C                33
  Clients, as of April/May 1997
Figure 18: Percentage of DVOP and LVER Staff Providing TAP                 34
  Assistance, as of April/May 1997




Abbreviations

DVOP       Disabled Veterans’ Outreach Program
GED        general equivalency diploma
LVER       Local Veterans’ Employment Representative
TAP        Transition Assistance Program
VA         Department of Veterans Affairs
VETS       Veterans’ Employment and Training Service
VR&C       Vocational Rehabilitation and Counseling Service


Page 40                        GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
Page 41   GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
Appendix I

Scope and Methodology


             In designing our study, we obtained legislation, regulations, and Veterans’
             Employment and Training Service (VETS) directives regarding the Disabled
             Veterans’ Outreach Program (DVOP) and Local Veterans’ Employment
             Representative (LVER) grants to states. We met with VETS officials
             responsible for administering the grants, who provided us documentation
             regarding the DVOP and LVER appropriations, program operating
             procedures, program management reports, and information about how
             funds are allocated to states. Because VETS does not maintain centralized,
             historical files on DVOP and LVER grants, officials could not provide us
             reports indicating the number of DVOP and LVER positions that were
             actually funded for past fiscal years nor could they provide historical
             documents on the number of statutorily required positions by state. From
             their budget documents, VETS officials provided the number of statutorily
             required positions for fiscal years 1990 through 1997 at the time VETS’
             budget was submitted.27 VETS also provided the total number of positions
             states reported that they could support with the DVOP and LVER grant
             appropriations rather than the actual number of positions funded.

             To understand how DVOP and LVER grants are implemented at the state
             level, we visited two states, Colorado and Pennsylvania, interviewing state
             and regional VETS directors as well as state employment service system
             officials, including DVOP and LVER staff. We also telephoned the VETS
             directors in each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico,
             and the Virgin Islands (collectively referred to in this report as “the
             states”) to obtain state-specific information about the operation of the
             DVOP and LVER grants in all states. We conducted these telephone
             interviews during December 1996 and January 1997. We obtained
             information such as the salaries for DVOP and LVER staff, state qualification
             requirements for DVOP and LVER staff, state compliance with VETS
             performance standards, and state implementation of the memorandum of
             understanding between VETS and the Vocational Rehabilitation and
             Counseling Program (VR&C).

             To obtain information about the characteristics of DVOP and LVER staff and
             how they spend their time, we surveyed all DVOP and LVER staff. Because
             DVOP and LVER staff are state employees, VETS could not tell us the number
             of staff at a particular time; consequently, there was no database

             27
               For fiscal year 1997, the number of statutorily required DVOP positions provided to us by VETS was
             2,008. When we requested the VETS documentation of its DVOP position allocation, the total was
             2,044. VETS officials explained that the difference occurred because the initial allocation computation
             was done in January 1996 and the DVOP population data used were subsequently updated, which
             revised the number. However, they commented that the revised number was not used in any actual
             VETS allocation and that the DVOP grant appropriation funded fewer DVOP positions than either of
             these figures.



             Page 42                                      GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
Appendix I
Scope and Methodology




containing the names and addresses of all DVOP and LVER staff. We obtained
a listing of DVOP and LVER staff who had attended the National Veterans’
Training Institute and verified and updated the listing with each state VETS
director as well as the state administrators of each state’s employment
service system. Surveys were sent to a total of 2,862 DVOP and LVER
staff—those on board as of March 1997—almost evenly divided between
DVOP specialists and LVER staff. By May 30, 1997, nearly 96 percent of the
DVOP and LVER staff had responded to the survey.


More than half of the survey respondents provided additional comments at
the end of the survey document, and we analyzed the content of a sample
of these comments. An initial random pretest of 5 percent (76) was
selected and coded independently by two analysts to reduce coder bias
and ambiguity in making judgments in determining the categories. For the
content analysis, a total of 25 percent (378) of the 1,513 surveys with
comments were randomly selected and coded into 14 categories.
Examples of typical comments and a quantitative content analysis of the
comments are in appendix IX.

We conducted our work between June 1996 and July 1997 in accordance
with generally accepted government auditing standards.




Page 43                          GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
Appendix II

DVOP and LVER Authorized and Funded
Positions, Fiscal Years 1990-97


                                  DVOP             DVOP
                              specialists      specialists     LVER staff       LVER staff
              Year            authorized          funded       authorized          funded
              1990                 1,881            1,786            1,600           1,538
              1991                 1,883            1,766            1,600           1,500
              1992                 1,885            1,702            1,600           1,499
              1993                 1,885            1,843            1,600           1,566
              1994                 1,884            1,845            1,600           1,568
              1995                 1,968            1,698            1,600           1,454
              1996                 1,999            1,568            1,600           1,326
              1997                 2,008            1,568            1,600           1,340
              Source: VETS.




              Page 44                       GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
Appendix III

Statutory Formula for DVOP Specialist
Positions and Statutory Positions for Fiscal
Year 1997
                To determine the number of DVOP specialists authorized for each state, a
                sum is taken of (1) the number of veterans residing in a state who are
                Vietnam- and post-Vietnam-era veterans and (2) the state’s number of
                disabled veterans—those veterans residing in a state who are receiving
                either Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) compensation or military
                disability compensation through either a medical discharge or retirement.
                These disabled veterans could also be included in the number of Vietnam-
                and post-Vietnam-era veterans. This sum represents the “DVOP population”
                and is divided by 6,900 to determine the number of DVOP specialists
                authorized per state by U.S.C. title 38. For example, for fiscal year 1997,
                Connecticut had 136,000 Vietnam- and post-Vietnam-era veterans and
                23,368 disabled veterans, who, added together, represent a DVOP
                population of 159,368. This number, when divided by 6,900, gives
                Connecticut 23 DVOP specialist positions according to the title 38 formula.

                VETS publishes the number of states’ statutory positions for the first year of
                a multiyear grant period. While VETS recalculates the formula positions for
                each remaining year within the grant period for its own budget estimating
                purposes, it does not publish these statutory funding levels each year.
                Because VETS could not provide the calculations used for the fiscal year
                1995 grants, the information in table III.1 shows the most recent data
                provided by VETS for the number of authorized positions in fiscal year 1997.
                At the time VETS submitted its fiscal year 1997 congressional budget
                request, the number of statutory positions was 2,008. For this table, the
                subsequent number of statutory positions is 2,044. However, VETS officials
                noted that this revised number has not been used in any staffing decisions
                by VETS because the appropriation for fiscal year 1997 was well below the
                amount that could have supported the number of statutory positions.




                Page 45                           GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                                           Appendix III
                                           Statutory Formula for DVOP Specialist
                                           Positions and Statutory Positions for Fiscal
                                           Year 1997




Table III.1: Statutory DVOP Positions for Fiscal Year 1997
                                         Veteran population                                           1997 DVOP            DVOP
                                           Vietnam-era and                            1997 DVOP       specialists population vs.
State                        Total        post-Vietnam-era            Disabled        population       authorized labor force (%)
Alabama                    427,000                    187,000            49,352            236,352             34            11.3
Alaska                      65,000                     42,000             8,265             50,265              7            15.6
Arizona                    459,000                    223,000            47,900            270,900             39            11.9
Arkansas                   258,000                    108,000            30,185            138,185             20            11.2
California               2,818,000                   1,559,000         205,592            1,764,592          256             11.1
Colorado                   385,000                    201,000            41,466            242,466             35            11.3
Connecticut                339,000                    136,000            23,368            159,368             23              9.2
Delaware                    78,000                     35,000             6,648             41,648              6            10.7
District of Columbia        50,000                     20,000             5,562             25,562              4              9.6
Florida                  1,709,000                    628,000          187,827             815,827           118             11.4
Georgia                    685,000                    357,000            71,466            428,466             62            11.1
Hawaii                     116,000                     57,000            11,248             68,248             10            11.6
Idaho                      112,000                     51,000            11,383             62,383              9              9.8
Illinois                 1,074,000                    453,000            58,589            511,589             74              8.4
Indiana                    593,000                    267,000            39,649            306,649             44              9.9
Iowa                       291,000                    121,000            19,630            140,630             20              8.7
Kansas                     263,000                    116,000            22,121            138,121             20            10.0
Kentucky                   367,000                    163,000            34,819            197,819             29            10.3
Louisiana                  378,000                    166,000            33,936            199,936             29              9.9
Maine                      153,000                     72,000            16,264             88,264             13            13.2
Maryland                   530,000                    252,000            42,466            294,466             43            10.6
Massachusetts              594,000                    231,000            68,669            299,669             43              9.3
Michigan                   949,000                    434,000            57,462            491,462             71            10.1
Minnesota                  462,000                    209,000            36,750            245,750             36              9.2
Mississippi                233,000                     98,000            25,177            123,177             18              9.7
Missouri                   586,000                    253,000            43,813            296,813             43            10.4
Montana                     95,000                     41,000            10,258             51,258              7            11.2
Nebraska                   168,000                     72,000            14,865             86,865             13              9.4
Nevada                     186,000                     81,000            18,533             99,533             14            11.2
New Hampshire              135,000                     65,000            13,589             78,589             11            12.1
New Jersey                 741,000                    277,000            59,329            336,329             49              8.1
New Mexico                 172,000                     81,000            21,058            102,058             15            12.4
New York                 1,538,000                    620,000          123,675             743,675           108               8.5
North Carolina             711,000                    332,000            72,121            404,121             59            10.6
North Dakota                59,000                     26,000             5,826             31,826              5              9.1
                                                                                                                       (continued)


                                           Page 46                                 GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                                 Appendix III
                                 Statutory Formula for DVOP Specialist
                                 Positions and Statutory Positions for Fiscal
                                 Year 1997




                              Veteran population                                                   1997 DVOP            DVOP
                                 Vietnam-era and                               1997 DVOP           specialists population vs.
State                 Total     post-Vietnam-era              Disabled         population           authorized labor force (%)
Ohio              1,188,000                520,000               89,958            609,958                   88                 10.6
Oklahoma           350,000                 147,000               42,772            189,772                   28                 11.9
Oregon             371,000                 165,000               31,292            196,292                   28                 11.5
Pennsylvania      1,363,000                528,000             101,778             629,778                   91                 10.5
                                                    a
Puerto Rico        130,874                                       19,159            150,033                   10                 11.5
Rhode Island       109,000                   42,000              11,410              53,410                    8                10.7
South Carolina     380,000                 182,000               37,656            219,656                   32                 11.6
South Dakota        74,000                   32,000               7,816              39,816                    6                10.2
Tennessee          516,000                 235,000               48,154            283,154                   41                 10.3
Texas             1,647,000                774,000             175,332             949,332                  138                  9.6
Utah               138,000                   58,000              12,935              70,935                  10                  6.8
Vermont             62,000                   29,000               5,139              34,139                    5                10.4
Virginia           705,000                 349,000               76,457            425,457                   62                 12.1
                                                    a
Virgin Islands        4,822                                         367               5,189                    0                N/A
Washington         631,000                 305,000               67,492            372,492                   54                 12.7
West Virginia      199,000                   78,000              19,281              97,281                  14                 12.2
Wisconsin          507,000                 219,000               40,176            259,176                   38                  8.9
Wyoming             48,000                   22,000               4,906              26,906                    4                10.5
National total   26,202,696             11,719,000           2,330,941          14,185,637                2,044                 10.3

                                 Notes: The veteran population numbers were the most recently available data at the time VETS
                                 calculated the number of statutory positions.

                                 N/A = not applicable.
                                 a
                                 Data by war period are not available.

                                 Sources: VETS and U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (labor force data for
                                 May 1977).




                                 Page 47                                    GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
Appendix IV

Fiscal Year 1997 DVOP Positions, Cost per
Position, Administration and Support
Percentage, and Initial Grant Award

                                                                            DVOP
                                                       Cost per     administration
                                         DVOP            DVOP         and support DVOP initial
               State                  positions        position          (percent) grant award
               Alabama                      27          $45,481                23.0   $1,228,000
               Alaska                        6           67,333                17.8      404,000
               Arizona                      29           39,793                31.3    1,154,000
               Arkansas                     13           43,923                25.4      571,000
               California                  180           64,894                23.5   11,681,000
               Colorado                     24           66,333                27.9    1,592,000
               Connecticut                  18           66,111                25.3    1,190,000
               Delaware                      5           43,400                18.0      217,000
               District of Columbia          3           66,667                29.5      200,000
               Florida                      94           39,989                28.4    3,759,000
               Georgia                      50           42,280                26.2    2,114,000
               Hawaii                        9           60,889                27.7      548,000
               Idaho                         8           48,625                21.3      389,000
               Illinois                     59           64,627                31.4    3,813,000
               Indiana                      33           40,727                33.9    1,344,000
               Iowa                         11           58,182                33.9      640,000
               Kansas                       14           47,143                26.2      660,000
               Kentucky                     24           35,500                20.8      852,000
               Louisiana                    27           35,000                20.1      945,000
               Maine                         9           52,111                34.8      469,000
               Maryland                     32           51,500                34.4    1,648,000
               Massachusetts                33           60,030                29.5    1,981,000
               Michigan                     54           63,667                24.1    3,438,000
               Minnesota                    24           57,875                25.0    1,389,000
               Mississippi                  15           38,800                23.0      582,000
               Missouri                     32           43,406                22.0    1,389,000
               Montana                       6           42,167                23.3      253,000
               Nebraska                     10           41,000                26.3      410,000
               Nevada                        8           61,125                23.1      489,000
               New Hampshire                 8           54,625                34.1      437,000
               New Jersey                   40           51,825                18.6    2,073,000
               New Mexico                   12           39,833                26.2      478,000
               New York                     89           66,899                26.4    5,954,000
               North Carolina               46           38,565                21.4    1,774,000
               North Dakota                  3           44,667                24.6      134,000
               Ohio                         70           53,200                23.4    3,724,000
                                                                                      (continued)


               Page 48                            GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
Appendix IV
Fiscal Year 1997 DVOP Positions, Cost per
Position, Administration and Support
Percentage, and Initial Grant Award




                                                                         DVOP
                                                  Cost per       administration
                                  DVOP              DVOP           and support DVOP initial
State                          positions          position            (percent) grant award
Oklahoma                                22          46,182                   24.8       1,016,000
Oregon                                  22          50,273                   24.9       1,106,000
Pennsylvania                            66          50,803                   21.7       3,353,000
Puerto Rico                              9          24,222                   23.4           218,000
Rhode Island                             6          55,500                   23.7           333,000
South Carolina                          27          35,926                   21.0           970,000
South Dakota                             4          41,500                   27.7           166,000
Tennessee                               32          37,000                   22.5       1,184,000
Texas                                 103           43,883                   18.6       4,520,000
Utah                                     8          48,625                   27.8           389,000
Vermont                                  4          45,000                   20.6           180,000
Virginia                                52          43,231                   26.2       2,248,000
Virgin Islands                        N/A              N/A                    N/A              N/A
Washington                              44          60,500                   26.4       2,662,000
West Virginia                           12          31,000                   21.5           372,000
Wisconsin                               27          65,667                   35.1       1,773,000
Wyoming                                  3          42,667                   21.9           128,000
National total                      1,566                                            $80,541,000
National average                                   $51,431                   25.3

Notes: Fiscal year 1997 DVOP positions, cost per position, and administration and support
percentages are projected numbers.

N/A = not applicable.

Source: VETS.




Page 49                                      GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
Appendix V

Statutory Formula for LVER Staff Positions
and Statutory Positions for Fiscal Year 1997

                                            The following is an example of the LVER formula calculation for the state of
                                            Minnesota for fiscal year 1997. Minnesota had 31 LVER positions as of
                                            January 1, 1987. In addition, VETS data showed that Minnesota had

                                        •   a total of 462,000 veterans residing in the state compared with 26,202,696
                                            veterans residing in the United States (462,000/26,202,696 = 1.76 percent),
                                        •   a total of 35,357 veterans who registered for assistance compared with
                                            2,299,303 veterans who registered in the United States (35,357/2,299,303 =
                                            1.54 percent), and
                                        •   21 full-service local employment services offices compared with 1,920
                                            full-service employment services offices in the United States (21/1,920 =
                                            1.10 percent).

                                            To continue the calculation, VETS adds the three percentages (1.76 + 1.54 +
                                            1.10 = 4.40), then divides by 3 (4.40/3 = 1.47). VETS then applies 1.47 to the
                                            161 positions, which would give Minnesota an additional 2 positions (161 x
                                            .0147 = 2). To complete the calculation, VETS takes the number of positions
                                            Minnesota had on board as of January 1, 1987, plus 1, then adds in the 2
                                            additional positions resulting from the percentage calculations (31 + 1 = 32
                                            + 2 = 34), giving Minnesota 34 formula-level LVER positions for fiscal year
                                            1997.


Table V.1: Statutory LVER Positions for Fiscal Year 1997
                            LVER staffing
                               as of Jan. 1,             Total veteran Total full-service job   Total veterans       1997 LVER
State                                  1987 Plus one       population        service offices        registered staff authorized
Alabama                               22.7              23.7    427,000                   39           49,322               27
Alaska                                  9.1             10.1     65,000                   19           14,182               11
Arizona                               19.0              20.0    459,000                   31           37,737               23
Arkansas                              25.0              26.0    258,000                   26           31,362               28
California                           108.7         109.7       2,818,000                  85          137,842              121
Colorado                              17.4              18.4    385,000                   20           40,108               21
Connecticut                           18.5              19.5    339,000                   18           23,754               21
Delaware                                2.5              3.5     78,000                    4            6,589                4
District of Columbia                    6.0              7.0     50,000                    4            6,014                7
Florida                               60.5              61.5   1,709,000                  66          155,055               70
Georgia                               27.9              28.9    685,000                   45           86,317               34
Hawaii                                  5.7              6.7    116,000                    8           11,295                7
Idaho                                 13.7              14.7    112,000                   24           15,799               16
Illinois                              51.0              52.0   1,074,000                  55           87,997               58
Indiana                               41.7              42.7    593,000                   35           52,428               46
                                                                                                                    (continued)


                                              Page 50                          GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                               Appendix V
                               Statutory Formula for LVER Staff Positions
                               and Statutory Positions for Fiscal Year 1997




                 LVER staffing
                  as of Jan. 1,                    Total veteran Total full-service job   Total veterans       1997 LVER
State                     1987      Plus one         population        service offices        registered staff authorized
Iowa                      24.0              25.0        291,000                     57           25,251               28
Kansas                    23.0              24.0        263,000                     24           23,059               26
Kentucky                  22.3              23.3        367,000                     27           50,387               26
Louisiana                 20.1              21.1        378,000                     31           40,606               24
Maine                       8.4              9.4        153,000                     12           18,794               11
Maryland                  16.3              17.3        530,000                     28           31,524               20
Massachusetts             24.2              25.2        594,000                     37           22,148               28
Michigan                  47.1              48.1        949,000                     53           95,044               54
Minnesota                 31.0              32.0        462,000                     21           35,357               34
Mississippi               23.1              24.1        233,000                     38           26,739               26
Missouri                  39.5              40.5        586,000                     40           71,493               45
Montana                   11.5              12.5         95,000                     23           13,375               14
Nebraska                  12.3              13.3        168,000                     20           15,393               14
Nevada                      8.8              9.8        186,000                     10           20,508               11
New Hampshire               8.1              9.1        135,000                     13            8,535               10
New Jersey                21.5              22.5        741,000                     24           29,951               25
New Mexico                13.9              14.9        172,000                     20           20,420               16
New York                  68.8              69.8      1,538,000                     82           95,848               77
North Carolina            48.8              49.8        711,000                     60           83,063               55
North Dakota                9.0             10.0         59,000                     18            7,303               11
Ohio                      65.7              66.7      1,188,000                     65           88,963               73
Oklahoma                  33.6              34.6        350,000                     39           39,226               37
Oregon                    23.5              24.5        371,000                     28           48,656               27
Pennsylvania              68.4              69.4      1,363,000                     78           88,475               76
Puerto Rico                 7.0              8.0        130,874                     16            8,281                9
Rhode Island                5.1              6.1        109,000                      9            8,188                7
South Carolina            23.4              24.4        380,000                     37           49,702               27
South Dakota                7.8              8.8         74,000                     16            8,451               10
Tennessee                 27.5              28.5        516,000                     73           46,588               33
Texas                     87.3              88.3      1,647,000                    281          172,060              103
Utah                        9.1             10.1        138,000                     24           16,771               11
Vermont                     6.9              7.9         62,000                     12            7,491                9
Virginia                  26.4              27.4        705,000                     40           74,698               32
Virgin Islands              1.0              2.0          4.822                      2              714                2
Washington                27.2              28.2        631,000                     28           66,463               32
West Virginia             15.3              16.3        199,000                     17           26,463               18
Wisconsin                 29.9              30.9        507,000                     26           46,992               34
                                                                                                              (continued)


                                  Page 51                               GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                                 Appendix V
                                 Statutory Formula for LVER Staff Positions
                                 and Statutory Positions for Fiscal Year 1997




                 LVER staffing
                  as of Jan. 1,                    Total veteran Total full-service job            Total veterans       1997 LVER
State                     1987      Plus one         population        service offices                 registered staff authorized
Wyoming                     9.4            10.4            48,000                            12              10,522                       11
National total         1,385.6        1,438.6         26,202,696                         1,920           2,299,303                 1,600

                                 Note: The numbers used for total veteran population, total full-service job service offices, and total
                                 veterans registered are the most recent data available at the time VETS calculated the number of
                                 statutory positions.

                                 Source: VETS.




                                 Page 52                                      GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
Appendix VI

Fiscal Year 1997 LVER Positions, Cost per
Position, Administration and Support
Percentage, and Initial Grant Award

                                                                       LVER
                                                    Cost per   administration
                                         LVER         LVER       and support LVER initial
               State                  positions     position        (percent) grant award
               Alabama                     23.0     $51,609              22.0   $1,187,000
               Alaska                      10.5       69,619             24.2      731,000
               Arizona                     19.0       44,789             33.3      851,000
               Arkansas                    21.5       48,977             25.5    1,053,000
               California                100.5        67,184             23.7    6,752,000
               Colorado                    17.0       77,235             22.2    1,313,000
               Connecticut                 16.0       75,813             24.8    1,213,000
               Delaware                     4.0       48,000             24.5      192,000
               District of Columbia         6.5       65,385             30.1      425,000
               Florida                     57.0       46,439             24.8    2,647,000
               Georgia                     28.0       49,250             26.4    1,379,000
               Hawaii                       8.0       66,500             25.0      532,000
               Idaho                       14.5       47,862             23.9      694,000
               Illinois                    49.0       70,204             28.5    3,440,000
               Indiana                     41.0       46,366             27.9    1,901,000
               Iowa                        21.0       56,190             30.3    1,180,000
               Kansas                      22.0       42,136             27.9      927,000
               Kentucky                    25.5       34,941             21.1      891,000
               Louisiana                   23.0       29,174             13.4      671,000
               Maine                        9.0       54,444             28.0      490,000
               Maryland                    17.0       59,588             31.2    1,013,000
               Massachusetts               23.5       60,468             28.0    1,421,000
               Michigan                    45.0       71,756             26.4    3,229,000
               Minnesota                   27.0       61,259             25.0    1,654,000
               Mississippi                 24.0       43,292             21.2    1,039,000
               Missouri                    36.0       44,306             22.1    1,595,000
               Montana                     11.5       46,435             29.4      534,000
               Nebraska                    13.5       42,444             25.3      573,000
               Nevada                       8.0       60,875             18.7      487,000
               New Hampshire                8.0       58,875             31.2      471,000
               New Jersey                  22.0       58,636             18.0    1,290,000
               New Mexico                  14.5       45,172             23.8      655,000
               New York                    71.0       67,211             27.0    4,772,000
               North Carolina              46.0       48,870             22.2    2,248,000
               North Dakota                 9.0       52,778             26.5      475,000
               Ohio                        63.0       53,190             22.1    3,351,000
                                                                                (continued)


               Page 53                      GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
Appendix VI
Fiscal Year 1997 LVER Positions, Cost per
Position, Administration and Support
Percentage, and Initial Grant Award




                                                                          LVER
                                                     Cost per     administration
                                      LVER             LVER         and support LVER initial
State                              positions         position          (percent) grant award
Oklahoma                                 31.5          47,619                 25.6         1,500,000
Oregon                                   23.0          53,174                 25.3         1,223,000
Pennsylvania                             55.0          61,491                 19.6         3,382,000
Puerto Rico                                8.0         26,625                 15.6          205,000
Rhode Island                               6.0         51,667                 24.2          310,000
South Carolina                           25.0          42,800                 21.8         1,070,000
South Dakota                               9.0         33,889                 23.0          305,000
Tennessee                                29.5          42,034                 20.0         1,240,000
Texas                                    77.0          51,351                 18.9         3,954,000
Utah                                     11.0          58,091                 19.9          639,000
Vermont                                    7.5         50,667                 20.8          380,000
Virginia                                 28.0          48,393                 24.2         1,355,000
Virgin Islands                             2.0         48,000                 17.7           96,000
Washington                               28.0          68,964                 24.3         1,931,000
West Virginia                            15.0          34,733                 20.7          521,000
Wisconsin                                27.0          71,148                 33.5         1,921,000
Wyoming                                  10.0          43,900                 23.9          439,000
National total                        1,347.5                                         $73,747,000
National average                                      $54,729                 24.4

Note: Fiscal year 1997 LVER positions, cost per position, and administration and support
percentages are projected numbers.

Source: VETS.




Page 54                                    GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
Appendix VII

Program Year 1995 Applicants and Veterans’
Performance Standards


Table VII.1: Number of Applicants for Program Year 1995
                                                                                                                Special
                                                                          Vietnam-era         Disabled         disabled
State                                         Nonveterans     Veterans       veterans         veterans         veterans
Alabama                                             319,026     45,540          15,330            3,700           1,438
Alaska                                               66,679     13,105           5,881            1,318             644
Arizona                                             248,732     36,434          15,398            2,232             817
Arkansas                                            193,478     28,788          10,228            2,350           1,242
California                                          748,043    127,425          52,404          11,032            4,772
Colorado                                            175,729     37,404          14,474            3,020           1,068
Connecticut                                         158,854     21,677           9,345             968              367
Delaware                                             37,026      6,372           2,201             360              112
District of Columbia                                 45,962      5,617           2,089             282              125
Florida                                             864,942    127,167          49,393            9,036           4,110
Georgia                                             511,678     80,967          24,218            3,015           1,445
Hawaii                                               54,194     10,932           4,006            1,020             463
Idaho                                                93,486     14,709           5,806            1,293             416
Illinois                                            490,582     87,896          29,171            3,694           1,345
Indiana                                             230,638     48,003          16,821            2,726             978
Iowa                                                181,074     23,295           8,145            1,266             524
Kansas                                              126,252     21,978           7,445            1,370             403
Kentucky                                            274,558     47,499          16,161            3,135             937
Louisiana                                           232,537     38,000          13,466            2,378             826
Maine                                               104,208     17,638           8,749            1,665             467
Maryland                                            209,158     31,821           9,409            2,151             806
Massachusetts                                       137,055     17,649           7,120            1,458             519
Michigan                                            482,927     80,497          28,277            4,494           1,251
Minnesota                                           160,837     32,819          13,452            1,690             524
Mississippi                                         219,631     26,662           8,383            1,524             615
Missouri                                            472,086     65,228          24,890            5,327           1,843
Montana                                              67,446     12,988           5,226             918              355
Nebraska                                             73,411     14,233           5,127             947              387
Nevada                                               71,239     18,181           8,105            1,003             386
New Hampshire                                        35,512      7,661           3,156             866              343
New Jersey                                          279,978     27,914          10,452            1,949             574
New Mexico                                          102,006     17,733           6,517            1,192             438
New York                                            812,271     96,793          32,418            5,547           2,065
North Carolina                                      570,769     81,796          27,846            6,141           2,702
North Dakota                                         57,240      7,148           2,650             634              232
                                                                                                             (continued)



                                          Page 55                        GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                                         Appendix VII
                                         Program Year 1995 Applicants and Veterans’
                                         Performance Standards




                                                                                                                      Special
                                                                                 Vietnam-era        Disabled         disabled
State                                        Nonveterans          Veterans          veterans        veterans         veterans
Ohio                                                491,632         126,816             48,320        12,450            6,808
Oklahoma                                            180,882          35,684             14,498          2,782           1,292
Oregon                                              286,325          47,630             20,495          2,934           1,318
Pennsylvania                                        440,407          86,265             32,054          5,098           1,728
Puerto Rico                                         184,682           7,170              2,294           652              208
Rhode Island                                         43,588           6,876              2,625           488              181
South Carolina                                      307,404          48,785             18,253          3,292           1,301
South Dakota                                         61,963           8,078              2,873           670              217
Tennessee                                           296,265          41,696             15,004          3,442           1,956
Texas                                              1,403,723        157,590             69,764          8,837           2,828
Utah                                                160,212          17,039              6,807          1,145             390
Vermont                                              52,544           6,850              2,773           269              106
Virginia                                            314,079          67,223             22,970          6,103           2,020
Virgin Islands                                       17,706             504               194              20              13
Washington                                          357,782          62,544             25,147          4,332           1,558
West Virginia                                       130,284          25,428             10,168          1,547             474
Wisconsin                                           270,049          43,358             15,102          4,105           1,365
Wyoming                                              63,839           9,917              4,129           578              179

                                         Source: VETS.




Table VII.2: Percentage Placed/Obtaining Employment for Program Year 1995
                                                                                                 Vietnam-era         Disabled
State                                                          Nonveterans            Veterans      veterans         veterans
Alabama                                                               20.49              35.70          34.30           38.32
Alaska                                                                17.61              23.01          22.83           29.96
Arizona                                                               12.96              19.05          18.59           21.50
Arkansas                                                              16.87              33.08          31.99           36.89
California                                                            13.16              19.20          18.99           21.40
Colorado                                                              14.65              22.87          22.99           21.99
Connecticut                                                            7.69              19.72          20.56           23.04
Delaware                                                               6.51              11.72          12.31           15.83
District of Columbia                                                   5.62               7.41           8.38            9.57
Florida                                                               13.81              22.28          21.60           30.73
Georgia                                                               14.34              25.86          25.63           33.10
Hawaii                                                                 5.93              14.40          15.25           15.59
Idaho                                                                 19.13              35.59          35.10           37.05
                                                                                                                   (continued)


                                         Page 56                               GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                 Appendix VII
                 Program Year 1995 Applicants and Veterans’
                 Performance Standards




                                                                         Vietnam-era         Disabled
State                                 Nonveterans             Veterans      veterans         veterans
Illinois                                      10.52              26.24          24.47           32.30
Indiana                                        8.55              16.19          14.95           17.98
Iowa                                          29.58              46.44          44.86           48.34
Kansas                                        24.84              32.05          31.65           38.32
Kentucky                                      17.39              28.12          26.55           31.74
Louisiana                                      9.15              17.14          16.29           20.69
Maine                                          9.69              15.29          14.62           21.62
Maryland                                      12.00              23.88          24.57           27.34
Massachusetts                                 10.71              25.50          25.59           30.11
Michigan                                       8.37              11.34          11.14           13.57
Minnesota                                     12.53              23.18          22.88           23.25
Mississippi                                   39.30              30.99          30.90           34.45
Missouri                                      14.68              26.14          23.21           27.31
Montana                                       20.01              32.92          31.73           41.61
Nebraska                                      18.44              26.23          24.48           25.87
Nevada                                        18.93              21.45          22.63           23.33
New Hampshire                                 12.15              30.90          32.03           33.49
New Jersey                                    19.41              33.71          33.60           35.66
New Mexico                                    13.24              20.69          20.99           22.65
New York                                       7.33              17.66          18.77           23.40
North Carolina                                23.51              37.11          37.09           41.62
North Dakota                                  26.21              37.69          36.15           45.11
Ohio                                           9.46              16.34          15.50           19.30
Oklahoma                                      25.38              40.57          39.94           45.25
Oregon                                         17.1               29.5           27.9            36.5
Pennsylvania                                  12.90              20.41          18.88           26.28
Puerto Rico                                    9.55              18.35          19.62           20.25
Rhode Island                                   3.38               7.68           8.65           11.68
South Carolina                                15.77              27.96          26.36           30.83
South Dakota                                  27.05              40.22          39.44           44.03
Tennessee                                     10.55              19.46          17.68           24.11
Texas                                         17.28              32.68          31.70           40.15
Utah                                          36.63              47.93          47.48           53.45
Vermont                                       12.95              19.42          18.90           27.88
Virginia                                       7.66              13.71          13.02           13.70
Virgin Islands                                10.87              21.83          23.71           45.00
Washington                                    16.57              23.62          23.17           29.34
West Virginia                                  9.17              14.54          12.80           17.71
                                                                                           (continued)


                 Page 57                               GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                                     Appendix VII
                                     Program Year 1995 Applicants and Veterans’
                                     Performance Standards




                                                                                                      Vietnam-era            Disabled
State                                                        Nonveterans             Veterans            veterans            veterans
Wisconsin                                                             28.91               37.71              35.63               39.42
Wyoming                                                               18.51               25.40              24.32               28.37

                                     Note: Numbers in bold indicate areas where states failed to meet their performance standards.

                                     Source: VETS.



Table VII.3: Percentage of Federal
Contractor Job Listing Placements                                                                                             Special
                                                                                                      Vietnam-era            disabled
                                     State                                       Nonveterans             veterans            veterans
                                     Alabama                                               4.01                6.74                  8.07
                                     Alaska                                                0.70                1.17                  1.86
                                     Arizona                                               1.48                1.78                  2.81
                                     Arkansas                                              3.50                6.41              12.30
                                     California                                            2.94                3.65                  4.38
                                     Colorado                                              0.82                1.08                  1.87
                                     Connecticut                                           0.05                0.35                  1.09
                                     Delaware                                              1.18                2.00                  3.57
                                     District of Columbia                                  0.04                0.10                  1.60
                                     Florida                                               1.83                2.86                  5.11
                                     Georgia                                               1.76                3.54                  6.50
                                     Hawaii                                                0.35                0.77                  1.51
                                     Idaho                                                 2.96                4.94                  6.97
                                     Illinois                                              0.49                1.43                  4.39
                                     Indiana                                               2.39                3.61                  4.19
                                     Iowa                                                  3.93                5.37                  6.49
                                     Kansas                                                2.38                3.05                  4.22
                                     Kentucky                                              0.79                1.95                  3.42
                                     Louisiana                                             0.27                0.53                  1.09
                                     Maine                                                 0.89                1.96                  2.41
                                     Maryland                                              0.62                1.68                  3.23
                                     Massachusetts                                         0.41                0.77                  1.35
                                     Michigan                                              0.24                0.30                  0.64
                                     Minnesota                                             0.02                0.06                  0.38
                                     Mississippi                                           0.70                1.50                  2.28
                                     Missouri                                              0.52                0.82                  0.65
                                     Montana                                               1.29                3.33                  8.45
                                     Nebraska                                              4.00                4.37                  3.36
                                                                                                                           (continued)



                                     Page 58                                    GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
Appendix VII
Program Year 1995 Applicants and Veterans’
Performance Standards




                                                                                         Special
                                                                 Vietnam-era            disabled
State                                       Nonveterans             veterans            veterans
Nevada                                                0.15                0.33                  0.26
New Hampshire                                         0.42                2.03                  4.66
New Jersey                                            0.06                0.33                  0.70
New Mexico                                            0.27                0.90                  2.51
New York                                              0.20                0.59                  1.21
North Carolina                                        3.40                7.61              12.29
North Dakota                                          2.51                5.17                  5.60
Ohio                                                  1.40                1.91                  2.70
Oklahoma                                              2.66                5.71              11.08
Oregon                                                 1.3                 2.0                   3.4
Pennsylvania                                          2.55                3.62                  5.96
Puerto Rico                                           0.53                1.79                  2.40
Rhode Island                                             0         Not tested          Not tested
South Carolina                                        2.88                4.36                  6.69
South Dakota                                          0.20                2.30                  9.22
Tennessee                                             1.62                4.49                  9.48
Texas                                                 1.17                3.25                  5.87
Utah                                                  0.78                1.76                  6.15
Vermont                                                  0         Not tested          Not tested
Virginia                                              1.06                1.89                  2.33
Virgin Islands                                           0         Not tested          Not tested
Washington                                            0.44                1.17                  3.34
West Virginia                                         1.56                1.82                  2.32
Wisconsin                                             1.49                2.57                  3.81
Wyoming                                               0.72                0.94                  0.56

Note: Numbers in bold indicate areas where states failed to meet their performance standards.

Source: VETS.




Page 59                                    GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                                         Appendix VII
                                         Program Year 1995 Applicants and Veterans’
                                         Performance Standards




Table VII.4: Percentage Counseled in Program Year 1995
                                                                                                 Vietnam-era         Disabled
State                                                         Nonveterans             Veterans      veterans         veterans
Alabama                                                                0.15               0.73           0.89            2.57
Alaska                                                                 2.97               3.58           3.75            4.70
Arizona                                                                1.28               2.40           2.76            5.10
Arkansas                                                               0.09               0.88           0.99            1.74
California                                                             0.26               2.11           2.25            4.50
Colorado                                                               4.19              13.50          14.05           19.14
Connecticut                                                            2.07               5.25           6.60           11.05
Delaware                                                               2.29              12.46          11.09           17.78
District of Columbia                                                  31.21              54.58          54.76           67.73
Florida                                                                1.80               3.09           3.63            5.29
Georgia                                                                8.39              15.82          20.39           31.14
Hawaii                                                                 1.04               4.32           5.54           18.33
Idaho                                                                  0.57               3.32           3.36           11.52
Illinois                                                               0.10               1.93           2.49            7.42
Indiana                                                                0.96               1.81           1.94            4.59
Iowa                                                                   1.21              10.98          12.69           35.07
Kansas                                                                 3.81              16.74          20.93           37.45
Kentucky                                                               5.10              10.54          13.04           15.37
Louisiana                                                              0.39               2.95           3.48            6.56
Maine                                                                  0.60               2.62           3.62            3.96
Maryland                                                              51.61              81.40          85.73           87.26
Massachusetts                                                          4.60              15.20          17.87           16.12
Michigan                                                               3.26               4.54           5.02            7.21
Minnesota                                                              0.64               0.90           1.05            1.72
Mississippi                                                            2.16               3.79           4.35            7.48
Missouri                                                               1.43               2.60           3.06            4.45
Montana                                                                2.80              15.83          17.49           40.09
Nebraska                                                               5.02               8.67           8.80           11.93
Nevada                                                                 2.87               4.09           4.33            5.88
New Hampshire                                                          5.32               7.40           8.62            9.12
New Jersey                                                            11.43              18.78          20.11           24.63
New Mexico                                                             1.83               3.47           3.80            3.52
New York                                                               6.65              11.34          12.79           14.15
North Carolina                                                         1.59               4.35           5.58            8.53
North Dakota                                                           1.79               6.46           8.19           17.82
Ohio                                                                   0.34               0.70           0.76            1.04
                                                                                                                   (continued)


                                         Page 60                               GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                                          Appendix VII
                                          Program Year 1995 Applicants and Veterans’
                                          Performance Standards




                                                                                                    Vietnam-era       Disabled
State                                                             Nonveterans          Veterans        veterans       veterans
Oklahoma                                                                 0.20               2.09           2.44           8.95
Oregon                                                                    8.3               22.0           22.6           42.3
Pennsylvania                                                             0.43               1.07           1.28           2.94
Puerto Rico                                                              4.86              11.30          11.64          17.33
Rhode Island                                                             4.72              31.30          32.66          42.01
South Carolina                                                           0.20               1.16           1.05           2.22
South Dakota                                                             3.32               7.13           8.70          15.52
Tennessee                                                                0.04               0.66           0.65           3.98
Texas                                                                    2.12              10.37          10.76          25.10
Utah                                                                     6.09              12.62          14.16          36.59
Vermont                                                                  2.50               3.64           4.83           6.69
Virginia                                                                 0.07               1.95           2.32           3.88
Virgin Islands                                                             0           Not tested     Not tested     Not tested
Washington                                                               3.50               9.09           9.63          19.02
West Virginia                                                            5.62               7.76           9.02          10.54
Wisconsin                                                                0.96               1.98           2.33           3.07
Wyoming                                                                  2.33               4.79           4.87          14.53

                                          Source: VETS.




Table VII.5: Percentage Placed in Training in Program Year 1995
                                                                                                    Vietnam-era       Disabled
State                                                             Nonveterans          Veterans        veterans       veterans
Alabama                                                                  0.01               0.05           0.04           0.08
Alaska                                                                   0.15               1.57           0.98           0.98
Arizona                                                                  0.10               0.23           0.22           0.80
Arkansas                                                                 0.00               0.04           0.03           0.09
California                                                               0.26               0.61           0.78           0.76
Colorado                                                                 0.32               1.18           1.39           2.35
Connecticut                                                              0.33               0.92           1.21           1.34
Delaware                                                                 0.77               1.55           2.00           5.83
District of Columbia                                                     2.17          Not tested     Not tested     Not tested
Florida                                                                  0.12               0.88           0.83           2.29
Georgia                                                                  0.01               0.41           0.40           0.96
Hawaii                                                                   1.03               1.64           2.45           0.98
Idaho                                                                    0.23               1.56           1.19           4.87
Illinois                                                                 0.08               1.35           1.33           3.90
                                                                                                                    (continued)



                                          Page 61                               GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                 Appendix VII
                 Program Year 1995 Applicants and Veterans’
                 Performance Standards




                                                                           Vietnam-era       Disabled
State                                 Nonveterans             Veterans        veterans       veterans
Indiana                                        0.60                0.77           0.95           1.83
Iowa                                           0.66                2.84           3.39          10.11
Kansas                                         0.30                0.75           0.70           2.55
Kentucky                                       0.75                2.18           2.18           3.99
Louisiana                                      0.07                0.38           0.36           0.76
Maine                                          0.72                2.05           2.76           7.57
Maryland                                       0.90                1.66           1.90           3.02
Massachusetts                                  1.84                4.03           4.51           7.54
Michigan                                       0.13                0.25           0.25           0.36
Minnesota                                      0.15                0.48           0.48           0.95
Mississippi                                    1.66                3.43           4.64           5.32
Missouri                                       0.37                1.77           1.13           2.53
Montana                                        0.07                0.73           0.61           2.07
Nebraska                                       0.04                0.27           0.31           0.95
Nevada                                         2.73                3.25           2.50           0.70
New Hampshire                                  0.51                1.02           0.82           2.31
New Jersey                                     2.52                4.11           4.27           5.64
New Mexico                                     0.97                1.11           1.25           1.01
New York                                       0.52                1.37           1.67           3.49
North Carolina                                 0.35                1.42           1.35           3.34
North Dakota                                   0.30                1.39           1.28           3.79
Ohio                                           0.07                0.33           0.27           0.58
Oklahoma                                       0.87                3.74           3.65           7.62
Oregon                                           0.4                0.8            0.9             2.4
Pennsylvania                                   0.51                1.42           1.49           5.88
Puerto Rico                                    0.35                2.55           2.79           1.99
Rhode Island                                   0.35                1.09           1.11           1.23
South Carolina                                 0.61           Not tested     Not tested     Not tested
South Dakota                                   0.37                0.88           1.32           3.58
Tennessee                                      0.16                1.29           1.07           3.28
Texas                                          0.30                0.51           0.65           0.92
Utah                                           0.15                0.33           0.22           0.61
Vermont                                        1.97                2.61           2.85           5.95
Virginia                                       0.03                0.15           0.23           0.23
Virgin Islands                                 1.04                0.20              0      Not tested
Washington                                     6.93                2.19           1.90           3.99
West Virginia                                  2.22                2.15           2.66           2.46
                                                                                           (continued)




                 Page 62                               GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                                          Appendix VII
                                          Program Year 1995 Applicants and Veterans’
                                          Performance Standards




                                                                                                           Vietnam-era            Disabled
State                                                             Nonveterans             Veterans            veterans            veterans
Wisconsin                                                                   0.31                0.32                0.35                  0.42
Wyoming                                                                     1.21                1.78                2.45                  3.11

                                          Note: Numbers in bold indicate areas where states failed to meet their performance standards.

                                          Source: VETS.




Table VII.6: Percentage Receiving Reportable Services in Program Year 1995
                                                                                                           Vietnam-era            Disabled
State                                                             Nonveterans             Veterans            veterans            veterans
Alabama                                                                    76.08               94.86              94.60               96.21
Alaska                                                                     46.47               68.40              65.89               78.90
Arizona                                                                    60.00               86.78              87.16               92.47
Arkansas                                                                   88.06               98.04              98.03               99.49
California                                                                 45.47               71.35              72.11               77.24
Colorado                                                                   73.83               86.75              87.44               85.50
Connecticut                                                                61.89               88.55              89.57               90.50
Delaware                                                                   33.44               58.73              58.16               71.94
District of Columbia                                                       42.94               67.67              69.32               77.31
Florida                                                                    56.54               74.35              73.90               81.91
Georgia                                                                    56.16               91.22              91.39               95.85
Hawaii                                                                     65.74               86.73              94.01               89.41
Idaho                                                                      73.51               94.08              94.44               97.60
Illinois                                                                   33.16               83.94              83.98               91.26
Indiana                                                                    67.74               77.95              77.95               81.69
Iowa                                                                       89.39               97.67              97.39               98.89
Kansas                                                                     75.24               92.05              91.20               92.48
Kentucky                                                                   72.47               90.83              91.73               96.14
Louisiana                                                                  52.20               76.21              75.46               82.72
Maine                                                                      54.25               79.83              78.98               91.29
Maryland                                                                   67.76               91.93              93.88               95.49
Massachusetts                                                              62.97               91.27              91.80               95.82
Michigan                                                                   58.03               73.97              74.40               78.59
Minnesota                                                                  53.70               83.53              83.65               86.21
Mississippi                                                                61.89               79.96              80.26               84.84
Missouri                                                                   56.63               81.19              79.44               81.72
Montana                                                                    68.83               92.68              92.92               94.66
Nebraska                                                              Not tested         Not tested          Not tested          Not tested
                                                                                                                                (continued)


                                          Page 63                                    GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                 Appendix VII
                 Program Year 1995 Applicants and Veterans’
                 Performance Standards




                                                                                  Vietnam-era            Disabled
State                                    Nonveterans             Veterans            veterans            veterans
Nevada                                            73.30               88.34              88.40               92.32
New Hampshire                                     69.93               95.52              95.63               96.88
New Jersey                                        80.03               97.40              97.50               98.26
New Mexico                                        74.44               77.65              77.89               81.12
New York                                          45.29               76.23              79.16               86.20
North Carolina                                    78.19               96.26              95.99               97.77
North Dakota                                      88.85               99.89             100.38              100.47
Ohio                                              72.40               98.77a            101.65              107.05a
Oklahoma                                          75.43               96.70              96.97               98.41
Oregon                                             52.3                68.7                67.8                  85.1
Pennsylvania                                      65.16               80.41              80.29               85.46
Puerto Rico                                       41.87               69.34              71.58               75.46
Rhode Island                                      20.71               52.41              53.89               61.48
South Carolina                                    67.11               86.80              85.51               91.10
South Dakota                                      75.91               98.51              98.43               99.55
Tennessee                                         50.35               89.88              85.83               94.16
Texas                                             64.05               94.91              96.25               97.29
Utah                                              88.62               96.23              95.95               97.21
Vermont                                           51.53               63.31              63.04               78.81
Virginia                                          48.13               74.54              74.48               77.29
Virgin Islands                                    61.21             100.00              100.00              100.00
Washington                                        54.72               72.54              73.14               81.72
West Virginia                                     56.62               75.16              73.92               82.22
Wisconsin                                         67.64               77.87              77.47               80.71
Wyoming                                           71.92               97.93              97.89               99.13

                 Note: Numbers in bold indicate areas where states failed to meet their performance standards.
                 a
                 Standard exceeded 100 percent.

                 Source: VETS.




                 Page 64                                    GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
Appendix VIII

DVOP and LVER Starting and
Full-Performance Salaries


                                                         DVOP                                        LVER
                                              full-performance                           full-performance
State                  DVOP starting salary              salary LVER starting salary                salary
Alabama                             $21,177           $32,188               $21,707               $32,969
Alaska                               30,156            32,184                30,156                32,184
Arizona                              19,464            29,830                22,568                35,199
Arkansas                             16,678            34,346                16,678                34,346
California                           26,364            37,920                26,364                37,920
Colorado                             30,438            46,128                30,438                56,061
Connecticut                          27,560            43,873                27,560                43,873
Delaware                             21,030            30,098                21,030                30,098
District of Columbia                 21,128            42,406                25,104                48,089
Florida                              19,635            32,142                20,812                34,194
Georgia                              18,972            36,618                18,972                36,618
Hawaii                               30,084            39,624                32,544                46,356
Idaho                                22,360            36,982                22,360                36,982
Illinois                             23,604            33,216                27,144                38,784
Indiana                              18,148            27,274                20,332                30,368
Iowa                                 22,464            31,740                22,464                31,740
Kansas                               22,776            32,040                22,776                32,040
Kentucky                             16,262            32,940                16,262                32,940
Louisiana                            15,768            28,164                15,768                28,164
Maine                                20,654            27,456                21,320                28,554
Maryland                             22,004            28,642                23,624                33,229
Massachusetts                        24,550            31,833                24,550                31,833
Michigan                             24,502            31,824                27,019                35,422
Minnesota                            25,996            37,415                25,996                41,635
Mississippi                          20,746            31,057                20,746                31,057
Missouri                             19,596            27,612                19,596                27,612
Montana                              21,058            32,523                21,058                32,523
Nebraska                             22,257            31,158                22,257                31,158
Nevada                               23,157            31,016                25,133                33,794
New Hampshire                        21,762            25,662                23,653                27,924
New Jersey                           25,940            36,328                31,531                44,154
New Mexico                           17,089            25,284                21,166                29,836
New York                             26,827            41,764                26,827                41,764
North Carolina                       20,967            33,687                20,967                40,304
North Dakota                         20,856            33,144                22,920                36,312
Ohio                                 25,875            32,656                25,875                32,656
                                                                                               (continued)



                          Page 65                          GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                      Appendix VIII
                      DVOP and LVER Starting and
                      Full-Performance Salaries




                                                           DVOP                                              LVER
                                                full-performance                                 full-performance
State              DVOP starting salary                    salary LVER starting salary                      salary
Oklahoma                          20,776                  29,888                   22,718                   32,025
Oregon                            22,428                  29,832                   22,428                   29,832
Pennsylvania                      23,981                  36,127                   27,130                   41,252
Puerto Rico                       13,008                  14,928                   13,780                   17,244
Rhode Island                      24,277                  27,156                   24,277                   27,156
South Carolina                    20,831                  35,629                   20,831                   43,352
South Dakota                      18,928                  23,650                   18,928                   23,650
Tennessee                         16,752                  28,656                   16,752                   29,952
Texas                             19,344                  29,628                   23,532                   31,656
Utah                              20,462                  34,268                   20,462                   44,954
Vermont                           22,530                  35,600                   22,530                   35,600
Virginia                          20,976                  32,027                   20,976                   32,027
Virgin Islands                       N/A                      N/A                  28,000                   35,428
Washington                        27,384                  34,860                   31,608                   40,440
West Virginia                     16,116                  26,256                   17,256                   28,104
Wisconsin                         22,258                  33,888                   22,258                   36,905
Wyoming                           18,060                  28,872                   20,292                   32,880
National average                $21,846                  $32,308                  $23,001                  $34,739

                      Note: N/A = not applicable.

                      Source: Salary data were obtained from December 1996 and January 1997 telephone interviews
                      with state VETS directors.




                      Page 66                                  GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
Appendix IX

Content Analysis of DVOP and LVER Survey
Comments

              In responding to our mail survey, 58.5 percent of DVOP specialists and
              52.6 percent of LVER staff added comments on the final page of the survey.
              To accurately represent those veterans who made comments, a 25-percent
              random sample of the 1,513 surveys with comments was analyzed.
              Comments on each of the 378 surveys were coded, and the resulting 670
              comments were categorized according to their content. Over 51 percent of
              the 378 sampled surveys were completed by DVOP specialists, while the
              remaining sample surveys represented LVER staff responses.

              Analysis of the comments indicated an interest in maintaining veterans’
              employment services delivered by DVOP and LVER staff. In general, the
              response rate illustrated that many DVOP and LVER staff have concerns
              about and frustrations with the current quality of the employment
              programs. Although some DVOP and LVER staff used the comments section
              to praise the current programs, the majority suggested that the programs
              lacked resources or should be revised to enhance services to veterans.

              The comments were placed in initial categories on the basis of their
              content. These categories, ordered according to relative frequency, are
              listed in table IX.1. The comment categories are discussed in detail in the
              text following the table.




              Page 67                          GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                                  Appendix IX
                                  Content Analysis of DVOP and LVER Survey
                                  Comments




Table IX.1: Major Categories of
Comments Analyzed                 Category                                                                         No.        %
                                  1. Not enough resources (including staff, funding, privacy, time)               106      28.0
                                  2. Description of responsibilities (generally or specifically whether
                                  nonveterans should be served by DVOP and LVER staff)                              98     25.9
                                  3. Performance standards (difficult to meet, revision needed, or need
                                  better monitoring by state managers)                                              70     18.5
                                  4. Protect veterans’ services                                                     65     17.2
                                  5. Up-to-date computer technology and training needed                             61     16.1
                                  6. Management interference within the local office                                47     12.4
                                  7. Comments regarding the National Veterans’ Training Institute                   31       8.2
                                  8. Comments about the Transition Assistance Program (TAP), VR&C
                                  duties, or that VR&C coordination with DVOP program is lacking                    31       8.2
                                  9. Change in employment services and changes to one-stop career
                                  centers                                                                           28       7.4
                                  10. Promote federalizing of DVOP and LVER programs                                23       6.1
                                  11. Lack of veteran-friendly environment in local office                          23       6.1
                                  12. Concern about low or unequal DVOP/LVER pay between states                     19       5.0
                                  13. Changes needed in title 38 hiring preference or requirements for
                                  DVOP/LVER staff                                                                    5       1.3
                                  14. Other comments                                                                63     16.7



                                  Among the 378 total respondents, the most frequently cited comment was
Not Enough                        “not enough resources.” About 28 percent of DVOP and LVER staff believed
Resources                         that they lacked the resources necessary to properly assist veterans in
                                  finding employment. The following quotation illustrates the tenor of many
                                  of the comments in this category:

                                  “The Law states that the DVOP staff is supposed to be in addition to the regular staff and not
                                  to supplant it. However, the state has reduced regular interviewer staff. As a result,
                                  everything that can be legally pushed off on the LVER/DVOP is. We have so many collateral
                                  functions, especially job order and employer visits, not for specific veterans but general job
                                  orders, many of which do not pay enough for most of our clients. We spend so much time
                                  that we do not have adequate time to help those veterans who need us.”


                                  Concerns about funding shortages indicated that respondents were
                                  concerned about the future of their own positions if the LVER and DVOP
                                  programs continue to experience staffing cuts. For example:

                                  “[There is] too much job insecurity in the DVOP/LVER grant program. [We are] losing some
                                  outstanding veteran representatives due to civil service restrictions and seniority.”




                                  Page 68                                  GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                      Appendix IX
                      Content Analysis of DVOP and LVER Survey
                      Comments




                      In addition to concerns about funding and staff shortages, respondents
                      expressed concerns about the lack of privacy when meeting with clients
                      about personal issues relating to their disabilities, as well as the limited
                      time with each client also resulting from staff shortages.


                      Nearly 26 percent (98) of DVOP and LVER staff commented in more detail
Description of        about their general job responsibilities. In describing their responsibilities,
Responsibilities      however, 30 percent of these 98 respondents described how they provide
                      employment services to nonveterans, despite the regulations outlined in
                      title 38. As the following respondent explained:

                      “Use of DVOP/LVER for nonveteran related functions (i.e. providing services to nonveterans,
                      use as receptionist, and other administrative functions) detracts from [our] primary role.”


                      Others commented about their general duties:

                      “Vet staff duties include, but are not limited to: intake, assessment, career counseling,
                      outreach, radio show[s] . . . , job fairs, [involvement in] 4-5 committee[s] . . . , resource
                      center assignment of 8 hours per week each (16 of 37.5 hour work week is manned by
                      veteran staff).”


                      “This position outreaches to the indigent veteran population in this community through
                      weekly visits to the Coalition for the Homeless, Salvation Army Rehabilitation Center, etc.”



                      Many DVOP and LVER staff believed they had no recourse in handling local
Management            office managers who failed to follow title 38 regulations, and 12.4 percent
Interference Within   of the respondents discussed management interference within the local
the Local Office      office:

                      “I would like the [state to] follow the rules under Title 38 Chapter 41 as it relates to the
                      DVOPs and LVER programs. Emphasize that the DVOPs’ work with the disabled veterans
                      “ONLY” and ensure the mainstream employment. We need a name of a person(s) to call
                      when management refuses to follow the law as written Title 38 Chapter 41. This will stop
                      the intimidation of management thinking they can treat and use DVOPs and LVERs anyway
                      they choose.”




                      Page 69                                    GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                       Appendix IX
                       Content Analysis of DVOP and LVER Survey
                       Comments




                       A small percentage, 6.1, of DVOP and LVER staff described the antiveteran
Lack of                sentiment in their local offices by staff or managers. Because DVOP and
Veteran-Friendly       LVER staff fall under the jurisdiction of employment service supervisors,

Environment in Local   many were told that the office as a whole comes first:

Office                 “Recently, when incorrect procedures were identified in veteran referral [by non-DVOP or
                       LVER staff], the manager stated that the[se] staff should take care of her nonvet staff. If any
                       questions arise, she immediately defends the nonvet staff and implies that the [DVOP and
                       LVER] staff has an attitude problem. Also, she frequently states (relating to office
                       procedures) that if it is not in writing, she does not have to justify it. The [DVOP and LVER]
                       staff [are] caught in the middle.”




                       Comments indicated that in many cases the DVOP and LVER staff are caught
Promote Federalizing   between the federal regulations and the state management’s enforcement,
of DVOP and LVER       or lack thereof. Six percent of DVOP and LVER respondents believed that to
Programs               solve many conflicts between state and federal jurisdictions, it would be
                       best to place the DVOP and LVER staff entirely under federal control and
                       supervision:

                       “I strongly feel that I should be able to perform as a DVOP without fear of reprisal.
                       Therefore, the duties of the DVOP should be mandated by the Federal Government and not
                       left up to the local office managers to dictate policy.”


                       Difficult state managers were not the only reason survey respondents
                       believed that the DVOP and LVER programs should be federalized:

                       “. . . State control of a Federal [VETS] program, especially the vets job program, results in
                       50+ ways of doing the same job. Title 38 is meaningless when dumped into a state political
                       quagmire. It gets diluted and receives varied support and enactment, depending on the
                       political complexion of the state.”



                       Nineteen of the veterans’ comments (5 percent) concerned pay scales.
Concern About Low      Many DVOP and LVER staff believed that as employees following federal
or Unequal DVOP/LVER   regulations, they deserved a federalized pay scale:
Pay Between States
                       “If all LVERs/DVOPs were federalized, they would all be under one set of rules, a single chain
                       of command, and much better relationship with the VA. Standardized pay scale would
                       greatly help in retaining quality veteran employment representatives, instead of the “gap” of
                       several thousands of dollars per year in pay from state to state.”




                       Page 70                                   GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                      Appendix IX
                      Content Analysis of DVOP and LVER Survey
                      Comments




                      Other DVOP and LVER staff simply believed that low starting salaries and
                      little growth potential undermined the program:

                      “The LVER/DVOPs in our office are both motivated professionals with college degrees (most
                      nonvet staff have no college degree). We start at an annual salary which is $6,000 a year
                      lower than the average state per capita income.”



                      Over 18 percent made comments pertaining to performance standards.
Performance           Nearly 70 percent of these comments addressed the current performance
Standards             standards and believed they needed revision or were too difficult to meet.
                      The remaining 30 percent of the comments stated that the standards
                      should be better monitored:

                      “I feel that close monitoring of activities performed by LVERs and DVOPs should be kept and
                      that managers and supervisors be made aware of the duties of the representatives so that
                      these representatives are able to perform the job that they are being paid to do.”


                      In this case, the comment suggests that state-level involvement will help
                      enforce federal guidelines so that DVOP and LVER staff are able to work
                      under the federal regulations without local interference.


                      Others were concerned that their computer tracking systems were
Up-to-Date Computer   outdated or cumbersome. Sixty-one respondents (16.1 percent) stated that
Technology and        the current computer systems at their disposal made serving the veteran
Training              population difficult. The vast majority of comments concerned upgrading
                      the current system or purchasing a system where none existed:

                      “Better computer capability would help our clients and staff. Laptops with reasonable
                      applications software, remote access to the state system for use during outreach
                      assignments and internet/PCs options might bring us into the 1990s in dealing with/for our
                      clients.”


                      “I think that if we as DVOPs have computers so [we] could have more information at our
                      fingertips, we could do our jobs better and be more useful to our vets that we serve. Such
                      things: Internet, LMI, America’s Job Bank, [Microsoft] Word, and Windows.”


                      Other DVOP and LVER staff in less populous states often serve a large
                      geographic area through outreach. When they leave the office, they do not
                      currently have access to computers while they are outstationed:




                      Page 71                                 GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                         Appendix IX
                         Content Analysis of DVOP and LVER Survey
                         Comments




                         “As a DVOP staffer, I feel I could better serve my veterans if I had access to a computer
                         where I am outstationed at a veteran center. A number of my clients have to be referred to
                         the local office because of nonaccess to a computer.”



                         Of the 8.2 percent who made comments concerning the National Veterans’
Comments Regarding       Training Institute, over 80 percent were positive and cited the national
the National Veterans’   training as essential to learning the duties of DVOP and LVER staff. Many
Training Institute       DVOP and LVER staff who had not received the training asked to be sent to
                         the National Veterans’ Training Institute because they had seen the
                         benefits in their colleagues. Others believed that even more detailed
                         institute training would be useful. The 20 percent in the minority who
                         believed that the National Veterans’ Training Institute was not a good
                         program often believed that their own state could have provided more
                         state-specific training. Still others believed the training was not
                         cost-efficient.


                         About 8.2 percent of DVOP and LVER staff commented about TAP and VR&C;
Comments About TAP,      70 percent of the comments were specific remarks about duties, while the
VR&C Duties, or          other 30 percent cited a lack of coordination between the DVOP and VR&C
VR&C Coordination        programs. Many DVOP staff believed that the overlap between the two
                         programs could be avoided:
With DVOP Program
Lacking                  “The coordination between VR&C and this office is almost nil. Of the eight (8) years I’ve
                         been working in the vets program, about three times have I had a vet referred to me by
                         VR&C, and all had already received job employment services . . . . I’ve visited VR&C on four
                         occasions and asked to have disabled and special disabled referred to me but, besides that,
                         there’s no coordination between our offices. I’ve been to TAP training, but I haven’t given
                         one TAP session.”


                         In commenting on their TAP and VR&C duties, most respondents praised the
                         effectiveness of both programs:

                         “As I am deeply involved in both TAP and VR&C case management I feel both programs are
                         invaluable to those I serve. The programs provide a quality product at a minimum cost,
                         while at the same time helping put informed, productive workers into the labor pool, or
                         directly into jobs with employers.”


                         “Through the TAP program, which is the first line information center for veterans, we tell
                         our veterans to contact their local LVER or DVOP for information and assistance in finding
                         out about veteran programs, employment, and financial assistance. We become an




                         Page 72                                 GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                      Appendix IX
                      Content Analysis of DVOP and LVER Survey
                      Comments




                      information service, a tracking service, and, most important, the first step back to the
                      mainstream of life for the disabled, or impaired, vet.”



                      Of the 28 respondents (7.4 percent) who commented about changes in
Change in             employment services and the advent of one-stop career centers, about a
Employment Services   third felt positively about the prospective changes, while two-thirds
and Changes to        expressed anxiety. Those who expressed concern feared that veterans
                      would not receive priority and would not continue to receive needed
One-Stop Career       services:
Centers
                      “Being the only state to allow private industry bids for one-stop career centers, we are in
                      turmoil to help vets and other clients. [We] can’t access job details for areas served by
                      private one-stops. One-stop centers have become a political issue with total fragmentation
                      of our system—the loser is the job hunting client. I cannot control this but see it as a major
                      problem affecting the public and vets.”




                      In general, the comments on the LVER and DVOP questionnaire were highly
Protect Veterans’     favorable toward veterans. Over 17 percent of the respondents specifically
Services              discussed title 38 and provided testimonials about how important it is to
                      continue providing veterans’ employment services.

                      “The LVER/DVOP Program is a key to the only help some veterans will receive, don’t throw
                      away that key to that help. Fund the Employment Services and the LVER/DVOP Program as it
                      should be and let us continue helping veterans and others as they should be helped.”


                      “Keep the DVER/DVOP-LVER vet employment representation program . . . it is one of the few
                      cost-effective and successful programs in . . . government that actually works!”


                      “Veterans allow us to have rights, it’s important that we as a nation protect their rights.”




                      Page 73                                  GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
Appendix X

Tables Supporting Figures in Report Text


Table X.1: Data for Figure 4—1997
Cost per DVOP Position              Cost category                       States
                                    $60,000+                            Alaska, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Hawaii, Illinois,
                                                                        Massachusetts, Michigan, Nevada, New York,
                                                                        Washington, and Wisconsin
                                    $40,000-$60,000                     Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana,
                                                                        Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri,
                                                                        Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North
                                                                        Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode
                                                                        Island, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, and
                                                                        Wyoming
                                    Under $40,000                       Arizona, Florida, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, New
                                                                        Mexico, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and
                                                                        West Virginia
                                    Note: Cost per position for District of Columbia is $66,667; for Puerto Rico, $24,222. There are no
                                    DVOP specialist positions in the Virgin Islands.



Table X.2: Data for Figure 5—1997
DVOP Administrative and Support                                                                                               Number of
Expenses                            Percentage of grant spent                                                                    states
                                    Under 20                                                                                               4
                                    20-24                                                                                                 24
                                    25-29                                                                                                 16
                                    30-34                                                                                                  7
                                    35+                                                                                                    1
                                    Note: Number of states does not total 53 because the Virgin Islands have no DVOP specialists.



Table X.3: Data for Figure 6—1997
Cost per LVER Position              Cost category                       States
                                    $60,000+                            Alaska, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Hawaii, Illinois,
                                                                        Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New York,
                                                                        Pennsylvania, Washington, and Wisconsin
                                    $40,000-$60,000                     Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia,
                                                                        Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Maryland,
                                                                        Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New
                                                                        Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina,
                                                                        North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island,
                                                                        South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont,
                                                                        Virginia, and Wyoming
                                    Under $40,000                       Kentucky, Louisiana, South Dakota, and West Virginia
                                    Note: Cost per LVER position for the District of Columbia is $65,385; for Puerto Rico, $26,625; for
                                    the Virgin Islands, $48,000.




                                    Page 74                                      GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                                      Appendix X
                                      Tables Supporting Figures in Report Text




Table X.4: Data for Figure 7—1997
LVER Administrative and Support                                                                                             Number of
Expense                               Percentage of grant spent                                                                states
                                      Under 20                                                                                       8
                                      20-24                                                                                         24
                                      25-29                                                                                         15
                                      30-34                                                                                          6
                                      35+                                                                                            0

Table X.5: Data for Figure
8—Placement Rate for Nonveterans                                                                      Number of states
and Veterans                          Percentage placed                                          Nonveterans                 Veterans
                                      0-10                                                                   18                      2
                                      11-20                                                                  26                     18
                                      21-30                                                                   7                     19
                                      31-40                                                                   2                     12
                                      41-50                                                                   0                      2

Table X.6: Data for Figure 9—DVOP
and LVER Educational Requirements                                                                             Number of states
                                      Education requirement                                                       DVOP          LVER
                                      None                                                                             15           12
                                      High school diploma/GED                                                          10            8
                                      Some college or 2-year degree                                                     4            3
                                      4-year college degree                                                            23           30
                                      Note: Total for number of states with DVOP education requirement does not add to 53 because
                                      the Virgin Islands have no DVOP positions.



Table X.7: Data for Figure 10—DVOP
and LVER Average Starting and         Salary                                                                DVOP                LVER
Full-Performance Salaries             Starting                                                            $21,846             $23,001
                                      Full performance                                                    $32,308             $34,739

Table X.8: Data for Figure 11—DVOP
and LVER Length of Military Service   Years of military service                                             DVOP                LVER
                                      Up to 2 years                                                               15                22
                                      More than 2 to 4 years                                                      23                29
                                      More than 4 to 8 years                                                      9                  9
                                      More than 8 to 12 years                                                     4                  5
                                      More than 12 to 20 years                                                    5                  4
                                      More than 20 years                                                          44                31




                                      Page 75                                   GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                                        Appendix X
                                        Tables Supporting Figures in Report Text




Table X.9: Data for Figure 12—DVOP
and LVER Decade Separated/Retired                                                                           Percent
From Active Duty                        Decade separated/retired                                         DVOP             LVER
                                        1940s                                                   Under 1 percent               1
                                        1950s                                                                 2               5
                                        1960s                                                                19              24
                                        1970s                                                                33              40
                                        1980s                                                                25              22
                                        1990s                                                                21              10
                                        Note: Numbers do not add to 100 because of rounding.



Table X.10: Data for Figure
13—Educational Attainment of DVOP                                                                           Percent
and LVER Staff                          Educational level                                                DVOP             LVER
                                        High school diploma/GED                                               4               4
                                        Some college or 2-year degree                                        46              39
                                        4-year degree                                                        27              34
                                        Graduate school                                                      23              22
                                        Note: Numbers do not add to 100 because of rounding.



Table X.11: Data for Figure 14—Age of
DVOP and LVER Staff                                                                                         Percent
                                        Age group                                                        DVOP             LVER
                                        40 and under                                                          4               6
                                        41-45                                                                14              10
                                        46-50                                                                38              33
                                        51-55                                                                24              24
                                        56-60                                                                11              16
                                        Over 60                                                              10              11
                                        Note: Numbers do not add to 100 because of rounding.



Table X.12: Data for Figure 15—DVOP
Client Characteristics and Time                                                                          Percentage of
Allocation                              Client level                                             Clients served       Time spent
                                        Level I                                                              29              20
                                        Level II                                                             44              42
                                        Level III                                                            28              40
                                        Note: Numbers do not add to 100 because of rounding.




                                        Page 76                                  GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                                      Appendix X
                                      Tables Supporting Figures in Report Text




Table X.13: Data for Figure 16—LVER
Client Characteristics and Time                                                                     Percentage of
Allocation                            Client level                                           Clients served         Time spent
                                      Level I                                                           33                 21
                                      Level II                                                          47                 46
                                      Level III                                                         21                 33
                                      Note: Numbers do not add to 100 because of rounding.



Table X.14: Data for Figure
17—Percentage of DVOP and LVER                                                                                      Number of
Staff Assisting VR&C Clients          Percentage assisting                                                             states
                                      0-50                                                                                  6
                                      50.1-60                                                                              11
                                      60.1-70                                                                              15
                                      70.1-80                                                                               8
                                      80.1-90                                                                               9
                                      90.1+                                                                                 4

Table X.15: Data for Figure
18—Percentage of DVOP and LVER                                                                                      Number of
Staff Providing TAP Assistance        Percentage assisting                                                             states
                                      0-7.5                                                                                 9
                                      7.6-15.0                                                                             16
                                      15.1-22.5                                                                             8
                                      22.6-30.0                                                                            11
                                      30.1-37.5                                                                             7
                                      37.6+                                                                                 2




                                      Page 77                                  GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
Appendix XI

Comments From the Department of Labor




Now on p. 10.



Now on p. 20.




Now footnote 27.




                   Page 78   GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
                    Appendix XI
                    Comments From the Department of Labor




Now on p. 30.




Now on pp. 32-33.




                    Page 79                            GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
Appendix XII

GAO Contacts and Staff Acknowledgments


                  Sigurd Nilsen, Assistant Director, (202) 512-7003
GAO Contacts      Betty Clark, Evaluator-in-Charge, (617) 565-7524
                  Denise Hunter, Senior Evaluator, (617) 565-7536


                  In addition to those named above, the following individuals provided
Staff             valuable technical assistance to this report: Dianne Murphy Blank, Linda
Acknowledgments   Choy, Wayne Dow, Arthur Merriam, and Kelly Mikelson.




(205320)          Page 80                          GAO/HEHS-98-7 Veterans’ Employment and Training
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