United States General Accounting Office Report to the Honorable <;A0 Charles E. Grassley, U.S. Senate June 1990 SOVIET REFUGEES Issues Affecting Domestic Resettlement GAO/HRD-90-1OGBR United States GAO General Accounting Office Washington, D.C. 20648 Human Resources Division B-239117 June 26,199O The Honorable Charles E. Grassley United States Senate Dear Senator Grassley: In your letter of October 27, 1989, you asked us to examine the domestic costs of resettling refugees admitted to this country, particularly Soviet refugees. In discussions with your staff, we agreed to (1) obtain esti- mates of resettlement costs from public and private sector officials, (2) supplement these estimates with analyses of existing data collected by the Department of Health and Human Services and others, and (3) examine factors that might constrain capacity to resettle more refu- gees. This report summarizes the information presented in our January 29, 1990, briefing to your staff. An organized program of grants, public assistance, and private philan- thropy supports most refugees admitted to the United States. Because refugees tend to resettle in a few states, the costs of resettlement are not spread evenly across the country. Neither public nor private sector agencies involved in resettlement disaggregate costs for Soviets or any other refugee groups. Available cost estimates for all refugees vary widely. Public assistance to refugees is generally a very small percentage of total public assistance. Since passage of the Refugee Act of 1980, how- ever, federal assistance has diminished, and some states have expressed concerns that the Department of Health and Human Services has shifted refugee resettlement costs to them. Private sector officials also told us that federal cuts have increased their burden, but they reported that they can afford to resettle more Soviet refugees. We obtained this information from officials of the voluntary agencies resettling most of the Soviet refugees (see p. 20), the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of State, and the Immigra- tion and Naturalization Service, as well as from academic and other experts on immigration. In addition, we reviewed documents, studies, and other data provided by those parties, but did not verify the accu- racy of the information. Our work was done from November 1989 to January 1990 in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. Page 1 GAO/HRLHO-IDGBR Soviet Refugees Page 3 GAO/HBD9@lO6BR Soviet Refugees contents Abbreviations AFIX Aid to Families With Dependent Children HHS Department of Health and Human Services INS Immigration and Naturalization Service VOIAG voluntary agency Page 5 GAO/HRD90106BR Sovirt Rdu.qees Refugees: Domestic Costa and Other Factors That Affect Resettlement Figure 1: Refugee Ceiling5 and Admirrion5 (Fiscal Years1%1-9@ Rdugus In Thousands 225 210 195 150 168 150 125 120 105 90 75 50 45 30 15 0 1981 1982 1952 1954 1955 lS5S ls57 1988 1989 1920 flsal Yrn - Ceilkq mm-1 AdmissDns Sources Data for fiscal years 1981-88 are from 1988 Statlstlcal Yearbook of the lmmlgratlon and Natural- tzatlon Servtce (Aug 1989) Data on wlmgs forfwal years 1989-W are from Refugee Admwlons and Resettlement POIICY,Congresstonal Research Setvlce (Mar 26, 1990) Upon admission, refugees resettle throughout the United States. They tend to be concentrated, however, in several states as a result of initial placement decisions that have stressed family reunification; the availa- bility of sponsors in only some areas; and secondary migration of refu- gees to areas where there are family, friends, or an established ethnic community. Figure 2 shows the approximate refugee populations in the 10 states in which the largest numbers of refugees resettle. Page 7 GAO/HRKMC-106BR Soviet Refugees Refugees: Domestic Costs and Other Factors That Affect Resettlement The Refugee Act of 1980 authorized federal assistance to resettle refu- Refugees Are Entitled gees and to promote their self-sufficiency.* Financial assistance and ser- to Financial vices to these “fully funded” refugees are provided under cooperative Assistance and arrangements by either federal, state, and local governments or private sector voluntary agencies (VOLAGS).Figure 3 traces the process though Services which federal, state, local, and private agencies work together to resettle fully funded refugees. “Some “privately funded” wfugees, who are not eligible for pubhc asstance, are also included m the cedings set for refugees Page 9 GAO/HRLS99496BR Soviet Refugees Refugees: Lknnestic Costs and Other Factors That Affect Resettlement Fully funded refugees are entitled to an initial reception and placement grant. The grant provides assistance with the costs of basic needs, such as food, shelter, and clothing, for the first 30 days after entering the United States. This assistance is provided by the Department of State in the form of per capita grants to VOLAGS who meet refugees as they arrive in this country and help them get settled in their new communities.3 After 30 days, fully funded refugees are eligible for additional public assistance administered by the Department of Health and Human Ser- vices (HHS). HHS reimburses states for assistance provided through such programs as Aid to Families With Dependent Children (AFDC),Medicaid, general assistance, and medical assistance. HHS also provides matching grants to VOLAGS for certain services pro vided to refugees.’ The VOLAGmatching grant program is an alternative program to provide national voluntary resettlement assistance and ser- vices on behalf of refugees. The program’s goal is to help refugees attain self-sufficiency without access to public cash assistance. Funding from both the Department of State and HHS has been reduced Federal Assistance since passage of the Refugee Act of 1980. Department of State reception Has Diminished in the and placement grants to VOLAGS have not kept pace with inflation. In 1980s 1980, the per capita reception and placement grant was $600 for each refugee. In 1989, this per capita grant was $525-30 percent less than it would have been if it had kept pace with inflation. Since 1986, federal assistance from HHS has fallen by nearly 60 percent, primarily because of reductions in reimbursements to the states for cash and medical benefits, including AFIX, Medicaid, and other social services. Between 1986 and 1990, HHS cut back the maximum allowable time for reimbursements (for refugee cash and medical assistance) from 36 to 12 months, effectively shifting resettlement costs to the states. As of Jan- uary 1990, reimbursements for the nonfederal share of AF-DC, Medicaid, and Supplemental Security Income were cut to 4 months. In addition, subsequent to the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act, HHS reduced the federal matching grant available to VOLAGS from $1,000 to $957 per refugee. 3The principal VOLAGS in the refugee assw.tance program are list.4 in appendix 1. “A complete description of the refugee resettlement program is available from the annual report: Refugee Resettlement Program. Report to the Congress, HHS, Family Support Administration, Office of Refugee Resettlement (.J;m 31, l9S9) Page I1 GAO/HRD9@1O6BR Soviet Refugees Refugees: Domestic Casts and Other Factors That Affect Resettlement Figure 5: Refugee Arrivals From the Soviet Union (Fiscal Years 1982-88) 22 Rm In Thoraands . 20 16 16 14 12 10 6 6 0 2 0 1962 1662 1984 1965 1666 1667 1666 Fiscal Ym Source 1988 Statlstlcal Yearbook of the lmmlgratlon and Naturallzato- Serwce (Aug 1989) Status of Soviet Refugees We recently reported on the processing and admittance of Soviet refu- gees to the United States.” Until August 1988, the United States granted nearly automatic refugee status to all Soviet citizens wishing to emi- grate. However, beginning in August 1988, all Soviet refugee appli- cants-like all other refugee applicants-were required to establish individually that they suffered persecution or had a well-founded fear of persecution to quality for refugee status. This change was necessary, U.S. officials said, to bring the Soviet refugee program into compliance with the Refugee Act of 1980, as well as to ensure that the limited ref- ugee admissions available for Soviets were used by bona fide refugees, In anticipation that some Soviet citizens would be denied refugee status under the new adjudication practice, the Attorney General extended an offer of public interest parole to all Soviets found ineligible for refugee status. Parole status entitles a Soviet to enter the United States but does not provide U.S. government financial aid or the right to apply for per- manent resident status, as does refugee status. ‘Soviet Refugees: Procesing and Admittance to the United States (GAO/NSIAD-90-158, May 9. 1990). Page 13 GAO/HRDSO-106BR Soviet Refugees Refugees: Domestic Costs and Other Factors That Affect Resettlement Neither HHS nor VOLAGS disaggregate domestic resettlement costs by ref- Cost Estimates for ugee country of origin. Some VOLAGS provided estimates of the domestic Resettling Soviets costs of resettling all refugees, but these varied widely. In part, this Incomplete reflected differences in the accounting for costs and in the completeness of estimates. For instance, some estimates included in-kind donations while others did not. HHS data show that refugees on public assistance received about $3,000 each in fiscal year 1988. We did not attempt to survey states about the Soviet resettlement costs; however, some states have raised concerns about their growing costs for resettling refugees in general, because of federal cuts in assistance. Voluntary Agency Cost Estimates of the domestic costs associated with resettlement of refugees in the United States vary widely. This is partly because some refugees Estimates for Resettlement T,---- v ar-y will be employed within days of arrival in the United States and require no assistance, while others will require high levels of assistance for long periods. Costs also vary because of geographic differences in the ( 1) cost of living, (2) employment opportunities, (3) state assistance programs, and (4) inconsistencies in accounting for and reporting VOLAGS' costs for refugee assistance, especially in valuing donations of in-kind goods and volunteer time. Estimates of the cost of resettlement for the average refugee made by VOLAGS, government organizations, and other experts range from $1,800 to over $7,000. For example, the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society esti- mates that fiscal year 1990 average domestic resettlement costs per ref- ugee for the first 4 months are $2,641. Church World Service’s financial information for 1989 shows an annual average cost per refugee of 5337 for cash and goods, with its local affiliates reporting average costs ranging from $15 to $1,070. Church World Service estimates an addi- tional average of 35 volunteer hours per refugee. The Tolstoy Founda- tion relies on the $525 reception and placement grant to cover its resettlement costs and does not account for donated goods and services or other sources of support used in resettlement. Page 16 GAO/HRDWIO6BR Sosirt Hrfuv,ees Refugeea Dome&k Coats md Other Facton That Affect Resettlement Figure t: State Cash Assistance to Refugees as a Percentage of Total State AFDC Expenditures (Fiscal Year 1988) 2.0 PercanlotAFoc 1.6 1.0 1.4 12 1.0 0.6 0.6 0.4 02 0 P c L * A A.. d / P Note, Data on cash awstance for refugees include AFDC. Refugee Cash Assistance. General Assw tance, and Supplemental Security Income Data on cash assistance for all parsons were avaIlable only for AFDC Therefore, these estimates overstate the extent of state ald gomg to refugees. Source: Data on cash assistance for refugees are from HHS, Office of Refugee Resettlement (Dee 1999). Data on cash assistance for all persons are from Background Material and Data on Programs WIthIn the Jurlsdlctlon of the Commtttee on Ways and tieans. U S. House of Representatives (Mar 15, 1989). Page 17 GAO/HRDBo-1OI3BR Soviet Refugees Rdugees: Domestic Costa and Other Facton That Affect Resettlement Experts we interviewed had divergent views about capacity to absorb Views on Resettlement more refugees. Department of State officials told us there is a current Capacity Vary backlog of refugees waiting for sponsors. We have reported that, as of February 28, 1990, about 13,000 refugees were waiting for sponsorship and some of these refugees had been waiting more than 4 months.’ Others told us that the United States could absorb many more refugees, notwithstanding transitional resettlement costs. They cited the growth in our country’s population from immigration and the aggregate produc- tive contributions made by refugees and other immigrants. Officials from VOLAGS said that the country can absorb more refugees than the ceilings allow and that the ceilings are set for political as well as economic reasons. In general, these agencies felt that they could place as many refugees as they dealt with last year-about 100,000. They added that as in the past they could resettle at least 200,000 refugees with a relaxation of administrative requirements. Most VOLAGS in our review cited health care costs as the single most important obstacle to overcome in increasing their capacity to resettle more refugees. Lack of health insurance-through Medicaid and private insurers-hampers their ability to recruit sponsors for refugees. Smaller VOLAGs, which do not have large administrative organizations of their own and operate on an informal, interpersonal basis, told us that if administrative requirements relating to case management, accounting, and office location within 100 miles of a refugee placement were eased or eliminated, they could handle many more refugees. All agencies discussed the increased burden on voluntary, state, and local agencies from diminished federal assistance. An official from the local New York agency settling Soviet Jews talked about the problems in recruiting qualified professional staff, particularly case workers and counselors. Several VOLAG officials also discussed private sector support, which varies depending on the individual circumstances of each agency. ‘Sowet Refugees: Processmg and Admittance to the IInited States (GAO/NSIAD-90-I 5’1 1.12, ‘4 1990). Page 19 GAO/HRD90106BR Soviet Refugees Appendix II Major Contributors to This Briefing Report Cynthia A. Bascetta, Assistant Director, (202) 275-0020 Human Resources Eleanor L. Johnson, Evaluator-in-Charge Division, Roger Straw, Evaluator Ellen Radish, Evaluator Washington, D.C. Page 21 GAO/HRBC@lO6BR Soviet Refugees Page 23 GAO/HRD.Bo1OllBR Sovlet Refugeea Requests for copies of GAO reports should be sent to: U.S. General Accounting Office Post Office Box 6015 Gaithersburg, Maryland 20877 Telephone 202-275-6241 The first five copies of each report are free. Additional copies are $2.00 each. There is a 25% discount on orders for 100 or more copies mailed to a single address. United States First-Class Mail General Accounting Office Postage & Fees Paid Washington, D.C. 20548 GAO Permit No. GlOO Official Business Penalty for Private Use $300 RelatedGAO Products Soviet Refugees: Processing and Admittance to the United States (GAO/NSIAD~O-158, May 9,1999). Asian Americans: A Status Report (GAO/HRD90-36FS, Mar. 8, 1990). Refugees From Eastern Europe (GAO/T-~~~~-90-07, Nov. 2, 1989). Processing Soviet Refugees (GAO/T-NSIAD-~~-~~, Sept. 14, 1989). Processing Soviet Refugees (GAO/T-NSIAD-89-22, Apr. 6, 1989). Refugee Programs: Financial Accountability for Refugee Resettlement Can Be Improved (GAO/NSIAD-89-92, Mar. 17,1989). Refugees and U.S. Asylum Seekers From Central America Mar.9, 1989). (GAO/T-NSL~D-~~-~~, Refugees: Overseas Processing of Admission Applications (GAOINSIAD&~~~, Sept.9 1988). Refugee Program: Status of Early Employment Demonstration Projects Feb.3, 1988). (GAO/NSIAD-~~-91, Refugee Program: Initial Reception and Placement of New Arrivals Should Be Improved (G~o1~s1~~~36-69, Apr. 7, 1986). (105537) Page24 GAO/HRD9MO6BRSoviet Refugee! Page 22 GAO/HRDB@lO6BR Sovlct Refugees Appendix I Principal Voluntary AgenciesInvolved in RefugeeAssistancePrograms American Council for Nationalities Services, New York, New York American Fund for Czechoslovak Refugees, Inc., New York, New York Church World Service, New York, New York Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, New York, New York International Rescue Committee, Inc., New York, New York Iowa Department of Human Services, Des Moines, Iowa Lutheran Immigration and Relief Committee, Inc., New York, New York Polish American Immigration and Relief Committee, Inc., New York, New York Presiding Bishop’s Fund for World Relief, New York, New York Tolstoy Foundation, Inc., New York, New York United States Catholic Conference, Washington, D.C. World Relief Refugee Services, Wheaton, Illinois Page 20 GAO/HRD9O-106BR Soviet Refugees Refugees: Domestic Costs and Other Factors That Affect Resettlement Figure 8: State Medical Assistance to Refugees as a Percentage of Total State 1.0 Pwcsnf of Medicaid Medicaid Expenditures (Fiscal Year 1988) 0.9 0.9 0.7 OJ I 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 * d Note Data on medtcal assistance for refugees Include MedIcand. Refugee MedIcal Assistance. and Gen- eral MedIcal Assistance Data on medtcal assistance for all persons were awlable only for MedIcaId. Thus, this estimate overstates the percentage of state ald gomg to refugees Source, Data on medlcal assistance for refugees are from HHS. Offlce of Refugee Resettlement (Jan 1969) Data on medIcal awstance for all persons are from HHS, Health Care Financing Admlnlstratlon (Jan. 1990). Table 1 shows the eligible population of all refugees in the four states most affected by Soviet resettlement. Average annual assistance per recipient in fiscal year 1988 varied from about $2,200 to $8,400, com- pared with a national average of about $3,100. Table 1: Cash Assistance to Refugee8 (Fiscal Year 1988) Average Eligible assistance per State Total Imillions oooulation Recioients recioient CA ..-~- $‘05 0 - ’ 60,598 47,809 $;,I96 NY 280 13.981 3,342 8,378 MA 147 6,833 3,087 4,762 IL 77 4,944 1,150 6,696 Umted States $240.4 146,768 78,411 $3,066 Source Refugee Resettlement Program Report to the Congress, HHS, Farmty Support Admmlstratnn, Offwe ot Refugee Resettlement (Jan 31. 1989) Page 1.9 GAO/HRDW-106BR Soviet Refugees Refugees: Domestic Cost4 and Other Factors That Affect Resettlement Refugee Resettlement Most Soviet refugees settle in four states (see fig. 6). According to HHS, California was the most common destination for Soviet refugees, with 60 Costs for Soviets Fall percent of the total placements in 1988. This was due to the large pro- Unevenly on the States portion of Armenians in the Soviet flow, who joined Armenian conunu- nities in California. New York placed second with 20 percent of the Soviet arrivals, followed by Massachusetts (6 percent) and Illinois (4 percent). S&iet Refugees (Fiscal Year 1988) 14 Numhm in Thousands 13 12 11 10 9 a 7 6 6 4 3 2 1 0 Source Refugee Resettlement Program Report to the Congress, HHS, Famlly Support Admnstratlon, Offlce of Refugee Resettlement (Jan 31, 1989) Even in the four states in which most Soviet refugees resettle, cash assistance for all refugees averaged less than 1 percent of the total AFDC expenditures in two states, and was highest in Massachusetts and Cali- fornia, but below 2 percent (see fig. 7). Similarly, medical expenditures for refugees in three states represented less than 0.1 percent of the total Medicaid expenditures and were highest in California at only 0.6 percent (see fig. 8). Page 16 GAO/HRS9@106BR Soviet Refugees Refugees: Domestic Costs and Other Factors That Affect Resettlement Under thenew standard, the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) began to deny Soviets refugee status. During fiscal year 1989, INS denied refugee status to about 11,500 Soviets in Moscow and about 6,300 Soviets in Rome.” Because some denied Soviets were from ethnic or religious groups that had historically experienced discrimination or persecution within the Soviet Union, concerns were raised by congres- sional members and others about how consistently the worldwide stan- dards were being applied. Also, U.S. officials were concerned about the political implications of Soviets remaining indefinitely in Italy. Few Soviets denied refugee status in Rome were accepting parole status. In November 1989, the Lautenberg Amendment was enacted. This legis- lation requires the executive branch to establish four refugee processing categories for Soviet applicants processed during fiscal year 1990. The administration began implementing the Lautenberg Amendment on February 1,1990, in accordance with INS implementing guidance, dated January 24, 1990. The new guidance establishes four refugee processing categories for Jews, Evangelical Christians, Ukrainian Catholics, and members of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church; requires case-by-case adju- dications; and lowers the approval threshold for category members to make it easier for them to qualify as refugees. As the legislation intended, INS is applying the guidance retroactively to all category appli- cants denied refugee status since August 1988. However, because INSdid not implement its guidance until February 1, 1990, it is too early to assess the overall impact of the Lautenberg Amendment on fiscal year 1990 Soviet refugee adjudications. Many Soviet Applicants Because of the large numbers of Soviets expected to apply for U.S. ref- Expected to Apply for ugee resettlement, concerns have been raised about the adequacy of the fiscal year 1990 ceiling of 50,000 Soviets. Our recent report on Soviet Resettlement refugees estimates 45,000 of the 50,000 Soviets authorized for admis- sion to the United States are being processed in Rome and the remainder in Moscow. The Department of State estimates that 170,000 Soviets applied for admission as of the end of May 1990. “In late 1989, processing of Soviet applicants for refugee admission was moved from Rome to Moscow. Page 14 GAO/HRD9@106BR Soviet Refugees Refugees: Domestic Casts and Other Factors That Affect Resettlement The ceiling for refugees from the Soviet Union has been increasing as a More Refugees proportion of the overall refugee ceiling, resulting in Soviets becoming Admitted From the the largest group of refugees admitted in fiscal year 1990. Through most Soviet Union of the 1980s annual admissions of Soviets varied between about 3,000 and 21,000. The ceiling for 1990 is about 50,000. In part, this trend is attributable to the recent loosening of Soviet restrictions on emigration (see fig. 4). Figure 4: Emigration From the Soviet Union (1975-89) 60 Numbws in Thousands 50 0 To countries other than Israel. primarffy United States To Israel Source National Conference o” Sowt Jewry (Apr 1990) The number of Soviet refugee arrivals increased sharply in fiscal year 1988 (see fig. 5). The arrivals included three groups- Soviet *Jews, Evangelical and Pentecostal Christians, and Armenians. In fiscal year 1990, about 80 percent of the Soviets scheduled to enter the United States are Soviet Jews, while most of the remainder are Evangelical and Pentecostal Christians and Armenians. Page 12 Refugees: Domestic Costs and Other Factors That Affect Resettlement Figure 3: Resettlement Assistance -A Cooperative Effort Among Federal, State, and Local Governments and Private Agencies Federal Reimbursement Reimbursements Claims Per Capita v Pavment u State Refugee Coordinators State Welfare and l Social Service Agencies - State and/or Local Welfare and Social Contractors-Including VOLAGS. Refugee Mutual Assistance Associations and Other Private Groups VOLAGS (Local Affiliates in Communities Nationwide) Often with Co-Sponsors (e.g., Orientation and Churches, Families, Individuals, etc.) Employment and Social Services ‘In 1989. 11 VOLAGs and one slate (Iowa) had cooperative agreements with the Department of Stale lo partlclpale in the mltial reception and placement of refugees in the Unlted States. for whtch they were pad $525 per refugee (per capita grant) Source Refugee Program Status of Early Employment Demonstration Prqects (GAOINSIAD 88-91, Feb 3.1988) Page 10 GAO/HRB!3@106BR Soviet Refugees Refugees: Domestic Costs and Other Factors That Affect Resettlement Figure 2: Ten States With Largest Refugee Populations (Fiscal Year 1988) p: :: :. M--- I om~.800 a i ,a01 m 3,w0 3,523 m 7.522 m 34360 Source Refugee Resettlement Program Report to the Congress. HHS, Family Suppon HU~I~~SI~SIIO~. OffIce of Refugee Resettlement (Jan 31, 1989) Page 8 GA0/HRB90406BR Soviet Refugees Refugees:DomesticCostsand Other Factors That Affect Resettlement In the Refugee Act of 1980, the United States adopted the definition of Admission of Refugees refugees which brought United States law into conformity with the to the United States United Nations Protocol and Convention Relating to the Status of Refu- gees. Under the act, refugees are defined in part as persons outside their own countries of nationality who are unable or unwilling to return because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution. In certain circumstances designated by the President after consultation with the Congress, persons still within their native countries may also qualify as refugees if persecuted.’ After consulting with the Congress, the President determines annually the overall number of refugees who may be admitted to the United States and sets specific ceilings on the numbers who may be admitted from various regions of the world. In fiscal year 1980, ceilings were set to admit primarily Asian refugees; but by fiscal year 1990, ceilings of about 50,000 each were set for refugees from Asia and the Soviet Union. Admissions paralleled these changes in the ceilings (see fig. 1). ‘Refugees may enter the Umted States under other immigration status provisions, whrh are dis- cussed in Refugee Admissions and Resettlement Policy (Mar 26, 1990) and A Brief History of I’S, Immigration Policy (Congressional Research Service) (Nov. 25, 1988). Page 6 GAO/HRD90106BR Soviet Refugees Contents Letter 1 Refugees: Domestic 6 Costs and Other Admission of Refugees to the United States 6 Refugees Are Entitled to Financial Assistance and 9 Factors That Affect Services Resettlement Federal Assistance Has Diminished in the 1980s 11 More Refugees Admitted From the Soviet Union 12 Cost Estimates for Resettling Soviets Incomplete 15 Views on Resettlement Capacity Vary 19 Appendixes Appendix I: Principal Voluntary Agencies Involved in 20 Refugee Assistance Programs Appendix II: Major Contributors to This Briefing Report 21 Related GAO Products 24 Table Table 1: Cash Assistance to Refugees (Fiscal Year 1988) 18 - Figures Figure 1: Refugee Ceilings and Admissions 7 (Fiscal Years 198 l-90) Figure 2: Ten States With Largest Refugee Populations 8 (Fiscal Year 1988) Figure 3: Resettlement Assistance-A Cooperative Effort 10 Among Federal, State, and Local Governments and Private Agencies Figure 4: Emigration From the Soviet Union (1975-89) 12 Figure 5: Refugee Arrivals From the Soviet Union 13 (Fiscal Years 1982-88) Figure 6: State of Initial Resettlement of Soviet Refugees 16 (Fiscal Year 1988) Figure 7: State Cash Assistance to Refugees as a 17 Percentage of Total State AFDC Expenditures (Fiscal Year 1988) Figure 8: State Medical Assistance to Refugees as a 18 Percentage of Total State Medicaid Expenditures (Fiscal Year 1988) Page 4 GAO/HRDWlO6BR Soviet Refugees 5239117 As arranged with your office, unless you publicly announce its contents earlier, we plan no further distribution of this report for 30 days from its issue date. At that time, we will send copies to the Secretary of Health and Human Services and other interested parties. Should you have any questions concerning this report, please call me on (202) 275- 6193. Other major contributors to this report are listed in appendix II. J Joseph F. Delfico Director, Income Security Issues e Page 2 GAO/IUD-9@106BR Sovtlrt Refugees \,
Soviet Refugees: Issues Affecting Domestic Resettlement
Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1990-06-26.
Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)