Job Training Partnership Act: Youth Participant Characteristics, Services, and Outcomes

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1990-01-24.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)


     “.I   I   ..I. “,   _.” .._
          United States
GAO       General Accounting Office
          Washington, D.C. 20648

          Human Resources Division


          January 24,199O
          The Honorable Paul Simon
          Chairman, Subcommittee on Employment
            and Productivity
          Committee on Labor and Human Resources
          United States Senate
          The Honorable Augustus F. Hawkins
          Chairman, Committee on Education and Labor
          House of Representatives
          The Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) offers training to economically
      .   disadvantaged youth, many of whom lack basic work skills and remain
          unemployed even as the economy expands and employers encounter a
          shortage of qualified workers. This report respondsto your request for
          information on youth participating in JTPA programs. Specifically, you
          asked for information on the characteristics of youth (aged 14 to 21)
          enrolled under the title II-A component of JTPA, the servicesthey
          received, and the outcomesthey attained. We briefed your staffs on Sep-
          tember 18 and 19, 1989, on the preliminary results of our review. At
          that time, your committees were considering legislation to amend JTPA in
          order to improve targeting of servicesto those most in need and create a
          separate title for youth programs. The Congressis still considering these

          To respond to your request, we analyzed data on a random sample of
          about 5,000 youth from a nationally representative sample of 63 local
          JTPA programs. This information was collected in conjunction with our
          earlier report on services and outcomesfor adults participating in JTPA.’
          The results of this study are projectable to all youth participants nation-
          ally. As in our study on adults, we identified five factors that make it
          more likely for participants to experience difficulty in the labor market.
          These factors were being a dropout, a member of a minority group, on
          welfare, a single parent with dependent child, or without recent work
          experience. Generally, the more of these characteristics youth have, the
          greater are their needsfor servicesto assist them in finding and main-
          taining employment. We classified youth in our sample into three cate-
          gories of job readiness using the number of these factors participants
          had-more job ready (0 or 1 factor), lessjob ready (3 or more factors),
           and an intermediate group (2 factors).

                       artnership Act: Services and Outcomes for Participants   With Differing   Needs
                      -52, June 9, 1989).

           Page 1                                             GAO/IiRTM&MBR         JTPA Youth Participants

           To determine how closely those receiving servicescompared with those
           eligible for the program, we used information from the Bureau of the
           Census’Current Population Survey to classify the eligible youth popula-
           tion into these samejob-readiness groups. Also, we classified the jobs for
           which participants were trained into three groups-lower skill, moder-
           ate skill, and higher skill jobs. We analyzed the servicesthat partici-
           pants received and the outcomesobtained. Finally, we investigated the
           association between these services and outcomes.We cannot conclude,
           however, that services alone affect outcomesfor program participants
           becauseother factors on which data are lacking, such as motivation or
           other personal attributes, also may contribute to outcomes,

           Out-of-school youth-either high school graduates or youth who have
           dropped out before graduating-were the focus of this report. Out-of-
           school youth comprise 64 percent of JTPA youth participants, and the
           services they received and the outcomesthey obtained differed signifi-
           cantly from those for in-school youth. JTPA emphasizesattaining employ-
           ment, and out-of-school youth were more likely to receive occupational
           training and placement in jobs, an immediate result that can be assessed
           in relationship to the various kinds of training provided. Becausein-
           school youth were more likely to be in nonoccupational training (includ-
           ing remedial education and short-term work experience),job placement
           was much less frequent for them.

           Program resourcesare not being directed to those out-of-school youth
Overview   who are lessjob ready and presumably have the greatest need.JTPA
           appears to serve youth in the three job readinesscategoriesin about the
           same proportion as their incidence in the eligible population. This is sim-
           ilar to our findings for adult participants in JTPA.

           Overall, 66 percent of out-of-school youth were placed in jobs, at an
           average wage of $4.36 per hour. Placement rates and average wages
           varied by the kind of services youth received. About half the youth
           were in occupational training; they were more likely to be placed in jobs,
           be placed in moderate or higher skill jobs, and receive higher wages than
           youth in nonoccupational training. About a fourth of the youth were in
           nonoccupational training; they were more likely to experiencesuch posi-
           tive outcomes as entering another training program, but less likely than
           other participants to be placed in jobs. About one-fifth of youth received
           only job search assistance;their job placement rate was higher, but their
           wages were lower than the wages of those in occupational training. Both

           Page 2                                  GAO/HRD-9048BB   JTPA Youth Participants

                         services and outcomes varied for different demographic groups. In par-
                         ticular, black males were less likely to get occupational training and less
                         likely to get moderate or higher skill jobs. They also tended to get lower

                              requires that services be provided “to those who can benefit from
Services Not Targeted    JTPA
                         and who are most in need of” such servicesbut does not further define
to Youth With            this requirement. Judging by our criteria for job readiness,although
                         JTPA serves youth with a wide variety of characteristics that may reduce
Greatest Need            their ability to gain employment, it doesnot target those most in need.

                         Among out-of-school youth participants, about 42 percent were school
                         dropouts, 53 percent were minorities, 24 percent were from families
                         receiving AFDC, 15 percent were single parents with a dependent child,
                         and 72 percent lacked recent work experience.As shown in figure 1, the
                         program serves youth with the greatest need for assistancein roughly
                         the same proportion as their representation in the eligible population.

                         Both houses of Congresshave been considering legislation that would
                         encourage,and in somecasesrequire, that local JTPA programs target a
                         higher proportion of their resourcesto individuals with major barriers
                         to employment. For example, a House proposal would require that 50
                         percent or more of participants be out-of-school youth, with priority
                         given to dropouts. However, targeting those with single employment
                         barriers would not necessarily improve the targeting of services,as we
                         noted in testimony delivered in June 1989.”But setting a standard for
                         the proportion with multiple barriers could result in greater emphasis
                         on serving those most in need.

                          The majority of out-of-school youth received occupational training
Youth Receiving           (including classroom training and on-the-job training). Among those
Occupational Training     youth receiving occupational training, 69 percent received training for
Experience Better         moderate or higher skill jobs- similar to the 72 percent of adults who
                          received such training. About a fourth of out-of-school youth received
P1acements   and   WaW    nonoccupational training -including remedial education and short-term
                          work experience-designed to improve their basic skills. A fifth of out-
                          of-school youth received only job search assistance.

                          Page 3                                  GAO/HRD90-46BR   JTPA Youth Participants


Figure 1: Comparison of JTPA
Participants and Eligible Population
                                        50   Porcont











                                       Job Roadinosa Gmup

                                                       JTPA ParMpanB
                                                       Eliiible Poputatitm (t%tmus’Cu~~ent Population Survey)

                                        Overall, 79 percent of out-of-school youth either were placed in jobs (66
                                        percent) or had other positive outcomes(13 percent). The average wage
                                        for job placements was $4.36 per hour. Those who received occupational
                                        training or job search assistanceonly had a higher placement rate than
                                        those who received nonoccupational training, as table 1 shows. Youth
                                        who received occupational training were more likely to be placed in
                                        moderate or higher skill jobs and have a higher starting wage.

                                         Page 4                                                    GAO/HBD9048BB   JTPA Youth Participants

Table 1: Employment Outcomes for Out-
of-School Youth by Type of Training                                         Job placements (percents)
                                                                                        To moderate or
                                                                                            higher skill           Average
                                        Type of training                         Total             jobs     starting wage
                                        Occupational                                70                41               $4 53
                                        Nonoccupational                             48                20                4 09
                                        Job search assistance only                  77                27                4 18
                                        Overall                                     66                32                4 36

                                        Many on-the-job-training contracts entered into by local JTPA programs
                                        allowed excessiveamounts of time for training, particularly for the
                                        more job ready youth being trained in lower skill jobs. The Department
                                        of Labor suggestsa maximum training time of 240 hours for a majority
                                        of these lower skill jobs, but actual on-the-job training for thesejobs
                                        averaged about 340 hours.

                                        Black males were less likely than others to receive occupational training,
Black Males Less                        particularly for moderate or higher skill jobs. About 18 percent of black
Likely to Get Moderate                  males were given moderate or higher skill occupational training, com-
or Higher Skill                         pared with 38 percent of other male participants. Comparisonsbetween
                                        black and white male high school graduates, or between black and white
Training or Jobs                        male dropouts, show similar disparities in the proportions getting mod-
                                        erate or higher skill training. Although black males were about as likely
                                        to be placed in jobs as other male participants, their rate of placement in
                                        moderate or higher skill jobs was lower (24 percent) than the rate for
                                        other male participants (34 percent). Black males also received lower
                                        wages,$4.24 per hour, compared with $4.57 for all other male

                                        As requested, we did not obtain Department of Labor written comments
                                        on this report. However, we discussedits contents with Labor officials
                                        and have incorporated their commentswhere appropriate. We are send-
                                        ing copies of this report to the Secretary of Labor; the Director, Office of
                                        Management and Budget; and other interested parties.

                                        Page 6                                  GAO/HMHO-MBR       JTF’A Youth Participants

    If you have any questions about the information presented, pleasecall
    me on (202) 275-1793.Other major contributors to this report are listed
    in appendix X.

    Franklin Frazier
    Director, Education and
      Employment Issues

    Page 6                                 GAO/IU&D~BR    JTPA Youth Participants
Page 7   GAO/HRDM46BR   JTPA Youth Participanta

Section 1
Introduction             Background
                         Objectives, Scope,and Methodology

Section 2
Characteristics of
Out-of-School JTPA
Youth Participants:
Little Evidence of
Section 3 -                                                                                           23
Services: Occupational   Different Groups ReceivedDifferent Services                                  27
                         On-the-JobTraining ExceedsSuggestedDuration for                              30
Training Predominates         Many Lower Skill Jobs

Section 4                                                                                             32
Outcomes: The            Less Job Ready Did Not Fare as Well as More Job Ready
                         OutcomesVaried by ServicesReceived
Majority Are Placed      OutcomesMeet JTPA Standards                                                  39
in Jobs
Appendixes               Appendix I: Comparison of In-School and Out-of-School                         42
                            JTPA Youth Participants: Characteristics, Services
                            Received,and Outcomes
                         Appendix II: Labor Market Successof Job Readiness                             44
                            Groups in the Eligible Population
                         Appendix III: Comparison of Employment Factors and                            45
                            Demographics for Out-of-SchoolJTPA Youth
                            Participants and Eligible Population
                         Appendix IV: Characteristics of Out-of-SchoolJTPA                             46
                            Youth Participants
                         Appendix V: ServicesProvided to Out-of-SchoolJTPA                             48
                            Youth, by Job Readinessand Demographic Groups

                         Pyle   8                             GAO/ll.EtDBO-46BEJTPA   Youth Participanta

                       Appendix VI: Comparison of Characteristics, Services                       50
                          Received,and Outcomesof Out-of-SchoolJTPA Youth
                          Participants by Raceand Sex
                       Appendix VII: Positive Terminations for Out-of-School                      51
                          JTPA Youth Participants by Job Readinessand
                          Demographic Groups
                       Appendix VIII: Skill Level of Job Obtained by Skill Level                  52
                          of Training
                       Appendix IX: Data Supporting Figures in Text                               53
                       Appendix X: Major Contributors to This Briefing Report                     55

Related GAO Products                                                                               56

Tables                 Table 1: Employment Outcomesfor Out-of-SchoolYouth                              5
                           by Type of Training
                       Table 1X.1: Data for Figures 1 and 2.1: Comparison of                       53
                           JTPA and Eligible Population
                       Table 1X.2: Data for Figure 3.4: ServicesVaried for Job                     53
                       Table 1X.3: Data for Figure 3.5: ServicesVaried for                         53
                           Demographic Groups
                       Table 1X.4: Data for Figure 4.2: Outcomesfor Job                            53 -
                       Table 1X.5: Data for Figure 4.4: Outcomesfor Different                      54
                           Types of Training
                       Table 1X.6: Data for Figure 4.5: Outcomesfor                                54
                           Nonoccupational Training
                       Table 1X.7: Data for Figure 4.6: Youth in Occupational                      54
                           Training Got Better Jobs

Figures                 Figure 1: Comparison of JTPA Participants and Eligible
                        Figure 1.1: Objectives of Study                                            14
                        Figure 1.2: Methodology                                                    15
                        Figure 1.3: Focus on Out-of-SchoolYouth                                    16
                        Figure 1.4: Job ReadinessGroups                                            18
                        Figure 2.1: Comparison of JTPA and Eligible Population                     21
                        Figure 2.2: Comparison of Out-of-SchoolYouth and                           22
                        Figure 3.1: Servicesto Out-of-SchoolYouth                                  24
                        Figure 3.2: Skill Levels in Occupational Training                          25

                        Page 9                               GAO/Hl&D@MgBIt   JTPA Youth Partldpanta
Figure 3.3: Occupational Training: Most Frequent Jobs
Figure 3.4: ServicesVaried for Job ReadinessGroups
Figure 3.5: ServicesVaried for Demographic Groups                     29
Figure 3.6: Jobs With ExcessiveOn-the-JobTraining                     31
Figure 4.1: Employment Outcomes:Overview                              33
Figure 4.2: Outcomesfor Job ReadinessGroups                           34
Figure 4.3: Who Got Lower Skill Jobs and Lower Wages?                 35
Figure 4.4: Outcomesfor Different Types of Training                   37
Figure 4.5: Outcomesfor Nonoccupational Training                      38
Figure 4.6: Youth in Occupational Training Got Better                 39


JTPA      Job Training Partnership Act
SIX       service delivery area

Page 10                              GAO/EBXMOMBIt   JTPA Youth Puddpum

    Page 11   GAO/llRKMO4BR   JTPA Youth Participants
Section 1


               Despite the continued economic expansion and a declining unemploy-
Background     ment rate, disadvantaged youth continue to experience high unemploy-
               ment rates. As we enter the 1990s it is expected that the skill
               requirements for jobs will continue to rise and that there will be a
               shortage of qualified entry workers. Many experts believe that to be
               economically competitive in international markets we must raise the
               skill level of our work force. Economically disadvantaged youth have
               encountered chronic difficulties in getting and keeping jobs that could
               lift them out of poverty, difficulties often causedby a lack of basic skills
               or work experience.
               The purpose of the Job Training Partnership Act (P.L. 97-300) is to pro-
               vide job training, placement, and other assistanceto economically disad-
               vantaged individuals who need training or other labor market services
               to obtain employment. It is administered by the Employment and Train-
               ing Administration within the Department of Labor. Title II-A of the act
               established the largest single JTPA program to assist disadvantaged
               adults and youth. Of the approximately $1.9 billion appropriated for
               this program in 1989, at least 40 percent was to be spent on youth aged
               14 through 21. The title II-A program served about 1.1 million youth and
               adults and had an average enrollment of about 400,000 in 1987, the
               most recent year for which data are available. Local srp~ programs are
               operated by service delivery areas (SDAS), which receive funding
               through their states according to formulas specified in the act.

               JTPA was enacted to provide training programs to “economically disad-
               vantaged individuals and other individuals facing serious barriers to
               employment,” but the act provides only general guidance on how the
               program is to be targeted among this large eligible population. Experts
               have voiced concern regarding the extent to which program resources
               are targeted to those facing the most serious employment barriers. The
               March 1989 report of the Job Training Partnership Act Advisory Com-
               mittee’ recommendedthat the program be targeted more directly to dis-
               advantaged persons who have serious skills deficiencies or are welfare
               recipients. Also, legislation was introduced and considered in both
               housesof Congressthat would encourageand, in somecases,require
               that SDAS seek to target a higher proportion of their resourcesto partici-
               pants facing specific barriers.

               ‘The JTPA Advisory Committee’s report was issued in response to a request from the Secretaq of
               Labor asking leaders of the job training community to assess their experience with JTPA and contrib-
               ute to future job training policy formulation.

               Page 12                                               GAO/HRLb9O4BR        JTPA Youth Participants
                        eectson 1

                        For example, a Houseproposal would require that 50 percent or more of
                        youth participants be out-of-school youth, with priority given to drop-
                        outs. In June 1989 testimony on this proposal, we pointed out that using
                        single employment barriers to target would not significantly changethe
                        mix of participants (for example, out-of-school youth already comprise
                        64 percent of participants). We noted that using multiple barriers (for
                        example, requiring that a proportion of participants have at least two
                        barriers, such as being on welfare and a school dropout) could result in
                        greater emphasis on serving those most in need.

                        In our earlier report’ on adult participants, we also raised questions
                        about the nature of servicesprovided. We recommendedthat the
                        Department of Labor increaseJTPA’S emphasis on moderate and higher
                        skill occupational training and collect data necessaryto measure differ-
                        encesin program outcomes associatedwith such training.

                        This report was requested by the HouseCommittee on Education and
Objectives, Scope,and   Labor and the Subcommittee on Employment and Productivity, Senate
Methodology             Committee on Labor and Human Resources,who asked that we analyze
                        the characteristics, services,and outcomesassociatedwith youth partic-
                        ipating in JTPA. To complete this study, we compared the characteristics
                        of participants in JTPA with those in the eligible population to determine
                        whether JTPA targets those who are more likely to have difficulty gain-
                        ing employment (see fig. 1.1). We also reviewed the type of services
                        youth received, and the association between those services and the out-
                        comesyouth attained. This report includes somecomparisonsbetween
                        out-of-school JTPA youth participants and adult participants.

                        We used the same data baseon program participants that we developed
                        for our report on adult participants, this time selecting the data on
                        youth for our analysis. For the adult report, we had developed our own
                        comprehensive participant and program data, becausethe information
                        we needed was either not in Labor’s data collection system or lacking in
                        sufficient detail. Our information allowed us to generalize our findings
                        to participants and the national program.3

                                          artnership Act: Services and Outcomes for Participants     With Differing   Needs
                                         -52, June 9, 1989).

                         “The differences in participant characteristics,   services, and outcomes noted in the text are statisti-
                         cally significant unless stated otherwise.

                         Page 13                                                   GAO/liRlSMBR           JTPA Youth Participants
                       Section 1

Fiaure 1 .l

         GM   Objectives of Study

              Participant characteristics
              *Are services targeted to those
               most in need?
              Services received
              aWhich participants get which
              Outcomes obtained
              @Whatis the association
               between characteristics,
               services, and outcomes?                                                                    J
                        We first stratified SDAS into three groups according to the number of par-
                        ticipants who had terminated (left the JTPA program for any reason,
                        including job placement, dropping out, or entering another training pro-
                        gram) during program year 1984 (July 1, 1984, to June 30, 1985). We
                        randomly selected 63 SDAS from the three strata, limiting the SDAS in our
                        universe to those within the 48 contiguous states that had at least 100
                        of both adult and youth terminees during program year 1984. During a
                        visit to each of the 63 SDAS, we randomly selectedbetween 150 and 182
                        adult and youth participants, depending on program size, from among
                        those who had terminated from the program during program year 1985.
                        Data for 5,467 adults and 5,325 youth were collected (see fig. 1.2). The
                        data on adults were used for our June 1989 report.

                         Page 14                               GAO/KRLb9O-MBR   JTPA Youth Participants
Figure 1.2

         GM   Methodology

              Participant data
              *Random sample of 63 SDAs
              @Dataon 5,300 youth
              Focused on out-of-school
              Analysis similar to earlier
              adult study
              @Jobreadiness groups
              l Lower, moderate, and higher
                skill training and jobs
                      This study of youth participants parallels our adult analysis in the
                      development of job readinessgroups and job skill categories.We dis-
                      cussedour methodology with several experts and local sr%officials.

Report Focuseson      This report focuseson out-of-school youth-youth who have either
Out-of-School Youth   graduated from high school or dropped out before graduation-who
                      comprise nearly two-thirds (64 percent) of the youth participants in our
                      sample. Individual program goals generally differ depending on whether
                      a youth is enrolled in school or not, and more information is available to
                      assessprogram outcomesfor out-of-school youth. For these youth, pro-
                      grams emphasizepreparation for employment; SIMScoiled data on
                      whether youth find employment, what types of jobs they obtain, and

                      Page 16                                GAO/EBDgO-$gBB   JTPA Youth Participanta
   --    1.3

           GM   Focus on Out-of-School
                Two-thirds of youth
                participants are out of school
                Program objectives for out-of-
                school youth (in terms of
                employment) are measurable;
                data are available
                Program objectives for in-
                school youth are difficult to
                measure; data are unavailable

                         their wage levels (see fig. 1.3). In-schooi youth are more likely to be
                         in nonoccupational training (including remedial education and short-
                         term work experience) and job placement is a less likely program
                         outcome for them; assessing other outcomes is difficult because
                         often SDAS have information only on whether the youth completed
                         the prescribed program.4

                         41nformation   on both in-school and out+f-school   youth-their   characteristics,   services received, and
                         outcomes-is     provided in app. I.

                         P8ge 16                                                   GAOYJTPA                      Youth Partldpmm
Out-of-School Youth      To determine how well JTPA was serving youth with the greatest need
                         for assistancein obtaining employment, we classified out-of-school JTPA
Grouped by Job Readiness youth participants by the number of characteristics associatedwith dif-
                                   ficulty in the labor market they had. We relied on previous research
                                   (including our review of JTPA adult participants), expert opinion, and
                                   our own multiple regression analyses of the Bureau of the Census’Cur-
                                   rent Population Survey data to identify the socioeconomicand labor
                                   market characteristics associatedwith difficulty in finding and main-
                                   taining employment.
                                   We identified five major factors associatedwith difficulty in the labor
                              l  Receiving welfare.
                              l  Having dropped out of school.
                               . Being a single parent with dependent child.
                               . Being a member of a minority group.
                               l Lacking recent work experience.

                                   Youth who had three or more of these factors were categorized as less
                                   job ready, and thus more in need of JTPA services.Youth who had two
                                    factors were classified as intermediate in job readiness,and youth with
                                    none or one factor were designated as more job ready (see fig. 1.4).
                                    Using these criteria, we classified 36 percent of the out-of-school youth
                                    as lessjob ready, 35 percent as more job ready, and 29 percent as
                                   Although we used the same characteristics to classify youth into job
                                   readiness groups that we used in our report on adult participants, we
                                   modified the way we counted these factors to createjob readiness
                                   groups. The most important modification pertained to work experience.
                                   For our report on adults, recent work experience was a strong indicator
                                   of labor market success,and we weighted it more heavily than the other
                                   characteristics. Recent work experience is not as crucial for youth, as
                                   youth who have left school recently may have had little opportunity to
                                   gain work experience. Therefore, we gave no extra weight to this

                                   5App. I summarizes the extent to which youth classified into each of the three job readiness groups
                                   had the five different factors associated with difficulty in the labor market.

                                   6We also made two minor adjustments. We counted male single parents with a dependent child as well
                                   as females, and we included all minorities, specifically youth who were Asian, Indian, or “other,”
                                   among those who might have difficulty in the labor market because they were minorities.

                                   Page 17                                                GAO/HRDBO4BBJTF'A          YouthParticipants
Figure 1.4

         MO   Job Readiness Groups

              Identified factors affecting
              aMinority status
              Gchool dropout
              l Welfare recipient
              Gingle parent/dependent child
              l NO recent work experience
              Classified participants
              *Less job ready: 3-5 factors
              4ntermd. job ready: 2 factors
              @Morejob ready: O-1 factors

Validating the Job         To validate our definition of job readinesscategories,we analyzed the
ReadinessClassifications   actual experience of youth represented in the Current Population Sur-
                           vey. We used the survey’s matched data files to track individuals’ char-
                           acteristics and employment over a 2-year period.’ Using criteria similar
                           to those we used with our JTPA sample, we:

                           ‘Current Population Survey data were collected for some individuals in 1983 and 1984 and for some
                           in 1984 and 19% Using these data we were able to compare individual youth employment for two
                           years. For some we compared 1983 to X%4, and for others we compared 19% to 1985.

                           Page 18                                             GAO/lilD~BRJTE’A           Youth Partidpante
                                !3ectlon 1

                            l   determined the extent of the factors associatedwith difficulty in the
                                labor market among eligible out-of-school youth in the first year of the
                                matched files (1983~84)
                            l   assignedthese youth to the three job readinessgroups, and
                            l   looked at the annual earnings and number of weeks these youth worked
                                in the secondyear of the matched data files (1984-85).
                                Those whom we classified as more job ready in the first year fared bet-
                                ter in the labor market in the secondyear than those we deemedlessjob

Approach to Data Analysis        Becausethe jobs for which JTPA participants received occupational
and Limitations                 training varied widely, as did the jobs participants obtained at termina-
                                tion, we employed a classification schemeto characterize the skill level
                                of jobs. With assistancefrom Bureau of Labor Statistics officials, we
                                classified eachjob as being a lower, moderate, or higher skill level posi-
                                tion We then used the classifications in analyzing the skill level for
                                which participants received occupational training and the skill level of
                                jobs they obtained.

                                The unavailability of follow-up information on most participants pre-
                                vents us from determining whether participants who were employed at                                  .
                                termination maintained that status, or whether other participants later
                                found jobs. Becausethere is no control group (a group of similar individ-
                                uals not enrolled in JTPA) we could not conclude definitively that partici-
                                pants’ outcomes were the result of JTPA servicesrather than other
                                factors, such as motivation or other personal attributes, unrelated to
                                their participation in JTPA. Moreover, becauseit is not feasible to ran-
                                domly assign participants to specific types of training, we cannot say
                                with certainty that the training, per se, is a major factor determining
                                participants’ outcomes.

                                 Our audit was conducted in accordancewith generally acceptedgovem-
                                 ment auditing standards.

                                 8App. II shows the earnings and weeks worked in each year for each job readiness group in the
                                 eligible population.


                                 Page 19                                              GAO/HBD9046BB        JTPA Youth Participants
Chamcteristics of Out-ofSchool JTPA Youth
Participants: Little Evidenceof Targeting

               A comparison of the JTPA out-of-school youth sample and the eligible
               population indicates that there is little targeting of servicesto those
               with the greatest need-the lessjob ready. But there is also little evi-
               dence that JTPA is “creaming” by serving a disproportionately high
               number of those who have less need-the more job ready. We reported
               similar observations in our earlier report on adult participants. As fig-
               ure 2.1 illustrates, JTPA servesyouth who are lessjob ready and those
               who are more job ready in roughly the sameproportion as their inci-
               dence in the population.

               Among the JTPA youth participants, about two-thirds were outof-school.
               More than half of these out-of-school youth were minority members,
               nearly half were school dropouts, and most lacked recent work experi-
               ence (see fig. 2.2).1Out-of-school youth on average were 19 years old,
               compared with 30 years for adult participants.

               Among out-of-school youth, males were more likely than females to be
               white or dropouts, while females were more likely to be minority mem-
               bers, single parents with dependent children, high school graduates, or
               on welfare. Younger out-of-school youth, those aged 15 to 17, were more
               likely than youth aged 18 to 21 to be dropouts and to lack recent work

               Out-of-school youth participants were roughly similar to in-school youth
               in several characteristics, including welfare recipiency, minority status,
               and gender. Out-of-school youth were older on averagethan in-school
               youth, and a higher proportion were single parents with dependent chil-
               dren or had recent work experience.3

               ‘The characteristics of JTPA out+f-school          youth participants,    the eligible population,   and job readi-
               ness groups are compared in app. III.

               ‘Detailed   information   on the characteristics    of out+f-school      youth appears in app. IV.

               3App. I compares the characteristics      of in-school and out+f-school        youth.

                Page20                                                         GAO/HRD9&46BR           JTPA Youth Participants
                     !kction 2
                     Charactetitim       of Out+f-School JTPA Youth
                     Parddpantuz     Little Evidence of Targeting

Figure 2.1

        MO   Comparison of JTPA and
             Eligible Population











                       Page 21                                        GAO/HBKHO4BR   JTPA Youth Participants
                        !htion   2
                        tZmumterlam        of Ont~f-School JTPA Yoath
                        Putidpnntll:   Little Evidence of Targeting

Fiaure 2.2

         m   Comparison of Out-of-School
             Youth and Adults
                                                                    Youth          Adults
             #Minority status                                           53               42
             Gchool dropout                                             42               27
             l   Welfare recipient                                      24               24
             @Singleparent/dep. child                                   15               31
             *No recent work exper.                                     72               72

                          Page 22                                       GAO/HBD90-46BB    JTPA Youth Participanta
Section 3

Services:OccupationalTraining Predominates

              About half of the out-of-school JTPA youth participants received occupa-
              tional training, a majority of which was for moderate or higher skill
              occupations. A fourth of the out-of-school youth received nonoccupa-
              tional training, and about a fifth got job search assistanceonly (seefigs.
              3.1 and 3.2).1Among adults, the extent of occupational training was
              greater (nearly two-thirds), and fewer adults received nonoccupational
              training (less than a tenth). Certain groups of youth, particularly the
              lessjob ready, those aged 15 to 17, dropouts, and black males, were
              more likely to get nonoccupational training and less likely to get moder-
              ate or higher skill occupational training than the average for all partici-
              pants. Nonoccupational training may be the more appropriate assistance
              for dropouts. As with adults, youth, particularly the more job ready,
              were often given on-the-job training in lower skill jobs for periods
              exceedingthe length of time usually required for suchjobs.

               Of the three major categoriesof servicesto youth-job search assis-
               tance, occupational training, and nonoccupational training -job search
               assistanceis usually the shortest in duration. It usually consists of
               short-term counseling and training in how to look for employment.

                %aining for in-school youth differed, with about 75 percent participating in nonoccupational train-
               i~&~articularly  exemplary youth programs. Information on services to in-school youth appears in

               Page 23                                                GAO/‘ERD33-46BIt     JTPA Youth Participants
                         section 3
                         services: ckcupationai
                         Tmining Predominates

Figure 3.1

             GA3 Services to
                 Out-of-School Youth
                  Occupational training--53%
                  025% classroom
                  029% on-the-job training
                  Nonoccupational training--26%
                  l12% remedial education
                  08% work experience
                  07% exemplary youth program
                  Job search assistance only-21 %

                          Page 24                 GAO/IIBD30-46BB   JTPA Youth Participants
                       Section 3
                       st~cts:    occupationAl

Figure 3.2

         GM   Skill Levels in
              Occupational Training
              Moderate and higher skill train-
              ing predominates among those
              getting occupational training...
              aHigher skill                      20%
              aModerate skill                    49%
              ...yet many get lower skill
              l Lower skill                      31%

                        Page 26                  GAO/HRDWBlt   JTPA Youth Participants
                      section 3
                      !3ervicta: occupational

Figure 3.3

         G&Q Occupational Training:
             Most Frequent Jobs -
              Lower skill jobs
              *Custodian, food service worker,
               machine operator, assembler,
              Moderate skill jobs
              *Clerk/typist, secretary,
               salesperson, nurse’s aide,
               construction worker
              Higher skill jobs
              .Electronic technician,
               auto mechanic, machinist,
               computer programmer, welder
                       Occupational training, which may take place either in the classroomor
                       on the job, gives youth training for specific jobs (seefig. 3.3). JTPA funds
                       may be used to subsidize on-the-job training through payments to
                       employers that may average up to one-half the total of the wagespaid
                       to youth participants.
                       Nonoccupational training is of three types-remedial education, work
                       experience, and exemplary youth programs-each designedto address
                       participants’ needs for basic work or classroomskills. Remedial educa-
                       tion emphasizesbasic literacy and math. Work experience is typically
                       short-term or part-time work designedto teach good work habits. Exem-
                       plary youth programs may incorporate remedial education, work experi-

                       Page 20                                  GAO/IiIUb9O-46BB   JTPA Youth Participants
                     st~cta:    occupational

Figure 3.4

        GAQ Services Varied for
            Job Readiness Groups



                      ence, and/or job search assistance in an “education for employment”
                      program targeted to dropouts or those with educational deficiencies.
                      Occasionally youth received occupational training in addition to non-
                      occupational training, and a few had two types of nonoccupational
                      training or both types of occupational training.

                      Youth who were classified as more job ready were more likely to receive
Different Groups      occupational training, often for moderate or higher skill jobs, than were
Received Different    the lessjob ready. In contrast, those classified as lessjob ready were
Services              more likely to be enrolled in nonoccupational training (see fig. 3.4).

                      Page 27                                GAO/I-IRISMBR   JTPA Youth Participants
strvloer: octup8tional

Dropouts and youth aged 15 to 17, many of whom were classified as
less job ready, were also more likely to receive nonoccupational
training than youth who were older or high school graduates. Drop-
outs and youth aged 15 to 17 were less likely to get occupational
training, including moderate or higher skill training. Nonoccupa-
tional training, especially remedial education or exemplary youth
programs, is likely to be beneficial for dropouts, as they tend to lack
the basic literacy skills necessary for training or placement in any
jobs except those with lower skill requirements. About a third of
school dropouts were enrolled in remedial education or in exemplary
youth programs. Dropouts may be in a position to benefit more from
occupational training when it is accompanied by either remedial edu-
 cation or participation in exemplary youth programs. About 2 per-
cent of all out-of-school youth were enrolled in either exemplary
 youth programs or remedial education and also in occupational

Blacks, particularly black males, were more likely to receive either non-
occupational training or job search assistanceonly, and less likely to be
enrolled in moderate or higher skill occupational training than others.
About 36 percent of black males were given occupational training, with
18 percent in moderate or higher skill training. Among other male par-
ticipants, 60 percent were given occupational training, with 38 percent
in moderate or higher skill training.

Comparisons between blacks and others in the samejob readiness
groups, between black high school graduates and white high school
graduates, or between black dropouts and white dropouts also show dif-
ferences in types of training. For example, black male high school gradu-
ates were about two-thirds more likely than white male high school
graduates to receivejob search assistanceonly, and about half as likely

 *Detailed information   on services to job readiness groups and other demographic   groups appears m
 app. V.

 Page28                                                  GAO,'ERD~BR~AYouthParticipanta
                         Section 3
                         servicea: occupational

Figure 3.5

        GAQ Services Varied for
            Demographic Groups
             Graduates            Dropouts


                          to receive training for moderate or higher skill occupations (see fig.
                          3.5). Comparisons between white and black females reveal a similar
                          pattern, although the differences are not generally as great as for
                          males.3The proportions of Hispanics receiving various services were
                          roughly similar to the proportions of whites receiving those

                          31nformation on wvices to black and white female high school graduates and dropouts is included in
                          app. IX along with the data supporting fig. 3.6.

                          ‘App. VI provides detailed information   on services to white, black, and Hispanic males and females.


                          Page 29                                                GAO/HRDM-MBE          JTP’   Youth Participants
                      servicee: &!cupational

                      As with adults, out-of-school youth, particularly the more job ready,
On-the-Job Training   often received longer on-the-job training for lower skill jobs than the
Exceeds Suggested     maximum typically neededfor such positions (see fig. 3.6). For all lower
Duration for Many     skill jobs, on-the-job training averaged356 hours, or nearly 9 weeks at
                      40 hours per week. Yet the majority of thosejobs usually required no
Lower Skill Jobs      more than 240 hours of training, according to Department of Labor
                      information on duration of vocational preparation.6 Our analysis showed
                      that the average time spent in training for those jobs requiring no more
                      than 240 hours was 341 hours, and nearly half of the youth receiving
                      training for thesejobs were trained for longer than 240 hours. The
                      excessivetimes were concentrated generally among the more job ready.
                      Over 60 percent of those receiving excessively long on-the-job training
                      for lower skill jobs were more job ready, and about 11 percent were less
                      job ready. Extra training time might be justified for those who are less
                       prepared for employment or who have other problems. In many cases,
                       however, the extra training time appeared to be providing excessive
                       wage subsidies to employers.

                       ‘Labor cksifies   occupations according to the typical length of training time. Most lower skill jobs are
                       in the category for jobs needing from a few hours up to 30 days of training. Because it was not
                       possible to determine which of the jobs within this category require fewer than 30 days, we used the
                       30day (240-hour) maximum as the standard.

                       Page 30                                                 GAO/H.BD9O48BB        JTPA Youth Participants
                       Se&on 3

Figure 3.6

        GAO Jobs With Excessive
            On-the-Job Training
             Job          Average hours           Hours in
                          for contracts           excess of
                 .                                240 maximum
             Assembler                      391    151
             Laborer                        428    188
             Landscaper                     422    182
             Custodian                      413    173
             Packer/wrapper                 338     98

                         Page 31                   GAO/HBD9O-46BB   JTPA Youth Participant-s
Section 4

Outcomes:The Majority Are Placedin Jobs

              Over three-fourths of out-of-school youth achieved positive outcomes
              upon termination from JTpA-nearly two-thirds were placed in jobs, and
              13 percent more left for other positive reasons.The latter included
              attaining youth competencies;lcompleting a specific part of their educa-
              tion; or entering other training, the armed forces, an apprenticeship
              program, or other schooling. In comparison, 72 percent of adults were
              placed in jobs, with an additional 5 percent terminating for other posi-
              tive reasons.Lessjob ready youth did not fare as well as those who
              were more job ready.
              As was the casefor adults, in eachjob readinessgroup most youth who
              received moderate or higher skill occupational training and were placed
              in jobs tended to get moderate or higher skill jobs. In general, youth who
              received nonoccupational training were about as likely as other youth to
              achieve positive outcomes.These outcomeswere more likely to be termi-
              nation for other positive reasons,and less likely to be for employment.

              Among out-of-school youth placed in jobs, 79 percent were placed in
              full-time positions. The average wage for all those placed was $4.36 per
              hour, with about half placed in lower skill occupations, and the other
              half placed in moderate or higher skill occupations (see fig. 4.1). In com-
              parison, adults averaged $4.96 per hour for those placed in jobs, and
              about 59 percent of those jobs were in moderate or higher skill

               ‘Youth competencies are skills that improve employability.    These competencies are determined by
               the local program and include a variety of skills, such as typing, remedial education, or career

               Page 32                                               GAO/HBD90-46BB       JTPA Youth Participants
                      Chm         The Majority   Are Placed in Jobe

Fiaure 4.1

         GAQ Employment Outcomes:
             Two-thirds placed in jobs at
             wages averaging $4.36/hour
             Jobs less likely for those
             @Lessjob ready
                nonoccupational training
             Half the jobs are moderate
             or higher skill occupations
             Skill of jobs related to skill of

                        Page 33                                       GAO/IiRMO&BR   JTPA Youth Participants
                      Section 4
                      Outcomes The biajority    Are Placed in Joba

Figure 4.2

         GAO Outcomes for Job Readiness

                       Overall, 72 percent of lessjob ready youth participants experienced pos-
Less Job Ready Did     itive outcomes,compared with 84 percent of the more job ready. The
Not Fare as Well as    lessjob ready were more likely to experience other positive outcomes,
More Job Ready         such as completing youth competencies,but less likely to obtain jobs (54
                       percent) compared with the more job ready (78 percent) (see fig. 4.2).
                       The skill level of thesejobs also tended to be lower, with 23 percent of
                       the lessjob ready getting jobs at a moderate or higher skill level, com-
                       pared with 40 percent of the more job ready.2Jobs for the lessjob ready

                       “Information  on termination for all three job readiness groups and for demographic groups is con-
                       tained in app. VII.

                       Page 34                                               GAO/HlUMMtlBB        JTPA Youth Participants
                      Section 4
                      Outcomea The Majority   Are Plnced in Jobe

Figure 4.3

       GAQ Who Got Lower Skill Jobs and
           Lower Wages?
             Lower skill jobs and wages
             @Lessjob ready
             4 5-l 7 year olds
             Lower skill jobs
             aMales      -
             Lower wages

                       tended to pay somewhat less on average ($4.25 per hour) than jobs for
                       the more job ready ($4.44 per hour), although this difference was not
                       statistically significant. As would be expected, moderate or higher
                       skill jobs generally offered higher wages than lower skill jobs.

                       Within demographic groups, the percentagesobtaining employment
                       varied. For example, youth aged 15 to 17 and dropouts, many of whom
                       were among the lessjob ready, were less likely than averageto be
                       placed in jobs or to experience other positive outcomes(seefig. 4.3). The
                       jobs obtained were often at wages below the averageof $4.36 per hour
                       or at lower skill levels. Overall, males were more likely than females to
                       obtain jobs and get higher wages. Black males were just as likely as

                       Page 31                                     GAO/liRD90-4gBR   JTPA Youth Participants
                     Section 4

                     others to obtain jobs, but starting wages for black males averaged $4.24
                     per hour and about 24 percent of black males got moderate or higher
                     skill jobs. For other male participants, wages averaged $4.57 and the
                     placement rate in moderate or higher skill jobs was 34 percent.

                     Most out-of-school youth who received occupational training and were
Outcomes Varied by   placed in jobs obtained jobs at the sameskill level as their training. This
Services Received    was true for eachjob readinessgroup. Overall, the lessjob ready were
                     less likely to be placed, but among those placed, those receiving moder-
                     ate or higher skill training were likely to obtain moderate or higher skill
                     jobs.3In general, these moderate and higher skill jobs offered higher
                      wages than lower skill jobs.

                     Becauseparticipants were not randomly assignedto receive higher or
                     moderate skill training, we cannot conclude with any certainty that the
                     level of training itself was the major factor in job outcomes.Differences
                     in such characteristics as motivation or personal appearance,for exam-
                     ple, may explain why someyouth received higher or moderate skill
                     training and others with a similar degreeof job readinessreceived lower
                     skill training. Nevertheless,our data do indicate a possible relationship
                     between the skill level of job placement and the skill level of training.
                     This outcome for youth is similar to that reported for adults.            .

                      Overall, the rate of positive outcomeswas at least 70 percent for out-of-
                      school youth regardlessof the kind of service they received, but the rate
                      of job placement varied. Over three-fourths of those receiving only job
                      search assistancewere placed,4and about 70 percent of those in occupa-
                      tional training also got jobs. Nonoccupational training is designedto give
                      participants basic education and work skills and does not necessarily
                      aim at immediate job placement. Only about half the out-of-school youth
                      in nonoccupational training were placed in jobs, but many achieved
                      youth competenciesor other positive terminations (see fig. 4.4).

                      3App. VIII compares the skill level of occupational   trainkg   with the skill level of the jobs participants

                      4Some practitioners believe that this placement figure may be explained by the practice of some SDAs
                      counting individuals receiving only job search assistance as enrollees only after they have been
                      placed in a job, thus increasing the percentage of participants placed.

                      Page 36                                                   GAO/H6tK&90-4gBR        JTPA Youth ParticiPants
                       !3ection 4
                       Outcomes: The Majority   Are Placed in Jobe

Figure   4.4

          GAO Outcomes for Different Types
              of Training

                        Page 37                                      GAO/HRLHO46BB   JTPA Youth Participants
                     !Secdon 4
                     Outcomes The Majority   Are Placed in Joba

Figure 4.5

         GAQ Outcomes for Nonoccupational










                     Among youth in nonoccupational training, those receiving remedial edu-
                     cation were least likely to gain employment. As figure 4.5 illustrates,
                     about a third of those in remedial education were placed in jobs, com-
                     pared with over half the youth in exemplary youth programs or work
                     experience. Although youth in remedial education often obtained other
                     positive outcomes, the total for positive terminations was lower than for
                     youth in other types of nonoccupational training.
                      Youth in occupational training were more likely to get moderate or
                      higher skill jobs, at higher wages, than were youth who got nonoccupa-
                      tional training or job search assistanceonly (see fig. 4.6). Over half the

                      Page 38                                     GA0/IiRD9046BR   JTPA Youth Participants
                     !3ectlon 4

Figure 4.6

        GAQ Youth in Occupational Training
            Got Better Jobs
             Moderate or higher
             skill jobs                                  Wages/hour




             10                                                                                       .


                     youth in occupational training who obtained jobs were placed in
                     moderate or higher skill positions, compared with a third of those
                     who got jobs after receiving job search assistance only.
                     On a national basis, JTPA meets the youth standards set by Labor for
Outcomes Meet JTPA   positive outcomes and exceedsit for job placements. These national
Standards            standards for youth, which are revised periodically and which states
                     may adjust to account for local economicconditions, are written for all

                     Page 39                                GAO/HRD9046BR   JTPA Yooth Participants
youth, not just those who are out of schooL6For program year 1985,
the standard specified that 82 percent of JTPA youth participants
should achieve positive terminations, including 41 percent placed in
jobs. According to our analysis, 82 percent did experience positive
 terminations, including 56 percent placed in jobs.”

‘Information   on outcomes for in-school youth is included in app. I.

% program year 1986, the deftition        of positive terminations did not include attain@ youth compe-
tencies, but in the next year the deftition    was amended to include this category. The 82 percent we
report for positive terminations in 1986 includes those who ternGnat         after attaining youth

Page 40                                                  GAO/EiRlMO&BR       JTPA Youth Participanta
Page 41   GAO/ERDMBR   JTPA Youth Participanta

A&i&xrison of Irdchool and Outafschool
JTPA Youth Participants: Characteristics,
ServicesReceived,and Outcomes
                Fiaures In percents (except waqes/hours)
                                                               Total JTPA
                                                              participant8        In school        Out of school
                TotaP                                                   100              36              _--~- 64
                  15-17                                                  35               74                    1;
                   18-21                                                 65               26                    86
                  Males                                                  50               51                    50
                  Females                                                50               49                    50
                Job readiness:
                                                                              b                b
                  Less job ready                                                                                36
                  Intermediate rob readv                                                       b
                                                                              b                b
                  More iob readv                                                                                35
                  White                                                  49               52                    47
                  Black                                                  34               31                    36
                  Minoritv (Total)                                       51               48                    53
                School dropout                                           27                0                    42
                Welfare                                                  24               25                    24
                Single parent/dependent  chrld                           11                3                    15
                Lackina recent work exoerience                           78               88                    72
                Services received:
                Occupational training:                                    38              12                    53
                  Classroom training                                      18               6                    25
                  On-the-rob trainina                                     21               7                    29
                Skull level of all occupational   trainina:
                  Hiaher                                                   7               2                     10
                  Moderate                                                17               4                    25
                  Lower                                                   12               6                     16
                Nonoccuoational trainrna:                                 44              75                    26
                  Remedral education                                      10               5                     12
                  Work expenence                                          11              17                       8
                  Exemplary youth                                         24              55                       7
                Job search assistance only                                18              13                     21

                 Page 42                                              GAO/HED@O&lBR    JTPA Youth Participanta
                ;   IT’?
                                    ‘, Apgendix!.     ii
/   1   i   :
                           1   .

                                   ’ Compnrimon of IMchoo~ and Ont-ofkchooI
                                       JTPA Youth Participant~~: Chuacterbties,
                                       Servfces Received. and Outcomes

                                                                                    Total JTPA
                                                                                   participants           In school       Out of school
                                     Poritive tmnin8tions:
                                     Employment:                                              56                  36                   66
                                       Wages/hour                                          $4.20               $3.66               $4 -36
                                       Skill level of iob:
                                           Higher                                               5                     2                   7
                                          Moderate                                            21                  12                     25
                                          Lower                                               30                  23                     34
                                     Entered school or tralntng, or
                                     completed school                                           8                  14                     5
                                     Attatned prescribed competencies                         18                  35                      8
                                     Total Dositive terminations                              82                  85                     79
                                     aFigures may not add to totals because of rounding or because some partlclpants recewed duplicate
                                     serwces and some recewed unspecrfied other servtces.
                                     ‘Not applicable

                                      Page 43                                              GAO/HRD-90-46BR      JTPA Youth Participants
Appendix II

Labor Market Successof Job ReadinessGroups
in the Eligible Population

                                                                                     Job readiness
              Labor market outcome                        Total          More            Inter.          Less
              Average annual earnings:
                1st year
                                                        $1,024          $1,720            $743            $445
                2nd vear                                  2.383          3.329           2.376   ___--   1094
              Average weeks worked:
                1st year                                     10             18               7                  5
                2nd year                                     18             25              16                  9

              Source, Current Population Survey (1983/&. 19&/8!5)

              Page 44                                               GAO/HBD90-46BB    JTPA Youth Participants
Appendix III

Comparisonof hployment FWmi and.
Demographicsfor Out~f-School JTPA Youth
Participants and Eligible Population

Figures tn percents
                                                                                                          Job readiness
                                   Totals                                  More                            Intermediate                           Less
                               JTPA          Eligible                  JTPA        Eligible                 JTPA         Eligible             JTPA        Eligible
                      participants        population          participants      population        participants        population     participants      population
Minority                                                                                                                                                           76
Single parent                     15                18                     2                  2                7                 5              36                49
Welfare                           24                17                     2                  2                9                 5              58                44
Dropout                           42                40                    12                  7               42                41              71                 73
No recent work
  expenence                       72                82                    37               57                 84                93              96                98

  Male                            50                39                    56               45                 53                45              39                 28
  Female                          50                61                    44               55                 47                55              61                 72
Percent in job
  wow                               .                   .                 35               34                 29                33              36                33
                                                            Source, Data for eligible population taken from Current Population Survey (March 1985 Supplement)

                                                            Page 45                                                  GAO/HRD-BM5BB       JTPA Youth Participants
Appendix IV

Characteristicsof Out-ofschool JTPA
Youth Participants

Figures In percents
                                                                     Single        Lackin
                 Age in years        School         Welfare     parent with    recent wo r!                   Job readiness
             15-17          18-21   dropout        recipient     dep. child     experience           Less              Inter.          More
Total           14             88         42               24             15               72          38                  29            35
Males           ‘15            85        46                15              3              70            28                32               40
Females         12             88         38              32             28               74            43                27               30
White           12             88         37              18              11              63            12                26               62
Mlnonty         14             86         45              29              20              80            57                32               1-i
dropouts        28             72        100               30             15               81            61                29              10
graduates        4             96          .               20             15               66            18                29              53
Age in
15-17          100              .         84               29              8               86            54                35                  11
18-21             .           100         35               23             17               70            33                28              39

                                               Page 46                                          GAO/?IRD!KMt3BB      JTPA Youth Participants
Page 47   GAO/lIltDWBR   JTPA Youth Participanta
Appendix V

ServicesProvided to Out~fsChool JTPA Youth,
by Job Readinessand DemographicGroups

                 Figures In percents
                                                   Occupational   training
                                         Total*         Classroom                  OJT
                 Job readiness:
                 Less                        40                   26                  16
                 Intermediate                49                   22                  27
                 More                        64                   24                  42
                 Males                       53                    18                 36
             .   Females                     52                    31                 23
                 White                        60                   22                 40
                 Minoritv                     46                   27                 20
                 School drooouts              40                   18                 2i
                 Hiqh school graduates        62                   29                 34
                 Age in years:
                 15-17                        27                   15                 13
                 18-21                        57                   26                 32

                  Page 48                 GAO/li.ED~BR          JTPA Youth Participanta
                                              Appeadfx   V
                                              Yeah, by Job -md

                                                                                                                                        Job search
Skill level of all occupational   training                                  Nonoccupational     training                                assistance
     Higher            Moder.                Lower              Total.    Remed. educa.        Work exper.       Exemp. youth                   only
         10                 25                   18                 26                  12                   8                   7                 21

          5                 21                   12                 40                  21                   9                   8                 20
          8                 23                   16                 28                  11                   9                   8                 24
                                                 20                                                                                                22

         15                  17                  19                  26                 11                   8                   7                 21
          6                 32                   13                  27                 14                   8                   7                 21

         14                  26                  19                  22                 10                   8                   7                 18
          7                 24                   14                  31                 14                   8                   6                 24

           7                 18                  13                  42                 23                   9                   10                18
         12                  30                  19                  15                   4                  7                    4                23

          4                  13                      9               57                 29                  11                   16                16
         11                  26                  17                  22                  10                  8                    5                22

                                               aFigures may not add to totals because of rounding or because some participants   recewed dupkate
                                               services and some received unspecified other servtces.


                                               Page I@                                                GAO/I~IDSO-~I~BE JTF’A Youth Participanta
Comparisonof Characteristics,Services
Received,and Outcomesof Out~fsChool JTPA
Youth Participants by Raceand Sex
Ftaures in percents (except waaes/hour)
                                                        Male                                                   Female
                                          White              Black           Hispanic              White            Black             Hispanic
Percent of total sample                       26                  15                    7              21                   21
  15-17                                        14                 16                20                 11                   12                   1:
  18-21                                        86                84                 80                 89                   88                   8E
Job readrness
  Less                                          7                 50                56                 18                   62                   se
  Intermediate                                 28                 37                33                 25                   28                   2’
  More                                         65                 13                11                 58                   10                   15
School drooout                                 41                 50                56                 33                   36                   4.
Welfare                                                                                                                                          3
Sinqle parent/dep. child                        3                  4                  2                21                   37                   26
Lacktng recent work experience                 61                 79                 60                65                   81                   75
Services received:’
Occupatronal tratnrna:                         60                 36                 62                62                   41                   63
  Classroom trainrnq                           16                 17                 26                29                   28                   44
  On-the-lob trarning                          44                 19                 38                34                   13                   2;
  Skill level of all occupational
      Htqher                                   19                  6                 20                  8                   4                    2
      Moderate                                 18                 12                 23                 35                  23                   49
      Lower                                    21                 16                 19                 17                  11                   10
Nonoccupatronal trarntna:                      22                 36                 17                 21                  35                   21
  Remedral education                           10                 14                  9                 12                  16                   10
  Work experience                               8                  9                  4                  8                   9                        4
  Exemplary youth                               6                  9                     5               8                   5                    6
Job search assistance onlv                     18                 28                    21              18                  24                   16
Positive terminations:
Employment                                     69                 66                 70                 68                58                     62
Wages/hour                                  $4.51              $4.24              $4.79              $6.12             $4.23                $4 62
Skrll level of job:
   Higher                                       13                   4                  15                 4                 2                        4
   Moderate                                    21                 20                    20              30                  28                   38
   Lower                                       36                 42                    35              33                  28                   21
Entered school or trarnrng, or
   completed school                               4                  5                   2                 5                 5                        3
Attarned prescribed competencies                  8                10                    5                 6                11                        8
                                          aFlgures may not add to totals because of rounding or because some partlclpants   received duplicate
                                          services and some received unspeclfled other services.

                                          Page 50                                                GAO/HRD9O-MBB        JTPA Youth Participants
Appendix VII

Positive Terminations for Outaf-Schwl JTFtA
Youth Participants by Job Readinessand
Figures in percents (except wages/hour)
                                                                                                               Other positive
                                                   Employment                                                                 training or
                                                                                                             Attained       schooling or            Total
                                                                         Skill level                      prescribed          completed         positive
                         Placed    Wages/hour               Higher        Modemto             Lower     competencies               school termination@
Total                        66           $4.36                      7             25              34                   8               5              79
Job readiness:
Less                          54           4.25                   4                19              31               12                  6              72
Intermediate                  65           4.31                   7                25              33                9                  4              78
More                          78           4.44                  10                30              38                4                  3              a4
Males                         69           4.47                  10                21              38                   8               4              ai
Females                       83           4.24                   4                30              30                   8               5              76
White                         69           4.34                      9             25              35                   7               4              a0
Minority                      a3           4.37                      5             26              33                   9               4              77
School dropouts               54           4.18                      5                 17          32               13                  6                  73
High school
graduates                     75           4.45                      a             31              35                   5               3                  a3
Age in years:
15-17                         47           3.89                      3             14              30               19                   9                 75
la-21                         69           4.41                      8             27              34                7                   4                 79
                                                  aFigures may not add to totals because of rounding.

                                                  Page 51                                                 GAO/IflZD%MgBR         JTPA Youth Participants
Appendix VIII

SkillLevel of Job Obtainedby Skill Level
of Training

                Fiaures In Dercents
                                                           Level of job obtained
                                            Percent        Moderate
                Level of training            placed         or higher          Lower
                Job readiness:
                   Moderate or higher             76               04              1C
                   Lower                          a0                6              94
                   Moderate or hlqher             67               82              1s
                   Lower                          72               11              89
                   Moderate or hiaher             57               81              1G
                   Lower                          64                6              93
                  Moderate    or higher           69               04                  1t
                  Lower                           73                7              93

                Page 52                   GAO/HRD-9046BR     JTPA Youth Participants
Appendix IX

Data Supporting Figures in Text

Table 1X.1: Data for Figures 1 and 2.1:
Comparison of JfPA and Eligible             Figures in percents
Population                                                                                                                     Eligible
                                            Job readiness   group:                       JTPA patiicipants                  population
                                            More                                                             35                       34
                                            lntermedtate                                                     29                        33
                                            Less                                                             36                        33

Table 1X.2: Data for Figure 3.4: Sewices
Varied for Job Readinebr Qroups             Fiaures in cercents
                                            Progmm activity:                More job ready            job ready      Lesr job ready
                                            Occupational training                        64                    49                 40
                                            Nonoccupational trarning                     14                    28                 40
                                            JSA only                                     22                    24                 20

Table 1X.3: Data for Figure 3.5: Servicer
Varied for Demographic     Groups           Figures in percents
                                                                        Hiah rchool   amdurks                School dropoutr
                                            Program activity:                White           Black             White         Black
                                            JSA only                             18              30                 18                26
                                            Moderate/higher skill
                                              occupational training              46              24                 23                 13
                                            Nonoccupational training              9              26                 42                 46
                                            JSA only                             20              28                 12                 18
                                            Moderate/higher skill
                                              occupational training              48              35                 32                 15
                                            Nonoccupational training             12              23                 39                 56

Table 1X.4: Data for Figum 4.2: Outcomes
for Job Readiness Oroupa                    Figures in percents
                                                                                                      Placed in          Other positive
                                            Job readiness      group:                                      jobs           termination8
                                            Total                                                             66                       13
                                            More                                                              78                        7
                                            Intermediate                                                      65                       13
                                            Less                                                              54                       19

                                             Page 53                                   GAO/HBDgO-4BBB        JTPA Youth Participants
                                            Appendix M
                                            Data Supporting   Figures   in Text

Table IX.5 Data for Figure 4.4: Outcomes
for Different Types of Training             Figures In percents
                                                                                           Placed in       Other positive
                                            Program activity:                                   jobs        terminations
                                            Total                                                  66                    13
                                            Occupational training                                  70                     7
                                            Nonoccuoational tramma                                 40                       2s
                                            JSA only                                               77                        7

Table 1X.6: Data for Figure 4.5: Outcomes
for Nonoccupational   Training              Figures in percents
                                            Program activity:                              Placed in           Other positive
                                            Nonoccupational     training                        iobs            terminations
                                            Remedial educatron                                     34                       3E
                                            Work exnerlence                                        56                       14
                                            ExemDlarv vouth                                        53                       32

Table 1X.7: Data for Figure 4.6: Youth in
Occupational   Training Got EMter Jobs                                                   Percent placed in
                                                                                               moderate or
                                            Proomm activitv:                            higher skilled iobs       Wage/hour
                                            Occupational traininq                                         41            $4 53
                                            Nonoccupational traming                                      20              4 09
                                            JSA onlv                                                     27              4 18

                                             Page 64                              GAO/HlUMO46BR    JTPA Youth Participants
Appendix X

Major Contributors to This Briefing Report

                   Sigurd R. Nilsen, Assistant Director, Education and Employment Issues,
Human Resources      (202) 523-8701
Division.          William R. Stance, Assignment Manager
                   Elizabeth C. Clemmer, Evaluator-in-Charge
Washington, D.C.

                   Page55                                GAO/HIUHO4BRJTPAYoathPartidpmatr
RelatedGAO Products

             Job Training Partnership Act: Information on Training, Placements,and
             Wagesof Male and Female Participants (GAOIHRDSS-152BR,   Sept. 12,
             Job Training Partnership Act: Commentson H.R. 2039, The JTPA Amend-
             ments of 1989 (GAO/T-HRD-89-32, June 29, 1989).
             Job Training Partnership Act: Servicesand Outcomesfor Participants
             With Differing Needs(GAO/HRD89-52, June 9, 1989).
             Job Training Partnership Act: Youth Employment Amendments of 1989
                            May 11, 1989).

             Summer Youth Jobs Program: CongressionalAction Has Increased
             Emphasis on Remedial Education (GAO/HRD-~~-~~~, Sept. 30, 1988).

             Job Training Partnership Act: Participants, Services,and Outcomes
             (GAO/T-HRD88-31, *pt. 29, 1988)

             Job Training Partnership Act: Summer Youth Programs Increase
             Emphasis on Education (GAO/HRD87-lOlBR, June 30, 1987).

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