Federal Financi.al j’ ....,. Maikgkment ,Systein Reqliirements I’ .,i 8 I, _’ !’ - 3 / ., . JFMIP-SR-99-13 October 1999 .’ W& ., i‘,’ isIFMIP?‘. The Joint Financial Management Improvement Program (JFMIP) is a joint and cooperative undertaking of the U.S. Department of the Treasury<the General Accounting Offrce, the Office of Management and ,Budget, and the Office of Personnel Management, working in cooperation with each other’and other agencies to improve financial management practices in government. The Program was given statutory authorization in the Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950 (31 USC 65). Leadership and program guidance are provided by the four Principals of the JFMIP-- Comptroller General of the United States, Secretary of the Treasur): and the Directors of the Office of Management and Budget, and the Office of Personnel Management. Each Principal designates a representative to serve on the JFMIP Steering Committee, which is responsible for the general direction of the Program. The JFMIP Executive Director, and a program agency representative ‘_ (who serves for 2 years) are also on the Steering Committee. :- :. ). ,:. ‘. 1.!.,.- The Program promotes strategies and guides financial management improvement across ‘. r’ government; reviews and coordinates central agencies’ activities and policy promulgations; and acts . as catalyst and clearmghouse ., for sharing and disseminating information’about’good financial ‘. management practices. This information sharing is done through conferences and other.. 1’ .. educational events, newsletters, meetings with interagency groups and agency personnel, and through Financewet, -‘r; an electronic clearinghouse on the Internet. The JFMIP has worked on interagency projects that developed a financial systems framework and.:; _’ financial systems requirements. For the future JFMIP plans to assist Federal a/$&&s in improving ,7 their financial systems through its Program Management Office. The Office will work on revising ,, the Federal government’s requirements definition, testing&d ,i acquisition processes, the qrst.target ,.~- of opportunity is core financial systems. The objectives ofthe Office&-e to,develop systems, :I ,; ’ requirements, communicate and explain Federal. and agency needs,&rovide agencies and vendors” 7 information to improve financial systems, ensure that products meet relevant system requirements, and simplify the procurement process. .I~’ ;a ‘X,, Information on JF~Il?&&be found,at its,,website at .:. , or call (202) 512-9201. www.financenet.g&ifi~ancenet/fed/jfmip/jfr$p.htm (‘, ..;c.‘a :.,,/. ., ._ Jo IN T FINAN- MANAGEMENT himovEMENT PROGRAM ‘. ,, ‘: :: 441GSt~et~Rboih31il 1Date‘: .October 19, 1999 i- FViAhgton, DC 20548 To: Senior Financial OfficQl Princ@h Lawrence H. Summers From: Executive Director, Seaetary of the TreaSury .: ,,‘:. ,; ‘. ‘. > . . :‘, ‘. s David M. Walker CompnoUer General of the U.S. Subject:,. IJFMIP Grant ~Financial Systems Requirements ’ : : ,L Jacob Lew ,,. ., .” ,. ,, Director U.S. Office of Management and Budget The JFMIP Grant Financial Systems Requirements document Exposure Draft,.&; attached; This update effort *as led by the Janice R. Lachance Director, U.S. Offkc of Personnel National Science Foundation (NSF), ML Albert Muhlbauer, Management Deputy Chief Financial Officer, and reflects the efforts of his governmentwide team. The effort was supported by the JFMIP; Steenb. Committee ’ Chief Financial .Officers Council FinancialSystems. Committee, .. : - DonaldK Hammond (Chair) (FSC); Jnter-Agency Electronic, Grants Committee (JAEGC); Fiscal Assistant Secretary Department of the Trckuy ./, .:I’ Office of Management.and,Budget (OMB); U.S General ; .. Accotmting Office (GAO); and others;. The extensive vetting : j Jeffrey C. Steinhoff Actin Assistant Compaokr General process that occurred, revealed many changes that needed to be U.S. 8 eneral Accounnng Ofke included in the :Grant Fin’ancial Systems Requirementa document to reflect:. Sh$la Conley ! ,Ti ;* ~~~~~:~~~~~~~~~~n~andBudget .K ,!i ,‘. ’ :’ -k ‘: 1’ 1. Statutory and regulatory changes, including OIB Circulars J. Gilbert Seaux and Statements of Federal Financial Accounting Standards Chief Financial Offker U.S. Offk of Personnel Management (SFFAS No. 5); _. William B. Earl Jr, 2. Technological changes, including the use of Web-based Chief Financial 0 8 leer General Services Administration technology; automated interfaces; and Karen Cleary Alderman Executive Director, JFMIP 3. JFMIP documentation changes, including the updated JFMIP Core Financial System Requirements document and issuance of the Framework for Federal Financial Management Systems document. Please note that mandatory and value added requirements have been addressedin the document and defined in the Glossary Appendix. Please consider closely the Glossary Appendix and, if needed, recommend additional terms that are shown in the document that you believe need to be defined. The attachment has been reviewed by representatives of the JFMIP, FSC, GAO, OMB, IAEGC, Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board and others. i The document is being circulated widely within the Federal government’s financial systems _.-, ., community, private sector service providers, and other.major stakeholders. It is also being placed on Financenet at: ‘, 1’ I ,’ www.financenet.nov/fed/ifmip/ifmip.exp.htm . .+ Please provide your comments by Friday, December 17, 1999. Comments are encouranged on any section(s) of the document. Responses will be more helpful if the underlying rational is provided. Respondents are requested to indicate thecapacity inwhich they are responding., : Comments should be sent to: i ,. z;, i / ., 2;.‘7 : III + Joint Financial Management Improvement ‘Program ,441GStreetNW,Room3111 a.-, .: ‘... Washington, DC 20548 : ,. .. : ‘,;‘, : Please be aware’that we are working.to relocate JFMIP by the middle of November, 1999. We are working closely with the.GAO, ‘where JFMIP is currently located, to ensure a smooth transition of U.S. Postal and electronic~mailservices; When the exact date of the relocation:is known, information ,will-be-posted,on the JFMlP Homepage at: .: i II ,. ~www..financenet;:aov/fed/ifmip/ifmip.htm ‘;* .. If you have any questions on any of these matters, please contact Dennis Mitchell via electronic : mail at mitchelld.ifmir&~ao;~ov, telephone at,202-5 12-5994, or fax 202-5 12-9593. ,. 2I- ‘) Attachment ‘. ’ ., _. .’ ,. ij I’ A. / : ~ 2, i I ) : .; , i. I $‘.‘l,‘., I j i. ,‘: Page 2 -- Foreword This is the first functional requirements document issued for grant financial systems for the U.S. Federal government. It is one of a series of functional systems requirements documents published by the Joint Financial Management Improvement Program (JFMIP) on Federal financial management systems requirements. All of the JFMIP Federal Financial Management System Requirements (FFMSR) documents should be considered together when determining how best to use information and supporting services to meet the financial management needs of a Federal agency. The FFMSR series addresses the goals of the U. S. Government Chief Financial Officers’ (CFO) Council, the JFMIP, the Inter-Agency Electronic Grants Committee (IAEGC), and others, ,to promote t&efficient management of assets,and to improve financial management systems government wide to provide useful financial information on Federal government ‘operations. ii .‘-I Agencies may develop additional technical and functional system requirements as necessary to suppo-rt unique mission responsibilities. Agencies must also develop strategies for interfacing or integrating grant financial ,:’ management systems with the agency’s core financial system. We want to take this opportunity to thank the many agency officials and others in the financial and g&it ‘. management communities who contributed to this document. We value their assistanceand support. Special, : .. thanks are also extended to the CFO Council’s Fellows Class of 1998/1999 who participated in the development and formulation of this ‘document. This new JFMIP systems document was chosen as their classproject., With continuing support from the numerous contributors to this project, we can confidently face the financial -. management challenges in the new century. i:. :, Executive Director I Tableof Contents ‘, ‘,.. ‘>, Foreword : ., ‘, I ,.:, “, : Acronyms Illustrations ‘Introd&tion . . . . . . I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. . . 1 Federal Financial Management Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 System Overview ., . . . . . . . . . ., . . . . . . . : . ._’ . . . . . ‘.1. . . . . . .I . . . . . . . ., . . ,. 7 , ,, _ IntrocluctiontoFunctionalRequirements. . ; .-..‘i . :. . . . : . . :. ‘. . . .)J.:. : . . . :.-. : 9 “. I” ; : ,:.r, .; ‘,,; Commitments.. . . . . . . . . . . .‘. . . . . . . . .‘. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. . 13 ‘.I ., L-i Decommitments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 ,’ -:< -: . . ‘. . ‘*‘: ‘.. 1 Obligatlqes . ..,:.,’.. . . . ._ : . ‘. . :. . . .,;. . . . . . . . ,. . . . . ., ,. ,. . . ., .. . . _.-. . . . . .. 18 : Payments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‘. ‘. . .-. : . ,;. j .‘; . , : . . . . . 20 ,. ..“:‘+ Cost Accruals. . . ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‘. . . . ., .’ ._ i . ., . . . . . 25. i , Fin&&l-Report% . ‘. . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . ‘1 ; . . . .’ . ‘I’,. . . . -30, _ ; .’ ( ‘_ Interest&llections .c:. . . . ,. :. -. .. . ..:;. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‘. . . . . . ‘. . ‘. . . ‘33’ ‘- Grant Closeout . . . . . . . . . . . I. . . ‘. . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . .) ,.,,3.i ‘,.I; Records Retention. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 General Systems Requirements .................................. 36 Information Technology. ..................................... 37 Appendix A: References/Authoritative S.ources . . . ~.: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 ..~.I ,’ -‘. ..!. .,. Appendix B: Glossary/Data Dictionary .A. . . . : I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Appendix C: Contributors‘ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Acronyms ASAP Automated Standard Application for Payment System * / i, ,I; -I CFO Chief Financial Officer DHHS Department _.of Health and Human Services COTS Commercial Off-the-Shelf FASAB Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board / ,: : ,., l’.,” . FFMIA Federal Financial Management Improvement Act FFMSR Federal Financial Management.System.Requirements FLSA Fair Labor Standards Act FMS Financial Management Service GAO General Accounting Office GMRA Government Management Reform Act GPRA GovernmentPerformance and Results Act i. .; IAEGC Inter-Agency Electronic Grants Committee JFmp Joint Financial Management Improvement Program NPR National Performance Review ,’ ‘, OMB Office of Management and Budget OPM Ofice of Personnel Management PMC Preside&s Management Council PMS Payment Management System SGL Standard General Ledger / Illustrations : / t 1 Financial System Improvement Projects. ........... : ................ 3 2 Integrated Model for Federal Information Systems ....................... 5 3 Agency Systems Architecture . : .......... ; ..................... 6 4 Grants Overview Process. ................................... 11 5 Systems Interfaces Overview. ................................... 12 6 Process for New Commitments ................... :. ...... ; ...... 15 ” 7 Process for Decommitments ............................. ; ... 1 17 8 Process for Obligations .................................... 19 9; Process for Advance Payments to Gr.antees. ........................... 23 10 Process for Reimbursement Payments to Grantees. ...................... 24 11 Cost Accrual Estimate ..................................... 28 12 Verification of Cost Accrual Estimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 13 Financial Report Process. . . ‘ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 As the world’s largest and most complex enterprise, the U. S. Federal government faces tremendous challenges in the area of gram-management. These enormous responsibilities involve the management of billions of dollars of resources, and. pose tremendous challenges as we rapidly begin the twenty-first century. ,- ‘I The Federal government has consistently recognized the importance of having high quality grant financial management systems to support improvement of government operations and provide fmancial and related information to program and financial managers. In response, the JFMIP began the process of defining financial management system requirements by publishingthe FFMSR series of requirements documents. Reginning. with the Core Financial System Requirements (FFMSR-1) document in .January 1988, JFMIP has issued-publications in the FFMSR series. For additional.information, refer to JFMIP’sweb page at. :I i.. I, www.financenet.gov/fed/jfmip/jfmip.htm. .._ .~ ,‘,’ 1 .’ In addition to the basic JFMIP systems requirements documents, several Federal organizations and agencies recognized the need for a comprehensive .document ,describing a variety ‘of general systems requirements .e;g., system integration, data stewardship, andinternal controls. Asa result, JFMIP published the Framework for, Federal Financial Management Systems document in January 1995. ? - ! The Federal Financial Management Improvement Act (FFMIA) of 1996 mandated that agencies implement and maintain systems that comply substantially with Federal financial management systems requirements,. applicable Federal accounting standards, and the U.S. Government Standard General Ledger (SGL) at the transaction level. The FFMIA statute codified the JFMIP financial systems requirements documents as a key benchmark that’agency systems must meet, in order to be substantially in compliance with systems requirementsprovisions under FFMIA. To support the requirements outlined in the FFMIA, JFMIP is updating publications which are obs.olete and is publishing additional requirements documents. This is the first JFMIP Grant Financial System Requirements document, that has been issued. > I / :, This Grant Financial, System Requirements document is intended to identify financial system requirements. necessary to support grants programs. It does not intend to identify the full scope of functional program requirements associated with grants management programs. ,This document is intended to assistsystems analysts; system accountants; and others who design, develop, implement, operate, and maintain financial management systems. This includes building or buying systems. Increasingly, integrated financial management systems are necessary to support program managers, financial managers, budget off&ls, and others simultaneously. Data and information supplied by systems to these individuals are expected to be accurate, timely, and consistent across organizations, agencies, and the Federal government.. Systems,and data are shared more and more by imultiple organizations, agencies, etc., with ‘common needs. Grant Financial System Requirements 1 This document provides high level functional requirements for grant financial systems that will provide the capability for financial managers and others to control and account for Federal grant resources as defined in government wide and agency specific statutes, regulations, and guidelines. Appendix A is a listing .of.statutory and regulatory references. This document is one component of a broad program to improve Federal financial management which involves the establishment of uniform requirements for internal controls, financial systems, financial information, financial reporting and financial organizations. As shown in Illustration 1, standards and systems requirements assist agencies indeveloping effective and: efficient systems.and provide a common framework:so that outside vendors or in-house programmers can provide software ., more economically. Each agency shouldintegrate its unique requirements with these government wide standard requirements to provide a uniform basis for the standardization of financial management systems as required by the CFO Act of 1990 and the FFMIA of 1996. :.,..l : I ‘: .,’ . , _!.; ./ 1.’ ” ::’ Financial management systems in the Federal -government must be designed to support the vision articulated;by the, government’s financial management community which requires those systems.to support the partnership. between program and financial managers and to assure information integrity decision-making and measuring performance. This vision includes the ability to: .’ collect accurate, timely, complete, reliable, and consistent information; l l provide for adequate agency management reporting; . %support government wide and agency-wide policy decision-making; l support the .preparation and execution of agency budgets; l facilitate the preparation of financial statements and other financial reports in accordance with Federal accounting and reporting standards; l provide informationto central agencies for budgeting, analysis, and government wide reporting, including consolidated financial statements; and ; . provide a complete documentation audit trail to, facilitate audits. In support of this vision, the Federal government must establish government wide financial management systems and compatible agency systems, with standardized information and electronic data exchange, to support program delivery, safeguard assets,and manage taxpayer dollars. It is,critical that financial management systemsplans, support the agency’s mission and hrograms, including planned changes, and that financial management systemsplans are incorporated into the agency’s plans for information technology infrastructure and information systems as a whole. Systems design efforts should also include an analysis of how systems improvements, new technology supporting financial management systems, and modifications to existing work processes can together enhance agency operations and improve program and financial management. Reassessing information and processing needs and redesigning processes, procedures, and policies are essential steps to meeting user needs. Integrated Financial Management Systems Financial management systems must be designed with effective and efficient interrelationships between software, hardware, personnel, procedures, controls, and data contained within the systems. To be integrated, financial management systems must have, as a minimum, the following four characteristics: 2 Grant Financial ‘System Requirements Federal Financial .Management Framework ( Financial; System Improvement, Projects ;,. : , Agency lmplementatl,on ._ 1 i Standard’ Reporting Requireme-nts _I ‘. :<- ; : --, .), $ _ ,.: 2 . Additional :;‘Adaptation ,:’ ‘, I . U.S. Government Standard. Agency., ., . General 1-edger Functional ;, dequ;;gmk;;s ;’ c. <: /_! I ;.. ‘ :, . Core Financial System Requirements . Prccedures ... IY i . Human Resdurces & Payrcil . Additional Systems Requirements Agency Q Technical . Training ._ Requirements . Software ,,._ . Travel System ,_-r Requirements Sel,ecticn j ~, ‘I ‘. !. i Documentatton . Seized Property and Forfeited Assets System . Integration Requirements : Strategy‘ : . Direct Loan System . Conversion Requirements . Guaranteed Loan System Requirements . Inventory System Requirements I I , . System Requirements for Managerial Cost Accounting ‘r--‘--‘- I 1. Grant System Requirements,1 I -m-m--- -I . Other Standards -- , I I Subject of this report 1-l wusrrarlon i Grant Financial System.Requirements 3 Federal Financial Management ‘Framework l standard data classificati&G(definitions.and formats). estabiished and used for recording financial events; l common processesused for processing similar kinds of transactions; l internal controls over data entry, transaction processing, and reporting applied cqnsistently; and l a design that eliminates unnecessary duplication of transaction entry. The financial management systems policy described in the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-127 “Fin~ciaj Management Systems,))requires that each agency est+lish and maintain a single integrated financial management syst:m. Without a single, iritegrated financial management system to ensure timely and accurate financial data, p+r policy decisions,are more likely to occur, hanagers are less likely to be able to report accurately on.government:operations in a timely manner,;, scarce r&o&es are more likely to be directe-d toward the collect.+ of information ‘&her than to delivery of the intended prd;&Gms;, and inodificatiqns tp finan‘& ‘, ; management systems nec&ary to keep pace with rapidljr;‘~hanging~.~sei:requirements cannot be coor&a&d and ‘. managed properly. The basic requirements for a single, integrated financial management system are outl+ed in OMB $ircular A-127; c ‘. . ‘,,., :-i Having a single, integrated fmahcial managetient system does not necessarily mean: having only one sofnvare application for each agency covering all finar$ial management syst!ms needs. Rather, a sihgle, integrated financial manageinent system is a unified set of financial systems and the financial portions of mixed systems encompassing the sofnvare, hardware, personnel, processes‘(manual and Automated), procedures, controls, arid data necessary to manag< the financial operations of the aiienc);, and report on the agenCy’s ,.1 financial status to central agetic@, ., Congress, and the public. i :. i:: Unified means that syster& are planned and managed together, operated in an integrated fashion, and linl$d ‘. together electronically in an efficient and effeizlve manner to provide agency wide financial system support necessary to carry out the agency’s mission and support the agency’s f&ncial management needs. 1’:: :, Integration means that the, system’s user is able to have one view into systemswhereby, at whatever level a,user is accessing the system, the user can obtain the heeded information efficiently and effectivCly through ele&ronic means. Integration does not mean that all information must be physically located in rhe same database. Interfaces, where,one system feeds data to another system following normal business/transaction cycles such as grant obligati& recorded in general ledger control aLcounts ai the time the grant awards are made, may be acceptable as long as the supporting detail is maintained and accessibleto managers. In such cases,in+-face linkages must be electronic unless the number of transactions is so small that it is not cost-beneficial to automate the interface. Reconciliations between systems, where interface linkage? are appropriate, must be maintained to ensure accuracy of the data. To develop any integrated information system, it is critical that senior systems analysts and systems accountants identifjr: l the scope of the functions to’ be supported (processes), how data quality will be assured (data stewardship), :’” l :.,* I l the informhtion to be processed (management information), l how systems hardware & software fit together to support the tinctions (systems architecture), and l safeguards needed to ensure the integrity of operations and data (internal control). 4 Grants System Requirements Federal Financial Management Framework All of these pieces must be brought together in a model such Intbgrated Model .for Federal. Fintindal Systems as the one shown in Illustration 2; (page 6 ). These pieces must work together to form an efficient integrated information system. A change to any part of the model will require determination of the implications on, other parts of the model. For example, a neiv reporting requirement may require changes throughout the.entire’ model. Agency Financial Management Systems Architecture Agency financial management systems are information systems ‘that track financial events and -< I: summarize information to support ;-jo: 7: the mission of an agency, provide Illustration 2 for adequate management ,:a . reporting, support agency level policy decisions necessary to carry out fiduciary responsibilities, and suppo’rt the preparation of auditable financial statements. Agency financial managementsystems fall into four categories: l core financial systems; .* other financial and mixed systems, including grant systems, l shared systems, and l departmental executive information systems (systems to,provide management information to all levels of management). These systems must be linked together electronically to be effective and efficient. Summary data transfers must be provided from agency systems to central systems to permit summaries of management information and agent) financial performance information on a government wide basis. Subject to government wide policies, the physical configuration of financial management systems, including issues of centralized or decentralized activities, processing routines, data, and organizations, is best left to the determination of the agency, which can determine the optimal manner in which to support the agency mission. The physical design of the system, however, should consider the agent@ organizational philosophy, the technical capabilities available, and the most appropriate manner to achieve the necessary single, integrated financial management system for the agency. Grant Financial System Requirements 5 ,Fede,ral,.Fi.nanciaI Man’agement: Framew0r.k. The agency systsms~~~~,~tectureshoprfl,,in-Illustration .3, (page 8. ) provides a logical perspective identifying :the relationships’~of various agency systems types. Although this does not necessarily represent the physical design of I the system, it does identify the systems types needed to support program delivery/financing and financial event processing for effective and efficient program execution. ., Grant Systems a3 : :. ,. .’ As shown in Illustration 3, (page 8 ) grant financial systems are an integral part of &total financial management system for a number of Fed&a&agencies. Grant financial systems sul@ort programmatic objectives and interact, ’ li with core financial systems to record advtnces, collections and disburs,ements in %,geneiJ ledg$#on$stent with the SGL. validate funds availability; update budget execution data; and record other’grant, related transactions. ;:’ ..,. ’ (.? , <: : .’ .’.! %‘“’ __ . . \ ‘., : i,,, +: ‘. ‘. ‘/I .: Illustration 3 6 Grant Financial System Requirements ’ SystemOverview The complexity, diversity, and size oigrant programs in Federal government agencies place unique demands on managers that are responsible for those programs. The constantly changing requirements of grant programs has led management to look not only at the functional capabilities of grant financial systems, but also the managerial environments in which these systems aresupported and operated in. /, ‘, :I All grant financial systems.that are. being designed and implemented, or are in.use, must operate in accordance with existing laws and regulations. It is the responsibility of each agency to be knowledgeable of the legal requirements governing its grants financial operations. > All grant financial systems must provide, as a m&mum, the follo&g qualities: ‘. l Complete and accurate funds cpntl’ol; l . Comple.te, accurate, and .prompt recording of obligations;. l Cotiplete, accurate, and prompt patient oigrantee pay&ent requests; l Complete, accurate, and prompt generation and maintenance of grant financial records and’transactions; l Timely and efficient accessto’ complete’and‘accurGe information, without extraneous material, to those inter&J and external to the agency who require the inforniation; ’ l Timely and proper ir&raction of the grant financial system with Core,financial systems and other .. l existing automated _’ systems; and l Adequate, internal, co&rols to ensure that the grant fihancial system is operating as intended. This document identifies functional requirements for grant financial systems. Although the document may be used when developing new grant financial systems, or improving . or evaluating current systems, the document does not provide a specific model for such systems. Functional requirements not mandated by law, regulation, or directive must result in cost-effective systems that are in the interest of the government. .‘All possible alternatives for meeting the requirements should be considered. ,’ ,” ,(, .:.,. :’ Functional requirements of Federal grant financial systems can be segregated into two general categories, mandatory and value added. Definitions for these two categories of requirements are: Mandatory - Mandatory requirements describe an&consist of the mi&mum acceptable hnctionality necessary to establish a system, or are based on Federal laws and regulations. Mandatory requirements are those against which agency heads evaluate their systems to determine substantial compliance wi+ systems requirements under the FFMIA. These requirements apply to existing systems in operation.and new systems planned or under development. Value-added - Value added requirements describe optional features and may consist of any combination of the following: (1) using state of the art technology, (2) employing the preferred or best business practices, or (3) meeting the special management needs of an individual agency. Agencies should consider,value added%features when judgingh,ia.‘. systems..ioptions. The need‘. for: these +1 value-added features ..‘. ” - ,’in tagen2Lsystems :, , .is..(I ,,left:, toG the .-,1discretion eaih’agency L ., .,,.~ *. of Mandatory requirements are identified in each chapter under the statement, “The system must...“. Value added or optional requirements are discussed at various points throughout this document. The burden of demonstrating that these value added or optional tinctions are cost effective and clearly in the interest of the government rests with the CFOs of each agency. Further, each agency must develop an efficient, effective, and economical strategy for interfacing its grants financial system with other systems that share or utilize data. Grant Financial System Requirements 7 System Overview All requirements listed in this document are mandatory, as indicated by the ‘“The system must...“. Other requirements discussed in the document are value added. ” ‘. :I Functional requirements .of Federal grant fintincial. systemscan be segregated into two general categories, mandatory and value added. Definitions for these two categories of requirements are: Mandatory - Mandatory requirements describe and consist of the minimum acceptable functionality necessary to establish a system, or- are based on Federal laws and i-egulatiork.‘-Mandatory requirements are those against which agency heads evaluate their systems to determine substantial complirince’ with systenis,requirements under the FFMIA. These requirements apply to existing systems in operation and new systems planned or under development. ..: .r.. ~I Value-added - Value added requirements describe optional features and may consist of any combination of the following: (1) using state of the art technology, (2) employing the preferred or best &sine& practices, or (3) meeting the special management needs of an individual agency:; Agencies:should cofisider value added feanires when judging systems options. The need for these value-added fea,cFes in agency systems is left,,to the discretion of each agency head. :; I .,.. Value added or optional requirements are discussed,at variqus points throughdut this document. The burden of demonstrating that these value added or optional functions’ are cost effective atid clearly in’,ihe,interest of’;he government rests with the CFOs of each agency. Further, each agency must develop an efficient, effec&e, and economical strategy for interfacing its grants financial system with other systemsthat share or tit’ilize d&a: ...I Grant financial management activities can be further categorized based on types of activities within the okrerall grants process. The remainder df this document prdvides functional requirements based on these categories as follows : .,I : Chapter 1: Provides an overvievir of the &tire grants process. Chapter 2: bescribes the’ comn$tment process. Chapter 3: Describes the decommitment process. Chapter 4: Describes the obligation process. Chapter 5: Describes the payment process for advances and reimbursements. Chapter 6: Describes the initial cost accrual estimate and subsequent accrual verification. Chapter 7: Describes the financial repork process. Chapter 8: Describes the proce?s for interest collections. Chapter 9: Describes the closeout process for grants. Chapter 10: Addresses needs for records retention and historical files Discusses information technology. Chapter 11: Addresses general system requirements including general data stewardship, interface requirements, a&other hardware and, sofiware related requirements Addresses needs for records retention and l$storic.al files, Chaptef rd i ’ Discti&S ikfkk%ioh’techn&& kddr&& general @teni requi~er&&including gen&ral’&ta’ ’’ stewardship, interface requirements, and other hardware and sof&vare related requirements. 8 Grant Financial System Requirements Introduction to Functional Requirements :. Definition A federal grant is a financial assistanceinstrument which, consistent with 31 U.S.C. 6304, provides, money and/or direct assistanceto the recipient to carry out a public purpose authorized by a law of the United States, instead of acquiring property or services for the Federal governments own use. Cooperative agreements may also be used for financial assistance,except unlike grants, substantial involvement between the granting agency and the grant recipient is anticipated. Some agencies.do process grants, cooperative agreements, and other cqntractual agreements may be processed at some agencies using the same administrative, accounting, and financial systems. : Guidelines 1. .’ ,‘. The OMB issues grants management circulars which are published in the Federal Register (administrative requirements, cost principles, and audit circulars) ., Federal agencies issue regulations implementing those OMB circulars and as needed publish other policy issuances that aid in understanding ,and complying with new ’ regulations. Scope of the Grant Business Total grant funding for the U.S. Federal government is approximately $250 billion annually, involving approximately 400,000 payment transactions annually. The Department of Health ,and Human Services accounts for the majority of this grant activity, led by over $100’ billion in grants to states for .Medicaid. ‘&rants for food, transportation, research, and other pubhc missions involve institutions and organizations throughout the U.S. economy, underscoring the importance of efforts to improve grant financial management systems. : Grant Life Cycle The life cycle of a grant includes application, review, award, performance, payment, and closeout. There are two major types of grants: mandatory and discretionary. Mandatory grants include entitlement programs (e.g., Medicaid, Food Stamp Administration) block grants (e.g., housing), and formula grants (e.g., highway construction). Mandatory grants are awarded non-competitively to eligible entities as long as those entities submit acceptable state plans or applications, Discretionary grants are awarded under a wide range of specific programs, such as education and research. Competitive proposals are submitted for funding under an announced program with a specific mission identified. The discretionary grant process usually begins with articulation of a need through an announcement (or solicitation) specifying the funding agency’s objectives and scope of program, relevant dates and deadlines, grantee eligibility, and terms of the evaluation to determine awardees. Many agencies also accept unsolicited proposals. The grants process calls for preliminary and/or full applications (or proposals) from organizations or individuals desiring to participate in the agency program, describing their proposed work, project team, and budget justification. Grant Financial System Requirements 9 Introduction to Fu’nctional Requirements ‘_ : Upon receipt of a grant application/proposal, agencies usually provide a status indication (by telephone, postcard, or on-line web site) to the applicantpotential grantee pending completion of their review and final decision. Discretionary grant review processes, usually based upon project quality and mission relevance, may re+ire an outside peer review, although in some agencies the federal staff fill this role. This procedure results in priority m&in&budget commitin&its, award decisibns, tid budget commitmknts. Notification of award (or declination) ends this part of the grant process. A mandatory or dikretionary award includes information on budget amounts, required repdi-ts (administrative, financial, kid technical), regulatory requirements, and other instructions ati part of the grant’s terms and conditions. ,, / On the basis of the award, the grantee may then proceed to perform as prescribed, incurring authorized costs and requesting payment from the granting agency as stipulated. Payment requests must carry accounting information sufficient to associate amounts requested with the specific grant(s), unless pooling arrangements have been made, allowing delayed reconciliation of accounts. I. Existing grants ofteq require kdification. ‘Mod&&ions for which the grant finan& system must &count ,. include changes in the dollar amount awarded and extensions of: the grant period. All grants ultimately require closeout. Discretionary grants are generally awarded for discrete projects with .stated completion dates. Their duration may be extended, but will eventually end. This is not the case for all mandator)r grants, which generally continue unlesB the program statute is rescinded. Reviews, audits, and documentation for financial, property, and technical matters are usually required for the successful closeout -of an award. This is the final step in the grant life cycle. Illustration 4, outlines the overall grant financial process described above. Illustration 5, depicts how the grants fkncial system may interact and interface with other external (non gbatit) systems and with or within the agency’s core financial system. . ‘1. : __’ ;-:, . ,.,, ,.,Y.y ._ .;. :,-,,: .‘Li 5:, :‘ : ._ i” ” ‘)‘^. ‘. 10 Grant Financial Syitem Requirements Introduction to Functional Requirements Illustration # 4 Grants Overview Process , Announcements/Solicitation Funding Agency & Amounts Program Need & Scope Effective Date & Deadlines Ap$icationiProposal Performin~Organization Profile / ., .~zgffz%+ v Review Funding Agency Panel/Process Status Checking Technical Merit/Mission Relevance Applicant Queries Prioritization within Budget Funding Mechanism Receipt of Awards Terms, Budget, & Effective Date Accounting/Admin. Data I 1” Other Grantee Actions Perform Work/Incur Expense Other Funding Agency Actions Request Funds from Agency Provide Cash Payments Expend Funds Cost Accruals Provide Financial/Technical Reports Review Reports Request Renewal as Appropriate Initiate Closeout Disclose Inventions Closeout Financial/Property/Technical Grant Financial System Requirements 11 ; I; .-___-.- Commitments Systems Interfaces Overview Illustration #5 Grants Financial Process Flow Advances &z/or Reimbursements Core Financial v v I * v I v System SGL SGL SGL SGL SGL t SGL Posting Posting Posting Posting Posting I Posting NOTE: This illustration depicts examples of the information exchanges which take place between different Systems/Processes throughout the Grants Financial System Process. 12 Grant Financial System Requirements _ Commitments i Detition :: A commitment is an administrative reservation of a specific amount of an agency’s available funds that provides for a later issuance incurring of a grant award. and incurring of the related ,obligation. E, Commitment Process Flow (see Illustration 6) Listed below are the major steps in the commitment process. : ., The system must support the following major steps associated with processing a commitment for agencies with a commitment process. %, . .-I ._.,,- ‘/ ‘a._ : ,, .‘, Decision to Fund a Grant - Occurs usually after a proposal application process (involving proposal receipt, l review, and selection) has been completed. The steps or procedures followed by an agency before the funding decision is made depend on the specific requirements established by an agency which are based on the nature of its grant programs. l Initiate Commitment Request; Input Budgetary/Program Data into System - Data should include the following: if applicable: l System generated: l Commitment request identifier l Requisition date . Corresponding proposal identifier l Funding dollar amount l Appropriation Code(s) l Budget Year(s) for funding being utilized l Name of the individual initiating the commitment l Grant Purpose l Object Classification l Grantee Identifier l Principal Investigator/Project Director Identifier l Grant Period of Performance l Direct Requested Commitment to Approving Official - Approving official(s) have the authority to commit funds: They review and approve or reject the commitment request. As part of their review, thej must verify funds availability. Commitment requests should be transmitted to the. approving official(s) in an automated manner. l Review Approved Commitment Request Against Edits; System Performs Following Edit Checks l Approved commitments are processed through a series of edit checks l Verify Authority of Approving Official(s) t Validate Commitment Data Input by Requestor Grant Financial System Requ,irements Commitments I l Verify Funds Availability j l Provide the capability to cite multiple funding sources I l Provide controls to prevent processing a duplicate document I l Commit Funds and Post Trarkactions to Standard General Ledger (SGL) - Transaction recorded in Financial System as a commitment against the Budget Account; committed dollars are matched against budget being utilized. /I The SGL entries are: l Debit the Account Code 4610-Allotments - Realized Resources l Credit the Account Code 4700---Commitments Available for Obligations : 1 l Notify Procurement/Grants Office to Start Negotiation of Grant with Potential Grantee - Outstanding i commitments must be reviewed and reconciled on a coqtinuous basis throughout the year to ensure that they , i are converted to’valid,obligations or deconimitted no later thari funds expiration. 14 Grant Financial System Requirements ’ Commi?ments _. j ,-’ / : .: Illustration # 6 Process for Commitments - --.--- Funding Decision 1 Initiate COInmitment Request e- Notify Requestor I I of Disapproval with + Comments; Request Direct to Approving Official, ’ can be Changed & Resubmitted I ., : : Not@ I Requestor Yes v Notifjl Immediately with Explanation of Rejected Request Edit Process ’ .1 A ,. > ;.: ICommit Funds and Post Transaction to SGL Notify Procurement/Grants Office to Start Negotiation of Grant with 1 Potential Grantee 1 Grant Financial System Requirements ‘l. ,,.’ Dfkommitments Definition A decommitment is the act of reversing a commitment of hnds previously recorded in an agency’s financial system. Decommitm&f ‘Pr&~ss .’ : Flow (see Illustratioti ‘7) Listed b&w are .the &aj& stjlepsin the .decommitm&t process. i, The systein must sujp@rt &I following major steps associated with processing a decommitment. ..i ‘_. .:: Funds Committed - An individual with authority to dkcommit &ids hetermines whether a commitment l should be cancelled. l Initiate the Decomrpitment Request - The decotimitment act& is initiated by the individual requesting decommitment. This request should be transmitted to the prdper financial official(s) in an autokated manner. Organization specific budgetary and program data is entered into the system regarding the request. l Edit Process - Approved decommitments are processed through a series of edit checks; l Verify -authority of Approving Offlcial( s) , l Validate dai$ input by rec!luestor, l Decommit Funds qd Post to SGL - Transaction recorded in financial :ystem as a decommitment against the budgeted accounts. The following SGL entries are made: l Debit the Account Code 4700-Commitments Available for Obligations l Credit the Account Code 4610-Allotments - Realized Resources l Notify Program Staff - Decommitments are reported to program staff. l Outstanding Commitments - Outstanding commitments must be converted to valid obligations or decommitted before the expiration of the f&ds committed._I 16 Grant Financial System Requirements Oecommitments -.- r- r .I, I. ;., ‘., Illustration # 7 Process for Decommitments j , ,- : ‘, i :: .;; ‘.~ .a ; . ! Funds Commited / 0. .Aotify h-b&& . . ; Initiate Decommitment Request 4 with_ Ex ,’ , .‘. Edit Process Not@ Program Staff Grant Financial System Require’ments 17 1 Oblighm Definition I,,, An obligation occurs when an obligating official makes an award to an entity on behalf of a Federal awarding agency, thereby, obligating that agency to fund a project that relates to a Federal grant program administered by that agency. Obligation Process Floyv(see Illustration 8) ~. . ;_ Listed below are the major steps in the obligation l&&k. . The system must support’the following major steps associated with processing an obligation. .^ ” Gr&nt Proposal R,eviewed - The proposed grant action is reviewed. The grant is negotiated with the l grantee, and a contractual grant agreement contractual document is prepared. Direct To Obligating Official - Obligating official(s) have the authority to legally bind the Federal l government to provide funds for a specific project or purpose. They review and approve or reject the grant contractual grant agreement document. Provide for approval or disapproval of grant obligation. l Obligate funds - Record transactions into the grants financial management system. Provide for the capability to maintain chronological order of.commitments, obligations, and payments. , Include adequate controls to prevent recording an obligation thatexceeds available funds. , Provide the capability to cite multiple appropriations or other ‘funding sources. Record obligations or Federal Funds authorized based on grant awards and liquidate related commitment(s). Capture grant number, grantee or recipient name, grantee identifier, grant purpose, dollar amount, and accounting classification data, such as appropriation, project, program, and object classification, tax payor identification, and other pertinent information: I l Edit Process - Approved obligations are processed%through a series of edit checks; Verify authority of Obligating Offkial(s) l l Validate grant obligation against edits in the core financial system l Verify funds availability l Provide controls to prevent a duplicate obligation l Obligate Funds and Post Transa&on to the SGL - Transaction recorded in the fmancial system as an obligation against the appropriated funds. The following SGL entries are made: l Debit the Account Code 4700~Commitments l Credit the Account Code 4801---Undelivered Orders - Unpaid The funds that are obligated may be made available to grantees to perform cash drawdowns (advances) as set forth in Chapter 5 below. 18 Grant Financial System,Requirements Obligations 1’ , . Illustration # 8 Process for Obligations .. ) ,, .- ,/. . w&h Com+nts;. ., _ v, I Proposal can $e Not@ Changed & Resubmitted’ Direct to Obligating Official I Reqtlestor - t _I*’ ‘- Yes ’ ’ . ,. “’ v ‘_ ‘, .: Obligate’ Funds; Post Transaction to SGL; Funds available to the Grantee . ,. ..A. : “. ;. .” ;:. fdrPaymq$ ,- .-.I ,, .t.., ., ?,,,.-.;_ <.- rl /.; ; ,a,,. y;,a,;,.,..’ ..,,“.i _ -.., ~. I. ,,,. ; /I;, . . ,“,.I,, -, -.l ., -1 Grant Financial System Requiremgnts 19 1 ‘. ,;‘: : Piyments Funds are paid to grantees as either advances or reimbursements. Definition Advances are payments to a grantee in anticipation of expenditures the grantee has’yet to makefor program purposes; Advance payments are the preferred method of funding a grantee’s program operations unless circumstances warramtising alternative, more restrictive methods. Grantees shall be paid in advance, provided they minimize the time elapsing between , the ;transfer of funds and their disbursement. _.. .‘, Reimbursementsto-g~~tees are for work performed for which expenses are incurred _...” ^.but not 4 paid. :.,.: <‘i. .,. I -.._ Initiative to S~eandh$, Grtit Paymerit S&etih ti. th& ~~~c$al *q.overnment j ,, I, In June 1998, the CFO Council endorsed three existing systemsfor use by the Federal government for grant payments by October 1,200O. All Department of Defense organizations are to utilize the Defense Procurement Payment System (DPPS). All civilian Federal departments and agencies are to use one of the following two systems: the Automated Standard Application for Payment System (ASAP) provided by,,the Financial Management Service (FMS) of the utSpkpartment of the-Treasury and the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond; and the Payment Manager^ent,sy~t~~,‘(PMS;) provided by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) . _ .: ~ -- ‘- “: .^ The Council’s systems endorsement resulted from an in-depth one year study and survey of existing Federal grant payment systems by the Council’s Committee on Grants Management, Sub-Committee on Cash Drawdowns. The Subcommittee’s goal was to signiticantly reduce the number of Federal cash drawdown systems used throughout the Federal government. This would reduce the grantee’s workload and the costs associated with the development and maintenance of multiple systems. In June 1998, the Subcommittee published its ; recommendations in a report to the CFO Councjl., The CFO Council adopted all of the recommendations set forth in the report. A copy of the report is available .at: ~~://www.financenet.gov/financen~t/fed/do/gr~~/cdO618.hun. : ,i,. Key recommendations of the report are: l There is an immediate moratorium on the development of.all new Federal department/agency cash drawdown systems to service grantees. l The following two existing systems are designated for government-wide use for grant payments (cash advances and reimbursements) : ASAP’and PMS. l By l/1/99, all Federal civilian agencies to identify one of these two designated systems for use and to formulate a schedule for migration to the selected system. Waivers may be granted in accordance with the previously sighted committee’s report. ,. _. l By 10/l/00,- each civilian grant making agency to implement ‘their-designated government wide selected system;.. Civilian agencies may continue to utilize operate their agency’s own proprietary systems in addition to the selected government wide system.; Wwhich system (i.e. Council’s designated system or the agency’s proprietary system) to use is the decision of the grantee. (Council’s designated system or agency’s proprietary system) to use is the decision of the grantee. l DOD components are to utilize the DPPS. 20 Grant.Financial System Requirements Pay,menjs l By 10/l/02, all Federal departments and agencies to only use ASAP, PMS, or DOD’s system and to d+continue.,use ofall proprietary .:, department/agency , systems. l Customer Advisory Boards are to be established for all three systems; the purpose of the board is to maintain an effective service and support level and to facilitate communication and feedback. l The Council’s Subcommittee on CashDratido&as is to monitor implementation of transition to selected svstems. , l Treasury :a.ndDHHS are to jointly develop a common front-end to ASAP, and PMS ,‘making the two systems :. ’ _. :.. 3i ‘, appear identical to grantees: ” I The grant payment ‘processesfor .adv&es and ,rernbursements described below are intended to represent the basic system steps required for @ocessing grant payments.~‘,These basic steps are included in’ the systems endorsed by the CFO’Cou$l’ (ASAp, RMS, or Dipl?S)~,%is envisioned that’ future grant financial systemswill have’one’bf these systems (ASAPj PMS, /,‘or DPPS)! included in their: grant 3; @yment,crocess. ’ ‘I.:., ,, ’ I_ . .‘. ‘. _. ,., It should be stressed that the C&Y Council endorsed these.systemsfor the grant $ayment process only, individual agencies may elect to utilize these systems for additional grant processes. -’ ’ -’ ’ .-’ / Paymen! Process Flows (see Illustratioti 9 regarding Advan& hq&knts and’~Illudra~ion 10, regarding Reimbursement Payments) : / ! ‘i’ ; .’ ‘. ‘, .,i.. : ‘” The system must support ,the following major steps. .I’.,_ >. l Receive Payment Request f%om Gradee - The grantee submits a,request for cash. If the awarding agency and the grantee have agreed to use a pooled payment ,procedure, the grantee requests a single dollar amount covering all its grants with the awarding agency. Otherwise, the grantee identifies the amount of cash needed .- ,’ _: for each grant. l Optional Data Elements Requirements in’ ‘the Requed such as: ’ _I l Grantee Name and Identifier l Amount Requested; l Grantee Official authorized to submit request l Authorized grantee’s information l Amount of funds authorized l Amount approved, . Amount disallowedProgram Funding Codes l Appropriation Code(s) l Review Request l Edit Process - Screen the request for missing data elements, clerical errors, internal logic (e.g. request not in excessof Federal funds authorized). Perform non-routine edit checks installed by the Federal awarding agency, such as: l Verify whether the grantee is delinquent in submitting financial reports. l Verify funds availability. Grant Financial System Requirements 21 I Paytients :,. -- I l Provide controls to prevent,processing a duplicate payment. , : ., ., l Record Flagged - The record may be flagged if the grantee is subject to sanctions requiring the wlthhoiding of payments. .. ,. .I Verification of Work PerformedRequests for reimbursement are forwarded to the appropriate personnel for verification of the work completed. l Transfer Cash tq Designated Payee and post 2)amactioqs to SGb - The Federal awarding agency ) transfers the approved amount to the grantee’s ftiancial institution and the transaction is posted to the SGL. The values posted to these SGL accounts depend on whether the grantee :requested the, payment advance by : .I : the pooling or grant-by:grant :method. If the grant-by-grant method was used, the. portion of the disbursement designated by the ‘grantee for each grant is posted to a’subsidiary account corresponding to that grant. If the grantee used the pooling me,thod,r the entire payment advance is distributed among ,grant , subsidiary accounts by algorithm. Regardless of which method is’used, additional operations must be ,.performed to further distribute the payment advance among the contributing sources on a reasonable basis for any grant funded by multiple sources. ” The following SGL entries are made for an advance payment: , l Debit the Account Code 140*-Advances and Prepayments l Credit the Account Code lOlO-Fund Balance with Treasury The following SGL entries are made for a reimbursement payments from appropriated funds for current operating expenses only: l Debit the Account Code 3 100IUnexpended’Appropriations , ‘. 0’ Credit the Account Code lOlO-Fund Balance with Treasury l Debit the Account Code 480liUndelivered Orders -1Unpaid l Credit the Account Code 4902 - Expended Authority - Paid l Debit the Account Code 6100---Operating Expenses/Program Costs l Credit the Account Code 5700--Appropriations Used 22 Grant Financial System Requirements Illustration # 9 Process for Advance Payments _._._... to Grantees --.-_-.._-_-.- Receive Request for Advance I Review Request I .I I Return to Grantee For 1 Correktioul Resubmission No b t L Yes ‘I I No Transmit Funds to Desginated Payee and Post TranSaction to SGL Grant Financial System Requirements 23 / Illustritioli -- # 10 Process for Reimburs&hentP~ym~nts to Grantees _ Review _. Request Returnto GranteeFor Correction/Resubmission t I !. I Yes No No Transmit Fundsto DesginatedPayeeandPostTransactionto SGL Grant FirtanciabSystem Requirements r CostAkruals Overview Federal agencies are required to prepare financial statements in accordance with Federal Financial Accounting Standards. The standards for accounts receivable and accounts payable’ result in an accrual basis of accotinting for transactions. This basis of accounting records, expenseswhen incurred, whether or not they have been paid in cash; and records revenues as earned, whether or not cash has been received. In general, under the accrual basis of accounting, expenses and revenues may give rise to payable/liability or receivable/asset accounts when the timing of the recognition of revenues or expenses differs from the transfer of cash. In accordance with Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards Number 5, “Accounting for Liabilities of. the ‘Federal Government,” for federal non-exchange transactions, which include many grant and certain entitlement programs, a liabil$y, an account payable to the grantee, should be r&ogtiized for any unpaid’amounts due as.tif ihe reporting date. Generally, this is a two step.proCess. The first step is t6 recognize as expense and as a payable the. ~’ amount of allowable exbensd that ‘thi grantees have’ incurred as of the’ reporting date, the end of the period, but have not collected from the agency. That amount may include amounts claimed by the grantee or amounts incurred but not reported by the grantee. This will require that the agency estimate the amounts not reported to it by the grantee but due the grantee. The second step occurs after the grantee has submitted financial reports gi&g its actual costs. At that time, the agency should arrange for payment and make any entries needed to adjust the expense amounts previously recognized. In addition to accruing expenses, the agency may be required to accrue a receivable related to improper’payments. In some, but not all, cases,agencies may reimburse grantees for amounts improperly expended.. For example, recipients of federal aid may fiatidulently claim such aid.. Records may not support recog&on of .the amount and estimates may be required. Generally the grant accrual system should maintain various data such as 1) internal historical financial data, 2) criteria/structure of agency programs, and 3) relevant external information on the timing and nature of recipients’ cash flows. This data should include the amounts disbursed to grantees during each year and the amounts actually expended by the grantees. In addition, other data such as grant award amounts, and remittances should be included in this information database. The grant accrual process may entails the use of infortiation from both the grantor’s and grantee’s databases to estimate the unpaid amount. The grq? system should maintain the amounts disbursed to grantees during each year and the amounts actually expended by the grantees. In addition, other data such as grant award amounts, and remittances should be included in this information database. , The system must: l Have a format structured to facilitate accrual accounting in accordance with 31e..U.S.C. 3512(d). . l Pe~it.adjustm~nts for any, differences bcmeen,the initial iran; accrual amount and .$& && cost ...1 ., li subsequently rtported. l Provide for narratives explaining variance rates in excessof & 5 percent. When faced with the dilemma of estimating year-end accruals, one of several methods may be used as follows: l Poll all grantees as of September 30 of each fiscal year. Grant Financial System Requirements 25 Cost Accruals : .;. l Take a statistical sample of grantees and base projections on the sample. l Perform a linear regression or other appropriate statistical analysis as of the end of each fiscal year, using ” amounts disbursed, to grantees vs. amounts expensed expended in.previ0u.s years to arrive at an algorithm to estimate current ,y&r-end StahlS of accrual& .F Forecast the fourth quarter expenditures using a forecasting model such as the auto-regressive forecasting model or the exponentially weighted moving-average forecasting model. _., I. ‘_ .J Definition .‘..,, ., .’ , v, - Accrual &&ntin~ is theiriethod of accounting in yliich an entity’s finan& position-&id operating results ilre measur$l by the fldti ‘of e&&&c resources. Transactions Tre r&rded iti $e accoutitini’heriod in iYhich ‘they- occur or -whose opei-atidns they benefit, regardless o;f when .“. _,, the “’ related ,:: ‘caih receipts. an&disburstiments take pJac%. .’ /’ I. 2~ _ AC&+ hocesq #lo&s (see Illustrati& I1 and 12 ) ’ ., , ‘: The system must support the following major steps. Process steps: . Illustration 11 - Initial Cost Accrual Estimates , l Tnitiaie the Accrual ‘@robs - The accrual process (&I?) has’to have the -ability to: ” ‘, .). .: . Review electronic files of gi-ant and grantee records including program and financial files.Review electronic files of grant and grantee record. This includes program and financial files. .h : ‘^ .-, ;. Select and retrieve specific items (data) ‘from,these files and c&pare eat data <&data stortd in othei programs.To select and retrieve specific items (data) from $h&e fil&s a;ld to compare,that data;.\,to ,‘,, i /‘, f ,,data tilr&dy storedin’the AI’. .. I 9 Update AZ) Program Accrual File - Data available for selection selected by duiing the AP accrual _-process should include the grantee’s identif+ion number, types.of grants received, grant numbers, dollar amounts, time periods, grantee’s fmanclal history by fiscal quarters, and other data considered pertinent to the Agency. l Run Al? Progiam Accrual File - The accrual process uses the informtition collected to recognize liabilities foi- any unpaid amounts due project a grantee’s ending cash balarice at a specific point in time; i.e., the end of a month, quarter or fiscal year. A negative cash balance-If granfee liabilities exceed advances, this indicates a receivable to the grantee and an accounts payable to the agency. A positive cash balanceIf advances exceed grantee liabilities, this indicates a payable to the grantee and an accounts receivable to t&e agency. l Review iApprove Program Results/Approve , - The information produced from the Apaccrual process .r...., .i,i . ,.estinitf.the amo~~iit:ijf~~ds,li~~~da~s~dn~ad~~ci: ~~‘g~~~~~~s~~~i~h ~ijws,iifi agate to reasonably should be expensed and the amount of unreported grantee expenses to record ai ‘2 liabihty ai thg’&d of a fiscal period. . Post the Grant Accrual Amount - The following SGL entries are made to post the grant accrual amount: : l Debit the Account Cod& 6:100--- Operating Expenses/Program Costs l Credit the Account Codes 1400--Advances and Prepayments and/or Credit the Account Code 2 1lo--Accounts Payable 26 Grant Financial System Requirements Cost Accruals --.-- ; * Debit the Account Code 3100--Unexpended Appropriations l Credit the Account Code 5700--Appropriations Used I l Debit the Account Code 4801--Undelivered Qrders - Unpaid i, l Credit the Account Code 4902:-Unexpended Authority - &id k Illustration 12 - Verification of Accrual Estimates . Verification J?rd@s Begins - The verification process begins after the grantee’s financial reports, for the end I of the fiscal period involved, are received and the data from these reports has been entered into the agency’s files. I Lid l Review /Approve Program Results/Apptidve - The APagency analyzes<thedata input from these reports, and compares it to the projected expendituresbalances projected by the Al? and posts the SGL entries posted to the grantee’s files. After comparing the projected expendituresbalances with those of the financial report the Aprequired adjustments are calculateds the adjustments needed to make the projected expendituresbalances equal the actual estimated expendituresbalances. Grant Financial System Requirements 27 I Cost Accruals ‘. Illustration # 11 Initial Cost Accrual Estimate L-J Initiate Accrual Process _ ._ RIUl Program Accrual File Re-examine No Historical Data’ & Recalculate 4 1 Yes Post Grant Accrual Accrual A Program -+ Amount 0 Results to the SGL 0 A Go to Step A when the Grantee’s Financial Reports are Received Giant Financial System Requirements ’ Cost Accruals Illustration --- # 12 Verification of Cost Accrual Estimate clA Open Accrual Program -.. Data Files -A- 1 Search Grant Files for Desired file 0Select Data Data Program i Post SGL . r .-, Store Yes 4 Data Grant Financial System Requirements 29 FinancialRep&Is Overview Grantees are required to submit one orboth of the following reports on their grant(s) activity: the Federal Cash Transactions Report (FCTR) or the Financial Status Report (FSR) . Either report,may be required quarterly; however, the FCTR may be required monthly. In exceptional cases,a program-specific report approved by the OMB may be required in lieu of the FSR. Grantees submit financial reports in accordance with OMB Circular A-110, Grants Management Common Rule, or program regulations as applicable.OMB Circular A-110, Attachment G, “Financial Reporting Requirements” prescribes uniform reporting procedures for grant reporting. Financial Report Process Flow (see Illustrations 13) The system must support the following major steps associated with processing financial reports. : i Process steps from initiating the financial report process through sending, financial reports (FR) to grantees are not applicable to agencies which do not prepare the FR(s) . Their systems begin with the step “Receive Financial Report”. Listed below are the major steps in the reporting process. Process Steps: I l Initiate the Financial Report Process - The financial report process (FRP) must have the ability to: l Review electronic files of the grant and grantee. This including program and financial files. I- l Select and review specific items (data) from these files. l Compare the selected data to data previously stored in the FRP. ‘. l Update the FIW File - Data selected by the FRP should include the grantee’s identification number, types of grants received, grant identifying number, dollar amounts, time periods of performance, grantee’s financial history by grant, and other data considered. pertinent by the granting Agency. l Run FRP File/Prepare Financial Report - The FRP uses the information collected to prepare financial reports for the grantees at a specific point in time; i.e., the end of a month or a quarter. The FRP must have the ability to prepare the reports in both electronic and ,hard copy formats. l Receive Financial - Financial reports received electronically from the grantees should feed Report automatically into the grants financial report process. Reports received in a hard copy format will have to be manually input to thef! report process. . Edit Process - Revie\lv the report and verifyfor; i ,.> : :, * . Completeness 1 l Mathematically correctness l Validity of information such as grant numbers and award numbers l Proper certification l Assurance that aAmounts reported as expenditures do not exceed the balance of funds available. 30 Grant Financial System Requirements : Financial,Reports . ~ Provide controls to prevent processing duplicate reports. Reports failing the edit process are returned to the grantee. : .. 1 l Transactions Prepared and Posted to SGL - Federal departments/agencies that utilize other agency ;. systems for processing grantee’s financial reports (e.g. DHHS’s Payment Management System) must have a ii reconciliation process in place between the other agency’s financial systems and the agency’s SGL. The following SGL entries are made to expense advance payments: l Debit the Account Code 3lOO-- Unexpended Appropriations l Credit the Account Code 1400-- Advances and,,Prepayments l Debit the Account Code 4801-- Undelivered Orders - Unpaid l Credit the Account Code 4902-- Expended Authority - Paid . Debit the Account Code 6100-- Operating Expenses/Program Costs L . Credit the Account Code 5700-- Appropriations Used ’ Entries are made to the following SGL accounts to adjust for differences between the grant expenditures previously posted to theses accounts when reimbursement payments were made to the grantees and the grant expenditures reported on the grantee’s financial reports. The SGL accounts are listed as if the grant expenditures had been underreported when reimbursement was requested. If the expenditures had been overreported, the entries would be reversed. l Debit the Account Code 4801~--Undelivered Orders - Unpaid l Credit the Account Code 4902 - Expended Authority - Paid l Debit the Account Code 6100~--Operating Expenses/Program. Costs l Credit the Account Code 5700--Appropriations Used : :’ Grant Financial System Requirements Financial Reports Illustration # 13 - __----_ Financial Report - ____-_Pro&s Initiate Financial Report Program ‘. : Search Search Search External Internal -. Last .Report Data Data Received :. ‘. ’: i v : ,’ Update FRP File I + Run FRP file Prepare FR(s) 4 Send FR(s) to Grantees 4 Receive Financial Report Process Edit I------t i-7 Return to Grantees for Correction Resubmission 32 Grant Financial System Requirements InterestCollections Overview Interest earned on advances of Federal funds must be handled in prescribed manners in accordance with administrative requirements based-on the cost principles established for the grantee organization involved. The system must support ,the following major steps. ‘ ., :’ ._ ,_( b ,’ : ‘. .I State! Gckernmenfs ‘. ‘. ; ’ I’ -, Interest-earned on advances of Federal funds’by-state agencies, instrumentalities,. and fiscal agents isare, subject to 11 the terms of the Cash Management’Improvement Act‘(CMIA) TreasuryState agreements pertaining to their ‘-‘;r organizations established under the Act, (Pub. L. 101-453). State organizations and/or representatives not subject to the CMIA and it’s implementing regulations are treated as “Other Organizations”, as listed below. Other Organizations i Interest earned on Federal kdvances by other grantee organizations is subject to OMB Circular A-1 10, &ants Management Common’Rule, or ~rograik regulations as applicable. In accordance with Those subject to Section .22 of QMR’Circular A-110 svhich earn interest earned on Federal advances that exceedsin excessOf $250 per year in the aggregate must be remitted annually to the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Payment Management System, Rockville, Maryland 20852. This office acts as the government-wide agent for all collections of interest generated from grant advances. _’ Grant,Financial System Requirements 33 GrantCloseout Final Financial Reporting Grantees are required to submit a final Financial Status Report,(FSR). to the agency. The grtitke is also,required by some agencies to submit a final accounting of cash disbursed ori the Federal Cash Transactions- Report (FCTR), A third requirement is for the grantee to maintain records afier the grant p&f&mance period expires. The organization is obligated to return any refunds, corrections, audit disallowance amounts, interest or any other funds that must be returned to the awarding agency. As a general rule tThese reports must not contain any unliquidated obligations and must represent the final accounting of all federal funds provided under the terms;ofthe award., Additionally, mostthe grantees areis required to have an annual audit by an independent Certified Public Accountant, accour$qg, firm, or a State auditor. The Federal +d$.Cl~u-&ghouse will- notify all fed:@ agencjes of any adverse findings that require .+tion by.th,e awarding agency: i. ‘b .:.a, ^ : _J., .i ,1 ,, ‘I ,. \ I ‘. . .’ .,t,:. Financial Processes The system must support the following major processes. ,__, .:T .: ‘.:., l Financial Status Report (FSR) Ck$ng Process - The+amount reported as ?xpeyse must ;fgree,wi@ the ., cash disbursed 6n the FcTR. Any unobligated. ,balancesmust be deo,bligq:Fd,m t$e ac@untmg ‘. s)rstem. A closing transaction is recprdcdissue’d to close o& the grant in the accounti?g system. :JLIJIstresacflion ii, % posted to DHHS’s Payment Management System.(PMS) for those us&g&+! @tern... l%o<ed~r~s shou&l be i .established to monitor grantees who are delinquent in submitting final reports. ‘. :. -. ,’ : ,., l Federal Cash Transaction Report (FCTR) Prckess - The granting agency must mo&tor ~+&~hti that have expired grants and have not been reported closed by the recipient. Agencies must track open grants funded from appropriations that are expiring within the next 12 months. Those organizations serviced by the DHHS PMS must provide for reconciliation between the l?MS and their agency’s accounting system. l Post Closing Collections - Agencies must have accounting procedures to collect receivables and liquidate payables’due after the close out of the grant. 34 Grant Financial System Requirements Records Retention Agency systems must maintain, store, and permit ready retrieval of grant financial data. The time frames for various parts of this requirement differ depending on the subject matter. The system must be sufficiently flexible to retain and purge data consistent with varying record keeping requirements. Per 36 C.F.R. 1228, the National Archives a&Records Administration (NARA) must approve the Ddestruction of records created within the Federal government. must be approved by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), per 36 C.F.R 1228. Expenditure Accounting Records are currently authorized for disposal by General Records Schedule 7, Expenditure Accounting Records, and General Records Schedule 20, Electronic Records are the current authorities. for disposal of Expenditure Accounting Records. (Copies may be obtained from your agency’s records officer or from NAM.) For expenditure records not covered by this authority, or for any questions regarding .the dispos$ion,of,federal .records;please contact: ,,: I ,J’ .,..: National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) ‘7th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue NW : .. \ Washington, DC 20403 : -.. Phone number - (2q2). 501-5400 ,, ” , b : Grant Financial System Requirements 35 : General SystemRequirements System Interfaces The grant financial system, at the standard and/or agency-level, must be able to accept, process, anti report on transactions with other internal and external systems. The system must record and track such transactions and related information in order to provide the basis for central control. .This may require a custom interface to properly identify and format the transactions. The system must: 1, 0, Provide system flexibility in accepting data input from multiple: media so that it CA recognizes the ;&&e dita input requirements of interface. systems. r l Subject all transactions from interfacing Systemsto the standard grantfihancial system edits, validations, and err&correction procedures. l Provide system capability to customize data input, processing rules, gh edit criteria. Provide flex&& in defining internal operational procedures and in supporting agency requirements! , l Provide the capability to identi+ and process information from other systems that enter tid update the standard grant financial system. l Provide system capability to allow users to customize output for reporting and providing interfaces to other systems necessary to meet agency requirements for external processing (e.g., general ledger posting, budget formulation, budget reconciliation and budget execution). l Capture the transaction dates in order to ensure compliance with the Cash Management Improvement Act. Other General Systems Issues A variety of general systems requirements, including data stewardship, systems architecture, systems integration, internal control, and others are contained in the JFMIP FFMSR-0, January 1995, entitled Framework for Federal Financial Management Systems. The Framework document along with all other JFMIP requirements documents can be found at: www/financenet.gov/jfmip/jfmip.htm -. 36 Grant Financial System Requirements lnformatikTechnology in theGrantsProcess ., Introduction This section describes a framework for introducing information technology (IT) into the external grants process. The framework comprises the federal grant-making agencies, working under a single c‘umbrella” interagency committee structured to reflect the concerns of major customer groups, and, motivated by common goals to streamline and improve the grants process and to develop a common face with agency grantees. This section also describes a work-in-progress, developed within the framework and updated as of the issue date of this document, that exemplifies the benefits of using IT and provides some guidelines for future cooperative effort. :!. :; Organizing to Employ Information Technology The federal grant enterprise is conducted in 23 major grant making federal agencies (See the Federal Grants Management Handbook at http://www.thompson.com/tpg/fed_gts/granml). Depending on the mission of the agency and the target recipient community, administrative requirements vary from agency to agency and even program to program within agencies. The 1997 National Performance Review (NPR) report, Access America, identified federal grant distribution as an area ripe for the ap.plication of electronic commerce solutions. In response to that report, the GSA Electronic Commerce Program Office (ECPO) established and sponsors the Inter-Agency Electronic Grants Committee (IAEGC), an interagency organization, to coordinate, promote and facilitate the effective use of electronic commerce throughout the federal grants community. I The IAEGC has focused’on development of common face solutions for electronic grants. Efforts to achieve a common face.have culminated in the concept’of the “Federal Commons” . The Fe,deral Commons project is a collaboration of the 33 Federal grant-making agencies that are members of the.IA.FGC, and functions as one of three IAEGC subcommittees. This project is supported by activities in the two other subcommittees: State, Local, Non-Profit and Other (S&L) Subcommittee; and the Research and Related (R&R) Subcommittee. The S&L Subcommittee, comprising federal agencies that award grants primarily to state and local governments and non-profit organizations, was formed to ‘better serve the needs of its diverse customer base. The R&R Subcommittee, more commonly known as the Federal Electronic Commerce Committee (ECC), deals with grants to research entities such as universities and laboratories. Charter, plans, meeting agendas and minutes, reports, and roster for the IAEGC and its subgroups may be reviewed at www.financenet.gov/iaegc.htm. Applying Information Technology within the Framework The ECC was formed by research-sponsoring agencies to develop a means to transmit a research grant application (proposal) electronically rather than by paper, using a data element dictionary of all information transmitted in the application. This effort, completed in 1994, resulted in the first electronic standard for grant applications, now known as the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Xl2 Transaction Set 194, (See the Federal Electronic Data Interchange web page at SNAD.NCSL.NIST.GOV/FEDEDI) The ECC sets priorities -and.publicizes,itsef&tq:by publishing a Project Plan, currently in its third versiqn, ,,This,plan des,cribes further work of the ECC, including l expanding EC technologies to include the World Wide Web,for data exchange; l expanding electronic business transactions to include awards, solicitations, trading partner registration and profiles, and progress reporting; Grant Financial System Requirements 37 Information Technology in the Grants Process increasing the number of participating agencies; and l introducing the Federal Commons concept as a means of exchanging data among federal agencies and~grant recipients. The S&L Subcommittee grew out of work in the ECC to develop a common web site for grant transactions. This group achieved a working prototype site for ‘a wide .range of grant transactions, providing software for download by the potential grantee using Java applet technology. This system requires little or no grantee investment, and is designed for state and local governments with limited IT budgets and capabilities. This group has -developed a Business Plan outlining subsequent efforts, including l enlarging the IAEGC data dictionary to include additional data elements that are required by state and local governments, non-profits, and other organizations; .p. l promoting the widest possible use of common electronic commerce processes throughout the federal grants community; l reaching out to trading partners with information about electronic . options, and providing opportunities for questions and feedback; and ‘7 . supporting development and implementation of the Federal Commons concept. The Federal Commons Project As proposed, the Federal Commons will provide a governmentwide electronic commerce approach to grants management. The Federal Commons is envisioned as a coordinated network of federal grant administration systems and databases. One means of accessto the Federal Commons will be a Web-based interface. This Federal Commons Web Site will enable ,grantee organization users (universities, research institutions, small businesses,.state and local governments) to become more familiar with grant activities ongoing in the participating agencies. In addition, the Federal Commons Web Site will include interfaces designed to support secure transmission of administrative information for pre-award and ,post-award grants business processes. For each business process, users will be provided with technological options as to how such information can be formatted, transmitted and/or received. In response to the extensive burden that would be placed on agencies to support every technology option, the Federal Commons employs the concept of service centers. An agency that assumes responsibility for the deployment of a specific technology associated with various grant business processes would become a service center for that technology. The Federal Commons, therefore, begins the transition from agency independent electronic grant administration initiatives toward a common government electronic grant administration business model ,that provides technological flexibility for grant recipients. It employs a concept of lead agency responsibility in the deployment of technologies associated with various grant business processes. The Federal Commons will provide flexible technological alternatives, support for the entire grants life cycle, a single point of entry for grantees to all participating agencies, and secure interfaces. 8. .‘,’ ,, ,I ! The Federal Commons has a rich leggcyin ,the technical implementations and data &mdards-development both of, federal agencies and grants recipient organizations. It leverages the work of the Federal Electronic Commerce Committee in the development of grants business data standards such as the ANSI Xl2 194 Transaction Set (grant proposals/applications) and the corresponding grants data dictionary. It builds on the technology used.in agency systems (e.g.,, Fastlane from the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) , Commons from the National Institute of Health (NIH), US Electronic Grants Project from the Department of Transportation (DOT) and Paperless Voucher System from the Office of Naval Research (ONR)). 38 Grant Financial System Requirements Isformation Technology in the Grants Process Toward the realization of this concept, the Federal Commons Subcommittee began meeting in 1998 to support the initial stage of software development, including formalizing user requirements as well as defining system requirements. With such specifications defined, a proof of concept system is under development. The proof of concept will provide four types of grant administration activity as described below. User Registration - This activity enables an individual to register as a Federal Commons user. A user can specify identification parameters (i.e., a user name, a password, and a unique identifier). These parameters will be stored in a central repository. When a Federal Commons user accessesthe Federal Commons Web Site or that of a Federal Commons agency, the identity of the user will be validated against these parameters. In addition, the Federal Commons will facilitate the linking between the unique identifiers of Federal Commons users and the internal data structures of participating agencies. Status Query - This activity enables a Federal Commons user to log into the Federal Commons Web Site and query application/proposal and/or award status. The user can select which federal agencies to access,and the Federal Commons Web Site will coordinate the retrieval ,of status information from the appropriate agencies. Organizational Profile Submission - This activity enables a Federal Commons user to log into the Federal Commons Web Site and create/modify.an Organizational Profile (OPF) for the grantee organization. The user can select which Federal agencies are to receive the OPF, and the Federal Commons Web Site will communicate the OPF to the appropriate agencies. The web site will also submit the profiles to an interagency repository. Federal Commons agencies will be able to query the profiles from this repository. Professional Profile Submission - This activity enables Federal Commons users to log into the Federal Commons Web Site and create/modify their biographical information as contained in a Professional Profile (PPF). The user can select which Federal agencies are to receive the PPF, and the Federal Commons Web Site will communicate the PPF to the appropriate agencies. The Federal Commons homepage www.fedcommons.gov will have links to agency Web sites and a demo version of the approach to common business processes. During the first half of 1999, the first common grant modules: user registration, status query, organizational profile and professional profile, will be deployed. Following the initial deployment, an assessmentreport will be written. The report will address the following topics: key technology acco,mplishmenrs, results of testing with customers, recommendations regarding architecture and software tools, and future tasks. Conclusions The Federal Commons concept and its preliminary design have been presented to the Federal Agency Information Architechu-e Working Group of the Chief Information Officer Council’s Interoperability Committee, for coordination and possible assistance in design enhancement and implementation. As the design is tested and refined within the grants community, its flexibility and convenience should increase its applicability to a wide range of agency programs through stable data dictionaries, leveraged technologies from federal agencies, and common electronic forms and accessibility. Working within the framework of the grant-making community, members of the IAEGC and its subgroups are developing IT solutions for grants process problems experienced by the grantee community. Current information is available at the IAEGC and Federal Commons web sites. Grant Financial SystewRequirements 39 Appendix A: References/Authoritative Sources . OMB Circular A-11, Preparation and Submission of Budget Estimates (Part 1) l OMB Circular A-34, Instructions on Budget, Execution l OMB Circular A-l 10, Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements with Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and- Other Non-profit Organizations 1 ., ,~ l OMB Circular A-1~2,‘Grants.and Cooperative Agreements with State and’“Loca1 Governments l OMB Circular A-127-Revised, Transmittal Memorandum No. 1 l OMB Circular A-123, Management Accountability and Control’ : l OMB Circular A-130, Management of Federal Information Resources l ,oMB Circular A-133, Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit’Organizations ” .’ ‘. l OMB Circular A-134,. Financial Accounting Principles andStandards ! ’ j ,.’ : j/ l FFMSR-1, JFMIP Core Financial System Requirements . ,. . FFMSR-0, JFMIP. Framework for Federal ‘Financial Management Systems “. I ; _ l Statements of Federal Financial Accounting’ Standards (SFFAS) ‘No. 5 _,‘; l U.S. Government Standard General Ledger l U.S.C. Sections 1301,1341,1534,3512(d) . -. .’ ‘, 40 Grant Financial System Requirements Appendix B: GlossaryllattiDictionary Accrual Accounting The method of accounting in which an entity’s financial position and operating.results are measured by the flow of economic resources. Transactions are recorded in the accounting period in which they occur or whose operations they benefit, regardless of when the related cash receipts and disbursements take place. -. I Advance A payment made to a grantee upon its request either before the-grantee has made outlays or through the use of predetermined payment schedules. (A-l 10, sec. -.2(d)) Ad vances_. re p resent cash drawdowns made by the grant recipient to meet immediate cash needs. , ‘,. Allotment & subdivision of funds below the apportionment-level; usually, at the office level within the organization. Apportionment A distribution made by OLMB of amounts available for obligation in an appropriation or fund account into amounts available for specified time period, activities, project, objects, or combin;itions thereof. The.> amounts so appqrtioned limit,the obligations that.may be incurred. (4:34,l?art II, Section 21.1, p&l). : ,_ ‘,” ~ Appropriation One of r;he basic forms of budget authorit)i. Statutory authori that allsws federal agencies to incur obligations and to make payment out of the Tceasury for specified.pu$oses. An appropriation act is the most common means of providing budget authority, but in some cases the authorizing legislatidn itself provides the budget authority&+34, Part II,-Section 21.1). ;’ i Appropriation or fund account’ A summary account established inthe Treasury for each appropriation and/or fund showing transactions to such accounts. Each suclch account provides the framework for establishing a set of balanced accounts on the books of the agency concerned. As used in A-34, this’ phrase refers to general fund expenditure accounts, special fund expenditure accounts, public enterprise revolving funds, intragovernmental revolving funds, management funds, trust fund expenditure accounts, and trust;revolving ftind accounts. (A734, Part II, Section 21..1, p. 11-4and 5). : Approving Authority I n d’IW‘d ua I s d esignated by their institution to have the authority to approve a given action. Approving Official Same as an “Approving Authority” above. Award Financial assistance that provides support or stimulation to accomplish a public purpose. Awards include grants and other agreements in the form of money or property iri lieu of money, by the Federal Government to an eligible recipient. The term does not include: techtiical assistance, which provides services instead of money; other assistance in the form of loans, loan guarantees, interest subsidies, or insurance; direct payments of any kind to individuals; and, contracts which are required to be entered into and administered under procurement laws and regulations. (A-110, sec. - .2(e)) Block Grants Grants issued to government units to support a variety of actiyities within a broad area of responsibility instead of focusing on a specific activity. Examples include block grants for social services, maternal and child health, and transportation. Budget Accounts The lower level budget allocation of a given budget appropriation; usually, for budget execution purposes, agency appropriations are allocated/distributed to lower levels within arLorganization; budget accounts represent the lowest level at which funding is controlled. .; ,,j ,“.‘. -1I,.: ‘..f Budget .Authority ,AuFhority,provided,by-law, including joiht:re@&ions makirlg,Continuing.apro,pri&ions email@example.com,pri&ions (also known as ., ciintinaing resolutibns),‘and becomifig becoming available during fhe year td incur obligations. The basic forms of budget ^_ - authority auihority are appropriations, authority to borrow, borr&, and aid contract authority. autho&y. (A-34, Part II, Section .. ^. 21.1, p.ll-5). Budget Year The fiscal year forwhich the funds are appropriated for by Congress; “budget year” is also known as “‘funding year” or “program year”; note .that an appropriatiori for a given “budget year” may be available for use (obligation) over multiple “fiscal years”; the time period for utilization is stipulated in the . appropriation. ._- - . . ._ Grant Fin,anciaI System Requirements Appendix B: Glossary : -I, ,,- _:. .” ,:_ :’ : ; ; .‘-_.. Closeout The process by which a Federal awarding agency determines that all applicable administrative actions and all required work of the award have been completed by the recipient and Federal awarding agency. (A-110, sec. 2.2(g)) .’ ; Commitment of Funds The amount of allotment or lower level authority committed in anticipation of an obligation. (SGL, /definition of account 4700). Commitmentis the act of reserving appropriated funds for an eventual obligation/award action by an organization. i !I ‘. _. ‘. 1 Commitment Request / The requesting action within an organizational entity, which eventually leads to a commitment of funds for a given purpose. ,. i s I ‘I .., .c’ Core Financial System ” ” ; ‘ ,, .‘: ,- .,. The financial system which supports the financial functions.of an organization which are required to track financial events and provide significant financial information to management, and/or required for the preparation of financial statements: Core financial systems are combined with’the financial portion of,. ;” mixed systems to,form the. Financial Management System of an ‘organization. ,I i ,, ., I( b -1;; .: ‘: Disbursement 1. The transfer of cash from the U.S.Treasury to a grantee, generally by deposit-to the grantee’s account with its financial institution. ,: I_ 2. The expenditures (disbursements) reported by grant recipients for the current and previous years. The actual funds a recipient spent to carry out a program that is supported by administer a grant award. The term is synonymous with expenditure. ._ ii. L. 1” ,. .’ , Discretionary Grant Award i:, A grant awarded for a project of fixed duration that supports the purposes stated in the program’s authorizing statute, regulations, and announced awarding agency priorities. Within these parameters, the awarding agency determines’ which projects will be funded; which applicants will receive awards, and the dollar amount of each award. Such determinations are usually made through a competitive process. .:., ,, Drawdown The process of requesting a payment from the recipient’s grant award and receiving the payment into the recipient’s depositor account at the recipient’s financial institution or bank. .i’, i Expenditure The actual funds a recipient spent to carry out a programthat is:supported by administer a grant award. (See disbursement.) External Program Data This data represents specific program criteria for various types of grant programs including research, block, formula and discretionary grants, and recipients such as states and local governments, institutions, and individuals. This external data will help the agency develop trend analyses on how the recipients draw and spend grant funds. Federal Awarding Agency .: ., ‘,’ A Federal agency that awards a grant to a grantee and provides funding for grant purposes. Federal Funds Authorized : j ,. .The..tot+mount.of Federal funds obligatedby the:Federal. Government for tise:by~the tise:bythe recipier& ‘This+ amount may include anv any authorized carrvover carryover of unobligated funds from prior funding periods when permitted by agency regulations or’agency or ‘agency implementing instructions. (ALllO, (A-ll0, sec. -*- - .2(P)) 2(p)) Financial System An information system, comprised of one or more applications, that is used for any of the following: I_ i ., : .> ! l collecting , processing, maintaining, transmitting, and reporting data about financial events; , l supporting financial planning or budgeting activities; 42 Grant.Financial System Requirements i Appendix B: Glossary ;,.. I . . ., :, l aicumuiating akd’reportibg.cost information* ! or,: ,I l supporting the preparation of financial statements ,’ ,’ 1 (A-127 Revised, Item 5 - “Definjtions”) I Fiscal Year The twelve month period, October 1st through September 30th, for a given year: Formula Grant A grant where the funds are awarded based upon a formula defined in the program statute or agency’s regulations. : ‘. ::: Funding period The period of time when Federal funding is available for obligation for use by the recipient. (A-110, set? -.2(r)) ,, . Grant Period ,The period established iti the grant document during .which Federal sponsorship begins and ends and ‘, repres&ts the grant’s period of perfprmance... ,-- Grant k contractual relationship between a Federal awarding agency and a non-Federal entity (the grantee), in which the awarding agency agrees to tr,insfer money or something of value to the grar&ee. Thegrantee agrees to use such resources in carrying out a public-purpose of support or stimulation ailthorized by law. Neither party envisions substantial involvement by the awarding agency in carrying out the grant. A grant contrasts with a cooperative agreement, in which the,awarding agency does-become substantially involved in the Federal sponsored activity, and with a procurement contract, which a Federal agency uses td obtain goods and services for its own use (31 USC 6304). .‘, Historical Data The amounts disbursed to grantees during each year and the amounts actually expended by the grantees. In addition, other data such as grant award amounts, and remittances should be included in ,this infor.pation store. ’ Information System The organized collection, processing, transmission, and dissemination of information in accordance with defined procedures, whether automated or mar@. Information systems include non-financial, financial, and mixed systems. (A-127 Revised, Item 5 - “Definitions”) Internal Program Data This data represents specific program criteria for the various types of grant programs such as block grants versus formula or discretionary grants. This data would also include grantee’s identification numbers, period of availability for each grant, number of grants, and authorizations. Mixed System An information system that supports both financial and non-financial functions of the Federal government or components thereof. (A-127 Revised, Item 5 - “Definitions”) Object Classification A method of classif+g obligations and expenditures according to th, nature of services or articles procured, e.g., personal services, supplies and materials, and equipment. Obligations are classified by the initial purpose for which they are incurred, rather than for the end product or service provided. OMB Circular A-11 provides.current object classifications for reporting budget estimates to OMB. Many agencies ,have defined lower levels of object classification for internal use. (A-l 1, Set 35.1) (From JFMIP FFMSR-19195; p. 54) . . 1 :. , ’ ;. . ,I,.,. -., . Obligating Official :IndividW. ;l:lt??(zpize*d.tc!.!egall.y bind. the, Fede”ral,Gowmmcnt ti piov$e.fu-+ for a specific project or purpose. Obligation Obligations are amounts of orders placed, contracts awarded, services received, and similar transactions for bona fide needs existing during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period and that comply with applicable laws and regulations. Such amounts,will include outlays for which obligations had not been previously recorded and will reflect adjustments for differences between obligations previously recorded and actual outlays to liquidate those obligations. (A-34, Set 21.1, p. 11 LL-/). -I\ Grant Financial System Requirements Appendix B: Glossary __ Pooled Payment A consolidated advance payment to a grantee to cover anticipated c.ash needs for all grants the grantee has with the Federal awarding agency making the payment. The grantee identifies it; cash needs collectively rather than by individual grant. : Pooling A process whereby a recipient (university or othernon-profit) l&h multiple many awards from one agency may request advances/payments based on a single estimate of immediate cash needs for all of the recipient%awards. Principal Investigator (PI) The individual, designated by the grantee, who will be responsible for the,scientific or technical direction of the project. .‘, .,’ Program Generally defined as an organized set of activities directed toward a c,ommon pilrpose, or goal, undertaken or proposed by an agency in order to carry out its responsibilities. In practice, however, the term program has many uses and thus does not have well-defined, standard m&&gin the legislative protess. Program is used to describe an agent)% mission; progra@ functicins, activities, ser+ices, projects, and processes. ,I I Program Income Gross income earned by the grantee that is directly generated:by a supported activity or earned as a result of the grant (see exclusions in paragraphs: A-110, -.24 (e) and (h). (A-110, set: -.2(x)) Project A planned undertaking of something to be accomplished; produced, or having a.finite beginning and finite end. Examples are aconstruction project’or a research and development project. (SGL p. IV-7). Project period The period established in the award document during which Federal sponsorship begins and ends. (A-110, sec. -.2(z)) ., Recipient An organization receiving financial assistance directly from Federal awardirig agencies to carry out a project or program. (A-110, sec. -.2(cc)) Remittances Grant funds on deposit with the grantees, which the Federal awarding agency must recover. These amounts consist of unexpended fimds and balances previously advanced to the grantee. Remittances ma! result from overpayments and audit disallowances. System Requirements JFMIP systems requirements are either mandatory or value added. The definitions of these two categories are: ” Mimdamy - Mandatory requirements describe what the system must do and consists of the minimum acceptable functionality necessary to establish a system; or are based on Federal laws and regulations. Mandatory requirements are those against which agency heads evaluate their systems to determine substantial compliance with systems requirements under the FFMIA. These requirements apply to existing systems in operation and new systems planned or under development. Value-added - Value added requirements describe-features or characteristics which are considered to be optional or additional functionality to a system and may consist of any cotribination of the following: (1) using state of the art technology, (2) employing the preferred or best business practices, or (3) meeting the special management needs of an individual agency. Agencies should consider value-added feahires .> i, :.. whenjudging systGms options. -The ~need,fortliese.vaiue:a’dded featuresmini-agency systems gi left+oithe ** .I discretion of each agency head. Standard General Ledger (SGL) The uniform chart of accounts issued by the U.S. Department of Treasury that are required to be used b) all Federal Agencies to record accounting transactidns. 44 Grant Financial System Requirements Appendix B: Glossary Unliquidated Obligations For financial reports prepared on a cash basis, they are the amount df obligations incurfed by the recipient that have not been paid. For reports prepared on an accrued expenditure basis; they represent- the amount of obligations incurred by the recipient for which an outlay has not been recorded. ., Grant Financial System Requirements Appendix C:Contributors JQbt Financial Management Improvement Department of Transportation 0IAEGC Co-Chair Program f JFMIP) Steering Committee J. Ann Fisher ProBrana Ann&t, Office of the Secretary Donald 77. Hammond, Chair U.S. Department of the Treaswy Ofice of Naval Research C? UEGC Co- Chair Karen Cleary Alderman, Ekecu the Director, JFMIP L. Bradley Stanford Special Assistant to the Chief Injkvv~atiol2 Officer fm Electrovaic William B . Early Commerce General ServicesAdvnimhration Jeffrey C. Steinhoff Chief Financial OfSicer Council’s Fellows Prodram U.S. General Accowvrtin~ Office Richard A. No11 Sheila Conley Defense Fivaance apadAccotlntivag Service/National Science Office ofManagement arzd Btjdget Fowvahtion Felhv (Team Lender) J. Gilbert Seaux Ralph Beaty Office of Personnel iMam~eme9zt U.S. Departlnent ofA~ric~ltwre/NntiovaalAeronawtics and Space Admivaistratiova Fellav Chandler B. Gardiner Former Members General ServicesAdw~ivaistratiova/U.S. Depav?-ment OfAflricultwre Fe&v Norwood J. Jackson O@e ofMana/jeement and Budget Willa R. Green U.S. Department of Labo$ZS. Departmevat bfAgicwltwre Felhv Thomas R. Bloom General Smites Ad~vhaistratiova Thaddeus L. Kontek U.S. Em~ironmental Protection Agevacy/v.S. Department of Labor Gene L. Dodaro Felhnv U.S. General Accowntivg Ofice Margaret M. Myers VeteravasAfairs/ Gevaeral ServicesAdntinistration Fellow Joint Financial Management Improvement Debra E. Watson Program Natiovaal Science Fowvadation/i?ational Aerovaawticsand Space Adw&aistratiova Felknv Karen Cleary Alderman, Executive Director,JFMP Betty G. WeLxr U.S. Department of the Awny,NatiovaalAeutics and Space Dennis S. Mitchell, Administration Fe1lowjU.S. Departvnent ofArmy Felhv. SystemsAccotlntant Betty J. White Joint FivaancialMavaagevnevathprovement Prgram/U.S. National Science Foundation Evavironmental Protection Afiency Fellow Albert J. Muhlbauer Deputy Chief Fivaavacial Officer (Project Chair) Richard A. No11 (Team Leader) Grant Financial System Requirements Appendix C: Contributors Department of Edwation Paul V. Gilbreath Pmject Director fw EDCAPS ii- ;i General Accown tirg Office Gloria Jarmon Dire&r, Health, Edwation 69 Htlwarz ServicesAccowatiqg and Financial MYanaJement Issues Chinero N. Thomas Assistant Directs, Health, Edtication &Human Services Account& and Financial Mitnagemerzt Issnes. Cheryl Driscoll Audit J4anaJer, Health, Education 0 Htlman Sewices Accounting and Financial Malent Issues National Institutes of Health J. Wayne Berry Depwty Ash-tant Director for Finance U.S. Department ofAgriculture Christopher M. Lipsey StaffAccountant, Gra&s Mnnapenzent Division, Food and Nutrition Service U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Alan B. Lewis Chie$ Las Vepx Financial Management Cefater Grant Financial System Requirements 47 I U.S. General Accounting Office’ Joint Financial Management improvement Program Room 3111 Postage& FeesPaic 441 G Street NW Washington, DC 20548-0001 Ptirmit No. G-100 OFFICIAL BUSINESS Penalty for Private Use $300
Grant Financial System Requirements (Exposure Draft)
Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1999-10-19.
Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)