DOCUMENT RESUME 03390 - [A27239353 Planning for Source Data Automation in Government Industrial Activities: Coordination Needed. LCD-77-441; B-175132. September 23, 1977. 27 pp. + 2 appendices (3 pp.). Report to Executive Directcr, National Center for Productivity and the Quality of working Life; Secretary, Department of Defense; by Fred J. Shafer, Director, Logistics and Communications Div. Issue Area: Automatic Data Processing: social Impacts of Computer-Based Systems (109). Contact: Logistics and Communications Div. Budget Function: Miscellaneous: Automatic Data Processing (1001). Organizticn Concerned: General Services Administration. Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Armed Services; Senate Committee on Armed Services. Authority: P.L. 89-306. P.L. 94-136, sec. 204. Source data automation techniques collect data in computer readable form at the point and time of an activity. The data are automatically transmitted to a central computer or intermediate storage device where it is recorded ahd analyzed. Properly applied in the industrial environment, source data automation can increase productivity through improved data timing and accuracy, improved production control, and reduced inventories. However, a source data automation installation can be expensive and its benefits, some of which are difficult to identify or mec,)ure, must be carefully weighed against the cost. The Department of Defense, with its complex of manufacturing and repair facilities and its large purchases from the private sector, would be a prime benefactor of properly applied source data automation. i ndings/Conclusions: Some Government industrial-type activities have employed source data automation systems to their advantage. Barriers to diffusion of this technology include a lack of criteria for assessing source data automation's potential, complexities involved in equipment procurement, and poor use of pilot study results. source data automation systems and pilot projects are not tracked or sponsored beyond the command level within the Department of Defense, and feedback on the desirability of source data automat A,is lacking. Application of source data automation in Governm at industrial activities is growing, and a central source for information on installed systems would be beneficial. Recommendations: The Director of the National Center for Productivity and Cuality of Working Life should coordinate the Government's industrial source data automation efforts and designate focal poirts to encourage development of criteria for identifying potential applications, diffuse technology, study problems affecting systems development and use, define aspects needing standards, and coordinate with industry on source data automation technology, uses, and research. The Secretary of Defense should designate a group modeled after its manufacturing Technology Advisory Group to coordinate the services' use of source data automation. (Author/SW) C UNITED S TA TES GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE Planning For Source Data Automation In Government Industrial Activities-- Coordination Needed National Center for Productivity and Quality of Working Life Department of Defense Properly applied in the industrial environ- ment, source data automation can benefit productivity by improving data timing and accuracy, and through control of production processes. Some Government and private industrial activities have successful systems; however, there are barriers to widespread use and thus unexplored opportunities. Coordina- tion of Government efforts by the National Center for Productivity and Quality of Work- ing Life would help the orderly diffusion of the technology. LCD-77441 SEPTEMBER 23, 1977 UNITED STATES GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON, D.C. 20548 LOGISTICS AND COMMUNICATIONS DIVISION B-175132 To the Executive Director of the National Center for Productivity and Quality of Working Life and the Secretary of Defense We have studied the growing use of source data automa- tion in the GovernmF,it's industrial environment. This re- port points out problems incurred by activities in exploring this technology and discusses opportunities to improve the diffusion process. This report contains recommendations to you on page As you know, section 236 of the Legislative Reorganization24. Act of 1970 requires the head of a Federal agency to submit a written statement on actions taken on our recommendations to the House Committee on Government Operations and the Sen- ate Committee on Governmental Affairs not later than 60 days after the date of the report and to the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations with the agency's first request for appropriations made more than 60 days afttr the date of the report. We are sending copies of this report to the Director, Office of Management and Budget, and to the Chairmen, House and Senate Committees on Appropriations and Armed Services, the House Committee on Government Operations, and the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs. 4 Fred J.,hafer Director GENERAL ACCCUNTING OFFICE REPORT PLANNING FOR SOURCE DATA TO THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, AUTOMATION IN GOVERNMENT NATIONAL CENTER FOR PRODUCTIVITY INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES-- AND QUALITY OF WORKING LIFE, AND COORDINATION NEEDED TO THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE National Center For Produc- tivity and Quality of Work- ing Life Department of Defense DIGEST Properly applied in the industrial environ- ment, source data automation can increase pro- ductivity through improved data timing and ac- curacy, improved production control, and re- duced inventories. However, a source data automation installation can be expensive and its benefits, some of which are difficult to identify or measure, must be carefully weighed against the cost. Source data automation techniques collect data in computer readable form at the point and time an activity occurs. The technology for collecting data includes optical character readers and printers, magnetic Ftrip encoders and readers, embossed badge systems, and voice input. The data is automatically transmitted to a central computer or intermediate storage device where it is recorded and analyzed. Source data automation can apply to many as- pects of industry: material tracking, work force management, tool issue and receipt, in- ventory control, machine use, inspection re- sults, work order tracking, authorized person- nel access, purchasing, and sensitive item control. Applications are highly diversified and are found in Government and private indus- trial facilities, as well as in such service sector activities as hospitals, schools, and retail stores. The concept of source data automation for item identification and tracking is the same whether the items are repair parts, books, people, or services. For example: --A naval ordnance station installed multi- media terminals and card/badge readers .T.lCbM.J. Upon removal, the report cover date should be noted hereon. LCD-77-441 i LCD-77-441 for time and attendance, labor distri- bution, production planning and control, and direct material control and estimates it saved over $300,000 in 1976. (See p. 15.) -- A hospital installed a color bar code sys- tem to record transactions faster and more accurately and has increased efficiency and reduced stock levels. (See p. 6.) The Department of Defense, with its complex of manufacturing and repair facilities and its large purchases of manufactured products from the private sector, would be a prime benefac- tor of properly applied source data automa- tion. In the opinion oF GAO, -- the technology is not systematically dif- fused, -- source data automation systems and pilot projects a-e not tracked or sponsored be- yond the command level within the Depart- ment of Defense, and -- feedback on the desirability of source data automation is lacking. While some Government activities are using source data automation, there are unexplored opportunities. Some activities have had dif- ficulty keeping up with technology and identi- fying good applications. Other barriers in- clude a lack of criteria for assessing source data automation's potential, complexities in- volved in equipment procurement, and poor use of pilot study results. (See p. 16.) Application of these techniques in Government industrial activities is growing. A central source for information on installed systems would enhance the expansion of source data automation and help avoid uneconomical appli- cations. More cooperation between Government and industry would also help to make the tech- nology better known and develop standards. (See pp. 12 and 13.) ii GAO recommends that the National Center for Productivity and Quality of Working Life serve as a focal point to encourage the development of criteria to assist in identifying the po- tential for applications, the diffusion of technology, the studying of problems affect- ing development and use, the definition of aspects needing standards, and the coordina- tion with industry. GAO also recommends that the Secretary of De- fense designate a g.oup, modeled after its Manufacturing Technology Advisory Group, to coordinate the services' use of source data automation and to work with the National Cen- ter for Productivity and Quality of Working Life. These issues were discussed with officials of the National Center for Productivity and Qual- ity of Working Life and the Department of De- fense. They were in general agreement that there is a need for a focal point to diffuse source data automation. The National Center officials told GAO that this report would be useful to them in determining their priori- ties in the area of industrial productivity. Defense officials said that in designating a group to coordinate the services' use of in- dustrial source data automation, they would consider other aspects of the concept to as- sure the proper interface with nonindustrial activities. (See p. 25.) XUL~~~~~~~~~~bw~~ Page DIGEST i- CJ1APTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 How SDA works 1 Elements of an SDA 'system Some SDA applications 2- Growth of SDA 4 7 " 2 MAJOR ISSUES 8 SDA's relationship to automated manufacturing SDA's importance to Government activities 8 Restraints to SDA growth 8 Standardization 9 Review objectives 12 13 3 PROGRESS AND PROBLEMS OF GOVERNMENT :I.;USTRIAL ACTIVITIES IN IMPLEMEYTING SDA Current applications 14 Unexplored opportunities 14 Barriers to diffusion 15 16 4 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 23 Conclusions Recommendations 23 Ageincy comments 24 25 5 SCOPE OF SURVEY 26 APPENDIX I Examples of SDA applications being used or studied by DOD 28 II Principal officials responsible for administering activities discussed in this report 30 ABBR&IATIONS ADP automatic data processing DOD Department of Defense GAO General Accounting Office GSA General Services Administration SDA source data automation CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION "Source data automation" (SDA) is a term used to describe various means of collecting data about an event in computer readable form at the point and time of the event's occurrence. SDA techniques are among several advanced data entry methods that are currently being used in Government and private indus- trial facilities, as well as in such service sector activi- ties as hospitals, schools, and retail stores. Recent rapid advances in computer technology, such as emergence of power- ful minicomputers, have permitted more imaginative uses, and with these uses has come a need for more efficient data entry techniques. In a related study we are addressing various advanced data entry techniques and the need for agencies' data processing installations to consider these more effec- tive techniques. Alchough the SDA concept applies to both the service and industrial sectors, this report addresses the use of SDA in the industrial environment because of the significant invest- ment and cost of operating industrial facilities and the in- creasing need for better and more accurate data to manage the facilities. However, since the tracking of items in the serv- ice sector and in industrial activities is similar, we refer to several successful service sector applications in this report. Coupled with other advances in technology, such as uzing computers to control manufacturing processes and- to automate material handling, SDA techniques can benefit the entire in- dustrial management environment. HOW SDA WORKS Where there is a need to track large numbers of objects, persons, or processes, there is a potential for SDA. As an example, employees can insert identification badges into ter- minals and the computer can instantly tell management the man- power size and profile for the workday. Also, from job order entries, the system can monitor every job through production, answer inquiries, and immediately inform management of mater- ial shortages and inoperative machines. At the end of the day, or during the work shift, the system can compute the pay- roll, job status, job cost, department performance, and other analyses. The employee badge also can automatically control access to secure areas and monitor employee movements. 1 (2) bar code readers which associate a configuration of bars with a character, and (3) mark sense readers which detect a mark or absence of a mark in specific locations. Scanning with optical character readers is an efficient method for directly reading typed, printed, or written numbers. Bar code readers cost less than character readers but have the disadvantage of requiring a device to prepare the bar code. Mark sense readers are usually low cost and highly reliable but are inflexible due to the need for preprinted forms and exacting data placement and design. Magnetic readers Characters to be read have magnetic properties which are sensed. Advantages of this class are more immunity to dirt and ease of document changes. A disadvantage is the require- ment for a special set of high-quality printed characters. Most current applications are for transportation tickets, clothing identification, and bank checks. Voice input This technique is the most revolutionary, in that a com- puter recognizes human voice patterns. Spoken words automat- ically enter data and can trigger control mechanisms of pro- duction equipment. It is slower than some of the other techniques but can be performed simultaneously with other work. Direct hand data entry A special pen converts handwriting into nachine language at the time the data is written. The technology is based on recognition of up/down/left/right patterns, but it is relatively new and few varieties are offered. Mixed media Several data entry technologies can be integrated into one device, or several devices can be connected to a minicom- puter to collect and consolidate data. Either combination is called mixed media input. SOME SDA APPLICATIONS Within the industrial environment, people and materials are brought together to produce or repair products, many of which are used by Government agencies. In the public sector, the Army, Navy, and Air Force operate facilities to repair airplanes, ships, and guns or to manufacture repair parts, weapons, and ammunition. DOD also maintains large 4 inventories of supply items. Common to all types of indus- tries and the related supply functions is the need to sched- ule, control, and account for the-movement of people and materials through the various processes. However, tracking systems in manufacturing and repair facilities can be more complex than those in supply operations because, in the former, the resources being tracked, (people, raw materials, energy, tools, and data) are of a dynamic nature and are being combined and converted tc finished products. SDA can be applied to many aspects of industrial opera- tions, including material tracking, work force management, tool issue and receipt, inventory control, machine use, inspection results, work order tracking, authorized personnel access, purchasing, and sensitive item control. Some of these applications are in use in private industry and at Government installations. Through plant visits, phone contacts, and literature, we identified a number of private companies and Government ac- tivities using SDA. Included were: 1. An automobile manufacturer that was able to increase spare parts inventory turnover from 17 to 22 times a year, which reduced the required inventory level and, with union coopera- tion, permitted the reassignment of 40 employees. This enabled the company to pay for a $1 million SDA system in less than a year. The system consists of 180 terminals on the receiving docks, in warehouses, and in receiving offices. The receiving clerk keys in data on the incoming orders and obtains purchase order information, such as quantities, and stock level requirements for verification. Warehouse assign- ments are also g:ven. Those activities were previously time- consuming manual operations. 2. An aerospace manufacturer that increased the average metal cutting utilization of 16 numerically controlled machine tools, valued at over $3 million, from 15 percent to 50 percent over a 4-year period (1972-76). The machine operator pushes 1 of 12 status keys on input terminals lo- cated at each machine. This action feeds status data to a computer and also activates a master display panel which gives management a constant picture of the status of the entire system. The investment in SDA equipment and software at this plant was less than $75,000. (See p. 18.) 3. A naval ordnance station that estimated a savings of over $300,000 in 1976 because of an SDA system consisting of a minicomputer and 40 terminals. The data obtained, whihi is entered by shop employees, replaces information previously gathered through manual preparation of job cards and other 5 production reports. The data collected concerns time and attendance, labor distribution, production planning and con- trol, and direct material control. (See p. 15.) 4. A manufacturer of electromechanical devices that estimated a savings of $750,000 annually after changing its financial accounting oriented manual filing system to a 200-terminal shop activity oriented system. Shop employees enter data into shop floor terminals that contain a limited number of keys, a card reader, and a badge reader. This captures information permitting the real time tracking of such things as customer order status, in-process inventory flow, status of work on parts in process, and materials control. 5. A manufacturer of computer terminals that estimated net dollar savings of $309,000 for 1976, 1977,and 1978 following the installation of a shop floor in-process SDA production control system that collects data on the varying requirements and specifications of each customer's orders. The in-process status of a job order is keyed in at each work station, giv- ing management real time data on the work-in-process inven- tory. Shop employees are also able to call up specification sheets for each order, a task that previously required time- consuming manual matching of records. Not all SDA installations can demonstrate cost effective- ness as clearly as do these examples. The justification is often difficult and the bases nebulous, since there are many intangible, although real, benefits. For example, it is difficult, if not impossible, to affix a direct dollar value to improved customer relations when repair parts can be delivered within 2 days rather than taking a week. Yet an organization servicing oil rig operators claims to have secured and held customers due to the prompt service they are able to offer using their SDA system. Another example of intangible savings from SDA involves a hospital that uses hand-held wands to read color bar codes on patient charts and bar codes that represent each hospital service rendered and to transmit this information directly to a computer. The system provides faster and more accurate information collection, which, in turn, results in more efficient work schedules, reduced paper work, reduced admis- sion time, and improved billing procedures. The hospital staff feels sure that the system is worthwhile; however, it is difficult to quantify all of the dollar savings. The fact that the amount of savings is difficult to assign to SDA justifications is a key reason for caution. If a justification is weighted too liberally on the benefit 6 side, there can be a real economic loss; if too conserva- tively, then true and substantial benefits may be bypassed. SDA systems must be analyzed carefully. They can be ex- pensive and complex, and they require substantial software support. In some cases, the volume of work, number of people required, or dollar value of resources involved in the potential application may not justify the expenditure. GROWTH OF SDA "Data Entry Today"' estimated 1975 sales for all com- puter data entry devices (including non-source keying devices) to be over $2 billion and projected over $2.8 billion in 1978. In 1975, there were 275 manufacturers with over 600 data entry products. The article reported that the trend is to use devices which capture data at the source but such devices are still not widespread. Sales of devices designed for the industrial environment are projected to increase from $55 million (2.63 percent of the total data entry mrarket) in 1975 to $150 million (5.36 percent of the total data entry market) in 1978 and are expected to exceed $300 million in the early 1980s. As has happened with hospital data collection, equipment manufacturers are becoming more user oriented. More effort is being spent to develop devices which the clerk, nurse, salesman, and factory worker can use with no prior data proc- essing experience. "Data Entry Today" also reports that data entry technol- ogy to date far exceeds its use; only recently has its use been accelerating. 1ManagementInformation Corporation, Cherry Hill, New Jersey, vol. 2, p. 9-1, 9-2, 9-10, 9-12. 7 CHAPTER 2 MAJOR ISSUZS SDA'S RELATIONSHIP TO AUTOMATED MANUFACTURING In a previous report, 1 we described the use of the com- puter and computer systems in manufacturing, particularly as applied to small-lot or batch-type production. Computer- integrated manufacturing, as described in that report, brings together the numerous requirements for production under the central control and guidance of the computer. Instructions to the shop, such as schedules, estimated costs, manpower re- quirements, inspection procedures, and materials requirements, may be automatically computed and transmitted directly by the computer. Even the electronic commands for automatically operating the machines may be calculated and transmitted di- rectly by the computer. In this production scheme, one function of SDA is to obtain the necessary results of the computer directions and to promptly report them to management so that the necessary changes and modifications may be made. This may be compared to a feedback system that monitors the movements and opera- tions of a numerically controlled machine. In addition to process controls, SDA can generate timely data on such produc- tion factors as material used, scrap generated, and staff- hours expended. With this information, machine utilization may be monitored; workloads may be adjusted; inventories may be rapidly adjusted to account for actual production; actual schedules may be compared with forecasts; and costs may be readily compared against the estimates. SDA is one of the building blocks in the concept of com- puter-integrated manufacturing and, eventually, the automated factory. SDA'S IMPORTANCE TO GOVERNMENT ACTIVITIES The Federal Government is the largest single purchaser of manufactured products. Each year DOD alone spends over $20 billion on supplies and equipment produced by private manufacturing firms and distributes these items throughout its supply system. DOD also spends $2 billion yearly in the private sector for maintenance,. repair, and modification of its equipment, and over $6 billion for research and develop- ment of new equipment items. In addition, it operates over 100 major manufacturing and repair facilities and about 50 1 "ManufacturingTechnology--A Changing Challenge to Improved Productivity," (LCD-75-436, Jure 3, 1975). 8 major supply activities. Many of these activities could benefit by the application of SDA. In recent years, improved productivity has been sought in every segment of our economy. The establishment of the National Center for Productivity and Quality of Working Life, in November 1975, is evidence of this concern. In the simplest terms, productivity relates to the amount of out- put in relation to input, usually expressed in terms of labor; however, other input, such as materials and energy, also apply. Industrial productivity in the United States has become an area of real concern. In the 1976 study noted earlier, we pointed out the need to make manufacturing productivity, through technology, a national priority. It has been generally agreed that human behavior approaches can provide a small, one-time in- crease in productivity, but any long-term sustained growth would have to come from technology. RESTRAINTS TO SDA GROWTH SDA systems can be costly; therefore, managers need to know cost/benefit relationships if they are to make the proper decision. Unlike a more straightforward type of justification, such as comparing the staff savings from using a computer-operated machine rather than a similar conven- tional type, SDA justifications are often intangible and are difficult to quantify in traditional savings. For example, it would be difficult to quantify improved customer relations due to speedier deliveries resulting from better spare parts control. SDA systems, like most industrial computer systems, are relatively new, and there is not a wealth of information available to draw from. Because of the wide variety of sys- tems and applications, it is difficult to predict benefits precisely. Many times, need for speci'fic data that could not be ob- tained under conventional practices makes SDA mandatory, and traditional dollar return on investment is not the primary motivator. In some instances, only after a system has been installed are cost savings recognized and appreciated. This is not to imply that tangible savings cannot be estimated. One large manufacturer, for example, estimated that machine tool utilization would increase by about 50 percent as a result of its SDA system, and the savings that would be realized from this benefit alone were expected to 9 system im- pay for the system. The fact that the installed 200 per- proved the machine tool utilization by approximately was a pleasant cent, in addition to providing other benefits, surprise. there is Another restraint is that, to our knowledge,nor is there no one source for information on SDA equipment, a trade organization for SDA.. is Even information received directly from suppliers production, and fragmented in that manufacturers of computers many product communication, and office equipment all offer There is no lines that can be used for SDA applications. of a single SDA sys- single automation industry. Components data process- tem can fall under the definition of automatic and in some cases the ing (ADP) or production equipment, way, either depending on the same item can be classified application. procurement by Federal agencies ADP procure- Although different procedures could apply to underlying ment compared to industrial procurement, thesame. Each indus- management planning requirements are the should approve trial process should be planned and management acquired in the formal plan. Automated systems should be a subsystem consonance with that plan. SDA can be considered from the viewpoint of automation planning. levels of Within 'hne Government, there are differing which depend approval and controls in the procurement process The criteria, upon the definition of the procurement channel. however, should be prudent management practices--practices of the that will best achieve the planning goals, regardless process. levels of approval involved in a procurement equipment, To provide for economical procurement of ADP Law 89- Public and contemplating free and open competition, Services Administra- 306 was enacted authorizing the General acquisition of this tion (GSA) to coordinate the Government's with manufac- equipment. GSA negotiates schedule contracts maintenance of ADP equip- turers for the purchase, lease, and types, models, the ment, and publishes yearly catalogs showing Federal Property prices, and terms of equipment offered. The place orders for Management Regulations authorize agencies to contracts, lease or purchase of equipment from the schedule limitations. within the constraints of maximum orders a If a proposed procurement exceeds this limitation, required. GSA is delegation of procurement authority from 10 'he maximum order limitation for initial acquisition of cen- tral processing units is 1, and for peripheral units of the same type and model, the limit is 10 unless the purchase price of 2 or more exceeds $400,000. These limits can vary among contracts. In addition, GSA authorizes-agencies to enter into sep- arate contracts with schedule contractors if they obtain terms or conditions better than those in the schedule con- tracts. Agencies are authorized to procure equipment not available under a schedule contract only if its cost does not exceed $50,000. When the cost of such equipment exceeds $50,000, a delegation of procurement authority from GSA is needed before acquisition. When GSA receives a reque:, for a delegation of authority, it &an'elect to (1) grant acthor- ' (2) participate with the agency ity to the requesting agen>y. in the procurement, or (3) procure the equipment for the agency. It is required that, prior to any procurement, exist- ing excess equipment be screened for available items that could fill the needs. Agencies issue their own implementing regulations on ADP equipment procurement. Within DOD full authority has been delegated to the military services. As discussed in a previ- ous report, 1 the military services regulations include addi- tional reviews and approvals. For example, Navy regulations require its various components to seek approval from the Chief of Naval Operations for procuring from schedule con- tracts ADP equipment exceeding $25,000 annual lease or $100,000 purchase cost or for any nonschedule purchase of a central processing unit, even though it'is within the GCA blanket authority. Procurement of other types of equipment by Government agencies does not fall under the control of a single Govern- ment-wide manager. There is a screening process required, similar to the ADP-equipment-screening process, to identify available Government-owned equipment which could satisfy the need. Actual procurement, however, is more decentralized. The services, within the guide'lines set forth by DOD, have authority to establish their own regulations for procuring such industrial equipment as material handling or manufactur- ing equipment. In general, the services must submit to DOD for final approval those industrial projects exceeding $5 million and any project over $1 million that was not included in a budget or apportionment submission to DOD. 1 "Usesof Minicomputers in the Federal Government: Trends, Benefits, and Problems" (FGMSD-75-53, Apr. 22, 1976). 11 STANDARDIZATION Public Law 89-306 gives to the National Bureau of Standards the responsibilitiy to make recommendations for establishing uniform ADP standards. If SDA systems are to be used efficiently, it may be desirable to develop such standards for hardware, software, and item identifiers. For example, it may be beneficial to develop standards for item identifiers when items are widely used. Some items have potential for tracking by SDA and are used by several activ- ities, both industrial and nonindustrial. Standards could reduce the number of times item identifiers have to be devel- oped and applied and thus could reduce sy.stem costs. For example, a scanable bar code identifying the characteristics of specific major reparable parts could help track a part through industrial repair facilities, monitor its distribution in the subsequent supply channels, and reclord use data during its functional life. These standard codes could benefit all users of an item, not just Government facilities. In addition, involving manufacturers of the items and the equipment might encourage manufacturers to apply the code at the time of manufacture. Standards for item identifiers should be coordinated be- tween Government and industry. The commercial distribution industry selected a standard bar code symbol for shipping con- tainers in December 1975 and issued a manual for the symbol in June 1976. The distribution code is compatible with the uni- versal product code used by the grocery industry and with the European article numbering symbol used by countries in Europe. The distribution codes uniquely identify thousands of differ- ent suppliers and millions of different items that are ware- housed, sold, delivered, and billed through commercial distri- bution channels. DOD has organized a Joint Steering Group for Logistics Applications of Automated Marking and Reading Symbols to rec- ommend a standard Defense-wide symbology for automated mark- ing and reading of data on supply items. Current milestones call for recommending a standard by 1978. DOD's symbol and code should be compatible with that accepted by the distribu- tion industry. DOD's study seems to be a feasible mechanism for bringing the services together before large investments in dissimilar systems make standardization impractical. There is widespread belief, however, that standards might stifle initiative and inhibit technological progress. We have previously studied the effects of ADP standards and found that this generally is not the case. Although stand- ards could have inhibiting effects if they are developed prematurely or are not maintained, the timely development of 12 standards would afford a more economical use of resources while allowing for initiative and technological progress. In a current study, however, we have found that the develop- ment of ADP standards has not been timely. This slow development cycle, coupled with a long Federal procurement cycle, makes some standards costly to implement because, by the time they are published, agencies have a heavy invest- ment in the nonstandard approach. In our 1976 study on manufacturing technology, we noted a concept of standards emerging which could stimulate diffu- sion of technology. The concept calls for a framework within which companies can pursue the development of individual com- ponents that will fit into systems with other manufacturers' components. Standards usually denote an agreement on a product or practice after they have been developed and mar- keted, whereas the new concept would require a standard frame- work within which products can be developed. This approach can be an incentive to further development if the standards are set by a truly representative group of supplier and user industries with participation from Government to protect the public interest. According to the National Bureau of Standards, this is a powerful concept that could allow creating a system from modular components purchased from competitive manufacturers, without special engineering or software development. Compu- ter-Aided Manufacturing--International and Brigham Young University sponsored e meeting at Brigham Young in February 1975 of standards organizations working on aspects of compu- ter-aided manufacturing. This group concluded that interface standards or guidelines were desirable as a stimulus to the further development and diffusion of this technology. How- ever, it was recognized that there were obstacles and that the practicality of such standa: is was not yet clear. REVIEW OBJECTIVES From all indications, SDA can be an important step in advanced industrial technology. The Federal Government would benefit from the orderly growth of its use. During this re- view we identified some restraints to this growth which must be dealt with before SDA can obtain maxiium benefits--such as the difficulty an activity has in recognizing and justifying potential applications,in obtaining the most suitable equip- ment, and in assuring the maximum use of previously acquired knowledge of SDA technology. These concerns are discussed in chapter 3. 13 CHAPTER 3 PROGRESS AND PROBLEMS OF GOVERNMENT INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES IN IMPLEMENTING SDA An increasing numbe£ of Government industrial activities are using SDA technology to improve their operations, and many activities are beginning to study the technology and examine its applicability. DOD has been one of the primary Government users. (See app. I.) Advancements in SDA tech- nology are rapidly emerging, creating new potential and unexplored opportunities. As with the expansion of any new technology, there are some problems. Some activities have had difficulty in keeping up with the technology and in iden- tifying good areas of application. Other problems we noted concern lack of criteria for assessing SDA's potential, complexities involved in equipment procurement, and poor use of pilot study results. We believe that the orderly diffusion of SDA would be enhanced by establishing overview responsibilities, which could provide direction to the development and application of systems. CURRENT APPLICATIONS Some Grvernment industrial activities have successfully applied SDA techniques and are realizing benefits. For example: -- Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's mechanical shop needed a more accurate, timely system to obtain operating reports on parts movement, labor cost, and machine use. SDA equipment was selected to record shop transactions as they occurred. The input includes an employee iden- tification badge and two pre-punched cards (one to identify the part and one to identify the machine) and a keyboard for variable data. The badge and cards are inserted into readers by the machine operator when a part is loaded into the machine and again when it is removed. Information is transmitted to the computer to update the shop's master files and generate reports which are available to shop managers and supervisors each morning. This system allows for simple, quick capture of data without taking valuable time from shop workers. Capturing information quickly allows manage- ment to better match personnel and equipment to work priorities. Also, data accuracy has increased. 14 -- The Louisville Naval Ordnance Station installed an SDA system in September 1972, that consisted of a minicom- puter and 40 terminals (some multimedia and some badge/ card readers). By means of badge or card insertion or key depression, employees on the shop floor enter data into the terminals which describes actions as they take place. Data is collected concerning employee ac- tivities, job status, and materials in use. This in- formation is used by management for labor distribution, production planning and control, and direct material control. Louisville estimates it saved over $300,000 in 1976 from increased efficiency, elimination of work scheduling meetings and manual preparation of reports, and reductions in personnel. Other examples of existing and proposed systems are noted in appendix I. UNEXPLORED OPPORTUNITIES It is important to point out that, even though there have been some notable successes with SDA, many opportunities have not been explored. Identification of SDA opportunities requires a sound knowledge of the operations at the industrial activity, as well as knowledge of available equipment which might improve the operation and increase productivity. This places the burden for exploring SDA use with each individual industrial activity. It would be helpful to these activities if SDA experiences could be shared. We observed, however, that diffusion of the knowledge gained from SDA experiences has been limited. Some activi- ties have not used SDA although other activities with similar operations have benefited from this technology. For example: --The Naval Air Rework Facilities have had employee badge and punched card readers in their shops for over 14 years. They are being replaced by an updated SDA system which will provide more timely, as well as additional, information. The Naval Air Systems Com- mand's 1975 study estimated that the SDA system would cost $4.1 million and that a manual (keypunch) system, even if it could be timely, would have cost over $7 million. In contrast, Naval shipyards, with similar operations in industrial shops, still have manual systems. Although SDA was studied by the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard 10 years ago and found to be practical and cost effective, it was not implemented. Naval Sea Systems Command officials said SDA had not been implemented in shipyards because computer memory ca- pabilities needed to be increased and, after that was 15 accomplished, correcting problems with the system took priority over additional system capability. Many other Government activities have manual data entry systems with long waiting times between an event's occur- rence and management's notification of the event. For example: -- Warner Robins Air Logistics Center personnel estimated their average inventory to be $1.8 billion and their daily receipts to be $1.5 million. When an item is received, the shipping documents must be processed and keypunched so the computer can issue the item or assign it to storage. Material sits on the receiving dock an average of 2 days before personnel are noti- fied what to do with it. Using SDA to record material receipts faster could help reduce inventory pipeline time and thereby reduce stock levels. -- Norfolk Navy Shipyard operates about 37 tool rooms with about 20,000 different tools valued at approxi- mately $15 million. About $112,000 was spent from August 1974 to August 1975 to replace lost tools. Using a manual system makes it difficult to determine who has which tools or whether another tool room has the tool a worker requests. Officials recognize a need for an SDA system and are studying alternatives. Numerous potential SDA applications exist within the Government's industrial complex; greater investigative ef- forts on the part of Government industrial activities and improved diffusion of experiences on the part of activities using SDA are required. BARRIERS TO DIFFUSION In analyzing the concern for unexplored opportunities, we looked at some of the primary factors affecting diffusion. We noted that a lack of a centralized source of knowledge, unclear criteria for assessing SDA's potential, problems with equipment procurement, and poor use of pilot study re- sults all act as barriers to diffusion. Need for central source of information Source data automation is accomplished through such a range of diverse technologies and applications that it is almost impossible to define a "source data automation indus- try" to which the prospective user can turn. For example, manufacturers of highly diversified lines of computers, computer peripherals, and communication equipment all con- tribute to SDA systems. The Federal Council for Science and 16 Technology reported that the lack of a structured industry hampers the coupling of suppliers to automation customers puts the burden of managing automation on users and suppliers. 1 Similar circumstances surround rather than SDA--a segment of the automation industry. Today's SDA users are confronted with a proliferation of input devices, system options, and software. vate research companies, such as Management Some pri- Corporation and Datapro Research Corporation,Information prepare re- ports on various classes of equipment. The General Services Administration, which has responsibility for automatic data processing equipment, tracks central processing broad categories of data entry equipment being units and used by the Federal Government but does not track computer-controlled industrial equipment or the associated devices. Nor is information maintained advanced data entry on the types of ap- plications in the industrial environment. The primary barriers to diffusion of SDA cited dustrial activities illustrate by in- this fragmentaticn. Poten- tial users usually lacked knowledge of equipment ware requirements or believed no equipment was and soft- their environment. Some activities recognized suitable for problems with manual systems but did not know enough about SDA to know if it was feasible. Personnel we contacted at various activities us they generally keep abreast of technology informed by trade journals and by attending equipment shows; reading but with few exceptions they said a data bank on available and equipment in use by type of application equipment would help them understand and evaluate the potential for SDA tivities. Without this type of information, in their ac- it is difficult to appreciate the benefits which could be gained from SDA. These concerns are not unique. Our 1976 report turing technology contained the results of a on manufac- survey attitudes and perceptions of U.S. manufacturers of the nology. We reported at that time that the primarytoward tech- to diffusion were the cost of the systems, and barriers lack of under- standing of computer capabilities in manufacturing ments. environ- 1 "Automation Opportunities in the Service Sector," report the Federal Council for Science and Technology, of Committee on Automation Opportunities in the Service Areas, May 1975. 17 Need for criteria Because SDA technology can be costly and the state of the art has not advanced to the point where clear economic criteria can always be established, the expected benefits, although somewhat intangible, should be clearly stated so they can be considered in relationship to system cost. A clear statement of the benefits expected is important also because it should be the basis for evaluating the success of the system. This is especially true since it is not unusual that the need for SDA is related to such benefits as the need for tighter control, security, or more timely, accurate data--not always quantifiable--rather than strictly economic benefits. For example, one large aerospace manufacturer noted that the chief reason for installing an SDA system was to be able to pinpoint problems in a timely manner and assign responsibility for correcting these problems. Prior to the SDA system, it was difficult to determine the extent or seri- ousness of a problem because manual collection of the neces- sary data was a costly time-consuming process. The SDA sys- tem now quantifies the amount of time required for such inef- ficiencies as waiting for material, waiting for a maintenance man, absence of an operator, or lack of tooling and gives man- agement access to this information on a real time basis. The company has been able to set priorities and concentrate on the most serious problems. The results have been significant. As an example, parts loading and machine setup are reported to have been reduced from 20 percent of the overall time to 10 percent by installing improved overload handling devices and improved fixturing. The absence of an operator has been reduced from 25 percent to 5 percent, resulting in increased use of the equipment from 15 percent to 50 percent over 4 years and, consequently, tangible savings. However, not all areas for improvement, and the extent to which they could be improved, were discernable prior to the installation and thus the justification could not be based solely on a predictable cost-effective basis. Because of the changing nature of SDA and the wide range of applications, there are no cost models or other criteria available for activities to uniformly assess potential and assure that all costs and benefits are considered when in- vestigating SDA and preparing a justification. We believe that, at a minimum, the following points covering costs and potential savings should be considered in any industrial SDA evaluation. Costs -- Data entry devices are located at the source and may be operated through such methods as optical or mag- netic readers and voice control. 18 -- Connecting lines between the input devices and the computer could be expensive, especially if coaxial cables are required. -Computer requirements could be met either by a mini- computer which costs as little as $15,000 or through a shared arrangement using part of the capabilities of a larger more expensive computer. -- Software programs that are especially prepared for the particular application and enable the system to interpret, assimilate, and develop the required reporting data are a necessary part of the system and frequently are a major portion of the total system cost. Potential areas of savings -- Reduced storage inventory would reduce the overall inventory cost. Due to more accurate and timely ac- counting, it may be possible to maintain lower levels of inventory awaiting processing. -- Reduced in-process inventory is possible. An up-to- the-minute accounting is maintained for work in proc- ess and affords closer control, so that the amount of inventory that is normally kept as a buffer be- tween operations may be reduced. -- Ordering of supplies and materials can be an almost automatic process with the purchase orders being pre- pared by the computer based on preestablished mini- mum stock levels. -- Accountability for tools and operating hardware can be greatly improved. -- Determination of cause and extent of operating prob- lems can be simplified. With an SDA system it is possible, for example, to determine precisely the downtime on specific equipment and to take measures to improve uptime. -- More readily available cost data could result in im- proved estimates of both materials and manpower. -- Better use of supervisory personnel could reduce the number required. The time a foreman spends on the shop floor taking expediting actions can be reduced since he would be provided with timely status reports. 19 -- Management can respond and correct adverse situations more quickly and thus can reduce the cost effect of the problem. -- Quality control is enhanced. Permanent records can be prepared almost simultaneously with the inspection procedure, thereby reducing data transcribing which is a common source of error. In addition, the National Bureau of Standards is plan- niag to publish the results of a project, "Guidance on Evaluation of Data Acquisition Technology." While it does not specifically address the industrial environment, it may be useful to industrial activities. Procurement problems Another concern facing an activity in obtaining an SDA system is found in the procurement process. As discussed in chapter 2, SDA equipment can sometimes be classified either as ADP or industrial equipment, and procedures for pro- curing ADP equipment are more stringent than for the other types. In some instances, agencies obtained a more expensive alternative system because avoiding data processing procure- ment channels was simpler and faster. Similar problems on procuring data processing equipment were also disculssed in our April 1976 report to the Congress. (See footnote, p. 11.) Just as in our current observations, this report noted chat agencies said data processing pro- curement regulations were too complicated and caused agencies to incur excessive administrative costs and delays. Procurement through several channels also makes it more difficult for an activity considering SDA to obtain infor- mation on existing systems and the types of equipment most suited to various applications. Selection of data entry devices is a particularly important process in the industrial environment because of the need for input stations designed for ease of use to minimize errors of operators not trained in ADP techniques. Many times equipment typically for the office environment, such as remote terminals with a keyboard, would be a poor choice in a shop. Too often the process of examining available equipment is cut short because equipment choices are limited to that easiest to get. For example, -- Mare Island Naval Shipyard is installing 27 key-to- disc terminals costing $97,000 annually to provide information on status of ship repairs. Officials said they did not evaluate other types of SDA equip- 20 ment, which might have been better, but chose equipment that could be obtained under local authority in order to reduce the lengthy procurement process associated with data processing equipment. Poor coordination and followup The large number of ongoing SDA studies (see app. I) indicates there could be benefits in having an entity over- seeing the direction of these efforts. Some duplication in study effort is unavoidable and even desirable but, without an overview, it can become counterproductive. For example: --Naval Air systems Command authorized $44,000 for the Pensacola Naval Air Rework Facility to develop an automated tool control system. Naval Sea Systems Command tasked the Norfolk shipyard to study tool control using an embossed badge and optical character reader system. Meanwhile, Charleston Naval Shipyard tried two systems, one optical character reader and one keyboard; and the Norfolk Naval Air Rework Facili- ty is considering a study of the use of a light pen- cil. Additionally, an option for automated tool con- trol using keyboards is included for all Naval Air Rework Facilities in their standard system. Each activity has similar tool control problems which in- dicates that some of the overlap in studies may have been unnecessary. Several commands have internal mechanisms, such as the Naval Air Systems Command's Workload Control Teams, for sharing ideas and problems. These can be valuable vehicles for identifying good applications and monitoring study ef- forts. Most of the activities we visited were aware of studies or installed systems within their commands. Also, most services have a headquarters group that monitors in- dustrial activities of similar types, such as (1) the Naval Air Systems Command's Depot Management Division for all naval air rework facilities and (2) the Air Force Logistics Command for all air logistics centers. However, of the activities included in our review, few were knowledgeable of SDA studies outside their commands even though the poten- tial sharing could go beyond command levels. A higher level mechanism could be used by DOD to foster interchange of SDA information among services; however, to date, no DOD group has emphasized industrial uses of SDA. When agencies do procure SDA equipment for tests and ongoing operations, they should follow up periodically to 21 determine whether the equipment's use is effective and ef- ficient. Sometimes studies are initiated by headquarters groups but progress is not monitored. -- At the Defense Logistics Agency depots in Mechanics- burg, Pennsylvania, and Memphis, Tennessee, voice- activated SDA equipment valued at $77,000 was pur- chased for automatic sorting. According to Defense officials, technical problems and rejection by employ- ees caused depot commanders to discontinue its use. Headquarters officials did not become aware of this until a year later when Mechanicsburg requested to excess the equipment. These officials said staff shortages and a desire to allow depot commanders free- dom of operation limited the amount of followup and involvement in the test. Knowing the results of SDA in use can help determine future equipment selections and provide valuable information which can affect the success of other operations. 22 CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSIONS Properly applied in the industrial environment, offers many benefits, including increased utilization SDA facilities and manpower, improved data timing and of accuracy, improved production control, and inventory reduction--all leading to increased productivity. However, because ence is lacking, potential applications have to be experi- analyzed to insure that maximum benefits will be carefully achieved. Some Government industrial-type activities have SDA systems to their advantage; but there are barriersemployed diffusion of this technology and, thus, unexplored to nities. Some activities have had difficulty keeping opportu- up with the technology and in identifying good applications. others, problems occurred with (1) the criteria for Among SDA's potential, (2) equipment procurement, and (3) assessing lowup of pilot studies. More coordination is needed the fol- agencies to draw on the experience of others and to to allow work together to solve common problems. The Federal Government should plan for an increase industrial SDA activity. Assignment of overview in ities for monitoring SDA development and use and responsibil- for maintain- ing a central source of information on installed systems enhance its orderly expansion within industrial-type would ities. Greater cooperation between industry and activ- would also be beneficial in diffusing technology Government ing standards. and develop- We believe the Department of Defense is in a key position to help this expansion because it has a large industrial supply complex and would be a primary beneficiary and of improved use of SDA techniques. The National Center for Productivity and Quality of Work- ing Life, by authority of section 204 of Public Law 94-136, should encourage the diffusion of SDA by coordinating the Government's efforts to use SDA in its industrial activities. The Center should encourage active participation by the National Bureau of Standards, and other Federal DOD, GSA, agencies having responsibility for, or interest in, the future in industrial activities. The Center should also of SDA work with industry to further the development and diffusion of 23 appropriate applications. The Center's responsibilities should include designating a focal point to -- serve as a source of information on SDA systems being used or studied in the industrial environment, -- serve as a mechanism to systematically diffuse technol- ogy, including training and indoctrination where appropriate, -- study whether criteria could be developed to assist activities in identifying appropriate SDA opportunities and avoiding unwise investments, -- monitor systems to assure that benefits are being achieved and to provide more knowledge to ongoing and future endeavors, -- study the extent to which procurement problems ad- versely affect SDi, systems and make recommendations to GSA and/or the services to assure that procurement practices are not a disincentive to obtaining the most productive equipment, -- explore problems common to industrial and nonindustrial uses of SDA, -- define aspects of systems needing standards and en- courage the National Bureau of Standards to develop such standards, considering those existing for private industry, and -- serve as a communication link between the Government and industry, especially when defining areas where research is needed and identifying aspects of systems needing standards. RECOMMENDATIONS We recommend that the Director of the National Center for Productivity and Quality of Working Life coordinate the Government's industrial SDA efforts and designate focal points to encourage development of criteria for identifying potential applications, diffuse technology, study problems affecting SDA systems development and use, define aspects needing standards, and coordinate with industry on SDA technology, uses, and research. 24 We also recommend that the Secretary of Defense des.g- nate a group modeled after its Manufacturing Technology Ad- visory Group to coordinate the services' use of SDA. Such a group could materially assist the National Center for Productivity and Quality of Working Life to diffuse the technology, assuring more efficient use of resources. AGENCY COMMENTS We discussed this report and our recommendations with officials of the National Center for Productivity and Quality of Working Life and the Department of Defense. They agreed, in general, that there is a need for a focal point to facili- tate SDA diffusion. The National Center officials agreed that diffusion of technology through encouraging active participation of execu- tive agencies was a proper role for the Center and that our recommendation would be useful to them in determining prior- ities in the area of industrial productivity. DOD officials indicated they were interested in assuring that the services coordinate their industrial SDA activities and would consider the appropriateness of designating a focal point to provide an overview on all SDA aspects, assuring the proper coordination with nonindustrial SDA activities. 25 CHAPTER 5 SCOPE OF SURVEY At the military services' headquarters in Washington, D.C., we reviewed policies, procedures, and reports pertain- ing to the present and planned use of SDA equipment. We vis- ited or contacted the following DOD activities and inter- viewed officials concerning the progress and problems encoun- tered with the design, acquisition, and management of SDA systems. U.S. Air Force: Ogden Air Logistics Center, Ogden, Utah Sacramento Air Logistics Center, Sacramento, California Warner Robins Air Logistics Center, Atlanta, Georgia U.S. Army: Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama Corpus Christi Army Depot, Corpus Christi, Texas Letterkenny Army Depot, Letterkenny, Pennsylvania New Cumberland Army Depot, New Cumberland, Pennsylvania Sacramento Army Depot, Sacramento, California Tobyhanna Army Depot, Tobyhanna, Pennsylvania U.S. Navy: Central Naval Ordnance Management Information Systems Office, Indian Head, Maryland Charleston Naval Shipyard, Charleston, South Carolina Computer Applications Support and Development Office, Kittery, Maine Little Creek Amphibious Base Commissary, Norfolk, Virginia Management Systems Development Office, San Diego, California Mare Island Naval Shipyard, San Francisco, California Naval Air Rework Facility, Alameda, California Naval Air Rework Facility, Norfolk, Virginia Naval Air Rework Facility, Pensacola, Florida Naval Resale Service Office, Brooklyn, New York Naval Supply Center, Norfolk, Virginia Naval Supply Center, Oakland, California Naval Weapons Station, Yorktown, Virginia Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth, Virginia Norfolk Naval Station Commissary, Norfolk, Virginia 26 Defense Supply Agency: Defense General Supply Center, Richmond, Virginia Other Federal activities contacted during our survey included the National Center for Productivity and Quality of Working Life, the Library of Congress, the National Bureau of Standards, the United States Postal Service, and the General Services Administration. We also visited libraries, hospitals, private and city government warehousing operations, and private manufacturing concerns which had installed SDA systems. In addition, we visited several manufacturers of SDA equipment, a private research company, and studied literature on SDA technology and applications. 27 APPENDIX I APPENDIX I 0 0'~~ 'C 'CP'1 C 04 ~~~, ~~044 0~~0 ~ ~~4 W 0 -4 o 0d 4.1 0 4) >1 ~4 04 1 --41 01 C) 4 ~ ~ ~ ~~-4~t U) 4.1 4.1 0$. ~~ caa 43 t 00) 4.14. 00 40 4. 0 a 0 $4p 4) 00 0 $4: 0 $4 >i 4 00) X 0 4.4 4 0a AZ'C CO 01 04 4J *-4 -40 a mi 0~Q ) *0 0 0 0) U 0 0 *C1$4 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~)4)0 .0 0 am - foO 0 · C~~~~~~~~ Om Orl O 0 O~~~4 -400C 00 $4 444 C~ CC~ .- ~C -4. $ O 03 .4 $4 '. 0 4. Q44 0 .11 04.10 .004 00 000 0 0 0 ~~~~4.00 of *'U·O 0 4)0-4 4$co c 00 wI X C 0 'C 0 C..4-'.4 % 4) 04.1 $4. 44J44 C1C 0 .. 4 4.i 4CM 0-40 04 4 *4E 4i1. 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V H W V V VW 0t -4 UX I 4 t O 0 .0 0 O 0 0Y m 0t C D O e 0Y 04 o.0 0o .0 Q 0 0 A 0o .o 0 0 4 4) 4) 4) 4 4) 4 .. 0 >0 > > 0 0 -4J 4) 4 4 4 v( W W :4)).-4 ,4 -. -4 I c 4 0 r4 0 1C4 c4 0 .4 c 4 0 e.1t4 e to w-w w H 2: ;E; :S ;X; 2 ; X :4 o o H H H 29 APPENDIX II APPENDIX II PRINCIPAL OFFICIALS RESPONSIBLE FOR ADMINISTERING ACTIVITIES DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT Tenure-of office From To NATIONAL CENTER FOR PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY OF WORKING LIFE CHAIRMAN: Vacant Jan. 1977 Present Nelson A. Rockefeller Nov. 1975 Jan. 1977 EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: George H. Kuper Nov. 1975 Present DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE: Dr. Harold Brown Jan. 1977 Present Donald H. Rumsfeld Nov. 1975 Jan. 1977 James R. Schlesinger July 1973 Nov. 1975 William P. Clements, Jr. (acting) Apr. 1973 July 1973 Elliott L. Richardson Jan. 1973 Apr. 1973 DEPUTY SECRETARY OF DEFENSE: Charles W. Duncan, Jr. Jan. 1977 Present William P. Clements, Jr. Feb. 1973 Jan. 1977 ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (MANPOWER, RESERVE AFFAIRS AND LOGISTICS): Dr. John P. White May 1977 Present Carl W. Clewlow (acting) Apr. 1977 May 1977 ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (INSTALLATIONS AND LOGISTICS): Dale R. Babione (acting) Jan. 1977 Apr. 1977 Frank A. Shrontz Feb. 1976 Jan. 1977 John J. Bennett (acting) Apr. 1975 Feb. 1976 Arthur I. Mendolia Apr. 1973 Mar. 1975 Hugh McCullough (acting) Jan. 1973 Apr. 1973 (947221) 30
Planning for Source Data Automation in Government Industrial Activities: Coordination Needed
Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1977-09-23.
Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)