oversight

Military Space Programs: An Unclassified Overview of Defense Satellite Programs and Launch Activities

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1990-06-29.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                                                                                                                                            -----
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.lrlllc~              l!M
                                                                                                               MILITARY SPACE
                                                                                                               PROGRAMS
                                                                                                               An Unclassified
                                                                                                               Overview of Defense
                                                                                                               Satellite Programs and
                                                                                                               Launch Activities




                                                                                                              RESTRICTED--      Not to be released outside the
                                                                                                              General Accounting Office unless specifically
                                                                                                              approved by the Office of Congressional
                                                                                                              Relations.

                                                                                        .I__




      (;AO/NSIAI)-DO-lT,illl’S
                  United States
GAO               General Accounting Office
                  Washington, D.C. 20648

                  National Security and
                  International Affairs Division

                  B-238277

                  June 29,199O

                  The Honorable Les Aspin
                  Chairman, Committee on Armed Services
                  House of Representatives

                  Dear Mr. Chairman:

                  Your July 27, 1988, letter requested that we assess the Department of
                  Defense’s (DOD) plans for satellite programs. Specifically, you asked that
                  we develop information on the relationships and cost of DOD satellites,
                  launch vehicles, and launch facilities. In response to your request, we
                  provided a classified fact sheet to you on March 5, 1990.

                  Your office subsequently requested that we provide you with an unclas-
                  sified version of the fact sheet. This fact sheet reflects the unclassified
                  DOD satellite program and launch plans to the extent they existed as of
                  October 1, 1989, for activities through year 2004. The information is
                  discussed in appendixes I through V in a format agreed to with your
                  office. However, as DOD noted in commenting on a draft of the classified
                  fact sheet, military space programs are continually reviewed and
                  adjusted to reflect budgetary actions. Thus, the information we present
                  is a snapshot in time of DOD’S space program plans and may not always
                  be current. Appendix VI discusses our objective, scope, and
                  methodology.


                  DOD satellites perform a wide variety of missions to support U.S.
Satellites        national security interests and pursue advances in research and technol-
                  ogy. The missions include communications, meteorology, navigation,
                  research and development, strategic defense, tactical warning and
                  attack assessment, and other classified missions.

                  Appendix I describes the missions, requirements, program status, unit
                  costs, schedules, launch vehicles, and launch facilities for current and
                  planned WD satellites. Appendix IV contains a summary of the launch
                  schedules for each of the satellite programs.


                  The Challenger space shuttle disaster and two Titan unmanned expend-
Launch Vehicles
            Y     able launch vehicle (ELV) failures in 1985 and 1986 precipitated a major
                  revision of national space policy and DOD’S satellite launch strategy.
                  Until the Challenger accident, the shuttle was to become the national


                  Page 1                                GAO/NSLAD-!30-164PS   Military   Space Programs
B-238277




program providing primary access to space for U.S. government users.
At the time, DOD had been planning to launch no more than four ELVS a
year after 1989.

After lengthy launch delays resulted from the failures, former President
Reagan announced several changes to the national space policy in
December 1986. The changes directed DOD to pursue a strategy of using
a mixed fleet of unmanned launch vehicles and the shuttle to avoid reli-
ance on a single launch system, thereby assuring U.S. access to space.
DOD now plans to use a variety of ELvs to perform more than 90 percent
of its satellite launches currently scheduled through the year 2004. The
remaining scheduled launches are on the shuttle.

To meet most of its ELV requirements for the next 15 years, DOD is
acquiring and will launch ELVS in several classes of lift capacity. These
include the large-capacity Titan IV; the medium-capacity Atlas II, Delta
II, and Titan II; and the small-capacity Pegasus and Taurus. For the rest
of its ELV needs, M3D plans to (1) acquire commercial launch services on
commercial versions of these vehicles and the large-capacity Titan III,
(2) launch remaining inventories of its medium-capacity Atlas E, and
(3) employ several of the National Aeronautics and Space Administra-
tion’s (NASA) remaining inventory of the small-capacity Scout.

Actual lift capacities of the ELVS to lOO-nautical mile orbits (a standard-
ized altitude for vehicle comparison purposes) range from 30,300 to
39,000 pounds for the large vehicles; 1,750 to 14,500 pounds for the
medium vehicles; and 350 to 1,100 pounds for the small vehicles. By
comparison, the shuttle is capable of lifting up to 55,000 pounds to the
same altitude.

DOD  is also pursuing joint technology development programs with NASA
for an Advanced Launch System and National Aerospace Plane. DOD and
NASA plan the Advanced Launch System ultimately to be a family of
unmanned vehicles of various lift capacities up to 360,000 pounds to
lOOnautical mile orbits. They plan the National Aerospace Plane ulti-
mately to be a hypersonic, manned or unmanned, single-stage-to-orbit
flight vehicle capable of lifting up to 65,000 pounds to lOO-nautical mile
orbits.

Appendix II provides detailed information on the launch vehicles, their
schedules, and their relationship to DOD satellites and launch facilities.
Appendix IV contains a summary of the launch schedules for each of the
vehicle types.


Page 2                                GAO/NSIAD-BO-154FS   Military   Space Programs
  4,
                    B-238277




                        launches satellites on ELVS from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
Launch Facilities   DOD
                    and NASA's Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and from Vandenberg Air
                    Force Base, California. DOD also launches satellites, through NASA, on the
                    shuttle from the Kennedy Space Center and on Scout ELVS from NASA'S
                    Wallops Flight Facility, Virginia.

                    The Cape Canaveral, Kennedy, and Wallops facilities are restricted to
                    easterly launches to orbits up to 57-degrees inclination to avoid flights
                    over populated areas and foreign air space.! For the same reasons, Van-
                    denberg facilities are limited to southerly launches to high-inclination
                    orbits. However, these limitations may be avoided with the Pegasus,
                    which is an air-launched vehicle that can be launched sufficiently off-
                    shore to avoid overflying populated areas. Appendix III describes cur-
                    rent and planned launch capabilities at the Cape Canaveral, Kennedy,
                    Vandenberg, and Wallops facilities. Appendix IV describes existing
                    launch schedules through the year 2004 for each of the launch com-
                    plexes at these facilities.


                    As of October 1989, DOD estimated total fiscal year 1990 space-related
SpaceProgram Cost   program costs at about $18 billion. It also projected total space-related
Estimates           costs to rise to about $23 billion by fiscal year 1994. These cost esti-
                    mates take into account the satellites, launch vehicles, and launch facili-
                    ties, including estimates for support costs such as satellite control
                    networks and operations and maintenance of facilities, Appendix V
                    describes the costs by the various program categories used by DOD to
                    develop the estimates.


                         and NASA provided official comments on a draft of the classified ver-
Agency Comments     DOD
                    sion of this report. DOD asked that we consider revising the report to
                    emphasize more strongly the continually changing nature of DOD space
                    activities due to program and budget actions; clarify that the report
                    deals only with DOD satellite activities and not suborbital or nonsatellite
                    programs; and limit information to only approved DOD space programs.
                    We concurred with DOD'S concerns on these matters and revised the
                    report accordingly. DOD'S comments are provided in appendix VII.

                    NASA  elected to provide official oral comments. Responsible NASA offi-
                    cials took no exception to the information in the report or how the

                    ‘Inclination is the angle made by the intersection of a satellite’s orbital plane with the plane of the
                    earth’s equator. (See the glossary for further explanation.)



                    Page 3                                               GAO/NSlAD-BO-154FS        Military   Space Programs
B-238277




report described the relationship of NASA programs to DOD space activi-
ties. In addition, DOD and NASA suggested certain technical changes to
more accurately reflect current program status. Their suggestions were
also incorporated into the final report.


As agreed with your office, unless you publicly announce its contents
earlier, we plan no further distribution of this fact sheet until 30 days
from the date of this letter. At that time, we will send copies to the Sec-
retaries of Defense, the Navy, and the Air Force; the Administrator,
NASA; the Director, Office of Management and Budget; and other inter-
ested parties and make copies available to others upon request.

Please contact me at (202) 275-4841 if you or your staff have any ques-
tions concerning the fact sheet. Other major contributors to this fact
sheet are listed in appendix VIII.




Louis J. Rodrigues
Director, Command, Control, Communications,
   and Intelligence Issues




Page 4                                GAO/NSIAD-BO-154FS   Military   Space Programs
Page 5   GAO/NSLAIMO-164IW   Military   Space Progmm
Contents


Letter
Appendix I                                                                                         10
DOD Satellites      Air Force Satellite Communications System
                    Defense Satellite Communications System
                                                                                                   12
                                                                                                   14
                    Fleet Satellite Communications System                                          16
                    Milstar Satellite Communications System                                        18
                    Defense Meteorological Satellite Program                                       20
                    TRANSIT Navy Navigational Satellite System                                     22
                    Navstar Global Positioning System                                              24
                    Research and Development Satellites                                            26
                    Strategic Defense System                                                       28
                    Defense Support Program                                                        36
                    Nuclear Detonation Detection System                                            38

Appendix II                                                                                        40
Launch Vehicles     Advanced Launch System
                    Space Shuttle
                                                                                                   42
                                                                                                   44
                    Titan III                                                                      46
                    Titan IV                                                                       48
                    Atlas E                                                                        50
                    Atlas I                                                                        52
                    Atlas II                                                                       54
                    Delta I                                                                        56
                    Delta II                                                                       58
                    Titan II                                                                       60
                    Pegasus                                                                        62
                    scout                                                                          64
                    Taurus                                                                         66
                    National Aerospace Plane Program                                               68

Appendix III                                                                                       69
Launch Facilities
Appendix IV
Launch Plans



                    Page 6                             GAO/NSIAD-90.164FS   Military   Space Programs
                        Contents




Appendix V                                                                                              85
DOD SpaceProgram
Cost Estimates
Appendix VI                                                                                             87
Objective, Scope,and
Methodology
Appendix VII                                                                                            88
Comments From DOD       GAO
                          Comments                                                                      89

Appendix VIII                                                                                           90
Major Contributors to
This Report
Glossary                                                                                                91

Bibliography                                                                                            93

Related GAO Products                                                                                    96

Tables                  Table II. 1: DOD Launch Vehicles for Fiscal Years 1990-                         41
                             2004
                        Table IV. 1: Planned DOD Launches by Satellite                                  75
                        Table IV.2: Planned DOD Launches by Launch Vehicle                              77
                        Table IV.3: Planned DOD Launches by Launch Facility                             80
                        Table IV.4: Planned NASA and Commercial Launches of                             83
                            Non-DOD Satellites Through 1995
                        Table IV.5: Normal Yearly Launch Rate Capabilities                              84
                        Table V. 1: DOD’s Space-Related Funding Estimates for                           86
                            Fiscal Years 1985 Through 1994

Figures                 Figure I. 1: DSCS Launch Vehicles and Launch Facilities                         15
                        Figure 1.2: FLTSATCOM System Launch Vehicles and                                17
                             Launch Facilities
                        Figure 1.3: Milstar Launch Vehicles and Launch Facilities                       19


                        Page 7                               GAO/NSLAD90.154FS   Military   Space Programs
                                                                              ‘3
Cmtenta




Figure 1.4: DMSP Launch Vehicles and Launch Facilities                             21
Figure 1.5: Navstar GPS Launch Vehicles and Launch                                 25
     Facilities
Figure 1.6: Research and Development Satellites Launch                             27
     Vehicles and Launch Facilities
Figure 1.7: BSTS Launch Vehicles and Launch Facilities                             29
Figure 1.8: SSTS Launch Vehicles and Launch Facilities                             31
Figure 1.9: SDS Experiment Satellites Launch Vehicles and                          36
     Launch Facilities
Figure I. 10: DSP Launch Vehicles and Launch Facilities                            37
Figure I. 11: NDS Launch Vehicles and Launch Facilities                            39
Figure II. 1: Space Shuttle Satellites and Launch Facilities                       45
Figure 11.2:Titan III Satellites and Launch Facilities                             47
Figure 11.3:Titan IV Satellites and Launch Facilities                              49
Figure 11.4:Atlas E Satellites and Launch Facilities                               61
Figure 11.5:Atlas I Satellites and Launch Facilities                               53
Figure 11.6:Atlas II Satellites and Launch Facilities                              56
Figure 11.7:Delta I Satellites and Launch Facilities                               57
Figure 11.8:Delta II Satellites and Launch Facilities                              59
Figure 11.9:Titan II Satellites and Launch Facilities                              61
Figure 11.10: Pegasus Satellites and Launch Facilities                             63
Figure II. 11: Scout Satellites and Launch Facilities                              65
Figure II. 12: Taurus Satellites and Launch Facilities                             67
Figure III. 1: Cape Canaveral Air Force Station/Kennedy                            71
     Space Center Launch Complexes, Launch Vehicles,
     and Satellites
Figure 111.2:Vandenberg Air Force Base Launch                                      72
     Complexes, Launch Vehicles, and Satellites
Figure 111.3:Wallops Flight Facility Launch Complex,                               73
     Launch Vehicles, and Satellites




Page S                               GAO/NSIAD-90-154FS   Military   Space Programs
Content8




Abbreviations

AFSATCOM        Air Force Satellite Communications
AIS             Advanced Launch System
BSTS            Boost Surveillance and Tracking System
DARPA           Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
DMSP            Defense Meteorological Satellite Program
DOD             Department of Defense
DSCS            Defense Satellite Communications System
DSP             Defense Support Program
ELV             Expendable launch vehicle
FLTSAT          Fleet satellite
FLTSATCOM       Fleet Satellite Communications
GAO             General Accounting Office
GPS             Global Positioning System
LEASAT          Leased satellite
LIGHTSAT        Lightweight satellite
NASA            National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASP            National Aerospace Plane
NDS             NUDET Detection System
NOAA            National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NUDET           Nuclear Detonation
PAM             Payload Assist Module
SBI             Space-Based Interceptor
SBWAS           Space-Based Wide Area Surveillance
SD1             Strategic Defense Initiative
SDS             Strategic Defense System
SPINSAT         Special Purpose Inexpensive Satellite
SSTS            Space Surveillance and Tracking System
UHF             Ultrahigh frequency


Page 9                                 GAO/NSIADM-154FS   Military   Space Progmm~
Appendix I

DOD Satellites


                     DOD  deploys satellites for a variety of missions-communications,    mete-
                     orology, navigation, research and development, strategic defense, tacti-
                     cal warning and attack assessment, and other classified missions. The
                     classified missions are not discussed in this fact sheet. The funded satel-
                     lites and satellite systems with unclassified missions that DOD had
                     deployed as of October 1,1989, and planned to deploy through the year
                     2004 are:

                 l   Communications:

                     l Air Force Satellite Communications (AFSATCOM) System.
                     . Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS).
                     . Fleet Satellite Communications (FLTSATCOM) System, including replace-
                       ment Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF) Follow-on satellites.’
                     l Milstar Satellite Communications System.

                 . Meteorology:

                     9 Defense Meteorological Satellite Program                      (DMSP).


                 . Navigation:

                     l     TRANSIT Navy Navigational Satellite System.
                     l     Navstar Global Positioning System               (GPS).




                 l       Research and development:

                     . Various satellites for space-based tests and experiments.

                 . Strategic defense?

                     . Boost Surveillance and Tracking System                       (BSTS).:~
                     l Space Surveillance and Tracking System                       (SSTS)."
                     w Space-Based Interceptors (SBI).
                     . Experiment satellites.


                         ’ IJHFs are frequencies in the electromagnetic wave spectrum from 300 to 3,000 megahertz. A
                         megahertz equals 1 million cycles per second.
                     ‘This mission refers to Strategic Defense Systems (SDS) being developed ay part of the Strategic
                     Defense Initiative (SDI).

                     “May eventually come under Air Force management as a tactical warning and attack assessment
                     system.



                         Page 10                                          GAO/NSIAD-90-154F’S     Military   Space Programs
    Appendix I
    DOD Sntdlites




l   Tactical warning and attack assessment:

    l Defense Support Program              (DSP).~
    . Nuclear Detonation (NUDET)              Detection System         (NDS).


    This appendix describes these systems in the order listed above and also
    identifies which vehicles and facilities DOD plans to use for launching
    them. Procurement, delivery, and launch schedules available from the
    Air Force and the Navy through the year 2000 are included in the
    descriptions where they are unclassified. End-of-year on-ground satel-
    lite inventories that we calculated based on these schedule projections
    are also included in the descriptions. Figures I.1 through I. 11 show the
    systems’ launch vehicles and launch facilities. Appendix IV contains a
    summary of unclassified satellite launch schedules. In addition to the
    programs described, other satellite programs not currently funded, such
    as the Space-Based Wide Area Surveillance (SBWAS) system, could be
    developed by DOD and added to the inventory of DOD space programs.




    “The mission is classified but the name of the program and some information about it is not.



    Page 11                                            GAO/NSIAD-90-164FS       MiWary   Space Programs
                            Appendix 1
                            DODs8tdites




Air Force Satellite
Communications
System
Mission                     Dissemination of emergency action messages to strategic and theater
                            nuclear capable forces and command and control communications
                            among command authorities. Includes use by the ground and airborne
                            command centers, intercontinental ballistic missile launch centers, stra-
                            tegic bombers, submarines, special operations forces, communications
                            relay and reconnaissance aircraft, theater nuclear weapons storage
                            sites, commanders-in-chief, and national command authorities.

Program Manager             Air Force.

Requirements                Primarily UHF transmission, System does not have its own constellation
                            of satellites. System components deployed on DSCS, FLTSATCOM, and com-
                            mercial satellites in geosynchronous equatorial orbits; Satellite Data Sys-
                            tem satellites in high-inclination elliptical orbits; and on certain other
                            host satellites.” (See glossary for orbit definitions.)

System Status               System scheduled to be replaced in the late 1990s by Milstar and the
                            FLTSATCOMsystem’s UHF Follow-on satellites.

Satellite Life Expectancy   Generally, the same as host satellites.

Prime Contractor            Generally, the same as host satellites but AFSATCOM components may be
                            supplied by other contractors in some cases.

Average Unit Cost           Varies with host from $10 million to $60 million.




                            “The Satellite Data System is a DOD data transmission system that is being phased out. Descriptions
                            of other hosts are classified.



                            Page 12                                           GAO/NSIAD-90-154PS      Military   Space Programs
Appendix I
DOD Satellites




Page 13          GAO/NSIAD-90-164FS   Military   Space Programa
                            Appendix I
                            DOD Satellites




Defense Satellite
Communications
System
Mission                     Secure voice and high data rate transmissions for worldwide military
                            command and control, crisis management, relay of intelligence and early
                            warning data, treaty monitoring, and diplomatic and presidential
                            communication.

Program Manager             Defense Communications Agency (overall program). Air Force (satellite
                            acquisition and deployment).

Requirements                Primarily superhigh frequency transmission.” Constellation of five oper-
                            ational and two spare satellites in geosynchronous equatorial orbit.

System Status               Current contract a multiyear procurement begun in fiscal year 1984 for
                            seven DSCS III satellites and last two deliveries scheduled for fiscal year
                            1990. Follow-on buy for superhigh and extremely high frequency satel-
                            lites scheduled for fiscal year 1994.7

Satellite Life Expectancy   7 years.

Prime Contractor            TRW for      DSCS II,   General Electric for        DSCS III.


Average IJnit Cost          $134 million.

Schedules


                                                                                              Fiscal years
                            Item                                            90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97                   98   99    00
                            Quantity procured                                00001221111
                            Quantity delivered                               20000000111
                            Quantitv launched                                            (Information deleted)
                            End-of-vear on-around inventorv                              (Information deleted)




                            “Superhigh frequencies are from 3 to 30 gigahertz. A gigahertz equals 1 billion cycles per second.

                            7Extremely high frequencies are from 30 to 300 gigahertz.



                            Page 14                                            GAO/NSIAD-90-164FS       Military   Space Programs
                                              Appendix I
                                              DOD SateIUtes




Flgure 1.1: DSCS Launch Vehicles   and Launch Facilities


            SATELLITES                                                                         WCS




            LAUNCH
            VEHICLES                                                                           Atlas II




            LAUNCH
            FACILITIES

                                      Launch complex 36A8                                                   Launch complex 36W


                                             Tnitial Atlas II capability planned for fiscal year 1991.




                                             Page 15                                                     GAO/NSIAD-SO-154FS   Military   Space Programs
                            Appendix I
                            DOD Satellites




Fleet Satellite
Communications
System
Mission                     Worldwide communications services for DOD mobile forces, including
                            fleet broadcast services and command and control to surface ships, air-
                            craft, and submarines.

Program Manager             Navy.

Requirements                Primarily UHF transmission. Constellation of eight satellites in geosyn-
                            chronous equatorial orbits with no spares.

System Status               Six Navy-owned satellites (“FLTSAT")     and three dedicated leased satel-
                            lites (“LEASAT")  on orbit. LEAEKE have 7-year leases with options to buy
                            satellites on orbit at end of lease periods for $16 million each. One
                            LEASAT remains to be launched. Multiyear acquisition of nine replace-
                            ment satellites (“UHF Follow-on”) begun in fiscal year 1988. Follow-on
                            planned to have an on-orbit spare and have some superhigh and
                            extremely high frequency capability. System supplemented with leased
                            channels from commercial communications satellites.

Satellite Life Expectancy   12 years for     FLTSATS   and    LEASATS.   14 years for   UHF   Follow-ons.

Prime Contractor            TRW for FLTSATS. Hughes Communications and Services for                         LEASAT.
                            Hughes Aircraft Company for UHF Follow-ons.

Average Unit Cost           $83 million for FLTSATS. $16.7 million a year each for two LEASATS. $14.8
                            million a year for one LEASAT. $170 million for UHF Follow-ons with
                            launch services included in the contract.

Schedules


                                                                                       Fiscal years
                            Item                                         90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 96                   99   00
                            Quantitv mocured                              2   3    3 1
                            Quantity delivered                            00102331
                            Quantitv launched                             1 0      1 0    2   3    3 1
                            End-of-vear on-around inventorv               0   0    0 0    0   0    0 0




                            Page 16                                         GAO/NSIAD-90-154FS   Military    Space Programs
    .
                                          Appenaix I
                                          DOD Satellites




Figure L2: FLTSATCOM   System Launch Vehicles   and Launch Facilities

                                                                                                                                        1
               SATELLITES                                   UHF Followon                                 LEASAT




                                                           Atlas I                                       Shuttle
                                                           (Commercial)                                  (One launch only)




               LAUNCH
               VEHICLES




                                                                    Cape Canaveral                         --




               LAUNCH
               FACILITIES




                                          Page 17                                    GAO/NSIADBO-164PS      Military   Space Programs
                            Appendix I
                            DOD Satellites




Milstar Satellite
Communications
System
Mission                     Highly survivable, jam-resistant, worldwide, secure joint service com-
                            munications to meet the minimum essential wartime communications
                            needs of the President and Commanders-in-Chief to command and con-
                            trol strategic and tactical forces through all levels of conflict.

Program Manager             Air Force.

Requirements                (Information        deleted.)

System Status               First three developmental satellites under contract. Two more develop-
                            mental satellites planned for contract in fiscal years 1990 and 1991.
                            First full-production satellite procurement planned for fiscal year 1992.

Satellite Life Expectancy   (Information        deleted.)

Prime Contractor            Lockheed Missiles and Space Company for the developmental satellites
                            and first production satellite.

Average Unit Cost           (Information        deleted.)

Schedules


                                                                             Fiscal years
                            Item                               90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97              98   99   00
                            Quantity procured                   1  1  1 400111
                            Quantitvdelivered                           flnformation deleted)
                            Quantity launched                           (Information deleted)
                            ----
                            End-of-year on-ground inventory             (Information deleted)




                            Page 18                              GAO/NSIAD-BO-164PS   Military   Space Programs
                                                  Appendix I
                                                  DOD Satellites




Figure 1.3: Milrtar   Launch Vehicles   and Launch Facilltles



                 SATELLITES                                                                    Milstar




                 LAUNCH
                 VEHICLES                                                                   Titan IV
                                                                                            (Centaur upper stage)




                  LAUNCH
                  FACILITIES


                                             Launch complex 408                                               Launch complex 41

                                                  ?3cheduled to become operational for Titan IV in fiscal year 1992




                                                  Page 19                                                GAO/NSIALWO-164FY3   Military   Space Programs
                            Appendix I
                            DOD Satellites




Defense
Meteorological
Satellite Program
Mission                     Worldwide visible and infrared cloud imagery and other meteorological,
                            oceanographic, and solar-geophysical information for all military
                            services.

Program Manager             Air Force.

Requirements                Two satellites in sun-synchronous, 450-nautical mile circular orbit at
                            98.7-degree inclination (see glossary for orbit definition) and two on-
                            ground spares. Each satellite provides coverage of the whole earth
                            every 12 hours.

System Status               Two satellites in orbit and one in on-ground storage. Current contract a
                            multiyear procurement begun in fiscal year 1989 for five satellites.

Satellite Life Expectancy   27 to 39 months.

Prime Contractor            General Electric. (Prime sensors manufactured by Westinghouse
                            Electric.)

Average Unit Cost           $149 million.

Schedules


                                                                              Fiscal years
                            Item                               90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00
                            Quantity procured                   1   1 2     0    0   0    0 2 0 0 2
                            Quantity delivered                  22001111100
                            Quantity launched                   1   1   1   1    1 0      1 1 0 1 1
                            End-of-year on-ground inventory     34322333432




                            Page 20                              GAO/NSIAD-90-164FS   Military   Space Programs
                                                  Appendix I
                                                  DOD Satellites




Figure 1.4: DMSP Launch Vehicles   and Launch Facilities



          SATELLITES                                                                         DMSP




                                                                                                                      Atlas E
          LAUNCH                       Tltan II                                                                       (Two launches only)
          VEHICLES




                                   -       -      -    -    -      -   -   . Vandenberg. -    -      -   -   . ----



          LAUNCH
          FACILITIES



                                          Launch complex 4 West                                   Launch complex 3 West




                                                  Page 21                                           GAO/NSLAD-QO-154FS       Military   Space Programs
                            Appendix I
                            DOD Sat.ellit.es




TRANSIT Navy
Navigational Satellite
System
Mission                     Global two-dimensional position location, originally for fleet ballistic
                            missile submarines and now also for naval and commercial surface
                            vessels.

Program Manager             Navy.

Requirements                Satellites in 600-nautical mile polar orbits. Mean waiting time between
                            fixes of no more than 4 hours, requiring minimum of three satellites
                            operating on orbit.

System Status               Seven operational and five on-orbit spares. No more launches planned.
                            Military use planned to be phased out and superceded by Navstar GPS by
                            1996. Last five satellites launched in fiscal year 1988. Three latest
                            model satellites hardened against nuclear detonation effects.

Satellite Life Expectancy   12 to 13 years.

Prime Contractor            General Electric. (Designed by Johns Hopkins Applied Physics
                            Laboratory.)

Average Unit Cost           $1.27 million to $2 million for most. $10.7 million for the three nuclear-
                            hardened types.

Schedules                   None-no            purchases, deliveries, launches, or inventory remaining.




                            Page 22                                      GAO/NSIAD-90-164FS   Military   Space Programs
Appendix I
DOD Satellites




Page 28          GAO/NSIAD-90-154P3   Military   Space Programa
                            Appendix       I
                            DOD SateUtea




Navstar Global
Positioning System
Mission                     All-weather worldwide three-dimensional position, velocity, and precise
                            time information for land-based, seaborne, and airborne users. Increase
                            accuracy and availability of current weapon systems, especially at night
                            and in adverse weather.

Program Manager             Air Force.

Requirements                Twenty-one operational satellites plus three on-orbit spares. Satellites
                            positioned in six distinct semisynchronous, 55-degree inclination orbits
                            at approximately 10,900~nautical miles altitude. (See glossary for orbit
                            definitions.)

System Status               Joint service program in transition from developmental to fully opera-
                            tional status. First full-production satellite launched in February 1989.
                            Current contract a multiyear procurement for 28 satellites. A follow-on
                            multiyear procurement of 20 satellites at 4 satellites a year planned to
                            begin in fiscal year 1992.

Satellite Life Expectancy   6 years.

Prime Contractor            Rockwell International       for current production.

Average Unit Cost           $47 million.

Schedules


                                                                                    Fiscal years
                            Item                                    90 91 92 93      94 95 96         97   96   99   00
                            Quantity procured                        0044444
                            Quantitv delivered
                                       I
                                                                     776001                      3     4    4    4     4
                            Quantitv launched                        65553144444
                            End-of-year on-ground inventory          689411                      0     0    0    0     0




                            Page 24                                   GAO/NSIAD-90-164FS   Military   Space Programs
                                             Appendix I
                                             DOD Satellites




Figure 1.5; Navstar GPS Launch Vehlclso   end Launch Facilities

                                                                                              Navstar GPS

              SATELLITES




                                                                                              Delta IIn
              LAUNCH
              VEHICLES




               LAUNCH
               FACILITIES
                                                       Launch tdnplex   17A                  Launch crinplex 178

                     Y


                                             %cludes   a Payload Assist Module (PAM) stage




                                             Page 26                                           GAO/NSIAD-BO-lMFf?   Military   Space Programs
                              Appendix I
                              DOD Satellites




Research and
Development Satellites
Mission                       Support of developing space system technologies, concepts, and designs.

Program Managers              Air Force, Navy, and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
                              (DARPA). Most research and development satellites launched under the
                              auspices of the Space Test Program (STP), a DoD-wide program that
                              coordinates and schedules launches for research and development satel-
                              lites. Air Force is the program manager for STP. Included in the STP are
                              the military-man-in-space program on the shuttle (a nonsatellite pro-
                              gram), and special purpose inexpensive satellite (SPINSAT)and light-
                              weight satellite (LIGHTSAT) experiments and demonstrations planned,
                              respectively, by the Navy and DARPA.”

Requirements                  Varies by satellite.

Status                        Varies by satellite.

Satellite Life Expectancies   Varies by satellite.

Prime Contractor              Varies by satellite.

unitcosts                     Varies by satellite.

Schedules



                                                                                                     Fiscal years
                              Item                                               90      91 92 93 94 95 96                97   98   99   00
                              Quantitv   launcheda                                11      5134322222
                              % 1990, two of the satellites will be launched simultaneously on a single vehicle and seven others on
                              another single vehicle for a total of four 1990 launches. In 1991, two of the satellites will be launched on
                              a single vehicle for a total of four 1991 launches.




                              “SPINSATS and LIGHTSATS are small, lightweight, inexpensive, and rapidly-deployable satellites.
                              Example potential uses of the satellites include tactical communications and data relay, electronic
                              warfare surveillance, and environmental sensing.



                              Page 26                                                  GAO/NSL4D-90-164FS      Military   Space Programs
                                                   Appendix I
                                                   DOD Satdbe




Figure 1.6: Research   and Development      Satellites   Launch Vehicles     and Launch Facilities

                                                                                            Research and development
                                                                                            satellites
       SATELLITES




       LAUNCH                                                    i
       VEHICLES                                                  1                                                 Atlas II
                              4                     Taurus           scout             Atlas E                                               Shuttle
                                                      and                                                                         d

                           Pegasus
                                  I                  small
                                                    vehicle
                                                     TBIY




                                                              - - r Vandenberg 8 mm                               - Cape Canaveral -
                                                                 I                 I



       LAUNCH
       FACILITIES
                                      r    TSDa
                                      L-


                                                   aOne Taurus Launch is scheduled out of Vandenberg but the facility is yet to be determined (TED).
                                                   Other launches are anticipated by DOD on yet to be determined small launch vehicles to be selected
                                                   under competitive contracting procedures.

                                                   bTo be launched while flying over Vandenberg’s   test range.




                                                   Page 27                                              GAO/NSIAD!W164Fs         Military   Space Programs
                                                                                                        ,


                            Appendix I
                            DOD SatelUtes




                            SDSis a program to develop space and ground-based systems for ballistic
Strategic Defense           missile and space defense, space surveillance, and tactical warning and
System                      attack assessment. It is being developed under the overall management
                            of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization. SDSis in an initial devel-
                            opmental phase, which includes demonstration and validation of three
                            space systems-Esrs, SSTS,and SBI-and a number of space-based
                            experiments.


Boost Surveillance and
Tracking System
Mission                     Detect and track intercontinental and submarine-launched ballistic mis-
                            siles during the boost phase using infrared technology. Provide informa-
                            tion to assign targets for defensive weapons such as space-based
                            interceptors. Intended to replace DSPsatellites.

Program Manager             Air Force.

Requirements                (Information     deleted.)

System Status               In demonstration and validation phase.

Satellite Life Expectancy   (Information     deleted.)

Prime Contractor            Not yet determined.

Average Unit Cost           Not yet determined.

Schedules


                                                                                    Fiscal years
                            Item                                90    91 92 93 94 95 96 97              96   99   00
                            Quantity procured                          4000122
                            Quantity delivered                                 (Information deleted)
                            Quantity launched                                  (Information deleted)
                            End-of-year on-ground inventory                    (Information deleted)




                            Page 28                                  GAO/NSIAD-90-164FS   Military   Space Programa
                                              Appendix I
                                              DOD Satellites




Fiaure 1.7: BSTS Launch Vehicles   and Launch Facilities

                                                                                                      BSTS

                  SATELLITES




                                                                                                     Titan IV
                  LAUNCH
                  VEHICLES                                                                           (Centaur upper stage)




                                                                                                                    --




                  LAUNCH
                  FACILITIES                                                                                  8
                                                               Launch cimplex 408                    Launch complex 41

                                              ?3cheduled to become operational for Titan IV in fiscal year 1992.
                     Y




                                              Page 29                                              GAO/NSIADgO-164FS     lMUit.ary Space Programs
                            Appendix I
                            DOD Satellites




SpaceSurveillance and
Tracking System
Mission                     Space surveillance and post-boost and mid-course ballistic missile track-
                            ing. Support antisatellite weapons, warn of attacks on U.S. satellites,
                            and monitor and catalog all objects in orbit around the earth. Acquire
                            and track objects; discriminate among warheads, debris, decoys, and
                            other penetration aids; pass target locations to battle managers; and
                            assist in confirmation of target destruction.

Program Manager             Air Force.

Requirements                (Information     deleted.)

System Status               In demonstration and validation phase.

Satellite Life Expectancy   Not yet determined.

Prime Contractor            Not yet determined.

Average Unit Cost           Not yet determined.

Schedules



                                                                                    Fiscal years
                            Item                               90    91   92   93 94 95 96 97          96   99   00
                            Quantity procured                                   Not yet determined
                            Quantity delivered                                  Not yet determined
                            Quantitv launched                                  (Information deleted)
                            End-of-year on-wound inventory                     Not yet determinable




                            Page 30                                 GAO/NSIAD-90-164PS   Military   Space Programs
                                              Appendix I
                                              DOD Satellites




Figure 1.8: SSTS Launch Vehicles   and Launch Facllltles



             SATELLITES                                                                           SSTS




             LAUNCH
             VEHICLES                                                                             Titan IV*




                                        --           --          ---Vandenberg               -      -       --          --
                                                            I\

              LAUNCH
              FACILITIES


                                       Launch complex 4 Eastb                                                    Launch complex 7b


                                              aThe Air Force is considering   an alternative plan to launch SSTS satellites on Atlas II vehicles instead.

                                             blnitial Titan IV capability planned for fiscal year 1990 at complex 4 East and for fiscal year 1996 at
                                             complex 7.




                                             Page 31                                                    GAO/NSIAB90-164Fs       Military   Space Programs
                            Appendix1
                            DOD Satellites




Space-BasedInterceptors
Mission                     Multiple rocket-propelled, non-nuclear interceptors to destroy attacking
                            missiles in their boost, mid-course, or post-launch phases by extremely
                            high speed impact.

Program Manager             Air Force.

Requirements                To be determined.

System Status               In research and development.   DOD   is exploring concept variations.

Satellite Life Expectancy   Not yet determined.

Prime Contractor            Not yet determined.

Average Unit Cost           Not yet determined.

Schedules                   Not yet determined.




                            Page 32                                GAO/NSIAD-90-154PS   Military   Space Programs
Appendix I
DOD SatelUtes




Page 33         GAO/NSIAD-f@154FS   Military   Space Program
                            Appendix I
                            DOD Satellites




SDSExperiment Satellites
Mission                     Conduct space-based experiments in support of SDI development. Objec-
                            tives of experiments vary.

Program Manager             Strategic Defense Initiative Organization.

Requirements                Varies with experiments.

Status                      Varies with experiments.

Satellite Life Expectancy   Varies with experiments.

Prime Contractor            Varies with experiments.

Average Unit Cost           Varies with experiments.

Schedules


                                                                                      Fiscal years
                            Item                                90    91    92   93    94 96 96          97   96   99   00
                            Quantity procured                                      Not applicable
                            Quantity delivered                                   Not yet determined
                            Quantitv launched                    1      3    1                      1     2
                            End-of-year on-ground inventory                           Not applicable




                   Y




                            Page 34                                  GAO/NSIADM-154PS         Military   Space Programs
    .
                                                       Appendix    I
                                                       DOD Satellites




Figure 1.9: SDS Experiment      Satellites       Launch Vehicles       and Launch Facilities
                                                                                                                                                                    1



                                                                                                   SDS experiments




   LAUNCH
   VEHICLES

                        Titan II                                                                                                                    Titan IV




                  Vat   iberg        ----------------CapeCanaveral                                 -----------------

                                             I               \                    I            \                            \I                 I



               Launch complex Launch complex Launch complex Launch complex Launch complex                              Launch complex Launch complex
               4 west         17A            178            39A            398                                         40             41




                                                       Page 35                                              GAO/NSIAB90-164FS       Military       Space Programs
                            Appendix I
                            DOD Satellites




Defense Support
Program
Mission                     (Information     deleted.)

Program Manager             Air Force.

Requirements                (Information     deleted.)

System Status               (Information     deleted.)

Satellite Life Expectancy   (Information     deleted.)

Prime Contractor            TRW for spacecraft and integration. Aerojet Electrosystems for prime
                            sensors.

Average Unit Cost           $261 million.

Schedules


                                                                            Fiscal years
                            Item                              90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97             98   99   00
                            Quantity procured                  1  1 2    1
                            Quantity delivered                         (Information deleted)
                            Quantitv launched                          (Information deleted)
                            End-of-vear on-around inventorv            (Information deleted)




                            Page 36                             GAO/NSIAD90-154FS   Military   Space Programs
                                                     Appedix     I
                                                     DOD Satellites




Figure 1.10: DSP Launch Vehicles      and Launch Facilities




    SATELLITES




    LAUNCH                                                 Shuttle                                                             Titan IV
    VEHICLES                                               (Inertial                                                           (Inertial
                                                            upper                                                               upper
                                                            stage)                                                              stage)
                                                       b   (One launch
                                             TFI.           only)




                                   m---m-                              --Cape       Canaveral - -


    LAUNCH                                                             .
    FACILITIES




                     Launch complex 39A                    Launch complex 398                Launch complex 40a                 Launch complex 41

                                                    Tnitial Titan IV launch capability planned for fiscal year 1992

                     Y




                                                    Page 37                                                GAO/NSIAD-90-1MFS       Military   Space Programs
                            Appendix I
                            DOD SatelUtes




Nuclear Detonation
Detection System            ‘.
Mission                     Detect, locate, and report nuclear detonations on a global, near real-time
                            basis.

Program Manager             Air Force.

Requirements                Does not have its own constellation-system       sensors deployed on Nav-
                            star GPS satellites (21 operational satellites and 3 spares in 6 semisyn-
                            chronous circular orbits at 10,900-nautical miles altitude).

System Status               In transition from developmental to fully operational status. First full
                            production satellite launched in February 1989. Current contract a mul-
                            tiyear procurement for 28 satellites. A follow-on multiyear procurement
                            of 20 satellites at 4 satellites a year planned to begin in fiscal year 1992.

Satellite Life Expectancy   6 years.

Prime Contractor            Sensors produced by the Department of Energy and integrated into the
                            Navstar GPS satellites by the GPS contractor (Rockwell International for
                            current production).

Average Unit Cost           Included in Navstar      GPS unit   cost ($47 million).

Schedules


                                                                                          Fiscal years
                            Item                                      90 91 92       93    94 95 96         97   96   99   00
                            Quantity procured                          0044444
                            Quantity delivered                         776001                          3     4    4    4     4
                            Quantity launched                          65553144444
                            End-of-year on-ground inventory            68941100000




                            Page 38                                      GAO/NSIAD-90-164FS      Military   Space Programs
                                               Appendix I
                                               DOD Satellites




Figure I.1 1: NDS Launch Vehicles   and Launch Facilities


               SATELLITES                                                                     NDS on Navstar GPS




               LAUNCH
               VEHICLES                                                                       Delta Ile




               LAUNCH
               FACILITIES

                                          Launch complex 17A                                              Launch complex 176


                                              alncludes a Payload Assist Module (PAM)stage.




                                              Page 80                                            GAO/NSIAD-ftO-1M4F8    Military   Space Pro@mms
?
    Appendix II

f Launch Vehicles


                  For planning purposes, DOD projects its satellite launch needs up to 16
                  years into the future. DOD plans through fiscal year 2004 are to use a
                  mix of DOD, NASA, and commercial unmanned launch vehicles and NASA'S
                  manned space shuttle. This appendix describes these vehicles and the
                  unclassified portions of information on their launch schedules, the satel-
                  lites they are scheduled to launch, and the launch facilities they are
                  scheduled to use. It also describes a joint DUD and NASA technology devel-
                  opment program for a potential future manned launch vehicle, the
                  National Aerospace Plane (NASP), that is projected to be deployed after
                  the year 2004.

                  DOD plans through the year 2004 projected over 90 percent of DOD'S sat-
                  ellite launches to be accomplished with DoD-purchased ELVS that have
                  already been developed. The plans also projected the use of a yet-to-be-
                  developed family of unmanned Advanced Launch System (AU) vehicles
                  beginning in 1998. However, according to DOD officials, AIS program
                  plans are pending future funding decisions and DOD has not yet projected
                  specific launch schedules for ALS vehicles. Consequently, it is undeter-
                  mined at this time as to how and to what extent DOD may supplement or
                  replace other launch vehicles with the AIS during the next 15 years.

                  DOD plans to meet its remaining launch needs through the year 2004 by
                  (1) employing NASA to launch satellites on the space shuttle and NASA-
                  owned ELVS and (2) contracting for launch services on commercial
                  launch vehicles. In the latter case, launches are provided by the contrac-
                  tor without DOD purchasing the vehicles. Through interagency agree-
                  ments, DOD also plans to provide cost-reimbursable launches on DOD-
                  owned ELVS for a number of NASA and National Oceanic and Atmospheric
                  Administration (NOAA) satellites.

                  The Air Force is the DOD agency with primary responsibility for acquir-
                  ing DOD launch vehicles, managing launches from DOD facilities, and
                  acquiring launch services from NASA and commercial launch service com-
                  panies for DOD satellites. However, other DOD agencies may also acquire
                  launches for DOD satellites on occasion. For example, the Navy has
                  arranged for commercial launches of its UHF Follow-on satellites and
                  DARPA has contracted for a number of research and development satellite
                  launches on two new small satellite launch vehicles, the Pegasus and the
                  Taurus. NASA is the executive agency responsible for launching or
                  acquiring launches for non-uou government satellites.

                  DOD classifies launch vehicles by their lift capacities as large, medium,
                  and small. The vehicles DOD plans to use from fiscal years 1990 through


                  Page40                               GAO/NSLAD-OO-164PSMilitarySpacePrograms
Appendix   II
Launch Vehicles




 Page 48          GAO/NSLAIMKMl54PS   Military   Space Programs
                      Appendix II
                      Launch Vehicles




SpaceShuttle
Manufacturer          Rockwell International (orbiter, main engines, and integration); Martin
                      Marietta (external tanks); and Morton Thiokol (solid rocket boosters).

Program Manager       NASA.

Status                Ongoing manned flight program. Shuttles owned and launched by                                          NASA
                      only. Three NASA shuttles in use, one under construction.

Launch Capacity       Two have 55,000-pound capacities and one has a 47,000 pound capacity
                      to lOOnautical mile easterly orbits from Kennedy Space Center.’

                      16,300 pounds to lOO-nautical mile polar orbit from Vandenberg (facili-
                      ties mothballed).

DOD Cost Per Launch   $115 million (based on agreement with                          NASA).”

Launch Schedule


                                                                                                   Fiscal years
                                                                             90     91    92    93 94 95 96 97          98   99     00
                                                                                               (Number of launches)
                      NASA launches:
                         DOD oavloads onlv                                    3      3-



                      aFlights have both DOD and non-DOD payloads. The fiscal year 1990 shared flight includes a LEASAT
                      launch considered to be a commercial payload by NASA because the launch contract is with the satel-
                      lite manufacturer. DOD has requested partial flights equaling the equivalent of one-third of a flight a year
                      after 1995.




                      ‘A launch vehicle’s lift capacity varies with the altitude and inclination of the orbit to which it is
                      launching a satellite. For vehicle comparison purposes, DOD describes vehicle lift capacities to theo-
                      retical 109nautical mile circular orbits achieved from due east launches from Cape Canaveral or due
                      south launches from Vandenberg Air Force Base.

                      ‘Fiscal year 1986 dollars for a full shuttle flight.



                      Page 44                                                     GAO/NSIAD-OO-164FS     Military   Space Programs
                                        Appendix    II
                                        Launch Vehicles




                                        2004 are listed in table 11.1by class. They are described in the remaining
                                        pages of this appendix in the order they are presented in the table, fol-
                                        lowed by a description of the NASP program. In addition, the Delta I, a
                                        NASA and commercial launch vehicle formerly referred to as the Delta
                                        and used in the past by DOD through NASA, is also described. Figures II.1
                                        through II. 12 accompanying the descriptions identify the vehicles’ satel-
                                        lites and launch facilities. Appendix IV contains a summary schedule of
                                        unclassified vehicle launch plans.

Table 11.1: DOD Launch Vehicles   for
Fiscal Years 1990-2004                  Vehicle                                     Type                    Ownership
                                        Larae caoacitv:
                                          AI-S                                      Unmanneda               DOD
                                          Space shuttle                             Manned                  NASA
                                          Titan III                                 ELV                     Commercial
                                          Titan IV                                  ELV                     DOD
                                        Medium capacity:_
                                          Atlas E                                   ELV                     DOD
                                          Atlas lb                                  ELV                     Commercial
                                          Atlas II                                  ELV                     DOD and commercial
                                          Delta II                                  ELV                     DOD and commercial
                                          Titan II                                  ELV                     DOD
                                        Small capacity:
                                          Pegasus                                   ELV                     DOD and commercial
                                          scout                                     ELV                     NASA and commercial
                                          Taurus                                    ELV                     DOD and commercial
                                          To be detecminedc                         ELV                     To be determined
                                        “May be at least partially recoverable.

                                        bFormerly referred to as Atlas-Centaur    and no longer in government inventory.
                                        ‘DOD plans to recompete the contract for a standard small launch vehicle when the current Taurus
                                        contract expires.




                                        Page 41                                                GAO/NSIAD-BO-154FS          Military   Space Programs
                      Appendix II
                      Launch Vehicles




Advanced Launch
System
Manufacturer          To be determined.

Objectives            Build a new generation of unmanned launch vehicles that can lift pay-
                      loads into space at a significantly reduced cost than current systems-
                      less than $300 per pound lifted (in 1987 dollars) at a launch rate of 5
                      million pounds a year to low earth orbit.

                      Near term objective to develop the technology for a heavy-lift capacity
                      vehicle. Longer term objectives to adapt the new technology to current
                      generation vehicles and develop a family of new-technology vehicles to
                      serve the spectrum of national space launch needs.

Program Manager       Air Force (joint program with NASA).

Status                In a technology development phase.

Launch Capacity       To be determined. DOD targets for the initial heavy-lift capacity vehicle
                      have ranged between 90,000 and 360,000 pounds to low earth orbit.

DOD Cost Per Launch   To be determined.

Launch Facilities     To be determined.

Launch Schedule       To be determined.




                      Page 42                                GAO/NSIAD-BO-164FS   Military   Space Programs
                                                  Appendix   II
                                                  Launch VeNclee




Figure 11.1:Space Shuttle Satellites   and Launch Facilities



                SATELLITES
                                                                                            NASA launches
                                                                                            l    DOD satellites
                                                                                                 - DSP
                                                                                                 - LEASAT
                                                                                                 - Research and development
                                                                                                    satellites
                                                                                                 - SDS experiments
                                                                                                 - Classified missions
                                                                                            l    NASA satellites and other
                                                                                                 payloads




                LAUNCH
                VEHICLES                                                                    Shuttles




                                           ----                    -   Cape Canaveral - -                 ---




                LAUNCH
                FACILITIES


                                           Launch complex 39A                                       Launch complex 390




                                                  Page 45                                       GAO/NSLAD-90-164FS   Military   Space Programs
                      Appendix II
                      Launch Vehicles




Titan III
Manufacturer          Martin Marietta.

Program Manager       None (commercial vehicle).

Status                Large capacity commercial version of former DOD-OWned and launched
                      Titan 34D. The Titan 34D is no longer in government inventory. Cur-
                      rently planned to be used by DOD only through commercial launch
                      contracts.

Launch Capacity       30,300 pounds to lOO-nautical mile easterly orbit.

DOD Cost Per Launch   No launches on contract yet. The Strategic Defense Initiative Organiza-
                      tion estimates the launch services for the planned 1996 launch will cost
                      $120 million to $130 million.

Launch Schedule


                                                                             Fiscal years
                                                         90    91   92    93 94 95 96 97         98   99     00
                                                                         (Number of launches)
                      Commercial launches:
                        DOD satellites       -                                           1              .~
                        NASA satellites                              1
                        Commercial satellites             3




                      Page 46                                 GAO/NSLAD-90-164FS   Military   Space Programs
                                                   Appendix   II
                                                   Launch Vehicles




Figure 11.2:Titan Ill Satellites   and Launch Facilltles
                                                                                                                                        1
                             SATELLITES                                                  Commercial launches

                                                                                         l   DOD satellites
                                                                                             - SDS experiment
                                                                                         l   NASA satellites
                                                                                         l   Commercial satellites




                             LAUNCH
                             VEHICLES                                                    Titan Ill




                             LAUNCH
                             FACILITIES                              Cape Canaveral




                                                                     Launch complex 40



                         Y




                                                  Page 47                         GAO/NSIAD-90-154FS        Military   Space Programs
                       Appendix II
                       Launch Vehicles




Titan IV
Manufacturer           Martin Marietta.

Program Manager        Air Force,

Status                 New large capacity ELV. First launched with Inertial upper stage in June
                       1989. In multiyear contract for 13 vehicles. Follow-on contract planned
                       for 18 vehicles.

Launch Capacity        39,100 pounds to lOOnautical mile easterly orbit using no upper stage.

                       31,100 pounds to loo-nautical mile polar orbit using no upper stage.

                       5,290 pounds to 22,300-nautical mile geosynchronous equatorial orbit
                       using Inertial upper stage.

                       10,200 pounds to 22,300-nautical mile geosynchronous equatorial orbit
                       using Centaur upper stage.

DOD Cost Per Launch4   $142 million, including vehicle cost with no upper stage.

                       $191 million, including vehicle cost with Inertial upper stage.

                       $211 million, including vehicle cost with Centaur upper stage,

Launch Schedule


                                                                              Fiscal years
                                                          90    91   92    93 94 95 96 97           98   99   00
                                                                          (Number of launches)
                       DOD launches:
                         DOD satellites                                   (Information deleted)
                         NASA requests                                                1 2       1    2    1




                       4Fiscal Year 1986 dollars.



                       Page 48                                 GAO/NSIADBO-164FS     Military   Space Programs
                                                                  Appendix II
                                                                  Launch Vehicles




Figure 11.3:Titan IV Satellites             and Launch Facilities

                           -------I--------------.                                                    DOD     launches       .------------------I----


    SATELLITES                                       * DOD             l    DOD                      l    DOD                                   l       DOD                       l    DOD
                                                       - DSP                - SDS experi-                 - M&tar                                       - SSTS                         - Classified
                                                                                ments                     - SSTS                                        - Classified                     mlasions
                                                                            - Classified                  - Classified                                      missions
                                                                                missions                      missions                          l       NASA
                                                                       l    NASA                     l    NASA                                          satellitesa
                                                                            satellitesa                   satellites*




    LAUNCH
    VEHICLES                                         Titan IV              Titan IV                      Titan IV                                       Titan IV                      Titan IV




    LAUNCH
    FACILITIES

                                  La$ch complex                 Launch complex                                           Launch complex                            Launch complex
                                                                41                                                       4 Eaatb                                   7b


                                                                 %equested      by NASA. DOD has not yet determined which launches it can accommodate.

                                                                 ‘Initial Titan IV operational capability planned for fiscal year !992 for complex 40, fiscal year 1990 for
                                                                 complex 4 East, and fiscal year 1996 for complex 7.




                                                                 Page 49                                                     GAO/NSIAD-90-154F’S                       Military       Space Programa
                      Appendix II
                      Launch Vehiclea




Atlas E
Manufacturer          General Dynamics.

Program Manager       Air Force.

Status                Medium capacity ELV (converted intercontinental ballistic missile) owned
                      and launched by DOD only but being phased out of inventory and use.
                      Not available commercially and no longer in production. Eight vehicles
                      remaining in DOD inventory-three     scheduled for DOD satellite launches,
                      three scheduled for NOAA satellite launches by Air Force, and two
                      unscheduled. Planned to be used for high inclination or polar orbit
                      launches only.

Launch Capacity       1,760 pounds to 100-nautical mile polar orbit.

DOD Cost Per Launch   $46 million, including vehicle cost.”

Launch Schedule


                                                                                  Fiscal years
                                                          90       91    92    93 94 95 96 97         98   99   00
                                                                              (Number of launches)
                      DOD launches:
                        DOD satellites                        2      1
                        NOAA satellites                       1      1    1




                      “Fiscal year 1986 dollars.



                      Page 60                                     GAO/NSLADBO-164FS     Military   Space Programs
                                                 Appendix   II
                                                 Launch Vehicles




Figure 11.4:Atlas E Satellites   and Launch Facilities


                                                                                      DOD launches
                       SATELLITES
                                                                                      . DOD eatellltes
                                                                                        - DMSP
                                                                                        - Research and development
                                                                                          satellite
                                                                                      l NOAA satellites




                       LAUNCH
                       VEHICLE
                                                                                 Atlas E
                                                                                 (DOD)




                       LAUNCH
                       FACILITIES




                                                                   Launch complex 3 West
 -



                        1




                                                 Page 51                             GAO/NSIAD-90-164FS   Military   Space Programs
                      Appendix II
                      Launch Vehicles




Atlas I
Manufacturer          General Dynamics.

Program Manager       None (commercial vehicle).

Status                Medium capacity ELV formerly owned and launched by NASA but discon-
                      tinued from NASA acquisition and inventory in 1989. Formerly called
                      Atlas-Centaur and used by DOD through NASA. Still commercially availa-
                      ble. Scheduled to be used for the Navy’s UHF Follow-on satellite launches
                      through a commercial launch contract between General Dynamics and
                      the satellite manufacturer. Vehicle includes a Centaur stage.

Launch Capacity       1,760 pounds to 22,300-nautical mile geosynchronous equatorial orbit.

DOD Cost Per Launch   Included in UHF Follow-on acquisition cost.

Launch Schedule



                                                                             Fiscal years
                                                        90    91    92    93 94 95 96 97          98   99   00
                                                                         (Number of launches)
                      Commercial launches:
                        DOD satellites                                         2   3     3    1
                        NASA satellites
                        NOAA satellites
                        Commercial satellites                   1         1




                  Y




                      Page 62                                GAO/NSIAD90-164FS     Military   Space Programs
    .
                                                  Appendix   II
                                                  Launch Vehicles




Figure 11.5:Atlas I Satellites   and Launch Facilities


                                                                                            Commercial launches

                 SATELLITES                                                                 l    DOD satellites
                                                                                                 - UHF Followsn
                                                                                            l    NASA satellites
                                                                                            l    NOAA satellites
                                                                                            l    Commercial satellites




                 LAUNCH
                 VEHICLES                                                                       Atlas I
                                                                                                (Commercial)




                                              ----                  -   -Cape   Canaveral




                 LAUNCH
                 FACILITIES

                                              Launch complex 36A                                      Launch complex 368




                                                  Page 53                                       GAO/NSIALb90-154PS       Military   Space Programs
                      Appendix   II
                      Launch Vehicles




Atlas II
Manufacturer          General Dynamics.

Program Manager       Air Force.

Status                New medium capacity ELV that will be owned and launched by DOD and
                      will also be available in commercial versions for commercial launches.
                      Vehicle includes a Centaur stage. First launch scheduled for fiscal year
                      1991. Current Air Force contract for 10 vehicles.

Launch Capacity       14,600 pounds to lOOnautical mile easterly orbit.

                      6,100 pounds to geosynchronous transfer orbit.

DOD Cost Per Launch   $46 million projected, including vehicle cost.”

Launch Schedule


                                                                               Fiscal years
                                                          90     91   92    93 94 95 96 97          98   99   00
                                                                           (Number of launches)
                      DOD launches:
                        DOD satellites                                     (Information deleted)
                      Commercial launches:
                        Commercial satellites                     1    2    2




                      “Fiscal year 1986 dollars.



                      Page 54                                  GAO/NSLAD-90-ISIF?     Military   Space Programs
                                                   Appendix II
                                                   Launch Vehiclea




Flgure ll.O: Atlas II SatellItea   and Launch Facilities


                                                                 DOD launches                                                      Commercial launches

       SATELLITES                                                l   DOD satellites                                                l    Commercial
                                                                     - DSCS                                                             satellites
                                                                     - Research and
                                                                       development
                                                                       satellites
                                                                     - Classified missions




                                                                     Atlas II                                                      Atlas II
       LAUNCH                                                                                                                      (Commercial)
                                                                     (DOD)
       VEHICLE

                                                                                                                        /
                                                                                                                0
                                                                                                        /
                                                                                                   0
                                                                                               /
                                                                                           /
                                                                                       /
                                                                                   0
                                                                              /
                                                                      /
                                                       - 7’               -       -Cape Canaveral - -       -       -       .---
                                                       /




       LAUNCH
       FACILITIES
                                           Launch complex 36Aa                                                  Launch complex 36Ba

                                                   ‘Initial operational capability projected to be in fiscal year 1991. Commercial launches will be permitted
                                                   from complex 36A when it is not being used for DOD launches.




                                                   Page 56                                                  GAO/NSIAD-90-154PS         Military   Space F’rograma
                      Append& II
                      Launch Vehicles




Delta I
Manufacturer          McDonnell Douglas.

Program Manager       NASA.

Status                Medium capacity ELV owned and launched by NASA but being phased out
                      of NASA inventory and will no longer be acquired by NASA. One vehicle
                      left in NASA inventory. Formerly used by DOD through NASA. Commercial
                      versions available.

Launch Capacity       7,600 pounds to loo-nautical mile easterly orbit.

                      6,600 pounds to lOOnautical mile polar orbit.

DOD Cost Per Launch   $33 million, including vehicle cost.7

Launch Schedule


                                                                                 Fiscal years
                                                         90        91   92    93 94 95 96 97         98   99   00
                                                                             (Number of launches)
                      NASA launches:
                        NASA satellites                       1




                      ‘Fiscal year 1986 dollars.



                      Page 66                                     GAO/NSIAD-BO-164FS   Military   Space Programs
                                                  Appendix II
                                                  Launch Vehicles




Figure 11.7:Delta I Satslliter   and Launch Facllltles

                                                                    Commercial launches                             NASA launches

                                                                    l   None                                        l    NASA satellite
                                                                        scheduled




           LAUNCH                                                                                                       Delta I
           VEHICLES                                                 (Comr!wrciaI)                                       (NASA)




                                                                                                   Vaneknt mrg
                                                                                                        I




           LAUNCH
           FACILITIES                                                       8
                             Launch cimplex 17A                     Launch complex 178           Launch complex 2




                                                  Page 67                                 GAO/NSIAD-BO-154Fs     Military    Space Prognuna
                      Appendix   II
                      Launch Vehicles




Delta II
Manufacturer          McDonnell Douglas.

Program Manager       Air Force.

Status                New medium capacity ELV owned and launched by DOD. First launched in
                      February 1989. In multiyear contract awarded in fiscal year 1987 for 20
                      vehicles in support of Navstar GPSlaunches. Follow-on contract with
                      open-ended options planned for award in fiscal year 1990. Vehicle
                      includes PAM D stage. Commercial version will be available.

Launch Capacity       11,100 pounds to lOO-nautical mile easterly orbit.

                       1,850 pounds to Navstar GPS transfer orbit (10,900-nautical miles alti-
                      tude at 55-degrees inclination).

DOD Cost Per Launch   $37 million, including vehicle cost.H

Launch Schedule

                                                                             ~~
                                                                            Fiscal years
                                                         90    91    92 93 94 95 96 97            98   99   00
                                                                        (Number of launches)
                      DOD launches:
                      -~
                         DOD satellites                   65553144444
                         NASA satellites                  1   1
                      Commercial launches:
                         Commercial satellites            4      4                       ._____             -.
                         DOD satellite                    1




                      “Fiscal year 1986 dollars.



                      Page 68                                 GAO/NSIAD-90-154PS   Military   Space Programs
                                                  Appendix    II
                                                  Launch Vehicles




Figure 11.8:Delta II Satellites   and Launch Facilities

                                                       ,..,
                                                      j/i;’
                                               lruzl r”il
                                                       !/Ii        DOD launches                                             Commercial launches

       SATELLITES                                                  l   DOD satellites                                       l    Commercial
                                                                       - Navstar GPS                                             satellites
                                                                   l   NASA satellites                                      l    DOD satellites
                                                                                                                                 - SDS experiment




       LAUNCH                                                      Delta II                                                     Delta II
       VEHICLES                                                    (DOD)                                                        (Commercial)




                                      --s            --                       -Cape   Canaveral -   -     -    -




       LAUNCH
       FACILITIES                                    I                                                            1
                                            Launch complex 17A                                           Launch complex 178

                          Y




                                                  Page 59                                               GAO/NSIAD+O-164FS        Military   Space Programs
                          Appendix II
                          Launch Vehicles




Titan II
Manufacturer              Martin Marietta.

Program Manager           Air Force.

status                    “New” (refurbished intercontinental      ballistic missile) medium capacity
                          ELV owned and launched by DOD only. First launched in fiscal year 1988.
                          Current contract is for 14 vehicles. Planned to be used for polar or high-
                          inclination orbits only. Not available commercially.

Launch Capacity           4,200 pounds to lOO-nautical mile polar orbit.

Average Cost Per Launch   $43 million, including vehicle costsg

Launch Schedule


                                                                                  Fiscal years
                                                             90    91    92    93 94 95 96 97          96   99   00
                                                                              (Number of launches)
                          --
                          DOD launches:
                             DOD satellites                                   (Information deleted)
                             NOAA satellites                         1          1    1        1




                          “Fiscal   year 1986 dollars.



                          Page 60                                 GAO/NSIAD-90-164FS     Military   Space Programs
                                                  Appendix   II
                                                  Launch Vehicles




Figure 11.9:Titan II Satellites   and Launch Facilities

                                                                                       DOD launches
                         SATELLITES                                                    l    DOD satellites
                                                                                            - DMSP
                                                                                            - SDS experiment
                                                                                            - Classified missions
                                                                                       l    NOAA satellites




                          LAUNCH                                                      Titan II
                          VEHICLE




                          LAUNCH                                         Vandenberg
                          FACILITIES
                                                                    Launch complex 4 West




                                                  Page 61                        GAO/NSLAD-90-154FS      Military   Space Programs
                      Appendix II
                      Launch Vehicle6




Pegasus
Manufacturer          Orbital Sciences Corporation and Hercules Aerospace Company (joint
                      venture).

Program Manager       DARPA.

Status                New small capacity, air-launched, solid propellant, three-stage ELV.
                      Developed with private funding but DARPA is funding test and evalua-
                      tion. First launch a demonstration and test launch from a NASA B-52
                      scheduled in fiscal year 1990 under contract to DARPA to launch a
                      LIGHTSAT. Contract includes two additional launches and options for
                      three more. B-62 for scheduled launches to take off from Edwards Air
                      Force Base and launch while over Vandenberg test range. Will be availa-
                      ble for commercial launch services.

Launch Capacity       360 pounds to 400-nautical mile polar orbit.

DOD Cost Per Launch   $6 million, not including B-62 and range costs.1’)

Launch Schedule



                                                                                                 Fiscal years
                                                                          90     91   92   93     94 95 96        97    96   99   00
                                                                                           (Number   of launches)
                      DOD launches:
                        DOD satellites                                      8”    1

                      ?3even of these are microsatellites   to be launched on a single vehicle




                      “‘Fiscal year 1989dollars.



                      Page 62                                                  GAO/NSIAD-90-154PS      Military     Space Programs
                                                 Appendix II
                                                 Launch Vehtclea




Flgure 11.10: Pegrcrub Satellites   and Launch Facllltleo

                                                                                                 DOD launches
                 SATELLITES                                                                      l    DOD satellites
                                                                                                      - Research and development
                                                                                                        satellites




                 LAUNCH                                                                          Pegasus
                 VEHICLE                                                                         (DOD)




                 LAUNCH
                 FACILITY


                         *                       aTakes off from Edwards Air Force Base and launches the Pegasus over Vandenberg’s   test range.




                                                 Page 69                                             GAO/NsIADBO-154Ft3   Military   Space F’rograana
                      Appendix   II
                      Launch Vehicles




scout

Manufacturer          LTV Aerospace and DefenseCompany.

Program Manager
Status                Small capacity ELV being phased out of government inventory. Six vehi-
                      cles left in government inventory owned by NAM. Three vehicles sched-
                      uled for DOD satellite launches by NASA. Will be available commercially.

Launch Capacity       670 pounds to loo-nautical mile easterly orbit.

                      460 pounds to lOOnautical mile polar orbit.

DOD Cost Per Launch   $9 million, including vehicle costL2

Launch Schedule


                                                                                                 Fiscal years
                                                                            90    91    92    93 94 95 96 97         98   99   00
                                                                                             (Number of launches)
                      NASA launches:
                        DOD satellites                                       2”     1    1
                        NASA satellites                                                  1    2
                      aThe two satellites will be launched on one vehicle




                  Y




                      ’ “Fiscal year 1986 dollars.



                      Page 64                                                    GAO/NSIADBO-164F!3    Military   Space Programs
                                                  Appedix   f[
                                                  Launch Voihicle!3




Flnure Il.1 1: Scout Satellite8   and Launch Facllltleo

                                                                      NASA launches

           SATELLITES                                                 l    DOD satellites                                                  l   No
                                                                           - Research and                                                      satellites
                                                                               development                                                     scheduled
                                                                               satellites
                                                                      l    NASA
                                                                           satellites*




           LAUNCH
           VEHICLES                                                       Scout                                                            Scout




           LAUNCH                                    Vandenberg                                                       Wallops
           FACILITIES
                                                  Launch complex 5                                                Launch complex


                                                  ‘NASA also plans to launch a NASA satellite from an Italian launch facility at San Marco, Kenya.




                                                  Page 65                                              GAO/NSLAD&O-154F’S       Military        Space Programs
                      Appendix II
                      Launch Vehicles




Taurus
Manufacturer          Orbital Sciences Corporation.

Program Manager       DARPA.

Status                Newly developed small capacity ELV. Vehicle is a combination of
                      Peacekeeper missile and Pegasus. Will have flexible launch siting
                      because it will have transportable launch assembly and launch stand
                      equipment that will not require prepared permanent launch pads.
                      According to DARPA, future arms control treaty limitations that may be
                      imposed could restrict launch site options.

                      Developed with private funding but DARPA is funding test and evalua-
                      tion. Current contract to fund one demonstration launch of two DOD
                      experimental satellites. Contract has options for four additional vehicles
                      to be either purchased or launched through a commercial launch service
                      contract. Contract awarded through DARPA'S program to develop a stan-
                      dard small launch vehicle. DOD plans a new competition for small launch
                      vehicle when this contract expires and projects one small vehicle launch
                      a year for fiscal years 1993 through 2004. Will be commercially
                      available.

Launch Capacity       1,000 pounds to 400-nautical mile polar orbit.

                      Potentially could be increased to 2,300 pounds to 400-nautical mile polar
                      orbit.

DOD Cost Per Launch   $10.9 million for first launch, including vehicle. $14 million to $15 mil-
                      lion per launch for optional launches. Costs do not include range
                      support.

Launch Schedule



                                                                                     Fiscal years
                                                               90     91    92    93 94 95 96 97         96   99   00
                                                                                 (Number of launches)
                      DOD launches:
                        DOD satellites                                 2a
                      aWill be launched on a single vehicle.




                      Page 66                                       GAO/NSIAD-90-154FS     Military   Space Programs
                                                 Appendix II
                                                 Launch Vehicles




Figure 11.12: Taurus Satellites   and Launch Facilities

                                                                                                DOD launches

                    SATELLITES                                                                   . DOD satellites
                                                                                                   - Research and
                                                                                                     development satellites




                                                                                                Taurus
                    LAUNCH
                    VEHICLES                                                                    (DOD)




                    LAUNCH                                         Vandenberg and Cape Canaveral capability
                    FACILITIES
                                                                     Facility to be determined (transportable)




                                                 Page 67                                      GAO/NSIAD-90-164FS     Military   Space Programs
                      Appendix II
                      Launch Vehicles




National Aerospace
Plane Program
Manufacturer          Not applicable.

Program Manager       Air Force (joint program with NASA).

Status                In research and development.

Objectives            Develop and demonstrate hypersonic flight technologies with the ulti-
                      mate goal of deploying a manned or unmanned, hypersonic flight vehicle
                      capable of delivering payloads to orbit with single-stage-to-orbit
                      launches.

                      Decision whether to proceed with a flight vehicle program scheduled for
                      1993.

                      First flight of an experimental aircraft to demonstrate technology (the
                      X-30) in the mid-to-late 1990s.

                      Initial operational capability for a NASP vehicle between fiscal years
                      2006 and 2010.

Launch Capacity       Not yet determined. Ultimate payload lift capacities being studied by
                      DOD range from 10,000 pounds to 65,000 pounds to low earth orbits.

DOD Cost Per Launch   Not yet available.

Launch Facilities     Not yet determined.

Launch Schedule       No launches scheduled yet.

Satellites            None yet scheduled for launch by the NASP.




                      Page 68                                GAO/NSIAD90-164FS   Military   Space Programs
Appendix III

Launch Facilities


                DOD’sprimary satellite launch facilities are located at Cape Canaveral
                Air Force Station and NASA'S Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and at Van-
                denberg Air Force Base, California. DOD also launches satellites, through
                NASA, on the shuttle from the Kennedy Center and on Scout vehicles
                from NASA'S Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. In addition, the air
                launch and transportable launch techniques of the Pegasus and Taurus,
                respectively, permit flexibility to launch these vehicles from nearly any
                location where safety considerations al1ow.l This appendix identifies, as
                of October 1,1989, the launch pads available and planned at the Cape
                Canaveral, Kennedy, Vandenberg, and Wallops facilities and the vehi-
                cles and satellites that are currently planned to be launched from them
                through the year 2004.

                The Cape Canaveral Station and Kennedy Center are geographically
                adjacent and are owned and operated, respectively, by the Air Force and
                NASA. The Kennedy Center contains NASA’S shuttle launch complex and
                one of the Air Force’s Titan IV complexes (complex 41) and the Cape
                Canaveral station contains the remaining east coast ELV complexes. DOD
                permitted NASA to operate and use the Atlas-Centaur (now Atlas I) and
                Delta I complexes at Cape Canaveral until NASA ceased launching these
                vehicles from the east coast in 1989 and 1988, respectively.

                The Vandenberg base is owned and operated by the Air Force. Vanden-
                berg contains all of the west coast ELV complexes and a mothballed shut-
                tle complex. The Air Force permits NASA to operate and use the Delta I
                and Scout launch complexes at Vandenberg.

                In addition, in keeping with national space policy to encourage and sup-
                port the nation’s commercial launch industry, DOD permits commercial
                launches from several of its pads on an as available and cost-
                reimbursable basis. Currently, the three manufacturers of DOD's major
                families of ELvs-General Dynamics (Atlas), Martin Marietta (Titan),
                and McDonnell-Douglas (Delta)-are the principal launch service com-
                panies scheduled to use DOD’S satellite launch facilities for commercial
                launches.

                Launches from the Cape Canaveral/Kennedy and Wallops facilities are
                restricted to orbits from zero to 57-degrees inclination to avoid flights
                over populated areas and foreign air space. For the same reasons,
                launches from Vandenberg facilities are limited to southerly launches to
                high-inclination orbits. However, these limitations may be avoided with

                ’ Except possibly as limited by future arms control treaty provisions, according to DOD officials.



                Page 69                                             GAO/NSIAD-90.164FS       Military   Space Programs
AppendixlU
Launch Facilities




the Pegasus which is an air-launched vehicle that can be launched suffi-
ciently offshore to avoid overflying populated areas.

Figures III. 1 through III.3 show the launch complexes at each of the
facilities, including which vehicles and satellites are planned to be
launched from them. The Pegasus and Taurus vehicles are not illus-
trated in the figures because they are not linked to specific launch pads.

DOD plans projected the construction   at Vandenberg of space launch
complex 7, an additional Titan IV pad as shown in figure 111.2.However,
the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991
prohibited DOD from expending fiscal year 1990 funds on its construc-
tion Instead, it permitted DOD to expend 1990 funds to convert complex
6 to a Titan IV pad. In commenting on our report, DOD said it had not
decided whether to proceed with converting complex 6 or to request
funds again in the fiscal year 1991 budget request for constructing com-
plex 7, as it had originally planned. Because the issue has not been
resolved, we continued to show complex 7 in figure III.2 as the second
Titan IV pad at Vandenberg. It should be noted that the launches sched-
uled on it may be executed from complex 6 instead.




Page 70                                GAO/NSIAD-90-164F?3   Military   Space Program8
                                                      Appendix III
                                                      Launch FacMtiem




Figure 111.1:Cape Canaveral          Air Force Station/Kennedy    Space Center Launch Complexes,            Launch Vehicles,      and Satellites

            l       Commercial                                                                                           l   DOD satellites
                                                                                                                             - DSP
                                                                                                                             - LEASAT
                                                                                                                             - Research and
                                                                                                                                development
                                                                                                                             - SDS experiments
                                                                                                                             - Classified missions
                                                                                                                         l   NASA satellites and
  . DOD satellites                                                                                                           other payloads
    - Navstar GPS
    - SDS experiment
  l NASA
    satellites
  l Commercial
    satellites




                                      (DOD and
                                     Commercial)




                                                                                                                         Titan Ill
                                                                                                                         (Commercial)



                                                                                                                     \                  l DOD satellite
   . DOD satellites                                                                                                                       - SDS
                                                                                                                          .,     7            experiment
   l   NASA satellites                                                                                                      \;          9 NASA satellite
   l   NOAA satellites                                                                        \                          b              l Commercial
                                                                                                                                          satellites
   l   Commercial
       satellites                                                                                        Titan IVb
                                                                                                         (DOD)
                l   DOD satellites
                    - DSCS                                                                           \                        . DOD satellites
                    - Classified                                                                                                - DSP
                        missions                                                                                                - Milstar
                    - Research and                                                                                              - SDS-BSTS
                       development                                                                                              - SDS experiments
                l   Commercial                                                                                                  - Classified missions
                    satellites                                                                                               l  NASA satellites


                                                     %cheduled to become operational in fiscal year 1991, Commercial launches only from complex 368.
                                                     Scheduled to become operational from complex 40 in fiscal year 1992.




                                                     Page 71                                             GAO/NSLMMO-164FS        lbfilitary   Space Programs
                                                               Appendix     III
                                                               Launch Facilities




Flgure 111.2:Vandenberg              Air Force Bare Launch Complexor,                 Launch Vehicles,       and Satellites


    l       DOD     5atelllte5                                                                                                                    l   DOD    setellltes

            -     DMSP                                                                                                                                - Research and
            -     SDS experiment                                                                                                                        development
            -     cplM&d                                                                                                                          l   NASA satellites

    l       NOAA satellites



                                                    Tltan II
                                                    (DOD)                         Launch complexes




                                                                                                                                           Shuttle


                                                               (InactIve)                                  (mothballed)




    l       DOD 5atellltes                                                                                                     Titan IV
                                                                                                                              . (DOD)
                   development
        l   NOAA
            satellltes
                                                                                                                                               . DOD satellites
                                                                                                                                                 - SDS-SSTS
                                 . NASA satellite                                                                                                - Classified missions
                                                                                                                                               l NASA satellites


                                                               aThe Air Force plans to either deactivate    this complex or convert it to an Atlas II or other medium vehicle
                                                               complex after the last Atlas E launch.

                                                               ‘Scheduled    to become operational in fiscal year 1990

                                                               QJ~ to proximity of off-shore oil wells, the Air Force plans to deactivate this complex after one more
                                                               NASA launch. However, the Air Force may make it available to commercial launch companies if a
                                                               demand evolves.

                                                               dScheduled to become operational in fiscal year 1996. However, DOD may not construct this pad and
                                                               may convert complex 6 for Titan IV operations instead.




                                                               Page 72                                                    GAO/NSIAD-9O-154F8      Military     Space Program
                                                Appendix    III
                                                Launch Facilities




Figure 111.3:Wallops Flight Facility   Launch Complex,     Launch Vehicles,     and Satellites

                                                                                     l   No satellites scheduled




                                                                  Wallops launch complex




                                                Page 73                                              GAO/NSIAJMO-154FS   Military   Space Pro@ama
Appendix IV

Launch Plans


               This appendix describes unclassified DOD launch plans organized by
               satellites, launch vehicles, and launch facilities, as shown in tables IV, 1
               through IV.3. It also describes the normal launch rate capability of the
               facilities, as shown in table IV.6. The launch plans described are the
               unclassified DOD plans for fiscal years 1990 through 2004 as of
               October 1, 1989. They include launches that DOD plans to make for NASA
               and NOAA and launches that DOD plans to have done by NASA and com-
               mercial launch companies.

               Since NASA and commercial ELV launches of non-nob satellites are made
               from DOD launch facilities, we have also included available launch plans
               for non-bon satellites launched by NASA and commercial companies.
               Available NASA plans projected launches for fiscal years 1990 through
               1995 and available Department of Transportation launch schedules for
               commercial launches also projected launches through 1995.’ The NASA
               and commercial launch plans for non-DOD satellites are described in table
               IV.4.

               It should be noted that launch plans for future years are tentative and
               subject to frequent changes. Moreover, DOD launch projections were not
               made for the entire period through the year 2004 for some satellite pro-
               grams. Also, commercial launch projections may not be complete
               through 1995 because the Department of Transportation’s schedule lists
               only those launches which it has licensed, for which it has received
               license applications, and for which it anticipates receiving a license
               application.




               ‘The Department of Transportation regulates and licenses commercial space launches and publishes
               quarterly launch schedules for commercial launches.



               Page 74                                          GAO/NSIADBO-164PSMilitary SpacePrograms
                                                                 Appendix IV
                                                                 Launch Plans




Table IV.1: Planned DOD Launches                 by Satellite
                    Launch                                        Launch                                         Fiscal years
Satellite          .vehicle
                    .--~..               Upper stage              complex’       90       91    92   93 94 95 96 97 96 99 00 01                   02       03     04         Total
                                                                                                      (Number of satellites to be launched)
Communications.:
  DSCS
  FLTSATCOM..  .~At,as ,,-.---...---
                       ..- --.-__           ___-                  Cape-36                                     Information deleted

     LEASAT        Shuttle               ___.                    Cape-39             1                                                                                            1
     UHF           Atlas It’                                     Cape-36                         1        2    3   3    1                                                       IO
     Follow-on              ..-. - _...
  Milsial . .._.. iitan
                    .-~ iv..~__._ -Centa”r                       Cape-40 or 41                                Information deleted
  Total                                                                              1           1        2    3    3    1                                                      11
Meteorology:^_~
__..                      ..-.         .----
_ DMSP _         Atias E -._-.
                --.                    ..-. ~.---.-__~           VAFB-3 West         1     1                                                                                     5
                 Titan II                                        VAFB-4 West                     1    1   1        1    1           1   1              1     1                   9
  Total                                                                          i         1     1    1   1        1    1           1   1              1     1                  11
Navigation:
- .___.. ._       ~~-.. ~-..-__--.-~--..
    Navstar        Delta II                                      Cape-17             6     5     5    5   3    1   4    4    4      4   4    4         4     4     4            61
    GPS
    Total                                                                            655531444444444                                                                           ST
Research and       Atlas E                                       VAFB-3 West         1                                                                                           1
development                                              -.___
                   Atlas II                                      Cape-36                                  1                                                                          1
                   Pegasus- ..-__....~_ -..______-         Not applicable            8”    1                                                                                     9
                   scout
                  _..                      -. .-_. .._____ VAFB5
                               .-.. - -.......              ---                      2c    1     1                                                                               4
                   Shuttle”                      ~--.      Cape-39                         lC         222111111111                                                              16
                   Small ELV to                            To be                                      1   1   1    1    1    1      1   1     1        1     1      1           12
                   be .^determined
                            ..-- . . -. ~~~...             determined
                                                                ~.-
                   Taurus                                  To be                           2c                                                                                    2
                                                           determined
  Total                                                                          151343222222222                                                                                45
SDS systems:                                                           -.                                     Information deleted                                              -~
  BSTS             Titan IV              Centaur                 Cape-40 or 41                                Information deleted                                       --
  .SBI             To be                 To be                   To be
                   determined          . determined              determined                                    To be determined
  ssis            .Titan .lv;-.-.~-     vAFB-4.~~sl-                                                          Information deleted
SDS
experiments:
      ._          .Delta IIt1                                    Cape-l
                                                                   .-- 7             1                                                                                   -.. 1
                   Shuttle                                       Cape39                    3c                                                                                3
            ._     Titan. II -.~--              --..__--         TAFB4 West                      1                                                                           1
                   TitanIll”           ~                         Cape-40
                                                                     ~                                             1                                                         1
                   Titan IV        -.~~- ..~______.              Cape-40
                                                                  .-.-   or 41                                          2                                                    ii
                                                                                                                                                                 (continued)



                                                                 Page 75                                           GAO/NSIAD-90-154FS       Military       Space Programs
                                                    Appendix IV
                                                    Launch Plana




Satellite        %z            .-.. Upper
                                     -.--- stage
                                                     Launch
                                                     complex8           90    91   92
                                                                                                  Fiscal years
                                                                                      93 94 95 96 97 96 99 00 01
                                                                                       (Number of satellites to be launched)
                                                                                                                                          02       03    04   Total

  Total                                                                   1    3    1                1 2                                                            6
Tactrcal
warnrng and
attack
assessment:                        _- -.-~-
     DSP        Shuttle          inertial
                                  __-.-.-_      Cape-39                                             Information deleted
                Titan IV         Inertial       Cape-40 or 41                                       Information deleted
    NDS                    Seet?a&$a~f%schedule
                              .~     ..~    _________
NOAA and
NASA:                                                   _____-
  NASA        Delta II                              Cape 17          1         1                                                                                    2
    NASA’     Titan IV                              To be determined                                 To be determined                                               0
    NOAA      Atlas E                               VAFB-3 West      1         1     1                                                                              3
    NOAA      Titan II                              VAFB4 West                 1            1   1          1                                                        4
  Total NOAA and NASA satellites                                     2         3    1       1   1          1                                                        9
Total DOD satellites   (unclassified
                             -.__       launches)
                                     --.--~-                            20    14    9  9 10         7 11       10    6     7    7    6         7     7    6    136
Total                                                                   22    17   10 10 11         7 12       10    6     7    7    6         7     7    6    145
                                                    “Cape refers to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. VAFB refers to Vanden-
                                                    berg Air Force Base.
                                                    ‘Commercial   ELV to be launched through commercial launch contracts

                                                    ‘Numbers include multiple satellite launches on single vehicles as follows: seven on a single Pegasus in
                                                    1990 for a total of two launches, two on a single Taurus in 1991 for a total of one launch, two on a single
                                                    Scout in 1990 for a total of one launch, and one research and development satellite and two of the three
                                                    SDS experiments in 1991 on a single shuttle flight.

                                                    ‘DOD has requested the equivalent of one-third of a shuttle flight (i.e., shared flights) a year from NASA
                                                    after 1995 and plans at least one research and development satellite launch a year on the shuttle after
                                                    1995. More than one DOD satellite could be launched on a single flight within the one-third of a flight
                                                    allocation.
                                                    “The Air Force may launch these satellites instead of Atlas II ELVs.

                                                    ‘NASA has requested DOD to make a total of nine Titan IV launches of NASA satellites and outer space
                                                    probes through 2004 from both coasts. The Air Force has not yet determined which launches it can
                                                    accommodate.




                                                    Page 76                                                GAO/NSIAD-90-164FS       Military       Space Programa




                                                                                        .             i’
                                                                   Appendix IV
                                                                   Launch Plans




Table IV.2: Planned                   DOD Launches         by Launch Vehicle
Launch                                                               Launch                                               Fiscal years
vehicle
_._....... __.__     Upper______
               -..-I___-.-  atage              Satellite             facility8             90    91   92      93 94 95 96 97 96 99 00 01                   02    03    04         Total-
                                                                                                      -        (Number of satellites to be launched)
ALS                                            To be                 To be                                             To be determined
--..                         - . -..----__     determined            determined
Atlas E                                        DOD:
                                                 .~.
                                                 DMSP                VAFB-3 West            1     1                                                                                      2
                                                 Research and        VAFB-3 West            1                                                                                            1
                                                 development
                                               NOAA                  VAFB3 West             1     1       1                                                                  .-          3
      Total                                                                                 3     2       1                                                                              6
Atlas I”                                       DOD:                                                                                                              --
                                                 UHF                 Cape-36                              1        2    3   3    1                                                      10
                                                 Follow-on             ’
      Total                                                                                               1        2    3   3    1                                                      10
Atlas II                                      DOD:
                                                  Classified   Cape-36                                                 Information deleted
-..       -..                 ._~ ._-___--..-“._ missions                                                                                                                           -
                                                  DSCS
                                     ..--- ..-.-----           Cape-36                                                 Information deleted
                                                  Research and Cape-36                                             1                                                                     1
                                                  development                                                                                                                --
      Total                                                                                                        1                                                                     1
Delta II        ._. .        .~~               DOD:
                                                 Navstar GPS         Cape-l 7               655531                          4    4    4      4    4    4    4      4     4
                                                                                                                                                                       .-__          61
                                                 SDS                 Cape-l 7               1                                                                                         1
                                                 experiment
                                               NASA                  Cape-l 7               1     1                                                                                      2
      Total                                                                                 6     6       5    6   3    1   4    4    4      4    4    4    4      4     4              64
Pegasus                                           DOD:
                                       . ..-- _-----                                                                                                            ...___I__-
                                                      Research and Not                      8”    1                                                                                      9
                                              -.--..-.development
                                                       ~.-   ~-    applicable     -.                                                                                     -~
      Total                                                                                 6     1                                                                                      9
Scout’~                                        DOD:                                    -
                                                 Research and VAFB-5                        2”    1       1                                                                              4
                                                 development
      Total                                                                                 2     1       1                                                                              4
Shuttle”                                        DOD:. ---. --
                                              .~.~..                 _____.-                                                                                           .___---
                                                  Classified         Cape-39                                           Information deleted
                                                  missions                                                                                   --             -
                           Inertial               DSP                Cape-39                                           Information deleted
-.        .     .-.. .“.
                                       I          LEASAT             Cape-39                1                                                                                            1




                                                                   Page 77                                                  GAO/N&ID-90-164FS         Military Space Programs
                                                                Appendix     IV
                                                                Launch Plans




                                                                                                              Fiscal year8
%2                   Upper stage           Satellite
                                                                 Launch
                                                                 facility’        90   91    92   93 94 95 96 97 96 99 00 01                     02       03     04   Total
                                                                                                   (Number of satellites to be launched)
                                             Research and Cape-39                       1’         222111111111                                                          16
                                             development
                                           SDS-           Cape-39                       3’                                                                              -5
                                           exoeriments
                                           -I--        -   -




  Total                                                                            1    4          222111111111                                                          20
Small ELV to be                            DOD:
determined
                                                  Research and To be                               1   1    1     1   1    1     1     1     1        1     11-G
                                                  develooment  determined


Taurus             --,. - .~               DOD:
                                             Research and To be                         29                                                                                   2
                                            development   determined
  Total       .-                                                                        2                                                                                    2
Titan II                                  DOD:
                                            Classified           VAFB4 West                                Information deleted
                                            missions               -~
                                            DMSP                 VAFB-4 West                  1    1   1          1    1         1     1              1     1                 9
                                            SDS                  VAFB4 West                   1                                                                               1
                                            experiment
                                          NOAA                   VAFB-4 West            1          I   1          1                                                    -- 4
  T&k                                                                                   1     2    2   2          2   1    1     2     1              1     1            14
Titan IlliJ                               DOD:
                                            SDS                  Cape-40                                          1                                                           1
                                            experiment
  Total                                                                                                           1                                                           i
Titan IV                                  DOD:
                                              Classified         Cape-40 or 41                             Information deleted
                                               missions
                                              Classified         VAFB4 East                                Information deleted
                                              missions           or 7
                     Inertial I- _ .. .._._ . .DSP  ...^_ ---    Cape-40 or 41                             Information deleted
                     Centaur                   Milstar           Cape-40 or 41                             Information deleted
                                              -----.

                     Centaur                   SDS-BSTS          Cape-40 or 41                             Information deleted
                                               SDS               Caoe40 or 41                                         2                                                       2
                                              experiments           ’
                                              SDS-SSTS           VAFB4 East                                Information deleted
_.. ._                                                           or 7
                                            NASA”                To be      -                               To be determined
                                    -..~--.___-                  determined
  Total                                                                                                               2                                                      2
                                ”
                                                                                                                                                                (continued)




                                                                Page 78                                           GAO/NSIAD-90-164FS       Military       Space Programs
                                               Appendix IV
                                               Launch Plans




Launch                                          Launch                                   Fiscal years
vehicle         Upper stage      Satellite      facility’           90    91    92
                                                                             93 94 95 96 97 96 99 00 01 02 03 04                                            Total
                                                                                                                                                               -
                                                                              (Number of satellites to be launched)
Total DOD satellites (unclassified launches)                        20 14 9   9 10 7 11 10             6    7   7   6 7 7 6                                   136
Total NASA and NOAA satellites                                       2  3  1   1  1         1                                                                   9
Total.                                                              22 17 10 10 11    7 12 10         6    7    7   6 7 7 6                                   145
                                               %ape refers to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. VAFB refers to Vanden-
                                               berg Air Force Base.

                                               %ommercial     ELV to be launched through commercial launch contracts
                                               ‘Seven of the eight satellites are microsatellites   that will be launched simultaneously      on a single vehicle,
                                               for a total of two vehicle launches in 1990.

                                               dVehicle owned and launched by NASA.

                                               “Both satellites will be launched simultaneously     on a single vehicle for a total of one launch in 1990

                                               ‘The research and development satellite and two SDS experiment satellites are scheduled to be
                                               launched together on a single shuttle flight. DOD has requested the equivalent of one-third of a shuttle
                                               flight (i.e., shared flights) a year from NASA after 1995 and plans at least one satellite launch a year on
                                               the shuttle after 1995. More than one DOD satellite could be launched on a single flight within the one-
                                               third of a flight allocation.

                                               oBoth satellites are scheduled to be launched simultaneously       on a single vehicle

                                               hNASA has requested DOD to make a total of nine Titan IV launches of NASA satellites and outer space
                                               probes through 2004 from both coasts. The Air Force has not yet determined which launches it can
                                               accommodate.




                                               Page 79                                                  GAO/NSIAD-90-154FS         Military     Space Program.s
                                                                Appendix      N
                                                                Launch Plans




Table IV.3: Planned DOD Launches                       bv Launch Facllitv
Launch                 Launch                                                                                Fiscal years
facilitya              vehicle              Upper stage        Satellite          90   91   92   93 94 95 95 97 98 99 00 01                      02       03     04   Total
-- . . . ..-..- _---.--_                                                                          (Number of satellites to be launched)
Cape
Canaveral:”
_..”Complex     17 ._._-....
      .._.~._ ..^-         --- .._                             DOD:
                      Delta Ilh                                  SDS               1                                                                                          1
                                                                 experiment
       pads)
._ (2.-... ..-. ..._._   Delta II
                     -_-_-__--.----                              Navstar GPS       6    5    5    5   3    1     4    4   4     4      4    4         4     4     4      81
                         Delta
                          -..----II                            NASA                1    1                                                                                 2
   Total                                                                           8    8    5    5   3    1     4   4    4     4      4    4         4     4     4      84

._ Complex        36
   ..-.- ..._.--._-..---.-__------~                            DOD:
                        Atlas lb                                 UHF                         1        2    3     3    1                                                      10
- _ -- .-_-- ----               __-                              Follow-on
   (2 pads)             Atlas II                                 Classified                               Information deleted
                     -.- ..-.___-                                missions
                        Atlas II                                 DSCS                                     Information deleted
                        Atlas II                                 Research and                         1                                                                       1
-_..--- .-. _-.-__-._-.-                                        development
   Total                                                                                     1        3    3     3    1                                                      11
   Complex
-. -..-. .- -.~ - 39------.-...-____                           DOD:
                       Shuttle”                                  Classified                               Information deleted
                                                                 missions
                       ShuttleC             Inertial             DSP                                      Information deleted
-. (2                                                            LEASAT            1                                                                                          1
    -. pads)-          Shuttle’:
                       Shuttle”                                  Research and           1         222111111111                                                               16
                            .~.-       .-                        developmentd
                       Shuttle”                                  SDS                    3                                                                                     3
                                                                 experimentsd
   Total                                                                           1    4         222111111111                                                           20
   Complexes                                                   DOD:
   40 and 41’!                                                                                                                                                           -
                      Titan lllh                                 SDS                                             1                                                            1
                                                                 experiment
   (2 Dads)           Titan IV                                   Classified                               Information deleted
                                                                 missions
                     Titan IV            Inertial                DSP        -                             Information deleted
                            .___--
                     Titan
              ..^......-..- IV           Centaur                 Milstar                                  Information deleted
.^_ _-                      IV _..- ..-- Centaur
                     Titan -...-
                -_ --..-                                         SDS-BSTS                                 Information deleted
                     Titan IV                                    SDS                                                 2                                                        2
         -.._.__I_.--._~~-..- -                                  experiments
                     Titan IV’                                 NASA                                        To be determined
   Total                                                                                                       1 2                                                            3
                                                                                                                                                                (continued)




                                                                Page 80                                          GAO/NSIAD-90-154F’S       Military       Space Programs
                                                            Appendix   IV
                                                            Launch Plans




Launch                Launch                                                                              Fiscal years
facilItya
_..._..~.._.    .- .._vehicle
                      ._-...-.-_--.----__ Upper stage      Satellite        90     91    92   93 94 95 96 97 96 99 00 01                   02       03     04   Total
                                                                                               (Number of satellites to be launched)
Vandenberg:
   Complex 3                                               DOD:
   Wesi
.- ._---..-. .-. -. ._--. __~_..___. -.-__--
                      Atlas E                                DMSP            1      1                                                                                   2
   (1 pad)            Atlas E                                Research and    1                                                                                          1
                                                             development
                      Atlas E                              NOAA              111                                                                                        3
   Total                                                                     3      2     1                                                                             6
    Complex 4                                              DOD:
 -._West
    __..---.._- .--..._.-.--.-_-
    (1 pad)           Titan II                               Classified                                Information deleted
                                                             missions
                      Titan II ..--
              -. ~~--..                                      DMSP                         1    1   1        1    1           1   1              1     1                 9
                     .~itani;      -.-___-                   SDS                          1                                                                             1
     _.-- ._.__-.--_--.----                                  experiment
                      Titan II                             NOAA
                                                             --                     1          1   1        1                                                       4
   Total                                                                            1     2    2   2        2    1           1   1              1     1            14
   Complex 4                                               DOD:
   East and 7”
--___-,-._.----~“.-“.--~--
                    Titan IV                                 Classified                                Information deleted
                                                             missions
   (2 pads)           Titan IV          __--_____I-          SDS-SSTS                                  Information deleted
                      Titan IV’                            NASA                                         To be determined                                           -
   Complex 5                                               DOD:..----
   (1 PadI            Scout’                                 Research and    2”     1     1                                                                             4
                                             .-.--           development
   Total                                                                     2      1     1                                                                             4
   No launch                                               DOD:
   pad’
                      Pegasus                                Research and    8h     1                                                                                   9
                                                             development
   Total                                                                     6      1                                                                                   9
Facilrtles to be                                           DOD:
determined                         ..^ _-.._-_--~- -. ~-
                       ALS                                 To be                                        To be determined
        _......_..
               -.- . . ..---._ --.---.-----____            determined
                       Small ELV to                          Research and                      1   1    1   1    1    1      1   1     1        1     1     1      12
                       be determine                          development
                      Taurus                                 Research and           2h                                                                                  2
                                                             development
   Total                                                                            2          1   1    1   1    1    1      1   1    1         1     1     1      14
                                                                                                                                                          (continued)




                                                            Page 81                                         GAO/NSIADSO-164FS        Military       Space Programs
                                                Appendix IV
                                                Launch Plans




Launch          Launch                                                                              Fiscal years
facilitya       vehicle         Upper stage    Satellite            90    91    92
                                                                             93 94 95                96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04                        Total
.... ^.. . ._...”
               ._____
                    --                                                        (Number of            satellites to be launched)
Total DOD satellites (unclassified launches)                        20 14 9   9 10 7                 11 10 6           7   7   6 7 7 6                   136
Total NASA and NOAA satellites                                       2  3  1   1  1                    1                                                   9
Total                                                               22 17 10 10 11    7              12 10       6    7    7   6 7 7 6                   145
                                                Vefers to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center.
                                                %ommercial    ELV to be launched through commercial launch contracts.

                                                CVehicle owned and launched by NASA
                                                dThe research and development satellite and two SDS experiment satellites scheduled for launch in
                                                fiscal year 1991 are scheduled to be launched together on a single shuttle flight. DOD has requested
                                                the equivalent of one-third of a shuttle flight (i.e., shared flights) a year from NASA after 1995 and plans
                                                at least one satellite launch a year on the shuttle after 1995. More than one DOD satellite could be
                                                launched on a single flight within the one-third of a flight allocation.

                                                %omplex    40 is not scheduled to have Titan IV capability until fiscal year 1992
                                                ‘NASA has requested DOD to make a total of nine Titan IV launches of NASA satellites and outer space
                                                probes through 2004 from both coasts. The Air Force has not yet determined which launches it can
                                                accommodate.

                                                oThe Air Force has planned to construct complex 7 to be operational in fiscal year 1996 but on the basis
                                                of congressional direction may convert complex 6 for Titan IV launches instead.

                                                “Numbers include multiple satellite launches on single vehicles as follows; two on a single Scout in 1990
                                                for a total of one launch, two on a single Taurus in 1991 for a total of one launch, and seven on a single
                                                Pegasus in 1990 for a total of two launches.
                                                ‘To be launched from a B-52 aircraft over the Vandenberg test range




                                               Page 82                                                 GAO/NSIAD-90-164PS        Military   Space Programs
                .


                                                           Appendix      IV
                                                           Launch Plans




Table iV.4: Planned NASA and Commercial                    Launches      of Non-DOD Satellites      Through    1995
Launch agent/                                                                                                                        Fiscal years
  satellitea                  Launch
                              _. - ._.._..-  vehicle
                                        -..-.-_                  Upper stage                    Launch faciiityb                90 91 92 93 94 95                  Total
                                                                                                                                 (Number of satellites to
                                                                                                                                     be launched)
NASA:                    _ .._..
                              “. .....__.-__--
  NASA sateke-      ~~~ Delta I                                                                 VAFB-2                           1                                       1
  NASA satellites       ~.____~--.
                         scout                                                                  VAFB-5                                      1    1                       2
  NASA satekes         . scout
                          -._.._.I_.----                                                        San MarcoC                                       1                       1
  NASA satellites and    Shuttle”                                                               Cape-39                          5     7   11   11 11        11         58
    other payloads
  Total                                                                                                                          8     7 12     13      11   11         80
General Dynamics:            . --.--._
  NASA satellites             Atlas I                                                           Cape-36                          1                                       1
  NOAA satellites             Atlas I                                                           Cape-36                                1    1                 1          3
  Commercial satellites       Atlas I                             -                             Cape36                                 1          1                      2
   Commercial satellites      Atlas IP                                                          Cape-36                                1    2     2                      5
   Totfii                                                                                                                        1     3    3     3           1         11
Martin Marietta:
  NASA satellite               Titan Ill                                                        Cape-40                                     1                            i
                                            -...---- ~--
  commercial sℓtes        -y$-jF--‘                          ____--_--                      Cape.40                          4’                               ---    4
   Total                                                                                                                         4          1                            5
McDonnell Douglas:                                                --
  Commercial satellites       Delta II                                                          Cape-17                          4     4                                 8
  Total                                                                                                                          4     4                                 8
To be determined                                                               -..._II__
  NASA satellites             Medium
                              -_         ELV TBD9__-.
                                    _...-__-___.                                                TBD                                         1     3      1    1          8
  NASA satellites             Small ELV TBDQ                                                    TBD                                                      2    1          3
   Total                                                                                                                                    1     3      3    2          9
Total                                                                                                                           15    14   17   19      14   14         93
                                                           “The commercial satellite category includes foreign government, international consortium, and North
                                                           Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) satellites.
                                                           “Cape refers to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. VAFB refers to Vanden
                                                           berg Air Force Base.

                                                           CAn Italian offshore platform launch facility at San Marco, Kenya.

                                                           “Additional   non-DOD payloads are scheduled to be launched on flights carrying partial loads of DOD
                                                           payloads.
                                                           ‘Category     includes commercial variations designated Atlas IIA and Atlas HAS.

                                                           ‘Two of the satellites are scheduled to be launched simultaneously    on a single vehicle.

                                                           YNASA intends to contract with commercial launch companies for these launches. Vehicles are yet to be
                                                           determined (TBD).




                                                           Page 83                                                 GAO/NSIAD-90.164FS       Military    Space Pr@xums
                                                                                                                                         *
                                                                                                                                                              1’
                                                                                                                                             *                I’   *
                                                                                                                                                              ;
                                        Appendix IV
                                        Launch Plane




Table IV.5: Normal Yearly Launch Rate
Capabilltlee                                                                                                                       Normal yearly
                                                                            Number of                                                 launch rate
                                        Launch facilitv                   launch Dads           Vehicles     launched                   CaDabilitV
                                        Cape Canaveral/
                                        Kennedy:
                                          Complex 17                                    2       Delta I                                              12
                                                                                                Delta II
                                          Complex 36                                    2       Atlas I                                              8
                                                                                                Atlas II
                                          Comolex 39                                    2       Shuttle                                              14a
                                          Complexes 40 and                              2       Titan IV                                              6
                                          41                                                    Titan Ill
                                        Vandenbera:
                                          Comdex 2                                      1       Delta                                                    lb
                                          Complex 3                                     1       Atlas E                                           3-4
                                          Complex 4 West                                1       Titan II                                          I-3”
                                          Complexes 4 East                              2       Titan IV                                          4-5
                                          and 7d
                                          Complex 5                                     1       scout                                                6
                                          Comolex 6d                                    1       Shuttle                                 Mothballed
                                        aCurrently less. NASA’s goal is to achieve this rate by 1994.
                                        bThe Air Force plans to deactivate this pad after one more launch.
                                        ‘Because of the pad’s close proximity to launch complex 4 East, safety considerations      while launch
                                        activities are occurring on 4 East restrict launch rates to this level.

                                        dDOD may convert complex 6 for Titan IV launches rather than construct a new complex 7




                     Y




                                        Page 84                                              GAO/NSLAD-90-164FS         Military   Space Programs
Ppe

b6b’Space Program Cost Estimates


              In March 1989, we reported on DOD estimates of total space-related fund-
              ing, including funding for all support costs such as satellite control net-
              works and operations and maintenance of facilities.’ We obtained
              updated DOD estimates for fiscal years 1986 through 1994. These esti-
              mates are shown in table V. 1.

              DOD   estimates as of October 1, 1989, show a funding increase from $12.8
              billion in fiscal year 1986 to a projected $18.0 billion for fiscal year 1990
              (41-percent increase). They show continued increases to $23.6 billion in
              fiscal year 1993 (84-percent increase from 1986 and 31-percent increase
              from 1990) followed by a slight decrease to $23.3 billion in fiscal year
              1994.




                    e Funding: NASA and DOD Activities for Fiscal Years 1981 Through 1989 (GAO/
                      _ - 2FS, March 23, 1989).



              Page 85                                         GAO/NSLAD-BO-164PS     Military   Space Programa
                                                    Appendix Y
                                                    DOD Space Program        Cost Estimates




Table V.1: DOD’s Space-Related           Funding Estimates     for Fiscal Years 1985 Through          1994O
Dollars in millions
                                                                                              Fiscal years
Cateeory                                        1985      1986        1987         1988        1989      1990       1991      1992b           1993b     1994b
Navigation                                      $564      $442        $447         $431        $449      $553       $590
Communication
.___.
    _....._ .-.--.._...
                     ---..-                     1.575     1.308       1.760        1.366      1.538      1.931      2.097
Mapping, charting, and geodesy                     62        22          15           12          13        16         19
Tactical warning and attack
   assessment                                    581          745     1,080          936        859       1,050     1,162
_.... ._----- and oceanography
Meteorology                                      293          203       155          198        457         515       588
Launch vehicle acquisition and
   development_- . .-..-~---~-                   1,466   1,570   1,700   1,727   1,627   1,544   1,280
Ground__support
             ..-. ---~~ ~...- - . -____-.-.      1,114   1,130   1,430   1,386   1,096   1,102   1,155
Supporting research and development              1,118   3,110   2,750  2,583    2,975   3,486   4,171
General support
._..               -.-- .    ---.____            5,995   6,470   6,380   5,865   7,291   7,755   8,180
Total                                         $12,768 $15,000 $15,717 $14,504 $16,305 $17,962 $19,242 $21,600                               $23,600   $23,300
                                                    aAs of October 1, 1989

                                                    bDOD provided only totals for fiscal years 1992 through 1994.
                                                    Category definitions:

                                                    Navigation consists mainly of the Navstar GPS and TRANSIT satellite programs.

                                                    Communication consists of communications satellites and related equipment, including AFSATCOM,
                                                    DSCS, FLTSATCOM and UHF Follow-on, and Milstar.
                                                    Mapping, charting, and geodesy includes efforts to obtain more accurate data for maps and charts and
                                                    provide geophysical information to strategic and tactical weapon systems, such as knowledge of the
                                                    size, shape, and gravity field of the earth for supporting ballistic missile forces.

                                                    Tactical warning and attack assessment consists of various satellite and ground programs, such as
                                                    DSP, that together provide attack warning information.
                                                    Meteorology and oceanography consists mainly of the DMSP and other environmental          programs that
                                                    supply timely weather information to help DOD effectively employ forces.

                                                    Launch vehicle acquisition and development consists of programs for space launch vehicles and space
                                                    launch and shuttle support, including the ALS program, shuttle operations, and the Vandenberg shuttle
                                                    launch complex.
                                                    Ground support consists mainly of operations and maintenance funding necessary to support launch
                                                    facilities, satellite control, and spacetrack networks,
                                                    Supporting research and development consists mainly of support for research, development, test, and
                                                    evaluation projects, including the development and testing of launch systems, the Space Test Program,
                                                    LIGHTSAT/SPINSAT, SDI, and NASP programs.

                                                    General support covers various functions such as technical and mission support for space-related     activi-
                                                    ties and classified Air Force and Navy programs,
                                                    Source: DOD.




                                                    Page 86                                              GAO/NSIAD-DO-164PS      Military     Space Programs
        .


Appendix VI

Objective,Scope,and Methodology


              Our objective was to develop an information baseline on DOD satellites,
              launch vehicles, launch facilities, and their related costs. We also
              included information on DOD'S projected satellite launch schedules to
              show how these key elements of DOD'S space programs interrelate. The
              Chairman, House Armed Services Committee, requested this information
              to assist the Committee in its assessment of the implications and
              affordability of various DOD space program changes.

              We interviewed officials and reviewed documents pertaining to DOD
              space programs at the Washington, DC., headquarters of the Office of
              the Secretary of Defense; Defense Communications Agency; Strategic
              Defense Initiative Organization; Joint Chiefs of Staff; Departments of
              the Air Force, Navy, and Army; Air Force Systems Command; National
              Security Council; at the El Segundo, California, headquarters of the Air
              Force Space Division; and at the Air Force Space Command’s Consoli-
              dated Space Operations Center at Falcon Air Force Station, Colorado. We
              also performed similar work at NASA and the Department of Transporta-
              tion in Washington, D.C., to obtain information on how space launches
              controlled by these agencies affect DOD space program planning.

              Our review was performed between July 1988 and March 1989. Follow-
              up activity to clarify program information was performed through Sep-
              tember 1989 and information presented in this fact sheet was updated
              to reflect DOD, NASA, and commercial launch plans as of October 1, 1989.
              We did not independently verify information provided by WD on satel-
              lite program status, acquisition schedules, launch schedules, unit satel-
              lite and launch costs, and space-related program cost estimates. Also,
              our review did not include nonsatellite space activities.

              The information in this fact sheet reflects unclassified DOD space pro-
              gram plans to the extent they existed for activities through the year
              2004. However, DOD space program plans are dynamic and subject to fre-
              quent changes. Because of this, the information presented in this fact
              sheet is a snapshot in time of DOD'S space program plans that is subject
              to change.

              We obtained DOD and NASA official comments on a draft of the classified
              version of this report. In addition, program level officials from each
              agency reviewed the draft and suggested minor technical changes to
              more accurately reflect current program status. These changes were also
              incorporated into the final report where appropriate and are also
              reflected in this unclassified version.



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                                                                                                                  v




 Appendix VII

’ CommentsFrom DOD


 Note: GAO comments
 supplementing those in the
 report text appear at the
 end of this appendix.                                       THEUNDERSECRETARY            OF DEFENSE

                                                                   WASHINGTON,      DC    20901


                                                                                                       ? 7 OEC 1999
                              ACOUI8ITION




                                      Mr. Frank C. Conahan
                                      Assistant  Comptroller General
                                      United States General Accounting           Office
                                      Waehington, DC 20548
                                      Dear Mr. Conahan:
                                           This is the Department of Defense (DOD) response to the
                                      General Accounting Office (GAO) Draft Report, "MILITARY SPACE
                                      PROGRAMS:An Overview of Defense Space Activities,1V  dated
                                      October 31, 1989 (GAO Code 395162), 3SD Case 8169.
                                            The DOD military    space programs are continually         reviewed and
                                      adjusted to reflect    budgetary actions, and information           included
 See comment 1                        in the report may not always      be current.       It is the DOD position,
                                      however, that the report should include only approved programs.
                                      Those efforts   that are not approved programs, such as
                                      Space-Based Wide Area Surveillance,          should either be removed from
                                      the report or addressed separately.           In addition,   the report
 See comment 2.                       should indicate that the described space activities             are limited
                                      to ltorbitall* programs.     For completeness in describing        the total
                                      DODspace effort     sub-orbital   activities      should be included.      The
                                      exclusion of the sub-orbital      activities      is a report limitation.
                                            Proposed technical  and clarifying   changes to the report were
                                      separately provided to the GAO staff at the November 27 meeting
                                      to discuss the draft.    The DOD appreciates   the opportunity  to
                                      review and comment on the draft report.
                                                                           Sincerely,


                                                                          Robert C. McConnack
                                                                          Deputy Under Secretary




                     Y




                                            Page88
               Appendix VII
               Canmenta F’rom DOD




               The following are GAO'S comments on the Under Secretary of Defense’s
               letter dated December 27, 1989.


               1. DOD suggested that the report emphasize more strongly the continu-
GAO Comments   ally changing nature of DOD space activities due to various program and
               budgetary actions. DOD also asked that because the Space-Baaed Wide
               Area Surveillance satellite program is not an approved program, that we
               not include it in our report. We understand DOD’S concern on both of
               these matters and have revised the report accordingly.

               2. DOD suggested that for completeness in describing the total DOD space
               effort, DOD suborbital or nonsatellite programs should be included in the
               report. The Chairman’s letter and subsequent discussions with commit-
               tee staff confirm, however, that the requester’s interest relates only to
               the satellite programs. However, to accommodate DOD'S concern we have
               further clarified the objectives concerning the scope of our review.                 \




               Page 89                              GAO/NSLAD-99-MIPS   Military   Space Programs
Appendix VIII

Major Contributors to This Report


                        Gary K. Weeter, Assistant Director
National Security and   Randolph Climpson, Evaluator-in-Charge
International Affairs   Wanda Slagle, Senior Evaluator
                        Patricia Grove, Staff Evaluator
Division, Washington,   Penny Stephenson, Staff Evaluator
D.C.




                        Page 90                            GAO/NSIAD-90-154F’S   Military   Space Prognuns
Glossary


Geosynchronous             A geosynchronous orbit that is concentric with the earth’s equator. Such
Equatorial Orbit           an orbit for earth satellites normally occurs at about 22,300-nautical
                           miles altitude and the satellite appears to an earth observer as being
                           stationary overhead. The orbit is also referred to as a geostationary
                           orbit.


Geosynchronous Orbit       A circular orbit such that the period of one revolution of a satellite in
                           the orbit is equal to the period of one rotation of the earth, or 24 hours.


Geosynchronous Transfer    An elliptical orbit used in the process of launching a satellite to a
Orbit                      geosynchronous orbit. Satellites launched to geosynchronous orbits usu-
                           ally are launched initially to a circular low earth orbit and propelled by
                           an upper stage rocket to geosynchronous altitude via the elliptical trans-
                           fer orbit.


Extremely High Frequency   Frequencies in the electromagnetic wave spectrum from 30 to 300
                           gigahertz.


Gigahertz’                 A unit of frequency equal to 1 billion cycles per second.


Inclination                Inclination is the angle made by the intersection of the plane of a satel-
                           lite’s orbit with the plane of the equator. The angle is measured from the
                           equator to the orbital path projected onto the earth as the satellite
                           crosses over the equator from the southern to northern hemisphere.
                           Thus, when a satellite’s projected path on the earth crosses the equator
                           in a northerly direction at an angle of 67 degrees, for example, the satel-
                           lite would have an inclination of 67 degrees. An equatorial orbit has a
                           zero-degree inclination because a satellite in such an orbit travels in a
                           path concentric with the equator and the path does not cross the equa-
                           tor. A true polar orbit has a go-degree inclination because the path for a
                           satellite in such an orbit is perpendicular to the equatorial plane. Orbits
                           with inclinations above 45 degrees are considered by the Air Force to be
                           high-inclination orbits.


Low Earth Orbit            An orbit relatively near the earth. Low earth orbits are typically within
                           several hundred miles high but have undefined limits in altitude and



                           Page 91                               GAO/NSKADM-164FS   MiJitary   Space Programs
                        Glomtry




                        may be as high as several thousand miles. The term can refer to equato-
                        rial, low-inclination, high-inclination, or polar orbits.


Megahertz               A unit of frequency equal to 1 million cycles per second.


Polar Orbit             An orbit passing over the vicinity of the earth’s poles. The Air Force
                        considers orbits with inclinations between 80 and 100 degrees to be
                        polar orbits.


Semisynchronous Orbit   An orbit such that a satellite in the orbit revolves about the earth every
                        12 hours, or twice a day.


Sun-Synchronous Orbit   An orbit such that its orbital plane makes a full revolution about the
                        earth once each year. This results in the satellite passing over the equa-
                        tor at the same local time throughout the year.


Superhigh Frequency     Frequencies in the electromagnetic wave spectrum from 3 to 30
                        gigahertz.


UHF                     Frequencies in the electromagnetic wave spectrum from 300 to 3,000
                        megahertz.




                        Page 92                              GAO/NSIAD-90-154FS   Military   Space Programs
  .


Bibliography


               US. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Reducing Launch Oper-
               ations Costs: New Technologies and Practices (OTA-TM-ISC-28, Septem-
               ber 1988).

               US. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Launch Options for the
               Future: a Buyer’s Guide @IA-ISC-383, July 1988).

               U.S. Congress, Congressional Budget Office. The NASA Program in the
               1990s and Beyond (May 1988).

               U.S. Department of Commerce. Space Commerce: An Industry Assess-
               ment (May 1988).

                National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Ride, Sally K., Dr.
                Leadership and America’s Future in Space: A Report to the Administra-
               -tor (August 1987).




               Page 93                             GAO/NSIAD90-164PS   Military   Space Program
Page 94   GAO/NSIAD-90-164FS   Miitary   Space Programs
.




    Page 96   GAO/NSIAD-90-154FS   Military   Space Program
RelatedGAO Products


             Weather Satellites: Economies Available by Converging Government
             Meteorological Satellites (GAO/NSIAD-87-107, April 23, 1987).

             Procurement: Assessment of DOD'S Multiyear Contract Candidates (GAO/
             NSIAD-87-202BR,August 31, 1987) (Information on DMSP).

             Satellite Acquisition: Global Positioning System Acquisition Changes
             After Challenger’s Accident (GA~/NSIAD-87.~O~BR, September 30, 1987).

             Strategic Defense Initiative Program: Status of Space Surveillance and
             Tracking System (GAO/NSIAD-88-61, November 10, 1987).

             DOD AcquisitionPrograms: StatUS of Selected Systems (GAO/NSIAD-88-160,
             June 30,1989) (Information on the Titan IV program).

             Space Shuttle: The Future of the Vandenberg Launch Site Needs to Be
             Determined (GAO/NSIAD-~~-I~~, August 3, 1988).

             Space Funding: NASA and DOD Activities for Fiscal Years 1981 Through
             1989 (GAO~NSIAD-89-iows, March 23, 1989).




(aealas)     Page 96                             GAO/NSIAD90-154F’!3   Military   Space Programs