United States General Accounting Office Report to the I - Honorable GAO Barbara Boxer, House of Representatives May 1990 BRADLEYVEHICLE Status of the Army’s Survivability Enhancement Progrm -- GAO,‘NSlAD9O-172 United States GAO General Accounting Office Washington, D.C. 20648 National Security and International Affairs Division B-221733 May 21,199O The Honorable Barbara Boxer House of Representatives Bear Ms. Boxer: This report responds to your request that we provide you with informa- tion on the current status of the Army’s modification program for enhancing the survivability of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle. We briefed your staff on the results of our work on March 5, 1990. As a result of live-fire testing conducted between March 1985 and Results in Brief May 1987, the Army is incorporating a number of survivability enhance- ments into a new Bradley high-survivability configuration referred to as the “A2 model.” This model will be produced in two versions: the Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV) and the Cavalry Fighting Vehicle (WV). Enhancements will include (1) the addition of armor to provide protec- tion against 30-mm projectiles, (2) the addition of liners inside the turret to protect the crew from high-velocity debris (spall) resulting from rounds’ penetrating the crew compartment, (3) the addition of armor to protect against antitank chemical energy weapons (this armor is to be provided to field troops when it is developed), (4) changes in the way fuel and ammunition are internally stored, and (5) changes to the vehi- cle’s automatic fire extinguishing system. Because of the weight increases associated with these changes, the Army is upgrading the Bradley power train with a 600-horsepower engine and a modified transmission. Production unit costs (in fiscal year 1989 constant dollars) to the IF%’ will increase by $117,489 and to the crv by $124,789. In addi- tion, 2,033 Bradley vehicles already fielded will be retrofitted. Each version of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle performs a different mis- Background sion: the IFV supports the infantry, and the cm supports the cavalry. The IFV’S mission is to transport the infantry squad into battle and, once there, to support the squad and the accompanying tanks by suppressing enemy infantry and lightly armored vehicles. The WV’S mission is to per- form reconnaissance for the armored cavalry. Each version of the vehi- cle has a 25 mm-cannon; a Tube-Launched, Optically-Tracked, Wire- Guided (TOW)antitank guided missile launcher; and a coaxial machine gun. Both the IE~ and the WV were initially armored to withstand hits from up to 14.5-mm ammunition. Page 1 GAO/NSLADSO-172 Bradley Vehicle Modif¶cations 5221722 basis of competitive tests. The competitive testing is scheduled to be completed and a production contract awarded by May 1991, with the armor tiles released to the troops 2 years later in May 1993. . Automatic fire extinguishing system. This system will be modified to incorporate a dual-shot system, which automatically activates after a l/2-second delay to protect against a second hit. To further protect the system, cables were rerouted and spa11protection added. l Engine. The engine’s power was increased from 500 to 600 horsepower to accommodate the heavier vehicle weight resulting from survivability modifications. 0 Transmission. The transmission was modified to improve reliability and to match the horsepower increase of the engine. l Internal fuel supply system. This system was modified to exhaust fuel from vulnerable upper fuel cells before fuel from the more protected lower fuel cells is used (upper fuel cells will be emptied after the first 40 gallons of fuel are burned). The estimated production unit cost in fiscal year 1989 dollars will Production Stattus and increase $117,489 for the IFV and $124,789 for the crv. Production cut-in Cost of Survivability dates and unit cost increases or decreases of the individual modifica- tions are shown in table 1. Modifications Table 1: Production Cut-In Dates and Cost Increases and Decreases ior the In fiscal year 1989 constant dollars Bradley’s Enhancements Date of Unit cost Unit cost production change for c”yv&?; Modification cut-in the IPV Additron of steel applrque armor, additron of spall liners, relocatron of ammunrtion, and addrtron of attachment oornts for armor tiles Mav 1988 $53,199a $60,50@ Additron of armor tiles (reactrve or To be oassivel determrned 62,419 62,419 Addition of dual-shot fire extinguishing system October 1991 3,855 3,855 Addition of 600.horsepower engine May 1989 2,520 2,528 Modificatron of transmissron May 1969 (6,005)b (6,005)b Chanaes to fuel svstem Mav 1986 1.129 1.129 Reroutrng of fire extingurshrng system cables May 1986 364 364 Total $117.499 9124.799 aThe cost of each !ndludual modkatlon IS not available ‘These savings are attributable to a multlyear contract lo produce transmlsslons Page 3 GAO/NSIAD+O-172 Bradley Vehicle Modifications B-221733 As requested, we did not obtain official agency comments on this report. However, we discussed the information we gathered with Army and Department of Defense officials and incorporated their views when appropriate. As arranged with your office, we are sending copies of this report to the Chairmen of the House and Senate Committees on Armed Services and on Appropriations and the Secretaries of Defense and the Army. Copies will also be made available to other parties upon request. Major contributors to this report were Jim Shafer, Assistant Director; Bob Herman, Evaluator-in-Charge; and Don Warda, Staff Member. Please contact me at (202) 275-4141 if you or your staff have any ques- tions concerning this report. Sincerely yours I Richard Davis Director, Army Issues (222272) Page 6 GAO/NSlAD4lI%172 Bradley Vehicle Modlficatlonn .,,,... _ Requests for copies of GAO reports should be sent to: U.S. General Accounting Office Post ofike Box 5015 Gaithersburg, Maryland 20877 Telephone 2022766241 The fiit five copies of each report are free. Additional copies are $2.00 each. , There is a 26% discount on orders for 100 or more copies mailed to a single address. B-221733 The Army plans to retrofit 2,033 of 4,333 Bradleys to the high- Bradley Fighting survivability (A2) configuration. It does not plan to retrofit the first Vehicle System 2,300 Bradleys produced because it believes that retrofitting these vehi- Retrofit Program cles would be too costly. Of the 2,033 Bradleys, 662 are the new A2 model without the upgraded engine and transmission. These A2s will be retrofitted with the new power pack. The remaining 1,371 Bradleys will be retrofitted with all survivability enhancements except the dual- shot automatic fire extinguishing system. The retrofit schedule for this system has not yet been established. The Army has three Product Improvement Programs for upgrading the Bradley. The programs and their estimated unit costs are shown in table 2. Table 2: Product Improvement Programs and Cost In fiscal year 1969 constant dollars Unit cost Unit cost Product Improvement Proaram for the IFV for the CFV Hrgh-survivability modification Addition of steel applique armor Addition of spall lmers Relocation of ammunition Addition of armor tile attachment points $166,637 $166,312 New 600.horsepower engine 34,532 34,532 Modification to transmission -- 24,917 24,917 Total $226,266 $227,761 Note The total casts of the Product Improvement Program do not Include new production costs of the reactwe or passwe armor tiles that are currently estimated to cost $62,419 pet vehicle The retrofit conversion schedule is shown in table 3. Table 3: The Bradley’s Retrofit Fiscal year Bradley model 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 Total Al configuration (upgraded to A2 hrgh-survivabrlrty configuratton) 54 239 395 443 240 1,371 A2 hrgh-survrvability conftgurabon (addition of upgraded power tram) 249 292 121 0 0 662 - We obtained pertinent documentation on survivability modifications to Objective, Scope, and the Bradley, including current cost and development and production Methodology schedules. We also held discussions with program officials from the Bradley Fighting Vehicle System Office in Warren, Michigan. We con- ducted our review between November 1989 and February 1990 in accor- dance with generally accepted government auditing standards. Page 4 GAO/NSL4D9O-172 Bradley Vehicle Modifications B-221733 Because of concerns about the Bradley’s vulnerability, the Army con- ducted a series of live-fire vulnerability tests from March 1986 through May 1987. The tests showed that the Bradley, as then configured, was highly vulnerable to anti-armor weapons. The Office of the Secretary of Defense, in December 1987 hearings, reported to the Subcommittee on Procurement and Military Nuclear Systems, House Committee on Armed Services, that because of live-fire test results, the Army planned to incorporate a number of modifications designed to reduce the Bradley’s vulnerability. The Army has made or is planning to make the survivability-enhancing Status of Planned modifications discussed in the 1987 hearing. In addition, to accommo- Changes to the date the heavier weight associated with these modifications, the Army Bradley Vehicle has incorporated a higher horsepower engine and a modified transmis- sion into the new high-survivability (A2) configuration. The survivability modifications are as follows: . Steel applique armor. This armor, consisting of steel plates added to existing armor on parts of the turret and hull, increased protection from 14.6-n-m to 30-mm ammunition. . Spall liners. Spa11liners were added to the interior of the crew compart- ment to protect the crew from high-velocity debris (spall) caused by rounds’ penetrating the vehicle. . Relocation of ammunition. Twenty-five millimeter ammunition and TOW missiles stowed internally were moved to less vulnerable areas located in the rear, lower part of the crew compartment. In addition, to the extent possible, mines and pyrotechnics (signals and flares) were stowed in external rear stowage compartments. . Attachment points. Attachment points were added to the exterior of the vehicle (the front, sides, and turret) for the purpose of attaching reac- tive or passive armor tiles. . Reactive or passive armor tiles. These tiles will be bolted to the prefixed attachment points on the exterior of the vehicle to provide protection against shaped-charged (chemical) warheads used in antitank guided weapons. The Army initially reported that it planned to add reactive armor. However, because of advances in passive armor, the Army has decided that passive armor may be a viable alternative for the required armor protection. Reactive armor explodes outward when hit by a chemical missile, neutralizing most of the warhead’s force. Passive armor blunts the warhead’s forces but does not explode outward when hit. The Army plans to award up to three development contracts in June 1990 and will select the eventual production contractor on the Page 2 GAO/NSIALhSC-172 Bradley Vehicle Modifwatiom
Bradley Vehicle: Status of the Army's Survivability Enhancement Program
Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1990-05-21.
Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)