oversight

International Trade: Use of the GATT Antidumping Code

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1990-07-25.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

             >
                                                                             .
-       .’               United   States’General   Accounting   Office
                         Fact Sheet for Congressional
GAO                      Requesters
                                  .*


July 1990
                         INTERNATIONAL
                         TRADE
                         Use of the GATT
                         Antidumping Code




                                           --                            -
    GAO/NSIAD-90-238FS
                       United States
GAO                    General Accounting Office
                       Washington, D.C. 20548

                       National Security and
                       International Affairs Division

                       B-2401 22

                       July 25, 1990

                       The Honorable Daniel Patrick Moynihan
                       The Honorable Bob Packwood
                       United States Senate

                       This fact sheet responds to your March 28, 1990, request for informa-
                       tion on the extent of foreign government use of the Agreement on Imple-
                       mentation of Article VI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
                       (GATT), known as the Antidumping Code. More specifically, this fact
                       sheet addresses

                   l   the use of the GATT Antidumping Code by signatories to the code;
                   .   the use of the GATT Antidumping Code by major U.S. trading partners
                       (the European Community, Canada, Mexico, Japan, South Korea, Hong
                       Kong, Brazil, Singapore, Australia, and India); and
                   l   the extent of cases brought by code signatories against U.S. exporters
                       and exporters of major U.S. trading partners.

                       In a separate report, we will provide a comparison of the antidumping
                       procedures of key GATT Antidumping Code signatories with those of the
                       United States.


                       In summary, we found the following:
Results in Brief
                   l Signatories reported a total of 1,456 new antidumping cases to the G-ATT
                     over the past 10 years.
                   l Australia, the United States, Canada, and the European Community
                     accounted for 95 percent of all new cases reported.
                   . From 1980 through 1989, 144 new antidumping cases were directed at
                     exports from the United States, and 790 cases were directed at exports
                     from its major trading partners.


                       The GATT refers to both a multilateral agreement (the General Agree-
Background             ment on Tariffs and Trade) and a corresponding international organiza-
                       tion (the GATT Secretariat), which was formed in 1948 to administer the
                       General Agreement and which currently represents 96 member nations.

                       The General Agreement defines the responsibilities and operating rules
                       agreed upon by member governments to guide their conduct of intcrna-
                       tional trade relations. Multilateral trade negotiations to strengthen the


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                           ES240122




                           GATT  in the 1970s produced six major agreements (often referred to as
                           “codes”) designed to reduce nontariff barriers to freer trade such as
                           government subsidies, restrictive government procurement practices,
                           and unwarranted use of antidumping measures. GATT members, how-
                           ever, are not required to join the codes and, in fact, not all have chosen
                           to do so. Currently, for example, only 25l of the 96 GATT member coun-
                           tries have signed the General Agreement’s Antidumping Code.

                           In essence, the Antidumping Code states the conditions under which
                           antidumping duties may be imposed as a defense against dumped
                           imports. “Dumped” goods can be broadly defined as foreign goods that
                           are sold at prices below those charged by the producers in their
                           domestic markets. The code does not prohibit dumping but, rather, regu-
                           lates the use of antidumping measures. The code recognizes that
                           dumping may properly be countered if foreign goods (1) cause or
                           threaten to cause material injury to, or (2) materially retard establish-
                           ment of an industry within the importing country. The code prescribes
                           the proper conduct for antidumping investigations and the imposition of
                           antidumping duties based on provisions of the General Agreement. The
                           code establishes guidelines for the use of antidumping measures and
                           related practices, but each member country implements the code (like
                           other GAG standards) under its own laws and regulations.


Reporting on Antidumping   The Antidumping Code provides that its signatories (1) immediately
                           report to the GATT Secretariat all preliminary or final antidumping
Cases                      actions taken and (2) submit, on a semiannual basis, reports of any
                           antidumping actions taken during the preceding half year. These semi-
                           annual reports generally include information on the products involved
                           in antidumping actions; when the action was initiated and when it was
                           resolved; the outcome; and, in varying degrees, information on dumping
                           margins,” trade volumes, and dumped imports as a percentage of
                           domestic consumption.

                           The code states that an investigation may be started upon written
                           request by or on behalf of an industry affected by an alleged dumping of


                           ‘Signatories of the Antidumping Code are Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Czechoslo\-akla, the
                           European Community, Egypt, Finland, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Japan, South Korea. !&xlco. New
                           Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland. the I ‘mted
                           States, and Yugoslavia.

                           “The dumping margin is the amount by which the price charged for the same or a hkr pr(Ki11(,tin the
                           home market of the exporter exceeds the export price.



                           Page 2                                                 GAO/NSIAD!W238FS        International   Trade
                      B-240122




                      products. When it has been determined that dumping exists and an off-
                      setting duty has been imposed, the code also provides that the investi-
                      gating authority may conduct subsequent reviews of the need to
                      continue imposing the duty (1) on its own initiative, or, (2) if any inter-
                      ested party (usually an exporter or his representative) so requests and
                      submits information substantiating the need for review.

                      Antidumping cases reported to the GAG Secretariat are comprised of
                      newly initiated investigations of alleged dumping and sometimes include
                      subsequent review@ of earlier antidumping cases. Starting in 1986, code
                      signatories were requested to include subsequent reviews and distin-
                      guish them from newly initiated investigations. Prior to 1986, not all
                      signatories systematically included the reviews in their semiannual
                      reports. According to a Commerce Department official responsible for
                      preparing the U.S. reports, the United States, for one, did not include
                      data on subsequent reviews in its semiannual submissions before 1986.

                      We have focused our review on new antidumping cases (those not identi-
                      fied as reviews) because the subsequent reviews merely represent
                      reevaluations of prior cases.


                      From 1980 through 1989, a total of 1,456 new antidumping cases were
Use of the GATT       reported to GATT (including cases reported by the United States). As
Antidumping Code by   shown in table 1, four major trading partners-Australia,       the United
Major Trading         States, Canada, and the European Community (EC)~-accounted for 95
                      percent of all cases reported. The remaining 5 percent were initiated by
Partners and Other    three other major trading partners (Mexico, South Korea, and Brazil)
Signatories           and five other signatories. Although Mexico has only been a member of
                      the code since 1987, it has been relatively active in initiating
                      antidumping cases.




                      3Reviews involve either the reevaluation of an existing antidumping measure as descrbed above or
                      the reopening of a suspended investigation.

                      “The European Community is composed of the following countries: Belgium, Denmark. France. West
                      Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the I’nited
                      Kingdom.



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                                           B240122




Table 1: New Antidumping Cases
Initiated by Major GATT Trading Partners                                                                                  Number
and Other Signatories (1980-l 989)                                                                                                         -__Percent
                                           Maior trading partners’
                                           Australia                                     -___-                                  421            28.9
                                                                                                                                            ~~__
                                           United States                                                                        395            27 1
                                           Canada                                                                               294            20 2
                                           European Communtty                                                                   271 ----1.6
                                           Mexicob                                                                               30             21
                                           South Korea                                                                            5              03
                                           Brazil                                                                                 2             01
                                           Other signatories                 ’                                                                   ~__
                                           Finland                                                                                15                   10
                                           New Zealand                                                                            10                   0.7
                                           Sweden                                                                                 10                   0.7
                                           Austria                                                                                 2                   01
                                           Spain”                                                                                   1                  01
                                           TotaId                                                                              1,456              100.0*
                                           aNumbers for the EC may be understated because Its reports do not include cases Inmated agarnst
                                           nonsrgnatones Australia, the United States, Canada, Mexico, and South Korea include cases against
                                           nonsrgnatones In their reports; It is unclear whether Brazil’s reports Include cases agarnst
                                           nonsrgnatones
                                           bMexrco’s report for the last half of 1989 was not available

                                           ‘Srnce Spain torned the EC in 1986, its cases have been handled by the European Commrssron
                                           dNo other signatones reported any new antrdumprng cases dunng thus penod

                                           eDoes not add up to 100 0 percent due to roundtng.
                                           Source. Signatories’ semiannual reports to the GATT Committee on Antrdumprng Practrces, 1980-1989,
                                           and the lnternatronal Trade Commrssron’s Operation of the Trade Agreements Program report, 1980


                                           Antidumping cases are primarily initiated against other code signato-
                                           ries, but sometimes they are initiated against nonsignatories as well. The
                                           ECdid not include antidumping cases against nonsignatories in its semi-
                                           annual reports to GATT, but between 1980 and 1989, trading partners of
                                           the United States initiated about 260 antidumping cases against nonsig-
                                           natories. Australia and Canada were the primary initiators of these
                                           cases. The United States also initiated a number of antidumping cases
                                           against nonsignatories; from 1986 through 1989, for example, the
                                           United States reported about 40 cases against nonsignatories.

                                           Appendix I contains a breakdown of new antidumping cases by year. In
                                           addition to the new antidumping cases, a total of 660 subsequent
                                           reviews were reported from 1986 through 1989,92 percent of which
                                           were conducted by the United States and Canada. Appendix II shows
                                           the proportion of new cases and reviews for this 4-year period.


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                         5240122




Outcome of Antidumping   If dumping has been found to occur, an antidumping duty can be
Cases                    imposed on the product. In some instances, the importing country may
                         accept a “price undertaking” by the exporter. A price undertaking is
                         basically a voluntary measure by an exporter to increase prices or to
                         cease exports at dumped prices to eliminate the injurious effect of the
                         dumping. For GATT reporting purposes, the imposition of antidumping
                         duties and price undertaking actions represent final measures. In
                         instances when dumping and/or injury are not found during the investi-
                         gation or when an antidumping case is otherwise terminated or with-
                         drawn, no final measure is indicated. In addition, a case may sometimes
                         be withdrawn as a result of a voluntary agreement with the exporter
                         limiting the amount of the “dumped” product it sells to the importing
                         country.

                         Of the new antidumping cases reported by the United States, over
                         50 percent resulted in final measures-almost exclusively antidumping
                         duties. Table 2 shows the outcome of new antidumping cases reported
                         for the period from 1986 through 1989 by major GATT trading partners
                         and other signatories. On the average, almost 50 percent of the
                         antidumping cases initiated by the noted trading partners resulted in
                         reported final measures. In contrast, the percent of actions initiated by
                         Australia and Mexico that resulted in final measures was 21 and 13 per-
                         cent, respectively. (Mexico has not submitted its report for the latter
                         half of 1989 and, therefore, the percentage of actions resulting in final
                         measures may be understated.)




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                                        5240122




Table 2: Outcome of Reported New
Antidumping Cases by Major U.S.                                                            Number                             Price
Tradin Partners and Other Signatories                                                     of cases             Duty    undertaking              Othep
(1986-I8 89)                            Major trading partnersb
                                                                                                                           Percentaae
                                        Australia                                                157            12.1                8.9           79.0
                                        European CommunityC                                       125           24.0              23.2            52.8
                                        Canada                                                     95           44.2              10.5            453
                                        Mexicod                                                    30           10.0                3.3           86 7
                                        South Korea                                                    5         0.0              60.0            40 0
                                        Brazil                                                         2       100.0                0.0            00
                                        Other signatories
                                        Finland                                                    12           16.7              33.3            50.0
                                        New Zealand                                                IO           80.0                0.0           20.0
                                        Sweden                                                         8         0.0               25.0           75.0
                                        Total*                                                   444            23.9              14.2            61.9
                                        a”Other” represents cases for which no dumping or injury could be proven and cases that were other-
                                        wise wrthdrawn or terminated. It also includes cases for which no resolution had been reported

                                        bNumbers for the European Community may be understated because its reports do not include cases
                                        initiated agarnst nonsrgnatories.

                                        ‘Spain’s antidumprng cases have been handled by the European Commrssion stnce lornrng the EC In
                                         1966.
                                        dMexico’s report for the last half of 1989 was not avarlable

                                        eAll other signatories, including Singapore, India. Japan, and Hong Kong, did not report any case rnrtra-
                                        tions for this period.
                                        Source: Signatones semiannual reports to the GATT Committee on Antidumping Practrces, 1986-1989




Antidumping Cases                       exports from the United States and from its major GATT trading part-
Directed at the United                  ners. (This figure represents 63 percent of the total number of all new
States and Its Major                    antidumping cases reported to the GAG for the period.) Table 3 shows
                                        that over 70 percent of the cases reported against the major trading
Trading Partners                        partners were directed specifically at EC,Japanese, and U.S. exporters.




                                         Page 6                                                         GAO/NSIAIb~23SFs        International    Trade
                                        B-240122




Table 3: New Antidumping Cases
Directed at the United States and Its                                                                               Number~____- Percent
Major Trading Partners (1980-l 989)     European CommunItya                                                              344               37 6
                                        Japan                                                                            159               174
                                        United States                                                                    144               158
                                        South Korea                                                                       91               100
                                        Brazil                                                                            69                76
                                        Canada                                                                             41               45
                                        Hong Kong                                                                          22               24
                                        Singapore                                                                          18               20
                                        Mexico
                                        ____                                                                               15               1.6
                                        India                                                                               6               0.7
                                        Australia                                                                          5                0.6
                                        Total                                                                            914              1OO.Ob
                                        aAlmost 75 percent of antidumping cases lnltlated against the EC were dlrected at West Germany, Italy,
                                        France, and the Unlted Kingdom.

                                        bDoes not add up to 100.0 due to rounding
                                        Source Signatories’ semiannual reports to the GATT Committee on AntIdumpIng Practices. 1980-1989,
                                        and the lnternabonal Trade Commission’s Operation of the Trade Agreements Program report 1980


                                        Appendix III contains a breakdown of new antidumping cases initiated
                                        against the United States and its major trading partners by year.
                                        Appendix IV provides a breakdown by country initiating antidumping
                                        cases against the EC,Japan, the United States, South Korea, Brazil, and
                                        Canada.

                                        In addition to the new antidumping cases, a total of 481 subsequent
                                        reviews were reported against the United States and its major trading
                                        partners from 1986 through 1989. Appendix V shows the proportion of
                                        the new cases initiated and reviews conducted for this 4-year period.


Antidumping Cases                       From 1980 through 1989, a total of 144 new antidumping cases were
                                        initiated against US. exporters; an additional 34 subsequent reviews
Initiated Against the                   were also reported against U.S. exporters from 1986 through 1989.
United States                           Table 4 shows that over 70 percent of the new antidumping cases
                                        reported against the United States were initiated by Canada and Aus-
                                        tralia; the remaining cases were initiated by the ECand Mexico.




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                                          5240122




Table 4: Antidumping Cases Directed at
the United States by Country Initiating                                                                            Cases directed at the
the Action (1980-l 989)                                                                                               United States
                                                                                                                     Number        Percent
                                          Canada                                                                           58               40 3
                                          Austraha                                                                         47               32.6
                                          European Community                               -                               27               18.8
                                          Mexicoa                                                                          12                8.3
                                          Total                                                                           144              100.0
                                          Veport for last half of 1989 was not avarlable
                                          Source Srgnatones semtannual reports to the GATT Commrttee on Anttdumprng Practices, 1980-1989,
                                          and the international Trade Commrssron’s Operation of the Trade Agreements Program report, 1980


                                          From 1980 through 1989,40 percent of the total number of new
                                          antidumping cases reported by Mexico were directed at U.S. exporters,
                                          as compared with 20, 11, and 10 percent of the cases reported by
                                          Canada, Australia, and the EC, respectively. During the same period,
                                          International Monetary Fund statistics show that the average U.S. por-
                                          tion of total imports into Mexico, Canada, Australia, and the EC were 72,
                                          69, 21, and 8 percent, respectively.

                                          Table 5 shows the outcome of antidumping cases reported against U.S.
                                          exporters. Seventy percent of the EC’S cases and 53 percent of Canada’s
                                          cases against the United States resulted in final measures, primarily
                                          antidumping duties. In contrast, about 34 percent of both Australia’s
                                          and Mexico’s cases against the United States resulted in final measures.

Table 5: Outcome of Antidumping Cases
Reported Against the United States                                                        Number of                        Price
(1980-l 989)                                                                                 cases         Duty     undertaking            Othep
                                                                                                                     Percentage
                                          Canada                                                    58      43.1             103             46 6
                                          Australta                                                 47      23.4             106             66.0
                                          European Community                                        27      48.2             22.2            29.6
                                          Mexicob                                                   12      25.0              8.3            66.7
                                          a Other” represents cases for which no dumptng or inlury could be proven and cases that were other-
                                          wtse wrthdrawn or termtnated. It also includes 13 cases for whtch no resolutton had been reported

                                          bReport for last half of 1989 was not available
                                          Source: Stgnatones semtannual reports to the GATT Commrttee on AntidumpIng Practrces, 1980-1989,
                                          and the lnternattonal Trade Commtsston’s Operation of the Trade Agreements Program report, 1980


                                          Thirty-five percent of new antidumping cases reported against the
                                          United States involved chemical and chemical-related products. Another




                                           Page 8                                                 GAO/NSIAD90-23SFS        International    Trade
-
              E-240122




              23 percent involved miscellaneous types of machinery and parts, along
              with various consumer products.

              A list of all individual antidumping cases initiated against the United
              States is provided in appendix VI. Data on dumping margins, trade
              volumes, and dumped exports as a percent of total domestic consump-
              tion are included to the extent available.


              To determine use of the Antidumping Code by major trading partners,
Scopeand      including the United States and other signatories, we obtained and ana-
Methodology   lyzed data reported to the GATT by the 25 signatory countries from Jan-
              uary 1980” through December 1989 (the most recent available
              information). We did not verify the accuracy of reporting by the various
              signatories.

              We interviewed key Department of Commerce, International Trade Com-
              mission, and U.S. Trade Representative officials to obtain an under-
              standing of general antidumping policies and procedures and related
              reporting requirements.

              We conducted our work between April and June 1990. We did not obtain
              formal agency comments on this fact sheet because it is based primarily
              on data collected by the GATT.


              Copies of this fact sheet are being sent to the Secretary of the Depart-
              ment of Commerce, the Chairman of the International Trade Commis-
              sion, and the U.S. Trade Representative. Copies will be made available
              to others upon request.




               “In a few cases where 1980 GATT reports were unavailable for individual countries. we used data
               based on the GATT reports. published in the International Trade Commission’s operation of the
               Trade Agreements Program report for 1980.



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B-240122




If you have questions on the information provided, please contact me on
(202) 2754812. GAO staff members who made major contributions to
this fact sheet are listed in appendix VII.




Allan I. Mendelowitz, Director
Trade, Energy, and Finance Issues




 Page 10                                GAO/NSIAD-SO-238FS   International   Trade
Page 11   GAO/NSIADM-23SFS   International   Trade
Contents


Letter
Appendix I                                                              16
New Antidumping
CasesInitiated by
Major GATT Trading
Partners and Other
Signatories
(1980-1989)
Appendix II                                                             17
Proportion of New
Antidumping Cases
and Reviews Initiated
by Major GATT
Trading Partners and
Other Signatories
(1986-1989)
Appendix III                                                            18
New Antidumping
CasesDirected at the
United States and Its
Major Trading
Partners (1980-1989)




                        Page 12   GAO/NSIAD9O-238Fs   International   Trade
                         Contents




Appendix IV
New Antidumping
CasesDirected at the
European Community,
Japan, the United
States, South Korea,
Brazil, and Canada by
Country Initiating the
Action (1980-1989)
Appendix V
Proportion of New
Antidumping Cases
and Reviews Directed
at the United States
and Its Major Trading
Partners (1986-l 989)
Appendix VI
Antidumping Cases
Directed at U.S.
Exports by Australia,
Canada, the European
Community, and
Mexico
Appendix VII                                                                                          30
Major Contributors to    National Security and International Affairs Division
                              Washington, D.C.
                                                                                                      30
This Fact Sheet          San Francisco Regional Office                                                30

Tables                   Table 1: New Antidumping Cases Initiated by Major                              4
                             GATT Trading Partners and Other Signatories


                         Page 13                                 GAO/NSIAtMO-23WS   International   Trade
Contents




Table 2: Outcome of Reported New Antidumping Cases by
    Major U.S. Trading Partners and Other Signatories
Table 3: New Antidumping Cases Directed at the United
    States and Its Major Trading Partners
Table 4: Antidumping Cases Directed at the United States
    by Country Initiating the Action
Table 5: Outcome of Antidumping Cases Reported Against
    the United States




 Abbreviations

 EC        European Community
 GATT      General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade


 Page 14                               GAO/NSIAD!3O-238F?3   International   Trade
Page 15   GAO/NSIAlMO-23WS   International   Trade
Appendix I

New Antidumping CasesInitiated by Major
GATT Trading Partners and Other
Signatories (1980-1989)

                                                                  Year
                      1980    1981       1982       1983       1984    1985             1986   1987     1988     1989 -__~ Total
Australia                8      20         79         80         53      61               62     21       16     __-21 -__- 421
United States           21       13      -58          49         37      76               64     15       39        23      395
Canada                  25       24        79          26         27         37           16      32       15        13 ----__ 294
European CommunItya     16       34        33          30         39         32           12      32       29        14 -271 ---
Mexicob                  0        0         0           0          0          0            0      17       10          3         30
Finland                  2        0         0           0           1          0          0        5        5          2 ____    15
New Zealand              0        0         0           0           0          0           0       0        9       -__1         10
Sweden                   2        0         0           0           0          2           0       0        0          6         10
South Korea              0        0         0           0           0          0           3       1        0          1          5
Brazil                   0        0         0           0           0          0           0       0        1          1          2
Austria                  0         1        0            1          0          0           0       0        0          0          2
SpaIn"                   0        0         0           0           1          0           0       0        0          0          1
Total                   72       94       249         186        158        208          157     123     724          85        1,456
                             Note No other srgnatorres, rncludrng Srngapore, India, Japan, and Hong Kong, reported any case rnrtta-
                             tions for thrs period.
                             aNumbers may be understated because reports do not Include actions against nonsrgnatones
                             bMexrco s report for last half of 1989 was not available

                             ‘Stnce Sparn joined the EC rn 1986, its cases have been handled by the European Commission
                             Source Srgnatones semiannual reports to the GATT Commrttee on Antrdumprng Practrces. 1980-1989,
                             and the lnternatronal Trade Commrssron’s Operation of the Trade Agreements Program report, 1980




                             Page 16                                                       GAO/NSIAD-SO-238FS   International   Trade
Appktidix II

Proportion of New Antidumping Casesand
Reviews Initiated by Major GATT Trading
Partners and Other Signatories (19864989)
                                                      Number                                Percent of total
                                             New cases Reviews             Total           New cases Reviews
               United States                           141        355        496                       28 4         71 6
               Canada                                   76        255        331                       23 0         77 0
               Australia                               120          8        128                       93 8          62
               European    Communitya                   87         42        129                       67 4         32 6
               Mexlcob                                  30          0         30              ~-      1000     -   ~~ 00
               Finland                                  12           0        12                      1000            00
               New Zealand                              10           0        10                      1000            0.0
               Sweden                                    6           0         6                      1000            0.0
               South Korea                               5           0         5                      1000            0.0
               Brazil                                    2           0         2                      1000            00
               Total                                  409         660      1,149                       42.6         57.4
               Notes: Spain IS not listed separately because Its cases have been handled by the European Commas
               sron srnce it forned the EC in 1986.

               No other srgnatones, including Austria, Singapore, Indra, Japan, and Hong Kong, reported new case
               initiatrons for this penod
               aNumbers may be understated because reports do not Include cases against nonsrgnatorres
               bMexrco’s report for the last half of 1989 was not avarlable.
               Source. SIgnatones semrannual reports to the GATT Commrttee on AntidumpIng Practrces, 1986-1989.




                Page 17                                                  GAO/NSIAD-90-23SFS        International    Trade
Appendix III

New Antidumping CasesDirected at the Unit&
States and Its Major Trading Partners
(19804989)

                                                                             Year
Cases against                       1980    1961      1982      1963      1984    1965         1966     1967         1988    198ga          ~___Total
European       CommuntV               26        16       97         52        24       33        41        24          22          9 --          344
   France                             (4)       (3)     (20)        (5)       (3)       (6)       (7)       (3)        (2)        (3) ---         (56)
   Italy                              (2)       (4)     (12)       (1’)      (‘1)       (‘3)      (5)       (3)        (2)         (2)            (58)
   United     Kingdom                 (4)       (3)      (14)       63)       (1)       (7)       (6)       (2)        (3)         (1)            (49)
   West Germany                       (8)       (4)      (23)      (15)       (9)       (8)       (9)       63)        (3)         (1) ---        (88)
   Other European       Community
   countries                          (8)       (2)      (28)      (13)       (0)       (6)      (14)      (8)        (12)         (2)            (93)
Japan                                  5         9        19        21        21       20         15       22          19           8             159
United      States                    21        11       21         17        14       14         14       16           9           7             144
South Korea                            0         5        17        12          9      12          9        8          14           5           -- 91
Brazil                                 3         0        12         7          5      12         11        7           7           5              69
Canada                                 4         4         5         7          4       4          4        3           5           1              41
Hong Kong                              0         1         1          2         2        1         1        4           5           5              22
Singapore                              0         3         0          2         1        3         3         3          3           0             18
Mexico                                 0         0         0          3         1        3         1         4          0           3             15
  -._
India                                  2         1         0          0         0        2         0         0          0           1              6
Australia                              0         0        2         0           1        0         0         0          2          0               5
Total                                 61       50       174       123         62      104        99        91          66         44             914
                                            Note: Parentheses rndrcate breakdowns by specrflc EC member countries.
                                            aDoes not include Mexrco’s data for the second half of 1989.

                                            blncludes cases against Spain and Portugal starting In 1986 (the year they Joined the EC)
                                            Source. Signatories’ semiannual reports to the GATT Commrttee on Antrdumprng Practrces, 1980-1989,
                                            and the International Trade Commission’s Operation of the Trade Agreements Program report, 1980




                                            Page 18                                                GAO/NSIAD90-238FS         International      Trade
Amendix Iv

New Antidumping CasesDirected at the
European Community, Japan, the United States,
South Korea, Brazil, and Canada by Country
Initiating the Action (19804989)
                                                                            Number              Percent
               Cases directed at the European Community by
               Australia                                                        118                34.3
               Umted States                                                     116                33.7
               Canada                                                            89                25.9
               Mexico                                                            12                 3.5
               Other                                                              9                 2.6
               Total                                                            344               100.0
               Cases directed at Japan by
               United States                                                     51                32.1
               Australra                                                         42                26.4
               European Community                                                38                23 9
               Canada                                                            23                145
               Mexico                                                             2                 13
               Other                                                              3                 19
               Total                                                            159               100.0’
               Cases directed at the United States by
               Canada                                                            58                40 3
               Australia                                                         47                32 6
               European Community                                                27                188
               Mexico                                                            12                 83
               Other                                                              0                 00
               Total                                                            144               100.0
               Cases directed at South Korea by
               Australia                                                         28                30.8
               United States                                                     24                26.4
               Canada                                                            22                24.2
               European Community                                                16                176
               Other                                                              1                 11
               Total                                                             91               1OO.oa
               Cases directed at Brazil by
               United States                                                     23                33.3
               European Community                                                14                20.3
               Canada                                                            12                174
               Australia                                                          9                130
               Mexico                                                             8                11 6
               Other                                                              3                 44
               Total                                                             69               100.0
                                                                                          (contrnued)




               Page 19                                       GAO/NSIAMO-23SFS   International     Trade
Appendix N
New Antidumping    Cases Directed at the
European Community, Japan, the United
States, South Korea, Brazil, and Canada by
Country Initiating  the Action (1980-1989)




                                                                      Number                Percent
Cases directed at Canada bv
United States                                                               23                 56.1
Australia                                                                   12                 29 3
European Community                                                           6                 146
Other                                                                        0                  0.0
Total                                                                       41                100.0
Note: Numbers do not Include Mexico’s data for the latter half of 1989.
aDoes not add up to 100.0 percent due to rounding
Source SIgnatones semlannual reports to the GATT CommIttee on AntidumpIng Practices. 1980-1989,
and the InternatIonal Trade Commission’s Operation of the Trade Agreements Program report, 1980




 Page 20                                             GAO/NSiAD-9O-23Sl%     International      Trade
Appendix V

Proportion of New Antidumping Casesand
Reviews Directed at the United States and Its
Major Trading Partners (1986-1989)
                                                           Number                               Percent of total
                Cases against                     New cases Reviews              Total         New cases Reviews
                European       Community                    96        146          242                  39.7             60 3
                   France                                  (15)        (29)        (44)                 34 1             659
                   Italy                                   (12)        (32)        (44)                 27 3 -__         72 7
                   United     Kingdom                      (12)        (21)        (33)                 36 4            63 6
                   West Germany                            (21)        (35)        (56)                 37 5            623
                   Other European
                   Community   countnes                    (36)        (2%         (65)                 55 4            44 6
                Japan                                       64        144          208                  30.8            69 2
                South Korea                                 36         56           92                  39.1             60 9
                United      States                          46         34           80                  57 5            42 5
                Canada                                      13         51           64                  20.3             79 7
                Brazrl                                      30         22           52                  57 7            42.3
                Hong Kong                                   15          10          25                  60 0          -.__40 0
                Mexrco                                       8           8          16                  50.0              50 0
                                                                                                                   --____
                Singapore                                    9           6          15                  60 0              40 0
                India                                        1           4           5                  20.0             80 0
                Australia                                    2           0           2                 1000               0.0
                Total                                     320         481         801                   40.0            60.0

                Notes: Parentheses indicate breakdowns     by specrfic EC member countrres

                Numbers do not Include Mexrco’s data for the second half of 1989.

                Source. Signatones      semiannual reports to the GATT Committee on Antrdumping Practrces, 1986-1989




                Page 21                                                       GAO/NSIAJ%!M-238FS   International       Trade
Appendix VI

Antidumping CasesDirected at U.S. Exports by
Australia, Canada, the European Community,
and Mexico
                                             From 1980 through 1989, a total of 144 new antidumping cases and 35
                                             subsequent reviews were initiated against U.S. exporters. This appendix
                                             provides a detailed listing of individual antidumping cases against the
                                             United States, according to the initiating country. A subsequent review
                                             is indicated by an (R).


                                                                                  Dumping                                   Percent
                                                                                    margina            Trade            of domestic
U.S. product                                                    Outcome           (Percent)          volumeb          consumptionc
Cases initiated against U.S. exports by Australia (1980-1989)
Antidumping cases against the United States: 47
New cases: 47
Reviews: 0
Initiated in 1980
    Polyethylene resin, low density                             Duty                      -        $3,440,000                       10
    Polyvinyl chloride homopolymer                              Duty                      -           930,000                       10
Initiated in 1981
    Certain triethanol ammo                                     Duty                      -          $160,000                      16.0
    Epoxy resin                                                 No dumping                -         2,000,000                      30.0
Initiated in 1982
    Toughened glass panels                                      No injury                 -           290,000                       4.0
    Sodium tripolyphosphate                                     Undertaking               -            60,000                       38
    Fiberglass insect screening                                 Other                     -           620,000                      14.0
  Toluene and xvlene                                            Duty                      -         2,700,OOO                      13.0
  Uncoated wood-free paper                                      Case withdrawn            -         2,580,OOO                      21.6
                                                                                                                            -__
  Sparkplugs                                                    Duty             8.20 - 12.03       3,300,000                      13.0
Initiated in 1983
   Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate                      Undertaking               -                  -                       -
   Triple super-phosphate                                       Duty                      15        3,470,ooo             __- ___ 7.0
    Propylene glycol, industrial                                No injury                 -           800,000             --CO
                                                                                                                             --__
   Alkyl phenol ethoxylates                                     No injury                 -            80,000                        3.0
    Textured polyester yarn                                     No Injury                 -                 -                        3.0
    Sodrum stearovl 2-lactvlate                                 Other                     -          8,130,OOO                       5.0
    Kraft linerboard                                            No dumping                -          5,560,000                      15.0
                                                                                                                            -~___
    Dishwashing powder                                          Other                     -          7,000,000                      70.0
    Dental amalgam alloy capsules                               Duty                   4-47            110,000                  ~___10.0
    Paper cold drink CUDS                                       No Injury
                                                                     .                    -            400,000                        -
                                                                                                                             ~~~~__
    Stainless steel repair clamps                               No dumping                -          2,500,OOO                      40.0
                                                                                                                            (continued)




                                              Page 22                                   GAO/NSIAD-90-238FS       International    Trade
                                                 Appendix VI
                                                 Antidumping   Cases Directed at U.S. Exports
                                                 by Australia, Canada, the European
                                                 Community, and Mexico




                                                                                                Dumping                                 Percent
                                                                                                  margina           Trade           of domestic
U.S. product                                                          Outcome                   (Percent)         volumeb         consumptionC
lnrtiated tn 1984
    Outboard motors                                                   Duty                      11 4-428        $4,800 000                      150
    Pallet trucks                                                     Undertaking                       -          300 000
    Process cooling systems                                           No Injury                         -        2,900,000                        -
    Sodium carbonate                                                  Duty                            8.85         100.000                       70
    Battery-operated work trucks                                      Undertaking                       -          700,000
                                                  __~
k-titrated In 1985
    Dned vine fruits                                                  No dumping                        -                                       50 0
    Film laminate                                                     No Injury                         -         1,ooo.ooo                       -
                                                                                          .~
    Monoammonium, diammonrum phosphate                                Duty                          5 20          5,000,000                     80 0
    Process cooling systems                                           No Injury                       -           5,000,000                       -
    Photographic prtnting paper                                       Other                           -           1,400,000
    Acetoxy silicone sealants                                         No dumping                      -             200,000
    Urethane prepolymers                                              Other                           -           3,400,000
Initiated in 1986
    Almonds                                                           No Injury                         -        11,200,000                       -
    Certain nylon polyamide yarn                                      No Injury                         -           100,000                       -
    Propylene oxide-based polyether polyols                           No injury                         -                -                        -
    Dental surgery furniture, dental apparatus                        No injury                         -                -                      140
    Hypodermrc needles                                                Undertaking                       -           300,000                       -
    Pigments, flushed                                                 No Injury                         -           600,000                       -
    Silicon sealants (neutral cure)                                   No Injury                         -         4,100,000                     188
    Urea                                                              Duty                              -         7,000,000                     130
 Initiated In 1987
    Certain electric wenches                                          Case wrthdrawn                    -         1,200,000
    Commercial out-front mowers                                       No dumping                        -                -                            -
    Sublimation transfer printing paper                               No Injury                         -           200,000                           -
 Initiated in 1988
     (None)
 Initiated In 1989
     Outboard motors                                                                                    -        17,500,000                      170
     Transparent film wound dressings                                                                   -
     Vibrating wire plezometers                                                                         -                                             -
                                                                                                                                        (continued)




                                                 Page 23                                              GAO/NSIAD90-238FS       International    Trade
                                                 Appendix VI
                                                 Antidumping   Cases Directed at U.S. Exports
                                                 by Australia, Canada, the European
                                                 Community, and Mexico




                                                                                                Dumping                            Percent
                                                                                                 margina            Trade      of domestic
U.S. product                                                          Outcome                   (Percent)            -~~____ consumptionC
                                                                                                                  volumeb
Cases initiated against U.S. exports by Canada (1980-l 989)
Antidumping cases against the U.S.: 84
New cases: 58
Reviews: 26
Initiated In 1980
    EDTA Na 4 Liquid, DPTA liquid                                     No injury                        -                 -
                                                                                          -
    Juvenile products                                                 Duty                             -                 -                      -
                                                                                                                                  -.__~
    Benzoyl peroxide                                                  Duty                             -       189,110 Ibs                    70 5
    T-Butyl peroctoate                                                Duty                             -                -                     51 0
                                                                                                                              ___.____
    T-Butyl parbenzoate                                               Duty                             -                -                     170
    Multilink telephone intercom systems                              Duty                             -                -                       -
                                                                                                                          __~
    Vehicle washing equipment                                         Duty                             -                -                       -
    Sporting ammunitton                                               Duty                             -                -                       -
                                                                                                                                   ___~
    Waterbed mattresses                                               No dumping                       -                                        -
    Electric fan motors                                               Case withdrawn                   -                 -                      -
Initiated In 1981
    Radiator components, headers                                      No injury                        -                 -                      -
    Buttweld fittings                                                                                  -          $382,785                    11.4
    Steel rule products                                               Duty                             -          $300,000                    37.5
iitiated in 1982                                                                                                                      -___
     Bottoming materials                                              Duty                             -          $300,000                    15.0
    Occasional chairs                                                 Case wlthdrawn                   -                -                      -
    Center pivot sprinklers                                           Case withdrawn                   -                 -                      -
    Woven polyester filament fabrics                                  Case withdrawn                   -       $39,000,000                    51 0
     Industrial woodcutting band saw blades                           Duty                             -          $404,783           -33
    Toilet seats                                                      No injury                        -      150,000 units                   30 0
     Asbestos-cement pressure pipe                                    Case withdrawn                   -                 -                      -
     Soda ash                                                          Duty                            -      100,000 tons                     55
 Initiated in 1983
     Contact lenses                                                    No injury                       -        $4,976,006                    34 0
     Plate coils                                                       Dutv                            -          $453,000                    55.0
                                                                                                                                      ~_~~~..__
     Stainless steel nickel, alloy, pipe, tube                         Duty                            -       $15,250,000                    36.5
                                                                                                                                        ~~-
     Potatoes                                                                                          -        $4000,000                     55.0
     Sugar                                                             No Injury                       -        17,000 tons                    5.0
                                                                                                                                      (conttnued)




                                                 Page 24                                             GAO/NSIAIHO-238FS       Lntemational    Trade
     .
                                              Appendix VI
                                              Antidumping   Cases Directed at U.S. Exports
                                              by Australia, Canada, the European
                                              Community, and Mexico




                                                                                              Dumping                                 Percent
                                                                                               margina           Trade            of domestic
U.S. product                                                       Outcome                   (Percent)         volumeb          consumptionc
Initiated In 1984
    Water resistant steel pipe                                     Duty                             -          $650,000                     18.0
    Photo albums with self-adhesive leaves                         Duty                             -        $1,425,479                     95.0
    Self-adhesive leaves                                                                            -          $731,438                     95.0
    High-voltage porcelain insulators                              Duty                             -        $3,000,000                     32.9
    Two-door metal storage cabinets                                Undertaking                   11 03          $10,000                      7.9
    Plywood concrete formina panels                                No injury                        -          $500,000                     45.0
Initiated in 1985
    Charcoal briquets                                              Duty                             -        9,434 tons                     35.0
    Locomotive axles, certain railcar axles                        No injury                        -        3.055 units                     3.5
    Modular automated plants                                       Terminated
    Frozen pot pies and compartment dinners                        Undertaking                      -        $3,000,000                      4.0
    Certain oil and gas well casing                                Duty                             -       38,660 tons                     13.d
    Potatoes                                                       Duty                             -       $15.000.000                     39.0
    Needles and syringes                                           No iniurv                        -       $37000.000                        -
Initiated in 1986
    Artificial graphite electrodes                                 Duty                             18       1,240 tons                      2.0
    (R) Soda ash                                                   Duty                             -                 -                       -
    Pressure cleaners                                              No injury                        -          $215.000                       -
    (R) Frozen pot pies                                            Undertaking
    Tile backer board                                              Undertaking                      11         $620,000                     18.0
    Yellow onions                                                  Duty                             42     4,500,OOOkg                      46.0
    (R) Plate coils                                                Duty                             -                 -                       -
    Gasoline-powered chain saws                                    Duty                             18       $1.100.000                     14.0
    (R) Porcelain insulators                                       Duty                             -                 -                       -
    Absorbent clay                                                 No injury                        -        $8,000,000                       -
    (R) Vehicle washing equipment                                  Duty                             -          $140,000                      70
    (R) Soda ash                                                   Duty                             -                -                        -
 Initiated in 1987
    Fertilizer blending equipment                                   No injury                       -          $500,000                     10.0
    (R) Electric motors                                             Duty                            -                -                       -
    Carbon steel reinforcing bars                                   No injury                       -        5,000 tons                       2.0
     (R) Soda ash                                                   Duty                            -                -                         -
    (R) Artificial graphite electrodes                              Duty                            -                -                         -
     Recreational vehicle doors                                     No injury                       -       10,000 units                    47.0
     (R) Metal storage cabinets                                     Undertaking                     -       26,000 units                      -
                                                                                                                                     (continued)




                                              Page 26                                             GA0/NSIAD90238FS         International   Trade
                                                Appendix VI
                                                Antidumping   Cases Directed at U.S. Exports
                                                by Australia, Canada, the European
                                                Community, and Mexico




                                                                                                DumcGna                                  Percent
                                                                                                 maigir?           Trade             of domestic
U.S. product                                                         Outcome                   (Percent)         volumeb           consumptionC
lnltlated In 1988
    (R) Tile backer board                                            Undertaking
    (R) StaInless steel pipe                                         Duty
    (R) Frozen pot pies                                              Undertaking                     -           $253,000                            -
    (R) Oil and gas well casing                                      Duty
    (R) Vehicle washing equipment                                    Duty
    Integral induction motors                                        Duty
    Steel wool                                                       No injury                       14          $100,000                    50
    Sour cherries                                                    Duty                            35        $1,384,000              ____- 90
    (R) Plate coils                                                  Duty                            -                  -                     -
                                                                                                                              --     ____-
    Deltclous apples                                                 Duty                            27      71 million Ibs                 21 2
    (R) Artificial graphite electrodes                               Duty                            -                  -                            -
    (R) Gasoltne-powered chain saws                                  Duty                            -                  -                            -
                                                                                                                                              __-.
    Padded clothes hangers                                           No injury                       20           $75.000                         3.0
    Grinding balls                                                   Undertaking                     13    21,200 net tons                       32.0
    PolvDhase InductIon motors above 200 hg                          No Injury                       15        $2,858,000                         6.3
 Initiated In 1989
    (R) Metal storage cabinets                                        Undertaking                    -                  -                            -
    (R) Electric motors                                               Duty                           -                  -                            -
    (R) Oil and gas well casing                                       Duty
     Liquid polyvinyl chloride dispersion                             No injury                       5      1,623,815 Ibs                        16
     Landing nets                                                     Undertaktng                    21       20,000 units                        81
     Transit concrete mixers                                          Undertaking                    12           80 units                       11.0
     (R) Photo albums with self-adhesive leaves                       Duty
     (R) Frozen prepared pies, compartment dinners                                                    -                 -                            -
     (R) Stainless steel pipe                                                                         -                 -                            -
     (R) Tile backer board
     (R) Gasoline-powered chain saws                                                                  -                  -                           -
                                                                                                                                         --___
                                                                                                                                      (continued)




                                                 Page 26                                            GAO/NSLAD9@23WS          Intrt national     Trade
                                              Appendix    VI
                                              AntidumphgCasesDimctedatU.S.JZxporta
                                              by Australia,     Canada, the European
                                              Community,       and Mexico




                                                                                       Dumpi?!                                  Percent
                                                                                                           Trade            of domestic
U.S. product                                               Outcome                     (PmB2:)           volumeb          consumptionC
Cases initiated against U.S. exports by the European Community (1980-1989)
Antidumping cases against the US: 35
New cases: 27
Reviews: 8
Initiated in 1980
   Chemical fertilizer                                                 Duty                    -     400,000tons                            500
   Vinyl acetate monomer                                               Duty                    -       33,894 tons                          31 0
    Styrene monomer                                                    Duty                    -       65,600tons                           17.0
    Orthoxylene                                                        Duty                    -       62.000tons                           140
    Paraxylene                                                         Duty                    -      150,000 tons                          160
    Polyester yarn                                                     Duty                    -                 -                           -
    Paper masking tape                                                 No dumping              -                 -                           -
    Textured polyester fabrics                                         Duty                    -     8.700.000cm                            170
    (R) Lithium hvdroxide                                              Duty
Initiated in 1981
    Fluid cracking catalyst                                            Undertaking             -          529 tons                           2.0
    Conifer plywood                                                    No dumping              -       311,000 cm                            -
    Polyester cotton sheets and pillowcases                            No dumping              -         6148 tons                           -
  Phenol                                                               Duty                    -       72,173 tons                           9.0
  Trichlorethylene                                                     Undertaking             -        7,607tons                            9.8
  Decambromodiphenylehter                                              Undertaking             -        1,250 tons                          78.7
Initiated in 1982
   Acrylonitrile                                                       No injury       10.7 - 22.8     50,200tons                            5.0
   Bisphenol                                                           Duty                    34       2,226tons                            8.0
   Thiophen                                                            Undertaking            -         41,800 kg                           50.0
    Perchlorethylene                                                   Undertaking            -        11,806 tons                          13.6
   Sodium carbonate                                                    Duty                  16.5      48,500tons                            4.0
    Xanthan gum                                                        No injury               -          630 tons                            -
    Cellulose ester resins                                                                     -        1,040 tons                            -
                                                                                                                                     --__
Initiated in 1983
    N-propyl alcohol                                                   Undertaking             -        6,836tons                           22.0
Initiated in 1984
   Sodium carbonate                                                    Duty                16-40        4,826tons                            2.3
   Wrought titanium                                                    No dumping              -          300 tons          -        --__     -
    Polyester yarn                                                                             -                 -                            -
Initiated in 1985                                                                                                               ~ ~_..___
  (None)
                                                                                                                                (continued)




                                              Page 27                                        GAO/NSLAD90-238FS       International      Trade
                                           Appendix VI
                                           Antidumping   Cases Directed at U.S. Exports
                                           by Australia, Canada, the European
                                           Community, and Mexico




                                                                                           Dumping                                   Percent
                                                                                             margin”            Trade            of domestic
U.S. product                                                    Outcome                    (Percent)          volumeb          consumptionC
Initrated In 1986
   (R) Kraftliner                                                                                  -       465,560 tons                      -
   (R) Vinyl acetate monomer                                    Duty                      5.88 - 17.41      66,000 tons                    21 5
   (R) Certain chemical fertrlizers                             No dumping                          -                -                       -
   (R) Styrene monomer                                          No dumping                          -                -                       -
Initiated in 1987
   Synthetic textile fibers of polyester                        Duty                          0 23.1         8,017 tons                      2.0
    Urea                                                        Duty                -         6.4.21        88,445 tons                     11 5
Initiated In 1988
    (None)                                      -
Initiated in 1989
    (R) Dense sodium carbonate                                                                     -                   -                      -
    (R) Propan-I-el (propyl alcohol)                                                               -                   -                      -
    (R) Vinyl acetate monomer                                                                      -                   -                      -
                                                                                                                                    (continued)




                                            Page 28                                               GAO/NSIAD-90-23SFS       International   Trade
     .
                                              Appendix VI
                                              Antidumping   Cases Dinxted at U.S. Exports
                                              by Australia, Canada, the European
                                              Community, and Mexico




                                                                                                  Dumping                                      Percent
                                                                                                    margina                Trade           of domestic
U.S. product                                                        Outcome                       (Percent)              volumeb         consumptionC
Cask initiated against U.S. exports by Mexico (1987-1989)
Antidumping cases against the US.: 12
New cases: 12
Reviews: 0
Initiated in 1987
   Triethylamrne                                                    Duty                               $0.71d          67,000   kg                   22.7
    Monoisopropylamine                                              Duty                               $0.33           46,000   kg                   33.0
    Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate                                                               -           496,000   kg                   26.3
    Potassium carbonate                                              No injury                            -           624,000   kg                   67 2
   Potassrum hydroxide                                                                                    -           188,000   kg                   21.8
    Monoethylamine                                                   Duty                             $0.093           65,000   kg                   46.1
    Vat blue No. 1                                                   Undertaking                       $6.42                    -                      -
    Sinale phase and bolvbhase wattmeters                            No iniurv                             -             215 units                     1.0
Initiated in 1988
    UNIX PC-7300, UNIX 3131 microcomputers                           Other                                 -            2,232 sets                      -
    Toluene-diisocyanate                                                                                   -           488,000 kg                      4.2
    Regimented cellulose film                                                                              -             29,000 kg                     0.6
initiated in 1989
    Alkaline batteries                                                                                     -      4,980,OOOunits                       90
                                              Legend:
                                              CM - cubrc meter
                                              HP - horsepower
                                              KG - kilograms
                                              LBS - pounds

                                              Notes: A dash rndrcates that the rnformation was not reported in the semiannual GATT report. Either the
                                              informatton was not available or it was consrdered confidential by the reportrng government.

                                              Australia jorned the code in 1982. Its first report (1982) rncluded some cases initrated In 1980 and 1981
                                              Mexico jotned the code in 1987. Its first report (1988) listed cases begrnnrng in 1987
                                              aDumping margin is the amount by which the price charged for the same or like product rn the home
                                              market of the exporter exceeds the export price.

                                              bTrade volume is the estimated amount of “dumped” exports of a product based on statrstrcal data for
                                              the latest available year prior to Initiation. The volume may be overstated because the product some-
                                              times falls withtn a broader tariff classification.

                                              @‘Dumped” exports of a product as a percentage of domestic consumption of the product

                                              dFrom thts point, dumping margins are reported in dollar amounts, not in percent.
                                              Source. Signatories’ semiannual reports to the GATT Committee on Antidumping Practices, 1980-1989.
                                              the International Trade Commission’s Operation of the Trade Agreements Program report, 1980.




                                              Page 29                                                    GAO/NSIAB90299Ff3           International   Trade
Appendix VII

Major Contributors to This Fact Sheet


                         John Watson, Assistant Director
Nationa1  Security and   Jill   &r&rim   1Evaluator
International Affairs
Division Washington,
D.C.
                         Kane Wong, Issue Area Manager
San Francisco            Evelyn Aquino, Evaluator-in-charge
Regional Office




(483664)                  Page 30                             GAO/NSIAJMO-238FS   Lntemational   Trade