United States General Accounting Office Fact Sheet for the Honorable GAO Andrew Jacobs, Jr., House of Representatives September 1990 PANAMA Cost of the U.S. Invasion of Panama GAO/NSIAD-90-279FS -. United States GAO General Accounting Office Washington, D.C. 20548 National Security and International Affairs Division B-240794 September 13,199O The Honorable Andrew Jacobs, Jr. House of Representatives Dear Mr. Jacobs: In response to your request, we obtained data from the Defense Depart- ment on the estimated incremental cost of the U.S. invasion of Panama. It represents the cost over and above the cost for normal operations for each service participating in the invasion. Defense Department officials advised us that certain costs, such as regular military pay, would have been incurred whether the troops were in Panama or stationed at a mili- tary installation in the United States. Initial planning for the U.S. invasion of Panama, known as Operation Background Just Cause, began in October 1989, and on December 17,1989, the Presi- dent made the decision to invade Panama. The operation was carried out between December 20,1989, and January 31,199O. Although primarily an Army operation, each of the military services was involved. Military units stationed in Panama as well as units from the United States partic- ipated. Conventional Army units, such as the 82nd Airborne Division, the 7th Light Infantry Division, the 75th Ranger Battalion, and the 193rd Infantry Division, and special operations forces of all the military services collaborated in the invasion. The Defense Department estimates that the incremental cost associated Results in Brief with Operation Just Cause was about $163.6 million: $155.0 million for the Army, $5.7 million for the Air Force, and $2.9 million for the Navy (see table 1). A Defense Department official advised us that the Depart- ment has not requested additional funds to cover this cost but plans to reprogram funds from existing resources in other appropriation accounts. Page 1 GAO/NSIALHW279FS U.S. Invasion of Panama B-240794 Table 1: Estimated Incremental Cost of Operation Just Cause Dollars in millions Operations Military ,p;$ and Military service maintenances allowancesb ProcurementC Total Army $113.1 $27.1 $14.8 $155.0 Air Force 3.1 2.2 0.4 5.7 Navy (incl. Marine Corps) 2.6 0.2 0.1 2.9 Total $118.8 $29.5 $15.3 $163.6 Note: Table 1 rncludes costs for expenses incurred prior to the actual invasion, e.g., practice missions, dependent evacuation, etc. aOperations and maintenance include such costs as the deployment and redeployment of active and reserve forces, medical supplies, and other personnel-related activities. bMilrtary pay and allowances include such costs as immanent danger pay, family separation allowances, and quarters allowances. CProcurement includes costs to replace aircraft and vehicles lost during the invasion and costs for ammunition. We met with Defense Department officials and military service repre- Scope and sentatives and obtained estimates of the incremental costs incurred by Methodology each of the military services for the invasion. We did not independently verify these estimates but relied on the services for the accuracy and completeness of the data. In addition, staff from the Joint Chiefs of Staff briefed us on Operation Just Cause. We conducted our work between June and August 1990. We did not obtain written agency comments on this fact sheet, but we discussed its contents with responsible agency officials. We are sending copies of this fact sheet to the Secretaries of Defense and State; the Director, Office of Management and Budget; and other inter- ested parties. Page 2 GAO/NSLAD-90-279FY3 U.S. Invasion of Panama a. 5240794 Please contact me on (202) 2754128 if you or your staff have any ques- tions on this report. The major contributors to this fact sheet were Charles Schuler, Assistant Director, and Ronald Hughes, Senior Evaluator. Sincerely yours, sLF-*y Joseph E. Kelley Director, Security and International Relations Issues (495296) Page 3 GAO/NSIAIMO-279FS U.S. Invasion of Panama Ordering -__ Information The first five copies of each GAO report are free. Additional copies are $2 each. Orders should be sent to the following address, accompanied by a check or money order made out to the Superintendent of Documents, when necessary. Orders for 100 or more copies to be mailed to a single address are discounted 25 percent. U.S. General Accounting Office P. 0. Box 6015 Gaithersburg, MD 20877 Orders may also be placed by calling (202) 275-6241.
Panama: Cost of the U.S. Invasion of Panama
Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1990-09-13.
Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)