oversight

Aerospace Technology: Technical Data and Information on Foreign Test Facilities

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1990-06-22.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                         IJnited   Statths ---General   Awoa~tt   i ng Of’fiw l___l--            1   I
                         Fact Sheet for t,he Chairman,                                               ji/
                         Cornrnittoc! on Science, Space, and
                         Technology, House of Representatives

        --.-_-
GIIC~1!M~
                         AEROSPACE
                         TECHNOLOGY
                         Technical Data and
                         Information on Foreign
                         Test Facilities



                                                                                        141662




(;AO/NSIAD-90-7   1E’S
      United States
GAO   General Accounting  Office
      Washington, D.C. 20548

      National Security and
      International Affairs Division

      B-236387

      June 22,199O
      The Honorable Robert A. Roe
      Chairman, Committee on Science,Space,and Technology
      Houseof Representatives
      Dear Mr. Chairman:

      As requested, we reviewed investment in foreign aerospacevehicle
      research and technological development efforts. We briefed representa-
      tives of the Subcommittee on Transportation, Aviation, and Materials,
      HouseCommittee on Science,Space,and Technology, previously on the
      results of our review. This report provides technical data and informa-
      tion on foreign aerospacetest facilities (wind tunnels and air-breathing
      propulsion test cells) and their capabilities.
      This report is the first in a planned series of reports on aerospace
      investment in foreign countries. Subsequentreports will address aero-
      spaceinvestment in individual countries and our overall evaluation and
      conclusions.

      Appendix I includes an explanation of the facility data sheets(a sum-
      mary of each individual facility’s performance characteristics and cost
      information, as well as narrative statements describing the facility’s
      technical capabilities and research or test programs currently being con-
      ducted); a description of wind tunnels and air-breathing propulsion test
      cells; a quick reference to facilities by country; and our objectives,
      scope,and methodology. Appendix II provides a definition and explana-
      tion of each data element used in this report. Appendixes III through X
      contain individual facility data sheetsby country and photographs,
      schematic drawings, and/or schematic diagrams of the facility’s layout,
      where available. Appendix XI contains a list of facility installation
      addresses.A glossary of technical terms appears at the end of this
      report.
      The Departments of Defense,State, and Commerce;the National Aero-
      nautics and SpaceAdministration; and the Central Intelligence Agency
      commentedon a draft of this report and concurred with the facts as
      presented. Their comments appear in appendixes XII through XVI.
      Technical and editorial commentsby the Department of Defenseand the
      National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration were provided sepa-
      rately and have been incorporated in the report where appropriate.



      Page 1                                GAO/NSL4B9O-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Page 3   GAO/NSIAD-BO-71FS Foreign Test Facllitks
                       Contents




Appendix V                                                                                       96
Aerospace Test         SubsonicWind Tunnel Data Sheets
                            CEPRA 19 Anechoic Wind Tunnel
                                                                                                 97
                                                                                                 97
Facilities in France        ONERA Fl Wind Tunnel                                                100
                            ONERA F2 Wind Tunnel                                                108
                            ONERA IMFL SV4 Spin Wind Tunnel                                     112
                            ONERA S2ChSubsonicWind Tunnel                                       117
                       Transonic Wind Tunnel Data Sheets                                        121
                            ONERA IMFL Transonic Wind Tunnel                                    121
                            ONERA SlMA Wind Tunnel                                              123
                            ONERA S3Ch Transonic Wind Tunnel                                    128
                            ONERA T2 Wind Tunnel                                                131
                       Trisonic Wind Tunnel Data Sheets                                         134
                            LRBA C4 Trisonic Wind Tunnel                                        134
                            ONERA R4.3 CascadeWind Tunnel                                       136
                            ONERA SZMA Wind Tunnel                                              139
                            ONERA S3MA Wind Tunnel                                              147
                            Institut Aerotechnique de St. Cyr Sigma 4 Wind                      164
                              Tunnel
                       Supersonic Wind Tunnel Data Sheets                                       166
                            Aerospatiale-Aquitaine Arc Heater J.P. 200 Wind                     156
                              Tunnel
                            CEAT S.150 SupersonicBlowdown Wind Tunnel                           158
                            ONERA S5Ch Transonic and SupersonicWind Tunnel                      160
                       Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Data Sheets                                       162
                            CEAT H.210 Blowdown Wind Tunnel                                     162
                            CNRSSR.3Wind Tunnel                                                 164
                            IMF Blowdown Tunnel SH                                              168
                            ONERA R2Ch Blowdown Wind Tunnel                                     170
                            ONERA R3Ch Blowdown Wind Tunnel                                     173
                            ONERA S4MA Wind Tunnel                                              178
                       Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel Data Sheets                                    184
                            ISL Hypersonic Shock Tunnel                                         184
                            LRBA C, Reflected Shock Tunnel                                      186
                            ONERA ARC 2 Hotshot Wind Tunnel                                     188
                            ONERA F4 Hotshot Wind Tunnel                                        191
                       Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell Data Sheets                           193
                            CEPr C-l Altitude Engine Test Facility                              193
                            CEPr R-3 Altitude Engine Test Facility                              196
                            CEPr R-4 Altitude Engine Test Facility                              196
                            CEPr R-6 Altitude Engine Test Facility                              198
                            CEPr S-l Altitude Engine Test Facility                              200


                       Page 5                             GAO/NSIADoo-7lF’S   Fore&n Test Facilities
                                IHI Medium-PressureCombustor Facility                               287
                                NAL High-PressureAnnular Combustor Test Facility                    289
                                NAL High-PressureCombustor Test Facility                            291
                                NAL Propulsion Test Cell                                            297
                                NAL Ram/Scramjet Combustor Test Facility                            299

Appendix VIII                                                                                       302
Aerospace Test             SubsonicWind Tunnel Data Sheets
                                DNW Low-SpeedWind Tunnel
                                                                                                    303
                                                                                                    303
Facilities in The              NLR Low-SpeedWind Tunnel                                             308
Netherlands                Transonic Wind Tunnel Data Sheet                                         311
                               NLR High-SpeedWind Tunnel                                            311
                           Trisonic Wind Tunnel Data Sheets                                         316
                               Delft University of Technology Blowdown Tunnel B                     315
                                  (TST 27)
                               Delft University of Technology GLT 20 Boundary                       319
                                  Layer Tunnel
                           SupersonicWind Tunnel Data Sheets                                        322
                               Delft University of Technology Blowdown Tunnel A                     322
                                  (ST 15)
                               NLR Continuous SupersonicWind Tunnel                                 325
                               NLR Supersonic Wind Tunnel                                           328

Appendix IX                                                                                         332
Aerospace Test             SubsonicWind Tunnel Data Sheets
                               ARA Bedford Two-Dimensional Wind Tunnel
                                                                                                    333
                                                                                                    333
Facilities in the United       BAe Brough 7 X 6 ft Low-SpeedWind Tunnel                             335
Kingdom                        BAe Filton 12 X 10 ft Wind Tunnel                                    338
                               BAe Hatfield 9 X 7 ft Wind Tunnel                                    340
                               BAe Hatfield 16 ft Wind Tunnel                                       343
                               BAe Warton 2.7 X 2.1 m Low-SpeedWind Tunnel                          346
                               BAe Warton 18 ft V/SToL Wind Tunnel                                  349
                               BAe Weybridge 3 X 2 ft High-SpeedWind Tunnel                         363
                               BAe Warton 13 X 9 ft Low-SpeedWind Tunnel                            356
                               BAe Woodford 9 X 7 ft Low-SpeedWind Tunnel                           359
                               RAE Bedford 13 X 9 ft Low-SpeedWind Tunnel                           361
                               RAE Farnborough 5 m Low-SpeedWind Tunnel                             364
                               RAE Farnborough 11.5 X 8.6 ft Wind Tunnel                            367
                               RAE Farnborough 24 ft Anechoic Low-SpeedWind                         369
                                 Tunnel
                           Transonic Wind Tunnel Data Sheets                                        371
                               ARA Bedford Transonic Wind Tunnel (TWT)                              371


                           Page 7                              GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                     Contents




                          Rolls-RoyceTP 131A Altitude Engine Test Facility                       441

Appendix X                                                                                      443
Aerospace Test       SubsonicWind Tunnel Data Sheets
                          DLR Berlin Evacuable Free-jet Experimental Plant 1
                                                                                                444
                                                                                                444
Facilities in West        DLR Berlin Low-Velocity Wind Tunnel                                   447
Germany                   DLR Berlin Unsteady Wind Tunnel                                       460
                          DLR Braunschweig 3.26 m X 2.8 m2Wind Tunnel                           462
                            (NWW
                          DLR Braunschweig Jet-simulation Wind Tunnel (SSB)                      466
                          DLR Braunschweig Model SubsonicWind Tunnel                             460
                            (MW
                          DLR Goettingen 1 m Wind Tunnel (1MG)                                   463
                          DLR Goettingen 3 X 3 m SubsonicWind Tunnel                             466
                            (NW@
                          DLR Goettingen Cryogenic Tube Wind Tunnel (KRG)                       469
                          DLR Goettingen High-PressureWind Tunnel (HDG)                         470
                          DLR Goettingen Low-Turbulence Wind Tunnel (TUG)                       473
                          DLR Koln-Porz 2.4 X 2.4 m Cryogenic Wind Tunnel                       475
                            (KKK)
                          DLR Koln-Porz Test Rig for the European Transonic                     480
                            Windtunnel
                     Transonic Wind Tunnel Data Sheets                                          482
                         DLR Braunschweig Transonic Wind Tunnel (TWB)                           482
                         European Transonic Windtunnel (ETW)                                    486
                     Trisonic Wind Tunnel Data Sheets                                           489
                         DLR Goettingen 1 X 1 m Transonic Wind Tunnel                           489
                            (TWG)
                         DLR Goettingen Plane CascadesWind Tunnel (EGG)                         493
                         DLR Goettingen Rotating CascadesWind Tunnel                            497
                            WW
                         DLR Koln-Porz Trisonic Wind Tunnel (TMK)                               601
                         DLR Koln-Porz Vertical Free-jet Test Chamber (VMK)                     604
                     SupersonicWind Tunnel Data Sheets                                          607
                         DLR Goettingen High-SpeedWind Tunnel (HKG)                             607
                         DLR Koln-Porz Calibrating Wind Tunnel (EMK)                            610
                         DLR Koln-Porz High-SpeedWind Tunnel (HMK)                              612
                     Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Data Sheets                                         616
                         DLR Goettingen Hypersonic Vacuum Tunnel 1 (VlG)                        616
                         DLR Goettingen Hypersonic Vacuum Tunnel 2 (V2G)                        619
                         DLR Goettingen High-Vacuum Tunnel 3 (V3G)                              623
                         DLR Goettingen Tube Wind Tunnel (RWG)                                  627


                     Page 9                               GAO/NSIAD-BO-‘71FS Foreign Test Facilities
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Appendix XIV                                                                                          669
Comments From the
Chief Financial
Officer, U.S.
Department of State
Appendix XV
Comments From the
Assistant Secretary
for Administration,
U.S. Department of
Commerce
Appendix XVI                                                                                          672    1
Comments From the
Director of
Congressional Affairs,
Central Intelligence
Agency
Appendix XVII                                                                                         673
Major Contributors to    National Security and International Affairs Division,                        673
                             Washington, D.C.
This Report              European Office, Frankfurt, West Germany                                     573



Tables                   Table I. 1: Wind Tunnel Facilities by Country
                         Table 1.2:Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell Facilities by
                             Country

Figures     v            Figure 111.1:Map of Test Facilities in Australia                               68
                         Figure 111.2:The Australian National University T-3                            61
                             Shock Tunnel


                         Page 11                                GAO/NSIAD-90-71F’S Foreign Test Facilities
                                          -
Contents




Figure V.2: Schematic Drawing of the CEPRA 19 Anechoic                       98
    Wind Tunnel
Figure V.3: Aerospatiale Rotor Test Bench and                                99
    Microphones Installed Inside Test Chamber of the
    CEPRA 19 Anechoic Wind Tunnel
Figure V.4: ONERA Fl Wind Tunnel                                            102
Figure V.5: Schematic Diagram of the ONERA Fl Wind                          103
    Tunnel
Figure V.6: Movement of Test Cart and Pallets in the                        104
    ONERA Fl Wind Tunnel
Figure V.7: Mirage 2000 on Stingholder in Pallet No. 1 of                   104
    the ONERA Fl Wind Tunnel
Figure V.8: Probing of Wake Behind the Wing of an                           105
    Airbus A310 Half-Model in Pallet No. 1 of the
    ONERA Fl Wind Tunnel
Figure V.9: Test on Full Airbus Model on Three-Mast                         106
    Setup in Pallet No. 1 of the ONERA Fl Wind Tunnel
Figure V. 10: Schematic Diagram of “2 k pi” Test Device in                  106
    the ONERA Fl Wind Tunnel
Figure V. 11: Two-Dimensional Flow Airfoil Test Setup in                    106
    the ONERA Fl Wind Tunnel
Figure V. 12: Laser Tomography Device in the ONERA Fl                       107
    Wind Tunnel
Figure V.13: ONERA F2 Wind Tunnel                                           109
Figure V. 14: Schematic Diagram of the ONERA F2 Wind                        110
    Tunnel
Figure V. 15: Schematic Drawing of the Laser Velocimetry                    110
    Setup Around the Test Section of the ONERA F2
    Wind Tunnel
Figure V. 16: Laser Doppler Anemometer Stand Around                         111
    the Test Section of the ONERA F2 Wind Tunnel
Figure V. 17: Schematic Diagram of the ONERA IMFL SV4                       114
    Spin Wind Tunnel
Figure V. 18: Free Spin Test in the ONERA IMFL SV4 Spin                     115
    Wind Tunnel
Figure V. 19: Rotary Balance Test in the ONERA SV4 Spin                     116
    Wind Tunnel
Figure V.20: Oblate Ellipsoid With Laser Doppler                            119
    Anemometer in Test Section of the ONERA S2Ch
    SubsonicWind Tunnel
Figure V. 21: Three-Dimensional Laser Doppler                               120
    Anemometry Setup in the ONERA S2ChSubsonic
    Wind Tunnel


Page 13                               GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Figure V.44: Ariane Launch Vehicle on Stingholder Sector                   162
    in Test Section of the ONERA S3MA Wind Tunnel
Figure V.46: External Aerodynamics Model With Quarter-                     163
    Circle Air Intake in Test Section of the ONERA S3MA
    Wind Tunnel
Figure V.46: Probing of the Flow on the Upper Surface of                   161
    a Dual-SweepWing in SupersonicFlow in the ONERA
    SSChTransonic and SupersonicWind Tunnel
Figure V.47: CNRSSR.3Wind Tunnel                                           166
Figure V.48: Schematic Diagram of the CNRSSR.3Wind                         167
    Tunnel
Figure V.49: Schematic Diagram of the ONERA R2Ch                           172
    Blowdown Wind Tunnel
Figure V&O: Schematic Diagram of the ONERA R3Ch                            176
    Blowdown Wind Tunnel
Figure V.61: Measurement of Thermal Flux Using                             176
    Thermosensitive Paint on a Model of the Ariane 5
    Launch Vehicle and Hermes Spaceplanein the
    ONERA R3Ch Blowdown Wind Tunnel
Figure V.62: Schlieren Visualization Photograph of a                       177
    Model of the Hermes Spaceplaneat Mach 10 in the
    ONERA R3Ch Blowdown Wind Tunnel
Figure V.63: ONERA S4MA Wind Tunnel                                        180
Figure V.64: Schematic Diagram of the ONERA S4MA                           181
    Wind Tunnel
Figure V.65: Model of the Hermes Spaceplaneon Model                        181
    Support Table and Mach 6 Nozzle in Test Section of
    the ONERA S4MA Wind Tunnel
Figure V.66: Ramjet Test in the ONERA S4MA Wind                            182
    Tunnel
Figure V.67: Model Inside Test Chamber of the ONERA                        183
    S4MA Wind Tunnel
Figure V.68: LRBA C, Reflected Shock Tunnel                                187
Figure V.69: Schematic Drawing of the ONERA ARC 2                          190
    Hotshot Wind Tunnel
Figure V.60: Schematic Diagram of the ONERA F4                             192
    Hotshot Wind Tunnel
Figure V.61: KeroseneInjection ResearchStand in the                       203
    ONERA ATD Cell No.7
Figure V.62: Balance and Dynalpy Decoupling System at                     203
    Inlet in Test Stand No. 1 of the ONERA ATD Ramjet
    Cells Nos. 8 and 9



Page 15                              GAO/NSIAD-90-71Fs Foreign Test Facilities
Cont8nta




Figure V11.16:Schematic Diagram of the KHI 1 m                              246
    Transonic Wind Tunnel
Figure VII.17: Plenum Chamber of the KHI 1 m Transonic                      246
    Wind Tunnel
Figure VII. 18: Sting Strut Model Supporting Equipment of                   246
    the KHI 1 m Transonic Wind Tunnel
Figure VII. 19: Schematic Diagram of the KHI Two-                           248
    Dimensional Wind Tunnel
Figure VII.20: Schematic Diagram of the Test Section                        249
    Configuration of the KHI Two-Dimensional Wind
    Tunnel
Figure VII.21: Schematic Diagram of the NAL 2 m                             262
    Transonic Wind Tunnel HS
Figure VII.22: MHI 60 cm Trisonic Wind TUMel                                268
Figure VII.23: Schematic Diagram of the MHI 60 cm                           269
    Trisonic Wind Tunnel
Figure VII.24: Schematic Drawing of the ISAS Supersonic                     262
    Wind Tunnel
Figure VII.26: Schematic Diagram of the ISAS Supersonic                     263
    Wind Tunnel
Figure VII.26: Test Section of the NAL 1 m Wind Tunnel                      266
Figure VII.27: Test of a Scramjet Intake in the NAL 1 m                     266
    Wind Tunnel
Figure VII.28: NAL 60 cm Hypersonic Wind Tunnel                            269
Figure VII.29: Schematic Drawing of the NAL 60 cm                          270
    Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
Figure V11.30:Schematic Diagram of the NAL 60 cm                           271
    Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
Figure VII.3 1: MHI Small Turbojet Development Test Cell                   273
    (1007)
Figure VII.32: Schematic Drawing of the NAL Ram/                           277
    Scramjet Engine Test Facility
Figure VII.33: Schematic Drawing of the NAL High-                          282
    Temperature Turbine Cooling Facility
Figure VII.34: Schematic Diagram of the NAL High-                          293
    Pressure Combustor Test Facility
Figure VII.35 Schematic Diagram of the NAL High-                           294
    PressureCombustor Test Facility
Figure VII.36: Schematic Diagram of the NAL High-                          296
    Pressure Combustor Test Facility
Figure VII.37: Schematic Diagram of the Test Section of                    296
    the NAL High-PressureCombustor Test Facility



Page 17                               GAO/NSIAD-BO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Contenta




Figure 1X.5: Schematic Diagram of the BAe Hatfield 15 ft                 346
    Wind Tunnel
Figure 1X.6: Schematic Drawing of the BAe Warton 2.7 X                   348
    2.1 m Low-SpeedWind Tunnel
Figure 1X.7: Schematic Drawing of the BAE Warton 18 ft                   361
    V/SToL Wind Tunnel
Figure 1X.8: Low-SpeedAerodynamic Characteristics of a                   362
    l/20 ScaleModel of HCIQL in the BAe Warton 18 ft
    V/SToL Wind Tunnel
Figure 1X.9: Schematic Drawing of the BAe Weybridge 3                    366
    X 2 ft High-SpeedWind Tunnel
Figure 1X.10:Schematic Diagram of the BAe Warton 13 X                    358
    9 ft Low-SpeedWind Tunnel
Figure IX.1 1: Schematic Diagram of the RAE Bedford 13                   363
    X 9 ft Low-SpeedWind Tunnel
Figure IX. 12: Schematic Diagram of the RAE Farnbprough                  366
    6 m Low-SpeedWind Tunnel
Figure 1X.13:Schematic Diagram of the RAE Farnborough                    368
    11.6 X 8.5 ft Wind Tunnel
Figure IX. 14: Schematic Diagram of the RAE Farnborough                  370
    24 ft Anechoic Low-SpeedWind Tunnel
Figure IX. 16: ABA Transonic Wind TUMel (TWT)                            373
Figure IX. 16: Schematic Drawing of the BAe Brough 27 X                  378
    27 in. Transonic/Supersonic Blowdown Wind Tunnel
Figure IX. 17: Schematic Drawing of the BAe Warton                       397
    Guided WeaponsWind Tunnel
Figure IX. 18: Schematic Diagram of The University of                    400
    Southampton Hypersonic Gun Tunnel
Figure 1X.19:Hypersonic Nozzle and Open-jet Test Section                 403
    of The University of Southampton Light Piston
    Isentropic CompressionFacility
Figure 1X.20:Schematic Drawing of The University of                      404
    Southampton Light Piston Isentropic Compression
    Facility
Figure 1X.21:CompressionTube and Hypersonic Nozzle of                    406
    The University of Southampton Light Piston
    Isentropic CompressionFacility
Figure 1X.22:Combustion Testing Configuration of The                     406
    University of Southampton Light Piston Isentropic
    CompressionFacility
Figure 1X.23:Schematic Diagram of the Imperial College                   411
    Heated N, Wind Tunnel



Page 19                              GAO/NSIAD-BO-71FS Foreign Test Fadties
Content-8




Figure X. 12: Schematic Diagram of the DLR Goettingen 3                   468
    X 3 m SubsonicWind Tunnel (NWG)
Figure X. 13: Schematic Diagram of the DLR Goettingen                     472
    High-PressureWind Tunnel (HDG)
Figure X.14: Schematic Diagram of the DLR Goettingen                      474
    Low-Turbulence Wind Tunnel (TUG)
Figure X.16: DLR Koln-Porz 2.4 X 2.4 m Cryogenic                          477
    SubsonicWind Tunnel (KKK)
Figure X. 16: Schematic Drawing of the DLR Koln-Porz 2.4                  478
    X 2.4 m Cryogenic SubsonicWind Tunnel (KKK)
Figure X. 17: Model in Test Section of the DLR Koln-Porz                  479
    2.4 X 2.4 m Cryogenic SubsonicWind Tunnel (KKK)
Figure X. 18: DLR Koln-Porz Test Rig for the European                     481
    Transonic Windtunnel
Figure X. 19: DLR Braunschweig Transonic Wind Tunnel                      484
    (TWB)
Figure X.20: Schematic Diagram of the DLR                                 486
    Braunschweig Transonic Wind Tunnel (TWB)
Figure X.21: European Transonic Windtunnel (ETW)                          488
Figure X.22: Schematic Diagram of the European                            488
    Transonic Windtunnel (ETW)
Figure X.23: Schematic Diagram of the DLR Goettingen 1                    491
    X 1 m Transonic Wind Tunnel (TWG)
Figure X.24: Schematic Diagram of the Test Section of the                 492
    DLR Goettingen 1 X 1 m Transonic Wind Tunnel
    (TWG)
Figure X.26: Schematic Diagram of the DLR Goettingen                      496
    Plane CascadesWind Tunnel (EGG)
Figure X.26: Schematic Diagram of the Test Section of the                 496
    DLR Goettingen Plane CascadesWind Tunnel (EGG)
Figure X.27: Schematic Diagram of the DLR Goettingen                      499
    Rotating CascadesWind Tunnel (RGG)
Figure X.28: Schematic Diagram of the Test Section of the                 600
    DLR Goettingen Rotating CascadesWind Tunnel
    (RQW
Figure X.29: DLR Koln-Porz Trisonic Wind Tunnel (TMK)                     603
Figure X.30: DLR Koln-Porz Vertical Free-jet Test                         606
    Chamber (VMK)
Figure X.31: Schematic Diagram of the DLR Goettingen                      509
    High-SpeedWind Tunnel (HKG)
Figure X.32: DLR Koln-Porz Calibrating Tunnel (EMK)                       511
Figure X.33: DLR Koln-Porz High-SpeedWind Tunnel                          514
    WMK)

Page 21                               GAO/NSIADgO-71Fs Foreign Test Facilities
Contents




Abbreviations

1MG        l-m Windkanal Goettingen (Goettingen l-m Wind Tunnel)
=/DC       alternating current/direct current
ACT        Australian Capital Territory
A/D        analog/digital
AEDC       Arnold Engineering Development Center
AFB        Air Force Base
AFWAL      Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories
AGARD      Advisory Group for AerospaceResearchand Development
ANU        Australian National University
           Aircraft ResearchAssociation
AS1        Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (Italian SpaceAgency)
ATD        aerothermodynamic
ATF        altitude test facility
atm        atmosphere
BAe        British Aerospace
BMFT       Bundesministerium fuer Forschung und Technologie (Federal
                Ministry for Researchand Technology)
BNSC       British National SpaceCentre
CAD/CAM    computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing
CARS       coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering
CEAT       Centre d’Etudes Aerodynamiques et Thermiques
                (Aerodynamics and Thermics Study Center)
CEPr       Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de Saclay (Saclay Propulsion
                Test Center)
CEPRA      Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs et de Recherches
                Aerospatiales (Propulsion and Aerospace ResearchTest
                Center)
CERT       Centre d’Etudes et de Recherchesde Toulouse (Toulouse
                Researchand Study Center, commonly referred to as the
                Toulouse ResearchCenter)
CFD        computational fluid dynamics
CIRA       Centro Italian0 Ricerche Aerospaziali (Italian Aerospace
                ResearchCenter)
cm         centimeter
CNES       Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (National Center for Space
                Studies)
CNRS       Centre National de la RechercheScientifique (National Center
                for Scientific Research)
CWT        Cold Wind Tunnel
DARPA      DefenseAdvanced ResearchProjects Agency


Page 23                                GAO/NSL4D-f)O-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Contents




HST        High-SpeedWind Tunnel
HZ         hertz
IHI        Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries
IMF        Institut de Mecanique des Fluides (Institute of Fluid
               Mechanics)
IMFL       Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Lille (Lille Institute of
               Fluid Mechanics)
in.        inch
ISAS       Institute of Spaceand Astronautical Science
ISL        Institut de Saint-Louis (Saint-Louis Institute)
JPO        Joint Program Office
k          one thousand
kA         kiloampere
kg         kilogram
kg/cm”     kilogram per square centimeter
kg/s       kilogram per second
KHI        Kawasaki Heavy Industries
kHz        kilohertz
KKK        Projekt Kyro-Niedergeschwindigkeitskanal Koln-Porz
               (Koln-Porz Cryo-Low-Velocity Wind Tunnel)
km         kilometer
km         kilometer per second
kN         kilo-newton
kN/m’      kilo-newton per square meter
kPa        kilopascal
KRG        Kryo-Rohr-Windkanal Goettingen (Goettingen Cryogenic Tube
               Wind Tunnel)
kW         kilowatt
lb         pound
Ib/ft      pound per foot
lb/s       pound per second
LDA        laser Doppler anemometry
LICH       Ludwieg isentropic compressionheating
LMF        Laboratoire de Chalais-Meudon(Chalais Meudon Laboratory)
LRBA       Laboratoire de RecherchesBalistiques et Aerodynamiques
               (Ballistics and Aerodynamics ResearchLaboratory)
Ls         low speed
LST        Low-SpeedWind Tunnel
m          meter
mbars      millibars
MBB        Messerschmitt-Boelkow-Blohm
MHI        Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
MHz        megahertz
min        minute



Page 26                                 GAO/NSIAD-BO-71FS Foreign Test Fadities
‘I   Contents




     RAE        Royal AerospaceEstablishment
     R,/ft      Reynolds Number per foot
     R,/m       Reynolds Number per meter
     RGG        Ringgitter-Windkanal Goettingen (Goettingen Rotating
                    CascadesWind Tunnel)
     rpm        revolutions per minute
     RR         Rolls-Royce
     RWG        Rohr-Windkanal Goettingen (Goettingen Tube Wind Tunnel)
     RWTH       Rheinisch-WestfalischenTechnischenHochschule(Rheinland-
                    Westfalia Technical University)
     9          second
     SABCA      SocieteAnonyme Belge de Constructions Aeronautiques
                    (Belgian Anonymous Society for Aeronautical
                    Construction)
     scramjet   supersonic combustion ramjet
     SEP        SocieteEuropeennede Propulsion (European Propulsion
                    Society)
     SIB        Strahlinduktions-Windkanal Braunschweig (Braunschweig
                    Jet-induction Wind Tunnel)
     SNECMA     SocieteNationale d’Etude et de Construction de Moteurs
                    d’Aviation (National Society of Studies and Construction of
                    Aviation Motors)
     SNIA-BPD   SocietaNazionale Industria Applicazlone-Bomprini Parodi
                    Delfino (National Society for Industrial Applications-
                    Bomprini Parodi Delfino)
     SSB        Strahlsimulations-Windkanal Braunschweig (Braunschweig
                    Jet-simulation Wind Tunnel)
     ST         SupersonicTunnel
     STOL       Short Takeoff and Landing
     S?DVL      Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing
     SWT        SupersonicWind Tunnel
     TMK        Trisonikkanal Koln-Porz (Koln-Porz Trisonic Wind Tunnel)
     TRDI       Technical Researchand Development Institute
     I-ST       Transonic/Supersonic Tunnel
     TUG        Turbulenzarmer Windkanal Goettingen (Goettingen Low-
                    Turbulence Wind Tunnel)
     TWB        TranssonischerWindkanal Braunschweig (Braunschweig
                    Transonic Wind Tunnel)
     TWG        TranssonischerWindkanal Goettingen (Goettingen Transonic
                    Wind Tunnel)
     TWT        Transonic Wind Tunnel




     Page 27                                 GAO/NSIAD-!30-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Page 29   GAO/NSIAD90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Appendix I
Introduction




Center (AEDC).~ The facility data sheetsare designedto present as much
information as possible on the principal features of a facility in a “quick
glance” format.

As part of our review, we conducted a literature search of test facilities.
We incorporated the technical data and information into the facility
data sheetsand discussedthem with appropriate facility owners or
operators for verification. We visited 40 key wind tunnel, shock tunnel,
and air-breathing propulsion test cell facilities in Europe, Japan, and
Australia to verify, validate, and update the data sheets.We obtained
facility handbooks and technical papers in French, German, and Japa-
nese,which were translated by the Department of State, and incorpo-
rated technical data and information from these sourcesinto the facility
data sheets.We sent copies of each facility data sheet to the appropriate
owner or operator for review and editing. These comments have been
incorporated into the data sheetsas appropriate. Each facility data
sheet is structured so that it can stand alone or in a group (e.g., by cate-
gory or country). The facilities are grouped by country and according to
class (i.e., wind tunnels and air-breathing propulsion test cells). Wind
tunnels are further grouped according to speedregimes (i.e., subsonic,
transonic, trisonic, supersonic,hypersonic, and hypervelocity).6 Air-
breathing propulsion test cells are also grouped according to category
(i.e., propulsion wind tunnels; altitude engine test facilities; and propul-
sion component facilities for engine turbines, compressors,and
combustors).
Each facility is presented in a format that contains a photograph, sche-
matic drawing, and/or schematic diagram of the facility’s layout, where
available, and a facility data sheet with tabular data and narrative
information. The facility data sheet contains a summary or quick refer-
ence chart of the most pertinent data about the facility and narrative
information on the facility’s technical capabilities and research or test
4Located at Arnold Air Force Base in Tullahoma, Tennessee, Arnold Engineering Development Center
was established in 1949 as a highly specialized Air Force Systems Command test center. AEDC’s
principal mission is to provide environmental test, analysis, and evaluation support to systems devel-
opment and research and development programs of the Air Force, Department of Defense, other gov-
ernment agencies, and private industry. AEDC has one of the world’s largest complex of facilities
including wind tunnels, propulsion test cells, space chambers, and hyperballistic ranges specifically
designed to provide engineering development support to aerospace systems.
“Subsonic is a range of speed below the speed of sound in air (761.6 mph at sea level). Transonic is a
range of speed between about 0.8 and 1.2 times the speed of sound in air. Trisonic refers to three
ranges of speed (such as subsonic, transonic, and supersonic). Supersonic is a range of speed between
about one and five times the speed of sound in air. Hypersonic is a range of speed which is five times
or more the speed of sound in air. Iiypervelocity is a range of speed which is 12 times or more the
speed of sound in air.



Page 31                                                GAO/NSIAD-!40-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                         Appendix I
                         Introduction




                         Test run times in a wind tunnel may be continuous, intermittent, or last
                         only a few milliseconds.*Almost all wind tunnel tests are conducted
                         with scale models, since wind tunnels capable of accommodatingfull-
                         scale aircraft are too expensive to build and require too much energy to
                         operate, especially for high-speedtesting, The airflow pattern over a
                         scale model is the same for the full-scale vehicle if certain full-scale simi-
                         larity parameters are duplicated in the wind tunnel. For most flight con-
                         ditions, these similarity parameters are Reynolds Number0and Mach
                         number.‘” In very high-speedflows, other aerothermodynamic condi-
                         tions such as total enthalpyll must be matched.

                         Wind tunnels are divided into the following categoriesaccording to their
                         speed:subsonic,transonic, trisonic, supersonic,hypersonic, and
                         hypervelocity.
Subsonic Wind Tunnels    According to NASA, hundreds of U.S. and foreign subsonicwind tunnels
                         have test sectionssmaller than 6 feet and speedsless than Mach 0.2.
                         Most of these facilities are used for fundamental research and do not
                         represent the principal capabilities in low-speed aeronautical research
                         and development. Thus, most of these facilities have not been included
                         in this report. We have included those subsonicwind tunnels that U.S.
                         and foreign government and industry officials identified as important
                         wind tunnels for conducting aeronautical research and development
                         and/or key facilities for testing future aerospacevehicles in the low-
                         speedrange. Subsonicwind tunnels included in this report have a speed
                         range between Mach 0.1 and 0.8.
Transonic Wind Tunnels   Transonic wind tunnels characteristically have ventilated test section
                         walls and a speedrange between Mach 0.8 and 1.2 (the transonic
                         region).

Trisonic Wind Tunnels    Trisonic wind tunnels, also known as polysonic and multisonic wind tun-
                         nels, have a speedcapability over three speedranges (such as subsonic,

                         ‘A millisecond is one-thousandth of a second.
                         “A dimensionless number that is used as an indication of scale of fluid flow. It is significant in the
                         design of a model of any system in which the effect of viscosity is important in controlling the veloci-
                         ties or the flow pattern of a fluid. It is equal to the density of a fluid times its velocity times a
                         characteristic length divided by the fluid viscosity.
                         ‘“A number representing the ratio of the speed of an object to the speed of sound in the surrounding
                         atmosphere. An object traveling at the local speed of sound is traveling at Mach 1,

                         “The sum of the internal energy of a system and the product of its volume multiplied by the pressure
                         exerted on the system by its surroundings.



                         Page 33                                                 GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                  Appendix I
                                  Introduction




                                  Wind tunnels included under the air-breathing propulsion test cell cate-
                                  gory are only those that permit real engine testing (i.e., engine burn)
                                  while the wind tunnel is in operation. Wind tunnels that provide only
                                  propulsion simulation capabilities through the use of compressedair-
                                  driven engine simulators (or similar techniques) have not been included
                                  in this report. The engine test facilities included in this report are only
                                  those providing altitude test capability. Sealevel test stands are not
                                  included becausethey are too numerous and do not provide the proper
                                  temperature and pressure conditions required for conducting full-range
                                  engine research and development. The engine/propulsion component
                                  test facilities listed are only those providing research and development
                                  or testing capabilities for engine turbines, fans, and combustors.
Propulsion Wind Tunnels           Propulsion testing in wind tunnels allows the engine and its installed
                                  inlet to be tested as an integrated system. The wind tunnel provides the
                                  propulsion system being tested with an airflow environment similar to
                                  that found in actual flight, where the air is directed around the inlet as
                                  well as into the inlet. The angle of attackI can be varied in the larger
                                  wind tunnels, resulting in even more realistic airflow conditions for the
                                  engines.According to NASA, the wind tunnel is unsurpassedfor complete
                                  aerodynamic behavior and propulsion/airframe integration studies. The
                                  drawback of wind tunnels for engine testing is their inability to obtain
                                  true temperature simulation over a wide operating range. The air in a
                                  wind tunnel is generally neither hot enough at high Mach numbers nor
                                  cold enough at high altitudes and lower Mach numbers. Conditioning the
                                  large volume of air used by the wind tunnel in addition to the air used
                                  by the engine itself is a difficult, costly, and inefficient process.Engine
                                  test facilities are more economical and generally have better provisions
                                  for temperature/altitude simulation.
Altitude Engine Test Facilities   Propulsion testing in altitude engine test facilities is divided into two
                                  broad categories:direct-connect and free-jet testing. In direct-connect
                                  testing, air is fed directly into the engine, eliminating (or bypassing) the
                                  use of an inlet and avoiding any loss of air flowing around the engine.
                                  The objective is to provide properly conditioned combustion air to the
                                  engine as if an inlet were present, but in a more efficient manner. This
                                  air is usually provided in an idealized uniform profile, although it may
                                  be possible to distort temperature and pressure profiles. The smaller
                                  and more easily controlled volume of air is thereby easier to condition
                                  for the hot or cold temperature extremes required for true simulation of

                                  12Anglc of attack is the acute angle between the direction of the relative airflow and the chord (Le.,
                                  the straight line joining the leading and trailing edges of an airfoil) of the test model.



                                  Page 35                                                GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                                         Appendix I
                                                         Introduction




Table 1.1:Wind Tunnel Facilities by Country
lnbtallation and facility     Test section size                         Mach number                      Reynolds Number                          Page

--e-.---v
                                                                          AUSTRALIA
Hy u;;tI;city       Wind
--- P
ANU T-3
---._--_.-.--_ .__“-----     2x2ft                                      4to 11                           3 x 104/ft to 2 x loG/ft                    59
University of Queensland T-4 12 in. diameter                            5to10                            2 x 106/ft at Mach 6                        64

                                                                            BELGIUM
Subsonic
--~   ---_Wind Tunnels
             ____.-
VKI Cold CWT.1
--.~..--_____                        0.1 x 0.3 x 2.2 m                  0.73                             4 x 106/m (maximum)                         69
VKI   Low-Speed Cascade -- C-l
---___-l                             12 x 50 cm                         Not available                    Not available                               72
VKI   Low-Speed L-l A
------~                              3 m diameter                       0.17                             4 x 106/m                                   76
Transonic -_____---___.
          Wind Tunnel
VKI Compression Tube CT-3            850 mm (maximum tip), 600          Not available                    Not available                               79
                                       mm (hub minimum), and
                                       50 to 70 mm (typical blade
-..-__--._-     ._.-_-                 height)
Trlsonic Wind Tunnel - _-..--.
_____-_____.-______._
VKC*;gh-Speed        Cascade         100 x 250 mm’                      0.2 to 2                         Not available                               81

Supersonic Wind Tunnel
VKI Supersonic/Transonic             40 x 40 cm (transonic) and         0.4 to 1.05 (transonic), 1.43,   4 x 106/m at Mach 2                         84
    Sl                                 40 x 40 cm (supersonic)             and 2 to 2.25 (contoured
--..   --..I---_----_--                                                    supersonic)
Hy etetgB;c/ty Wind
-- P -.-- ____-___-___             -.-
VKI
_-_ Compression
     --.__. .._.___ Tube -___
                 - __--. CT-2        250 x 100 mm                       Not available                    Not available                               87
VKI Longshot ST-1                    16m3                               15 (contoured) and 20            20 x 106/m                                  90
                                                                          (conical)

___... -_-_-__---                                                           FRANCE
Subsonic Wind Tunnels
CEPRA 19 Anechoic                    2 or 3 m diameter x 11 m           Greater than 0.29 at 2 m         Up to 66 x 106/m at 2 m                     97
                                        long                               diameter and greater than       diameter and up to 2.2 x
                                                                           0.18 at 3 m diameter            106/m at 3 m diameter
ONERA Fl -- .. --.
__-__-                     .-___     3.5 x 4.5 x 10 m                   0.37                             10 x 106/m                                 100
ONERA F2        _---._-~____         1.8 x 1.4 x 5 m                    0.3                              6x 10$-n                                   108
ONERA
----_____ IMFL SV4 Spin
                      ___-_          4 m diameter x 36 m high           0.12                             Up to 2.7 x 106/m                          112
ONERA S2Ch Subsonic                  3 m diameter x 5 m lona            0.29                             Not available                              117
Transonic Wind Tunnels -.
ONERA IMFL Transonic                 20;204;;   350 mm and 42 x         0.3 to 1.l                       14 x 10*/m at Mach 0.8                     121

ONERA Sl MA                          8 m diameter x 14 m lona           0.023 to approximatelv   1       13.5 x 106/m                                123
                                                                                                                                            (continued)




                                                         Page 37                                              GAO/NSIAD-9041FS Foreign Test Facilities


                                                                                                                    .
                                                                  Appendix I
                                                                  Introduction




Installation and tacllitv                    Test rectlon size                   Mach number                    Revnolds Number                           Paae
ONERA F4 Hotshot                             0.4 to 1 m (nozzle exit             7to18                          Not available                               191
                                                diameter)

                                                                                            ITALY
Subsonic Wind Tunnel
CIRA Low-Speed                               4.5 x 3.5 m (Sl) and 6.4 x 5        0.05 (S2) to 0.1 (Sl)          2.3 x 106/m                                 207
                        ---_- ..--.---..-.---m W___
.-. __..-... ..- _.I.-.._.
fransonic Wind Tunnel
CIRA High Reynolds                    YZ.5             m                         0.24 to 0.4 (continuous        14 x 106/m                                  209
  Transonic                                                                         mode) and 0.4 to 1.4
                                                                                    (planned
                                                                                    .         blowdown)
Hypersonic
-- ____-..     Wind
      ..___._ -._.
                 .__._Tunnel
                    --__--_-_
CIRA Plasma                                  0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 m3                  4 to 6                         Not available                               211


                                                                                        JAPAN
Subsonic Wind Tunnel8
FHI
- --..-Low-Speed
         - ... - __.-- -_.-                  6.56 x 6.56 x 9.5 ft                0 to 0.176                     0 to 1.5x loG/ft                            214
KHI 3.5 m                                    No. 1: 3.5 x 3.5 x 6.5 m            No. 1: 0 to 0.1 (closed) and   No. 1: 0 to 0.71 x 106/ft                   216
                                                (c$;;~~and    No. 2: 2.5 x 3        No. 2: 0 to 0.19 (open)        (closed)
                                                                                                                   1.33 x 106/ft
                                                                                                                            and (open)
                                                                                                                                 No. 2: 0 to
._____--...--.-.-----.-..-.--.--__
MHI
-..-.- 2 m .I._.-
            Low-Speed
                  -...--..--               1.8 x 2 x 2.5 m                       0.06 to 0.23                   0.4 to 2 x 106/m                            219
MHI Smoke .--. -.-----                    0.2 x 1.5 x 2.5 m                      0.05 and 0.11                  Not available                               224
~. 6 m Low-Speed
NAL                                       No. 1: 6.5 x-55 m (closed)             No. 1: 0.18 and No. 2: 0.21    No. 1: 1.2 x 106/m and No. 2:               226
                                             and No. 2: 5.6 x 4.6 m                                               1.4x106/m
._____- .._.__
             I-.._-.._ _--.^_--.-.-..-.-__   (open)
                                         ____--
TRDI Convertible                          No. 1: 10.8 x 10.8 x 14.8 ft,          No. 1: 0.04 to 0.17, No. 2:    oto 1.4x 106/ft                             228
                                             No. 2: 19.7 x 19.7 x 20.5 ft,         0.03 to 0.05, and No. 3:
                                             and No. 3: 13 (octagon) x             0.04 to 0.1
-- .._
     -. -.. ._.. ..-.                        14 ft
TRDI Low-Sbeed                            8.2 ft diameter x 11.5 ft lona         0.04 to 0.17                   0 to 1.4 x 106/ft                           232
Tsukuba
~._        Cryogenic
     ._... __     ...“__.____ ..__ 0.5 x 0.5 x 1.2 m                             0.09 to 0.19                   1 x 105/ft to 1 x lo’/ft                    235
Transonlc Wind Tunnels
ISAS Transonic
.-~.-..-___...~                              0.6 x 0.6 x 1 m                     0.3   to   1.3                 1.1 x lO”/m                                 239
KHI 1 m Transonic                            lxim                                0.2   to   1.4                 22 x loQ/ft                                 243
KHI Two-Dimensional                          0.4 x 0.1 x 1 m                     0.4   to   1.2                 5.1 to 23.7 x 106/ft                        247
NAL 2 m.” Transonic
._II_-......   ...” - . .. - ._--.-.--. _I   2x2x4.13m                           0.1   to   1.4                 1.6 to 6 x 106/m                            250
NAL Two-Dimensional                          1 x 0.3 m                           0.2   to   1.15                49 x 106/ft at Mach 0.8                     253
    Transonic
Trl8OniC      Wind
 -”-........_..___       Tunnels .-.-~
                   --_-_______                 ~-
FHI
--.__- 2  x 2 ft  High-Speed
                       ..-...--.---          2x2ft                               0.2 to 4                       3.2 to 3.5 x lO”/ft                         255
MHI 60 cm Trisonic                           0.6 x 0.6 x 2.8 m                   0.4 to 4                       15 to 65 x 106/m                            257
Supersonic --Wind Tunnel8
---.-
ISAS Supersonic               t-.-----0.6 x 0.6 x 0.8 m                          1.5 to 4                       1.08 x 106/m                                 260
NAL   1  m
-~-_-...-_.   ..---___-..--..--       Ixlm                                       1.4 to 4                       0.6 to 1.8 x lO’/ft                          264
                                                                                                                                                    (continued)




                                                                 Page 39                                             GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                                       Appendix I
                                                       Introduction




lnrtallatlon    and facility       Test s&Ion      size               Mach number                   Revnolds Number                            Paw
RAE Farnborough 5 m                4.2 x 5 m                          0 to 0.33                     Up-to 18 x 106/m                              364
   Low-Speed
--_--
RA&F;rnborough  11.5 x             3.5 x 2.6 m                        0.01 to 0.32                  Up to 7.5 x 106/m                             367

i%i?aGgh              24 ft        7.3 m (circumference)    x         0.01 to 0.15                  Up to 3.4 x 106/m                            369
  Anechoic                            7 m long
Tranronic Wind Tunnels
ARA Bedford Transonic
~--                                9x8ft                              0 to 1.4                      1.5 to 5.5 x 106Jft                          371
RAE Farnborough 8 x 6 ft           1.8 x 2.4 m                        0 to 1.25                     24 x 106/m at Mach 0.3 and                   374
~-                                                                                                    9 x 106/m at Mach 1.25
Trlsonlc Wind Tunnels
BAe Brough 27 x 27 in.             0.68 x 0.68 x 2.1 m                0.1 to 2.5                    2.9 to 66 x 106/m (transonic)                376
  Transonic/Supersonic                                                                                and 2.9 to 148 x 106/m
  Blowdown                                                                                            (supersonic)
BAe Warton 1.2 m                   1.22 x 1.22 x 3 m                  0.4 to 4                      80 x 106/m                                   379
  High-Speed
___-
Supersonic Wind tunnels
ARA Bedford Supersonic             2.25 x 2.5 ft                      1.4 to 3                      1 to 4.3 x 106/ft                            381
BAe Woodford 30 x 27 in.           0.76 x 0.69 m                      1.6 to 3.5                    56 x 106/m at Mach 1.6 and                   383
  Supersonic                                                                                           30 x 106Jm at Mach 3.5
Cambridge Supersonic               18 x 11.4 cm (nozzle exit          3.5                           8 x 106/f t                                  385
                                     diameter)
RAE Bedford 3 x 4 ft               4x3ft                              2.5 to 5 (contoured)          13 x 106/ft at Mach 4.5                      387
  Supersonic
RAE Bedford 8 x 8 ft               8x8ft                              0.1 to 0.9 (subsonic) and     10 x 106Jft at Mach 0.9 and                  389
  Subsonic/Supersonic                                                    1.35 to 2.5 (supersonic)     4 x lO”/ft at Mach 2.5
Hypersonic Wlnd Tunnels
ARA Bedford M4T Blowdown           1 x 1.33 ft                        4 to 5                        14 to 23 x 106Jft                            391
ARA Bedford M7T Blowdown           1 ft diameter                      6, 7, and 8 (contoured)       10 to 15 x lo”/ft                            393
BAe Warton Guided                  0.457 x 0.457 x 0.6 m              1.7 to 6 (contoured)          90 x 106/m at Mach 1.7,                      395
  Weapons                                                                                              typically 140 x 106Jm at
                                                                                                       Mach 3, and 45 x 106/m at
___-~                                                                                                  Mach 6
Southampton Hypersonic             0.12 m diameter                    8.4 (conical) and up to 12    1 to IO x 106/ft and 2 x 106/ft              398
~--Gun Tunnel                                                                                          at Mach 12
Southampton Lrght Piston           0.21 m diameter                    6.85 and 9.4 (contoured)      12 x 106Jft                                  401
   Isentropic Compression
Hy $n’vv;city     Wind
  P
Cranfield Gun                      8 in. diameter                     8.2 and 12.2                  2.8 x 106Jft and 0.9 x lO”/ft                407
imperial College Heated N,         20 cm (nozzle exit diameter)       20 to 25 (contoured)          0.006 to 0.1 x 106/m                         409
Imperial College Hypersonic        45 cm (nozzle exit diameter)       9 (contoured)                 14 x 106Jft                                  412
  Gun Tunnel No. 2
~~-.--
Oxford Gun Tunnel                  Not available                      6,8, and 9 (contoured)        12 x 106/ft at Mach 6,6.4 x                  415
                                                                                                      106Jft at Mach 8, and 2.5 x
                               I                                                                      106/ft at Mach 9
                                                                                                                                         (continued)




                                                       Page 41                                           GAO/NSl.AD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                                          Appendix I
                                                          Introduction




lnstallatlon and faclllty           Test 8ectlon crlze                   Mach number                     Reynolds Number                           Page
DLR Goettingen Plane                125 x 380 mm                         0.5 to 1.6 (downstream)         5 to 10 x 105Jm                             493
  Cascades-....--_-__
              (EGG)
DLR Goettingen Rotating             0.512 m (mean diameter) and 0.5 to 1.8                               Up to 1.2 x 107Jm                           497
  Cascades (RGG)                       0.9 m (ratio of casing
                                      diameter to hub diameter)
DLR KolnPorz Trisonic               60 cm x 60 cm2              0.5 to 4.5                               1 to 8 x 107/m                              501
  UMK)        ~.. _--_---.-_-.
DLR Koln-Porz Vertical              18, 27, and 34 cm diameter           0.2 to 3.2                      1.4 x 106Jm to 2.5 x 1Os/m                  504
  Free-jet Test Chamber               (subsonic) and 15, 22, and
  (VW                                 31 cm diameter
                                      (supersonic)
Supersonic        Wind Tunnels
 .._-...- .._--. _-_-
DLR Goettingen High-Speed           0.75 x 0.75 m (subsonic              0.4 to 0.95 (subsonic) and      0.8 to 1.6 x lO’/m                          507
  WW                                   free-jet cross section) and          1.22 to 2.5 (supersonic)
                                       0.71 x 0.725 m (supersonic
                                       adjustable nozzle cross
_..                                    section)
DLR KolnPorz Calibrating            0.203 m x.0.381 m2                   0.3 to 0.8 (subsonic) and 1.3   3.9 x 106/m to 8.7 x 10’Jm                  510
   (EMU                                (subsonic) and 0.203 m x             to 3.1 (supersonic)
  .-._       .,,.. ...--__-.__-I_      0.203 m2 (supersonic)
DLR Koln-Porz High-Speed            0.3 m x 0.3 m2 (cross                0.4,0.7, 1.517~2.252.89, and    0.6 to 16.3 x 107/m                         512
  WW
  -.__“...-~___..._.._.
                      -                section)                             4.15
Hypersonic Wind Tunnels
DLR Goettingen Hypersonic           0.25 m diameter x 0.5 m long         7 to 25                         5 x 104Jm to 5 x 106/m                      515
  Vacuum Tunnel 1 (VIG)
DLR Goettrngen Hypersonic           0.4 m diameter x 0.8 m long          10 to 20 (conical)              5 x 104/m to 5 x 105/m                      519
  Vacuum Tunnel 2 (V2G) --
DLR Goettingen High-                1,300 mm diameter x                  6 to 25                         4x102Jmto4x105Jm                            523
  Vacuum Tunnel 3 (V3GI                3.300 mm lona  Y


DLR Goettingen Tube (RWG)           0.5 m diameter                       3, 4,5,6, 7,9, 10, and 11       3 to 50 x 106/m at Mach 5                   527
DLR Koln-Porz High-Enthalpy         Up to 110 mm diameter                5 to 20 (conical)               1 x 103/m to 1 x 104/m                      531
  Tunnel 1 (PlK)                                                                           \
DLR Koln-Porz High-Enthalpy         About 250 mm diameter                3 to 20 (conical)               0.003 to 0.35 x 106Jm                       534
  Tunnel 2 (P2K)
DLR Koln-Porz HighmEnthalpy         250 mm diameter                      3 to 15 (conical)               1 x 105Jm to 1 x lO’/m                      537
  Tunnel 3 (P3K)
DLR Koln-Porz Hypersonic            60 x 36 cm for Mach 4.5              4.5, 6,8.7, and 11.2            3.6 x 105Jm to 3 x 107Jm                    540
  Tunnel 1 (HIK)
DLR Koln-Porz Hypersonic            0.6 cm diameter                      4.8, 5.3, 6, 8.7, and 11.2      2.4 x 105/m to 5.5 x 10’Jm                  542
  Tunnel. 2 (H2K)
             .~ _                      -
Hyfu3wwlcity       Wind

DLR Goettingen High-                Not available                        7                               Not available                              545
  Enthalpy (HEG)
RWTH Aachen
       -- - ...-- Shock Tunnel      500 x 500 mm                         6 to 24 (conical)               1.2 x lO’/m                                549
Technical University of             16 cm (nozzle exit diameter)         8 to 16 (conical)               0.8 x 106Jm at Mach 8                      552
  Braunschwein Gun




                                                          Page 43                                             GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                                                  Appendix I
                                                                  Introduction




Altitude Engine Test Facilities
Installation and                                                  Air supply
  facility                         Mass flow rate           Temperature range             Pressure range Mach number              Altitude range             Page

__...._. .~~...- .---.- ~.-..-~---_-.-..                                         UNITED KINGDOM
RA;e;ylestock ATF                     450 lb/s              Ambient to 450                2 to 100 psia      0 to 3.5             50,000 ft                    426
. . ..                 ..- -.- .-....~..-                     degrees Fahrenheit
RAE Pyestock ATF                     450 lb/s               Ambient to 450                2 to 100 psia      0 to 2.5             50,000 ft                    428
    Cell 2
 .- -_..         . . . . ..---.                               degrees Fahrenheit
RA;e;y3estock ATF                    600 lb/s           -   - 100 to 400 degrees          2 to 39 psia       0 to 2.5             65,000 ft                    430
  .._..--.. _-.~.- ._______                                   Fahrenheit
                                          __-----
RAE Pyestock ATF                      500 lb/s              Ambient to 880                3 to 60 psia       1.5 to 3.5           100,000 ft                   433
    Cell 4                                                    degrees Fahrenheit
RAE Pyestock ATF                      1,400 lb/s            -50 degrees                   2 psia to          Subsonic             50,000 ft                    435
    Cell 3W                                                   Fahrenheit to                 atmospheric
^.-I ._.....        _                                         ambient
Rolls-Royce ATF C-l                  400 lb/s               - 113 to 355 degrees          73 psia            0 to 2.5             70,000 ft                    437
                                                              Fahrenheit
RollsRoyce ATF C-2           400 lb/s                       -113 to 355 degrees           73 psia            0 to 2.5             70,000 ft                    439
-- .      __ -. .._-..-.-~...------                           Fahrenheit
Rolls-Royce TP 131 A 400 lb/s                               841 degrees                   165 psia           0 to 4.2             90,000 ft                    441
                  _--. .-~..---._-                            Fahrenheit

                                                                                 WEST GERMANY
UnivT;slty of Stuttgart           140 kg/s                  - 100 to 430 degrees          2.4 bars           2.2                  65,600 ft                    554
                                                              Kelvin


Turbine
___-_._._ Component
            ._._.._-...- Research Facilities
Installation and         Maximum             Maximum                                Temperature
   facility               flow rate -         power                                   range               Pressure level          Speed range                Page

                                                                                     JAPAN
It-II High-Pressure            40 lb/s                      6,000 hp                2,500 degrees         3.5 atm                 15,000 rpm                   278
    Turbine Facility                                                                   Fahrenheit
..-- . ..~...-.- _-___-..- ..-.- ----
NAL High              1.5 kg/s                              Not available           1,500 degrees         900 kPa                 Not available                280
  Temperature                                                                         Kelvin
  Turbine Cooling
  Facilrty    ____ _.~~...~-_...


Compressor Component Research Facilities
Installation and             Maximum        Maximum                                 Temperature
    facility
 .-._      ._.__               flow
              _-.._.---.I_-. ..-- -..--rate  power                                    range               Pressure level          Speed range                Page

_..-.._~-__-_.-._I____.                                                             BELGIUM
VKI High-Speed                 Notvavailable        -       Not available           Ambient               0.1 to 2.5 atm          25,000 rpm                    93
  Compressor R-4
                                                                                                                                                       (continued)




                                                                 Page 46                                                GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Appendix I
Introduction




use of key foreign facilities by the National Aero-SpacePlane (NASP) Pro-
gram.‘3We did not collect data and information on U.S. government and
industry investment in the NASP ProgranV4or compare investments and
capabilities among countries.
The scopeof our review was primarily limited to future air-breathing
aerospacevehicles, since they could provide competition to NASP or
future NAsP-derivedoperational vehicles. We focused on countries and
critical or enabling technologies.l6Our review included France, West
Germany, the United Kingdom, and Japan, since each of these countries
are developing technologies for various conceptsof operational aero-
spacevehicles to secureindependent accessto spaceand reduce the
costs of launching payloads into orbit. In addition, we included facilities
(such as wind tunnels) in The Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, and Austra-
lia. Although these countries do not have national programs to develop
and build air-breathing aerospacevehicles, their test facilities are being
used to conduct research and development of such vehicles by other
countries and the European SpaceAgency (ESA).

We collected technical data and information on test facilities, their capa-
bilities, and the number of people working on aerospacevehicle research
and development in those countries included in our review. Facilities
include (1) wind tunnels and shock tunnels, (2) air-breathing propulsion
test cells (engine test facilities for ramjets and scramjets), (3) aero-
thermal test facilities, (4) aeroballistic and impact ranges, (5) advanced
materials research, development, production, and fabrication laborato-
ries, and (6) aerodynamic computation facilities (supercomputers).@We
also collected cost information on test facilities, including construction,
replacement, annual operating, and user costs,where available.

r3The NASP Program is a $3.3 billion joint Department of Defense/NASA technology development
and demonstration program to build and test the X-30 experimental flight vehicle. The X-30 is being
designed to take off horizontally from a conventional runway, reach hypersonic speeds of up to 26
times the speed of sound, attain low earth orbit, and return to land on a conventional runway. The
NASP Program is expected to provide the technological basis for future hypersonic flight vehicles by
developing critical or enabling technologies.
14Fora detailed and technical description of the NASP Program, including U.S. government and
industry investment in the program, see our report, National        ace Plane: A Technology Devel-
opment and Demonstration Program to Build the X-30 (GAO/N           -88-122, Apr. 27,lSSS).

’ 6Enabling technologies include high-speed (ramjet/scran\iet) air-breathing propulsion, advanced
materials, structures, and hypersonic aerodynamics (the use of hypersonic wind tunnels, CFD, and
supercomputers).

“Technical data and information on aerothermti test facilities; aeroballistic and impact ranges;
advanced materials research, development, production, and fabrication laboratories; and supercom-
puter facilities will be included in our reports on the individual countries.



Page 47                                               GAO/NSIAD-BO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                  APpe* 1
                  Introdnctlon




                  (SNECMA). We also conducted work in Les Mureaux at Aerospatiale, and
                  in Saint Cloud at Avions Marcel Dassault-BreguetAviation.
                  We also visited the SlMA transonic wind tunnel, SZMA transonic and
                  supersonic wind tunnel, S3MA trisonic wind tunnel, S4MA hypersonic
                  wind tunnel, and R4.3 trisonic cascadewind tunnel at ONERA'S Modane-
                  Avrieux Center in Modane.


West Germany      We conducted review work in Bonn at the U.S. Embassy, US. Air Force
                  Researchand Development Liaison Office, and Bundesministerium fuer
                  Forschung und Technologie (BMFT); in Koln-Porz at DLR; in Friedrichs-
                  hafen at Dormer Systems;in Ottobrunn at Messerschmitt-Boelkow-
                  Blohm (MBB); in Munich at the U.S. Consulate General and Motoren- und
                  Turbinen-Union Munchen (MTU); in Aachen at the Rheinland-Westfalia
                  Technical University of Aachen; and at the University of Stuttgart.
                  We also visited several DLR hypersonic vacuum tunnel facilities in Goet-
                  tingen, wind tunnel and shock tunnel facilities at the Rheinland-
                  Westfalia Technical University of Aachen, engine test stands at MTIJ in
                  Munich, and wind tunnel and altitude engine test facilities at the Univer-
                  sity of Stuttgart.


United Kingdom    We conducted review work in London at the U.S. Embassy, U.S. Air
                  Force European Office of Aerospace Researchand Development (EOARD),
                  U.S. Air Force Researchand Development Liaison Office-United King-
                  dom, British National SpaceCentre (BNSC), Rolls-Royce,and The Royal
                  Society; in Stevenageat British Aerospace; at The University of South-
                  ampton; and at Oxford University.
                  We also visited the Hypersonic Gun Tunnel, Light Piston Isentropic Com-
                  pression Facility, and 12.6 cm Diameter Shock Tube at The University of
                  Southampton and the Oxford University Gun Tunnel, Low-Density Wind
                  Tunnel, and Isentropic Light Piston Tunnel at Oxford University.


The Netherlands   We conducted review work in The Hague at the U.S. Embassy and in
                  Amsterdam at the Nederlands Instituut Voor Vliegtuigontwikkeling en
            Y     Ruimtevaart (NIVR) and Nationaal Lucht-en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium
                  (NLR).




                  Page 49                                GAO/NSIAD-BO-‘W’S Foreign Test Facilities
            Appendix I
            Introduction




            the Masuda Tracking and Data Acquisition Center at NASDA’S Tane-
            gashima SpaceCenter in Tanegashima;wind tunnels, materials labora-
            tory, CFD facility, and computer center at NAL in Chofu; sounding rocket
            launch sites, Mobile Service Tower, balloon launch area for the Highly
            Maneuverable Experimental Space(HIMES) vehicle, and data tracking
            and acquisition center at ISAS’S Kagoshima SpaceCenter in Uchinoura;
            wind tunnels under construction and three HIMES gliding flight test vehi-
            cles at ISASin Sagamihara; wind tunnels, materials laboratories, com-
            puter centers, and engine test stands at FHI in Utsunomiya, KHI in Gifu,
            and MHI in Nagoya and Komaki.

            In addition, we conducted a l-day Workshop on JapaneseAerospace
            Vehicle Investment and Technologiesat GAO in Washington, D.C., with
            representatives from the NASP JPO Fact Finding Group,18who also visited
            Japan to share technical data and information and exchangeviews
            basedon the results of our visits to Japan.


Australia   We conducted review work in Canberra at the U.S. Embassy; Depart-
            ment of Physics and Theoretical Physics of The Australian National Uni-
            versity (ANU); Office of SpaceScienceand Applications of the
            Commonwealth Scienceand Industry ResearchOrganization; Australian
            SpaceOffice of the Department of Industry, Technology, and Commerce;
            and NASA; in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) at the Tidbinbilla
            SpaceTracking Station; in Brisbane at the Department of Mechanical
            Engineering of the University of Queensland;and in Adelaide at British
            AerospaceAustralia.
            We also visited the T-l, T-2, and T-3 Shock Tunnels at The Australian
            National University and T-4 Shock Tunnel at the University of
            Queensland.
            We conducted our review between March 1988 and July 1989 in accord-
            ance with generally acceptedgovernment auditing standards.




            ‘* Members of the Fact Finding Group consisted of representatives from NASP JPO, OSTP, McDon-
            nell Douglas Corporation, and Rockwell International Corporation. The group visited Japan in Octo-
            ber 1988 to (1) exchange information about the status of and plans for spaceplane development in
            Japan and the United States, (2) understand the problems and technical barriers to spaceplane devel-
            opment, and (3) explore specific technical areas for possible use on NASP or for possible collabora-
            tive development.



            Page 61                                              GAO/N&ID-BO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Appendix II
Deflnltlon and Explanation   of Data Elements




(mm)are indicated. When more than one test section is available, the size
of each is listed separately.
Test chamber size (air-breathing propulsion test cells): For engine test
facilities, the dimensions are given in the following order: diameter and
length of the test chamber.
Component size (air-breathing propulsion test cells): For propulsion
component facilities, the diameter of the largest article that can be
tested is indicated.
Operational status: An indication of the facility’s current work load. A
backlog indicates an overflow of work beyond normal operations. The
following definitions are used where appropriate.
  Active: Facility, plant, instrumentation, and computer systems are
  manned and maintained ready for use. Tests are ongoing or scheduled.
  Activity can range from heavily scheduledwith test backlog to lightly
  scheduled(one shift as needed).

  Standby: Facility, plant, and computer systems are not manned but
  are maintained ready for use. Someinstrumentation may have been
  removed for storage or use elsewhere. No tests are currently planned,
  although they can resume with minimum reactivation effort.

  Mothballed: Facility and plant are intact but not maintained. Protec-
  tive measureshave been taken. Major componentshave not been
  removed (i.e., the basic test capability has been preserved). Minor
  components and instrumentation may have been removed for storage
  or use elsewhere. Testing can be resumed only after considerable
  refurbishment and/or modification.
  Decommissioned:Facility and plant are not maintained. Major compo-
  nents have been removed for storage or use elsewhere, so the integrity
  of facility may not have been preserved. Reactivation is possible but
  would be a major undertaking and consideredonly if a unique poten-
  tial capability exists.
  Under construction, Renovation, or Reactivation, as appropriate:
  Work is underway to construct a new facility, reactivate a decommis-
  sioned or mothballed facility, or improve or modernize previously
  active or standby facilities. These are transitory statuses, leading to



Page 63                                         GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Appendix II
Definition and Explannticon of Data Elements




  Maximum flow rate: For propulsion component facilities, the maxi-
  mum rate of air flow to which the particular component is exposed in
  pounds per second(lb/s).
  Altitude range: For propulsion wind tunnels and altitude engine test
  facilities, the altitude range simulated in the test section or chamber
  of the facility in feet (ft).

  Pressure level: For propulsion component facilities, the maximum air
  pressure driving the particular componentsin atmospheres(atm).
  Temperature range: The air temperature in the propulsion wind tun-
  nel test section or the inlet temperature for the engine and component
  test facility in degreesFahrenheit.
  Pressure range: The pressure environment in the propulsion wind tun-
  nel or engine test facility test section or chamber in pounds per square
  inch absolute (psia).

  Speedrange: For propulsion wind tunnels and engine test facilities,
  the air speedin the test section or chamber in Mach number. For pro-
  pulsion component facilities, the rotational speedof the test compo-
  nent in revolutions per minute (x-pm).

  Power level: For propulsion component facilities, the maximum horse-
  power (hp) level generated by the particular test component (turbine
  or compressor).
  Comments:Supplementary information on the performance range or
  special conditions of the air-breathing propulsion test cell.
Cost information
  Date built: Year of construction.
  Date placed in operation: Year facility began operations.
  Date(s) upgraded: Year(s) of any major modifications.
  Construction cost: Amount in then-year dollars to construct the
  facility.




Page 66                                        GAO/NSIAD-QO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Appendlx II
Deflnltion and Explanation of Data Elements




Photograph/schematic available: Indicates (yes/no) whether a photo-
graph, schematic drawing, and/or schematic diagram of the facility is
included in the report.
References:The principal published facility catalogues,technical
reports, or brochures that best describe the facility in detail.
Date of information: Date technical data and information were collected
or updated.




Page 67                                       GAO/NSIAIb90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypervelocity        Wind Tunnel

ANU T-3 Shock Tunnel



Country: Australia                                                      Performance
                                                                          Mach Number: 4 to 11 or 2 to 8 km/s
Location: The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT,              Reynolds Number: 3 x 104/ft to 2 x 106/ft
  Australia                                                               Total Pressure: 0.1 to 5.5 atm
                                                                          Dynamic Pressure: 0.1 to 5.5 atm
Owner(s):                                                                 Total Temperature: 300 to 3,000 degrees Kelvin
  The Australian National University                                      Run Time: 50 microseconds (high enthalpy); 250 microseconds
  Shock Tunnel Laboratory                                                   (low enthalpy)
  Fe ,a;trr;t  of Physics and Theoretical Physics                         Comments: See General Comments
    8
  Canberra, ACT 2601                                                    Cost Information
  Australia                                                               Date Built: 1966 to 1968
Operator(s): The Australian National University                           Date Placed in Operation: ‘I968
                                                                          Date(s) Upgraded: 1976 (straight-through mode)
International Cooperation: ESA, France, the United Kingdom, the          Construction Cost: $222,000 to $333,000 (1966)
  Unrted States, and West Germany
                                                                          Replacement Cost; About $820,000 (1989)
                                                                         Annual Operating Cost: $574,000 to $820,000 (1989)
Point of Contact: Professor John Sandeman, The Australian                 Unit Cost to User: About $4,500 per test (1989)
                                                                         Source(s) of Funding: Australian Department of Education,
 _National
  .--__    University, Tel.: [61]-(62).49-2747                              Australian Research Council, NASA, and foreign industry

Test Section Size: 2 x 2 ft (inviscid core flow 8 to 10 in. diameter)   Number and Type of Staff
                                                                          Engineers: 0
Operational Status: Active                                                Scientists: 2
                                                                         Technicians: 2
Utilization Rate: 700 tests per year; up to 6 tests per day              Others: 1 research assistant and 1 research fellow
                                                                         Administrative/Management:     2
                                                                         Total: 8


                                                   Description: The ANU T-3 Shock Tunnel is a hypervelocity short-duration
                                                   shock tunnel.

                                                   Testing Capabilities: The T-3 is capable of conducting scale model tests,
                                                   heat transfer rates, pressure distribution measurements,schlieren pho-
                                                   tography and Mach-Zehnderinterferometry, mass spectrometry, and
                                                   coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) to determine rotational
                                                   and vibrational temperatures and molecular speciesconcentrations. It
                                                   also usesother optical diagnostic techniques and laser facilities.

                                                   Data Acquisition: The T-3 has 24 on-line channels of data at 2.5-micro-
                                                   secondintervals between measurementsthat are processedon a
                                                   Macintosh computer.
                                                   Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): These include further
                                                   improvement of laser diagnostic techniques to measure flow velocities.

                                                  Unique Characteristics: The T-3 has the capacity to measureequilibrium
                                                  and non-equilibrium real gas effects at speedsup to 6.5 km/s (Mach 19.1),
                                                  corresponding to an equivalent flight velocity of 8 km/s (Mach 23.5).


                                                  Page 69                                       GAO/NSIADQO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                                 Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel
                                                 ANU T-3 Shock Tunnel




Figure 111.2:The Aucrtralian National University T-3 Shock Tunnel




                                       “i ‘1’;               ; “h.
                                                 Source:   GAO




                                                 Page 61                     GAO/NSIAD-90s71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Tram~onlc Wind Tunnel
                                           ONERA SlMA Wind Tunnel




Flguro V.26: Qround Effect Test on
Airbur A320 Model In Teat Section of the
ONERA SlMA Wind Tunnel




                                           Source:   ONERA




                                           Page 127                 GAO/N&ID-90-71FS   Foreign Test Facilities
Traneonk Wind Tunnel
ONERA S8Ch Tran~onic Wind Tunnel




construction of a third door that will be better suited to side wall test
setups, the installation of a blowdown generator, and adaptable upper
and lower walls.

Unique Characteristics: None
Applications/Current Programs: In 1963, the first in a long series of
nozzle tests were conducted for SNECMA?S ATAR 9C and 9K engines,
including Concorde-relatedstudies which began in 1966. These studies
involved weighing of the dynalpy at the nozzleoutlet for the adaptation
of subsonic flight, measurementof the distortion coefficients, and air
intake efficiency. Beginning in 1974, tests gradually oriented toward
more general studies for the benefit of industry. Tests were conducted
on debugging the D4 dynalpy weighing stand for a high-bypass-ratio
engine of the CFM 66 type, which will lead to future studies of nacelle-
wing interaction and jet reverser tests. Other activities involve studies
of aircraft of new geometry and wing-tail and canard-fuselageinterac-
tions for which laser sheet visualization techniques have been devel-
oped. The S3Chconducts various tests on the Ariane launch vehicle. The
development of a gust generator with oscillating blown flaps is used for
unsteady flow measurementson a fighter aircraft model.
General Comments:None

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:ONERA. Resources,Facilities. Chatillon, France: ONERA, 1989,
pp. 10-11.
Date of Information: January 1989




Page 129                               GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
 Transonic Wind Tunnel

ONElZAT2 Wind Tunnel



Country: France                                                      Performance
                                                                       Mach Number: 1 .l (with adaptive walls)
Location: Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,     Reynolds Number: 51 x 106/m
  Centre d’Etudes et de Recherches de Toulouse, Toulouse, France       Total Pressure: 1.7 to 5 bars
                                                                       Dynamic Pressure: Not available
Owner(s):                                                              Total Tehperature: 120 to 300 degrees Kelvin
  Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales              Run Time: 1 min
  29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc                                    Comments: None
  Boite Postale 72
  ;;;+;:2 Chatillon Cedex                                            Cost Information
                                                                       Date Built: 1975
Operator(a): Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches                 Date Placed in Operation: Not available
  Aerospatiales,   Centre d’Etudes et de Recherches de Toulouse
                                                                       Date(s) Upgraded: 1983
                                                                       Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                       Replacement Cost: Not available
International Cooperation: Not available                               Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                       Unit Cost to User: Not available
Point of Contact: Dr. J. Cousteix, Office National d’Etudes et de      Source(s) of Funding: Not available
  Recherches Aerospatiales, Centre d’Etudes et de Recherches de
  Toulouse, Tel.: [33]-(61)-55-70-80
                                                                     Number and Type of Staff
Test Section Size: 0.4 x 0.4 x 1.6 m                                   Engineers: Not available
                                                                       Scientists: Not available
                                                                      Technicians: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                             Others: Not available
                                                                      Administrative/Management:      Not available
Utlllzation Rate: Not available                                       Total: Not available


                                                Description: The ONERA T2 Wind Tunnel is a closed,return circuit, ejec-
                                                tor-driven blowdown transonic wind tunnel. The T2’ is a pressurized,
                                                cryogenic, gust wind tunnel in which the flow is produced by induction.
                                                The tunnel is pressurized up to 6 bars and speedsof up to Mach 1.1 can
                                                be achieved. Operating cryogenically, very high Reynolds Numbers are
                                                possible (Le., approximately 36 x lO”/m for an airfoil with a chord of
                                                16 cmat Mach 0.8).                                      L

                                                Testing Capabilities: The T2 is being used to conduct research on two-
                                                dimensional wing sections at high Reynolds Numbers and negligible wall
                                                corrections made with cryogenic temperatures and adaptive walls.
                                                Data Acquisition: Two local computers (both Hewlett Packard 1000s)
                                                are used for (1) tunnel testing management(precooling of the model,
                                                model injection in the test section, and starting and control of the air-
                                                driven ejector system and of the liquid nitrogen) and (2) data
                                                acquisition.
                                                Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): These include a nitro-
                                                gen-driven ejector system and lower ambient humidity.



                                                Page 131                                     GAO/NSIAD90-71J!S Foreign Test Fadlities
                                        ‘I’rawonic Wind Tunnel
                                        ONERAT2 Wind Tunnel




Figure V.30: AirfoIl In Prerence of
Adaptive Walls of Tort Sectlon of the
ONERA T2 Wlnd Tunnel




                                        Source:   ONERA




                                        Page 133                 GAO/NSLAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Trisonic Wind ‘hnnel
LltBA Cd Trbonic Wind Tunnel




Unique Characteristics: In France, the LRBA C4 is unique in that it is
capable of measuring factors related to stability (C&and C,& It also has
Magnus measurements.

Applications/Current Programs: The C4 is used mainly for development
testing on tactical and ballistic missiles. The tunnel is also used for air
intake testing for both aircraft and missiles. It is used mainly for super-
sonic testing.
General Comments:LRBA belongs to the Directorate for Engines, General
Delegatefor Armament, French Ministry of Defense.
Photograph/Schematic Available: No

References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, DC.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 231. Hoyt, Capt.
Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology. London: European Office
of Aerospace Researchand Development, 1986, p. 96 (EOARD Technical
Report).
Date of Information: November 1989




Page 136                                GAO/NSIALHO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                       Trbonk Wind Tunnel
                                       ONERA R4.8 Cascade Wind Tunnel




                                       Applications/Current Programs: The R4.3 is used for fundamental tests
                                       of compressorsand to study composite blades. The tunnel is also used to
                                       study the airstream between propeller blades and to measurethe coeffi-
                                       cient of blades.
                                       General Comments:The ONERA R4.A Wind Tunnel, a small dimension
                                       blowdown facility, is located parallel to the R4.3 and is used for special
                                       tests, particularly tests of nacelle afterbodies with external flow. The
                                       R4.A has recently been used for jet engine exhaust tests for General
                                       Electric and SNECMA.

                                       Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
                                       References:ONERA. Activities 1986: Large Testing Facilities, Chatillon,
                                       France: ONERA, 1987, p. 26. ONERA. Resources,Facilities. Chatillon,
                                       France: ONERA, 1989, pp. 72-73.

                                       Date of Information: September 1989
Figure V.31: ONERA R4.3 Cascade Wind
Tunnel




                                       Source:   ONERA




                                       Page 137                               GAO/NSLAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
 Trisonic   Wind Tunnel

 ONERA S2MA Wind Tunnel



Country: France                                                        Performance
                                                                         Mach Number: 0.1 to 1.3 (transonicj and 1.5 to 3.1 (supersonic)
Location: Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,       Reynolds Number: 5.5 to 29.4 x 10 /m
  Modane-Avrieux     Centre, Modane, France                              Total Pressure: 0.15 to 2.5 bars (maximum)
                                                                         Dynamic Pressure: 68 kN/m*
Owner@):                                                                 Total Temperature: 0 to 318 degrees Kelvin
  Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales                Run Time: Continuous
  29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc                                      Comments: Test gas used is air.
  Eoite Postale 72
  F-92322 Chatillon Cedex                                              Cost Information
  France                                                                 Date Built: 1961
Operator(s): Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches                   Date Placed in Operation: 1961
  Aerospatiales,   Modane-Avrieux   Centre
                                                                         Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
                                                                         Construction Cost: Not available
International Cooperation: Not available                                 Replacement Cost: $83.9 million (1989)
                                                                        Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Jean Laverre, Office National d’Etudes et de           Unit Cost to User: Not available
  Recherches Aeros atiales, Modane-Avrieux     Centre,
                                                                        Source(s) of Funding: Not available
  Tel.: 133)(79)20-2800
                                                                       Number and Type of Staff
                                                                        Engineers: Not available
Test Sectlon Size: 1.75 x 1.77 m (transonic) and 1.75 x 1.93 m           Scientists: Not available
  (supersonic)
~-~.--                                                                  Technicians: Not available
                                                                        Others: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                              Administrative/Management:       Not available
                                                                        Total: 14
Utilization Rate: 1,500 to 1,700 hours per year (of which 500 to 567
__ hours are test run times)


                                                Description: The ONERA SBMAWind Tunnel is a continuous flow tran-
                                                sonic and supersonicwind tunnel. The tunnel is driven by a 57-MWcom-
                                                pressor powered by four Pelton turbines. It is cooled by a water
                                                exchanger in the aerodynamic circuit just downstream from the com-
                                                pressor. Two rectangular test sections,which can be interchanged by
                                                shuttling them sideways in and out of the airflow, are installed in a
                                                sealedenclosure.The transonic test section (1.75 X 1.77 m) has solid or
                                                perforated walls and is used for tests between Mach 0.1 to 1.3. The
                                                supersonic test section (1.75 X 1.93 m) is used for tests between Mach
                                                1.6 to 3.1. The Mach number is varied by longitudinal translation of a
                                                block on the floor shaped from an asymmetrical nozzle.The stagnation
                                                pressure can be varied from 0.16 bars to a maximum that dependson
                                                the Mach number. The circuit is quickly emptied by using the ejectors.
                                                Testing Capabilities: The SBMA is equipped with one stingholder sector
                                                and a variety of stings to put together test setups in modular fashion.
                                                These stings include a variable-elbow sting; a set of cranked, deflected,
                                                and roll-motorized stings; and a wall turret. Several special test devices
                                                can also be used in the SBMA.These include a CTS device with six-


                                                Page 139                                        GAO/NSIADQO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                            Wind Tunnel
                                      Trisonic
                                      ONERA SBMA Wind Tunnel




                                                                 “&#   _”   ,,,.
Figure V.33: ONERA SPMA Wind Tunnel                                                                  pr
                                       ,,,,,,...,,        *..Q




                                      Source:    ONERA




                                      Page 141                                     GAO/NSIAD-VO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities




                                                                  .*
                                            Trisonic Wind Tunnel
                                            ONERA SIMA Wind Tunnel




Figure V.35: Airbur Model on Varieble-
Elbow Sting In l’ranaonlc Test Section of
the ONERA S2MA Wind Tunnel




                                                              -_,,,.,,, .-   _
                                            Source:   ONERA




                                            Page 143                             GAO/NSIAD-VO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                         Trbonk Wind TuMel
                                         ONERA     S2MA   Wind Tunnel




Figure V-37: Rafaie Model on Sidesilp
Sting Aaaembiy With Motorized Roil in
Traneonic Test Section of the ONERA
SSMA Wind Tunnel




                                        Source:   ONERA




                                        Page 146                        GAO/NSIAD-VO-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
 Trlsonic Wind Tunnel

/ONERAS3MA Wind Tunnel



Country: France                                /                       Performance
                                                                         Mach Number: 0.1 to 1.I (subsonic/transonic);    2, 3.4,4.5, and 5.5
Location: Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,         (nsust$onic fixed nozzle); and 1.7 to 3.8 (supersonic variable
  Modane-Avrieux     Centre, Modane, France
                                                                         Reynolds Number: 64 x 106/m
Owner(s):                                                                Total Pressure: 0.2 to 4 bars (transonic) and 4 to 7.5 bars
  Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales                  (supersonic); minimum varies from 0.2 to 1.4 bars, depending
  29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc                                        on Mach number
  Boite Postale 72                                                       Dynamic Pressure: 3 to 158 kN/m2
  F-92322 Chatillon Cedex                                                Total Temperature: 530 degrees Kelvin (maximum)
  France                                                                 Run Time: 10 s to 50 min
                                                                         Comments: None
Operator(s): Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches
  Aerospatiales,   Modane-Avrieux   Centre                             Cost Information
                                                                        Date Built: 1959
International Cooperation: Not available                                 Date Placed in Operation: 1959
                                                                        Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
Point of Contact: Jean Laverre, Office National d’Etudes et de          Construction Cost: Not available
   Recherches Aeros atiales, Modane-Avrieux        Centre,               Replacement Cost: $26.8 million (1989)
   Tel.:
     --I- [33]-(79)20-2 B-00
-.__.__                                                                 Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                         Unit Cost to User: Not available
Test Section Size: 0.78 x 0.56 m (transonic) and 0.80 x 0.76 m          Source(s) of Funding: Not available ’
   (supersonic)
-_-..-  ._..
          -
                                                                       Number and Type of Staff
Operational Statur: Active                                              Engineers: Not available              r
                                                                        Scientists: Not available
Utilization Rate: 3 to 20 runs per day or about 1,000 runs per year.    Technicians: Not available
    Tests total almost 1,500 to 1,700 hours per year (of which about    Others: Not available
-.--500 to..-____
             567 ._.-
                  hours   are actual
                      ---_--.     - test run time).
                                              -.----.                   Administrative/Management:       Not available
                                                                        Total: 12


                                                    Description: The ONERA S3MA Wind Tunnel is a transonic/supersonic
                                                    blowdown wind tunnel that has several interchangeable test sections.
                                                    The subsonic and transonic test section measures0.78 X 0.56 m with
                                                    perforated walls. A secondsubsonic and transonic test section with per-
                                                    forated walls has the samecross section as the first test section and is
                                                    used for testing airfoils in a two-dimensional flow. The supersonictest
                                                    section measures0.80 X 0.76 m. It has symmetrical fixed-blocked nozzles
                                                    establishing flows at Mach 2, 3.4,4.5, and 5.5. It also has one variable-
                                                    Mach nozzle for flows from Mach 1.7 to 3.8. The S3MA is supplied from
                                                    the Modane-Avrieux Centre’s store of compressedair (600 to 5,600 m3 of
                                                    air at 90 bar), which, depending on test conditions, is exhausted either
                                                    into the atmosphere or into vacuum spheres.The usable blowdown time
                                                    is about 10 s to 50 min. One side of the tunnel completely opens between
                                                    the settling chamber and quadrant to provide quick accessto the model
                                                    or to remove the nozzle.
                                                    Testing Capabilities: The S3MA is equipped with a remote-controlled
                                                    stingholder sector that can also be fitted with a roll drive device. A wide


                                                    Page 147                                    GAO/NSLAD-SO-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
                                      Trisonlc Wind Tunnel
                                      0NER.A SSMA Wind Tunnel




Figure V.39: ONERA S3MA Wind Tunnel




                                      Source:   ONERA




                     Y




                                      Page 149                  GAO/NSIAIMKL71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Trisonic Wind Tunnel
                                           ONERA S3MA Wind Tunnel




Figure V.41: Schematic Dlagram of the
ONERA S3MA Wind Tunnel

                                                             Transonic    tests sections                       Supersonic   tests sections

                                                                         “TN - h = 0.78 m “0.W m                   -M=2                  M=4
                                                                                                                   dM            = 3.4

                                                                         “CP- h-0.mmx0.88m
                                                                                    Schliere




                                                                               Data reconstruction




                                           Source:   ONERA


Figure V.42: Variable Mach Nozzle of the
ONERA S3MA Wind Tunnel




                                           Source:   ONERA




                                           Page 151                                                  GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                                Wind Tunnel
                                          Trlsonlc
                                          ONERA S3MA Wind Tunnel




Figure V.45: External Aerodynamic8
Model With Quarter-Circle Air Intake in
Test Section of the ONERA S3MA Wind
Tunnel




                                          Source:    ONERA




                                          Page 153                 GAO/NSlAD-SO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Trhoulc Wind Tunnel
Institut Aerotechnique de St. Cyr Sigma 4
Wind Tunnel




Photograph/Schematic Available: No

References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue: Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 174.
Date of Information: January 1986




Page 155                                    GAO/NSLADgO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
 Supersonic Wind Tunnel
 Aerospatiale-Aqultne   Arc Heater J.P. 200
 Wind Tunnel




References:Hoyt, Capt. Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology.
London: European Office of AerospaceResearchand Development,
1986, p. 80 (EOARD Technical Report).
Date of Information: August 1986




Page 167                                      GAO/NSIAlMO-71F!3 Foreign Test Facilities
Supersonic Wind Tunnel
CEAT 5.160 Supersonic Blowdown
Wind Tunnel




References:Hoyt, Capt. Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology.
London: European Office of AerospaceResearchand Development,
1986, p. 86 (EOARD Technical Report).
Date of Information: August 1986




Page 159                           GAO/NSIAD-BO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Supersonk Wind Tunnel
                                           S6Ch Trausonlc and Supersonic Wind Tunnel




                                          the addition of a secondcircuit to the tunnel and an adapted test volume
                                          (0.46 m x 1.2 m2), studies of cascadeswere begun, initially in the high
                                          subsonic regime over stator blades, then in the supersonic regime
                                          through pairs of rotor blade cascades.Currently the SSChis used mainly
                                          for testing air-breathing missile air intakes and for fundamental
                                          research such as the effect of surface temperature on the shock wave
                                          boundary layer interaction in supersonic flow. A test section of annular
                                          cascadesis presently being studied in collaboration with ONERA’S Ener-
                                          getics Department.
                                          Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
                                          References:ONERA. Resources,Facilities. Chatillon, France: ONERA, 1989,
                                          p. 12.
                                          Date of Information: January 1989
Figure V.46: Probing of the Flow on the
Upper Surface of a Dual-Sweep Wing in
Supersonic Flow in the ONERA SBCh
Transonic and Supersonic Wind Tunnel




                                          Source:   ONERA




                                          Page 161                                     GAO/NSIAD-SO-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
    Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
    CEAT II.210 Blowdown Wind Tunnel




    References:Wendt. JohnsF. “Euronean Hvpersonic Wind Tunnels.” In:
    Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles. Bristol, United Kingdom:
    NATU AGARD, 1987 (AGARD ConferenceProceedingsNo. 428). Hoyt, Capt.
    Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology. London: European Office
    of Aerospace Researchand Development, 1986, p. 86 (JCOARD Technical
    Report).
    Date of Information: April 1987




Y




    Page 103                             GAO/NSLAD-SO-71FS Foreign Test Facilltirw
Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
CNRS SIti3 Wind Tunnel




as stage separation of launchers and satellite direction control), has been
emphasized,Hypersonic reentry aerodynamics is now under study. The
SR.3is being used to test WA’S Hermes spaceplanefor Avions Marcel
Dassault-BreguetAviation.
General Comments:The SR.3is in regular use in the supersonic and
hypersonic range, mainly at Mach 16 and 20.
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Hoyt, Capt. Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology.
London: European Office of AerospaceResearchand Development,
1986, p. 86 (E&RD Technical Report), Holden, Michael S. “A Review of
the Current Capabilities in Europe to Perform Experimental Researchin
Hypersonic Flow.” In: European Hypersonic Technology. London: Euro-
pean Office of AerospaceResearchand Development, 1986, pp. 34 and
38-40 (WARD Technical Report). Wendt, John F. “European Hypersonic
Wind Tunnels.” In: Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles. Bris-
tol, United Kingdom: NATO AGARD, 1987 (AGARD ConferenceProceedings
No. 428). Laboratoire d’Aerothermique. The SR.3Wind Tunnel. Meudon,
France: Laboratoire d’Aerothermique.
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 165                               GAO/NSIALI-SO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                         Hypereoni~ Wind Tunnel
                                         CNRS SR.3 Wind Tunnel




Figure V.48: Schematic Diagram of the CNRS SR.3 Wind Tunnel                                                        .. ,   ,



            Heater          Nozzle                              Cliffuser   Vacuum aate
                               \           Test chamber




             Tunnel control And instrumentation              /                            \
                                                       Rotary pump            Booster diffusion pump




                                         Source:   U.S. Air Force EOARD




                                         Page 167                                         GAO/NSlADdO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypersonic   Wind Tunnel
IMF Blowdown Tunnel SH




References:Hoyt, Capt. Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology.
London: European Office of AerospaceResearchand Development,
1986, p. 96 (EOARD Technical Report).
Date of Information: August 1986




Page 169                           GAO/NSlAD-99-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
ONERA RZCh Blowdown Wind Tunnel




and model displacement systems and very sensitive balanceshave been
installed. The tunnel is capable of testing missile stage separation with
jet simulation by air or solid propellant thruster.
Data Acquisition: The R2Ch has 40 channels of data and uses a SOLAR
16-45 local computer with the R3Ch.
Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): These include an
increase in the Reynolds Number range for Mach 3,4, and 6 in 1990, an
increase in nozzle size for Mach 3 and 6 in 1991, and a new data acquisi-
tion system in 1991.
Unique Characteristics: None

Applications/Current Programs: The R2Ch was first used mainly to
define the aerodynamic componentsof most ballistic missile and hyper-
sonic glider projects. The tunnel is used to test boundary layer transition
with roughnesseffects, shock boundary layer interactions on a range of
two- and three-dimensional shapes,and aerothermodynamics testing on
reentry configurations. It is also used to study hypersonic aircraft or
missiles and stage separation. By the end of 1987, the R2Ch had con-
ducted nearly 9,400 tests.
General Comments:None

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue: Wind Tunnels. Washington, DC.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 277. Hoyt, Capt.
Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology. London: European Office
of Aerospace Researchand Development, 1986, p. 98 (EOARD Technical
Report). Holden, Michael S. “A Review of the Current Capabilities in
Europe to Perform Experimental Researchin Hypersonic Flow.” In:
European Hypersonic Technology. London: European Office of Aero-
spaceResearchand Development, 1986, pp. 34-36 (E~ARD Technical
Report). Wendt, John F. “European Hypersonic Wind Tunnels.” In:
Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles. Bristol, United Kingdom:
NATO AGARD, 1987 (AGARD ConferenceProceedingsNo. 428). ONERA.
Resources,Facilities. Chatillon, France: ONERA, 1989, p. 13.

Date of Information: September 1989



Page 171                                GAO/NSJADfbO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
 Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

jONERA R3Ch Blowdown Wind Tunnel



Country: France                                                         Performance
                                                                          Mach Number: 10 (contoured)
Location: Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,        Reynolds Number: 0.6 to 3.5 x 106/m
  Chalais-Meudon     Centre, Chalais-Meudon,       France                 Total Pressure: 15 to 170 bars
                                                                          Dynamic Pressure: Not available
Owner(s):                                                                 Total Temperature: 400 to 1,100 degrees Kelvin
  Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales                 Run Time: 10 s at Mach IO
  29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc                                       Comments: Starting time is 3 ms and the sweep rate is 50
  Boite Postale 72                                                          degrees/IO   s. The nozzle exit diameter useful core is 0.23 m.
  F-92322 Chatillon Cedex
  France                                                                Cost Information
                                                                          Date Built: 1963
Operator(s): Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches                    Date Placed in Operation: Not available
  Aerospatiales,   ChalaisMeudon      Centre                              Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
                                                                         Construction Cost: Not available
International Cooperation: Not available                                  Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                         Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: M.C, Capelier, Office National d’Etudes et de           Unit Cost to User: Not available
    Recherches Aerospatiales,     Chalais-Meudon    Centre,               Source(s) of Fundlng: Not available
    Tel.: [33]-(1)-46-57-l l-60
_..-_--.--.-                                                      __
                                                                        Number and Type of Staff
Test  Section Size: 0.35 .-m (nozzle exit -diameter at Mach 10)
_-.._-_-                                                                  Engineers: Not available
                                                                         Scientists: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                               Technicians: Not available
                                                                         Others: Not available
Utilization Rate:------
_-_,-_-- -____      4 tests per day                                      Administrative/Management:        Not available
                                                                         Total: 5


                                                     Description: The ONERA R3Ch Blowdown Wind Tunnel is a blowdown,
                                                     open-jet hypersonic wind tunnel. It shares somehigh pressure vacuum
                                                     equipment with ONERA's R2Ch Blowdown Wind Tunnel. Stagnation pres-
                                                     sures up to 2,600 psi are supplied to the R3Ch, and a complex resistance
                                                     heater is used to generated stagnation temperatures of up to 1,900
                                                     degreesRankine. Run times of approximately 10 s are obtained at
                                                     Mach 10. It is equipped with a contoured Mach 10 nozzle with an exit
                                                     plane diameter of 12 in. The R3Ch has a small Reynolds Number range
                                                     and will give laminar flow over simple aerodynamic configurations and
                                                     a mixture of laminar and transitional flows on configurations with
                                                     extensively separated regions. The electrical power of the heater is con-
                                                     tinuously variable according to the stagnation.
                                                     Testing Capabilities: The R3Ch usesconventional and component sting-
                                                     mounted force balances.It is also used to measure pressure distribu-
                                                     tions, heat transfer, and local skin friction, The tunnel is capable of
                                                     schlieren visualization, testing wall streamliness, and measuring the
                                                     heat flux by thermosensitive paints.




                                                     Page 173                                    GAO/NSLAD@O-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                        Hypmonlc Wind Tunnel
                                        ONERA Rllch Blowdown Wind Tunnel




Figure V.50: Schematic Diagram of the ONERA R3Ch Blowdown Wind Tunnel




                                                                           1. Heater
                                                                           2. Plenum chamber
                                                                           3. Inversion valve
                                                                           4. Contoured nozzle (removable part)
                                                                           5. Contoured nozzle (stationary part)
                                                                           6. Test chamber
                                                                           7. Jet recovery
                                                                           8. Adjusting stagnation pressure valve
                                                                           9. Adjusting stagnation pressure valve

                                        Source:   US   Air Force EOARD




                                        Page 175                                   GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                       Hyperaonlc Wind Tunnel
                                       ONERA R3Ch Blowdown Wind Tunnel




Figure V.52: Schlieren Viruallzation
Photograph of a Model of the Herme
Spaceplane at Mach 10 in the ONERA
R3Ch Blowdown Wind Tunnel




                                       Source:   ONERA




                                       Page 177                          GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
 Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
 ONE%4 S4MA Wind Tunnel




  Data Acquisition: The S4MA has 40 to 48 basic channels that can be
, expanded if needed.Measurementdata is processedin real time by a
  DEC 6320 computer.
 Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
 Unique Characteristics: None

 Applications/Current Programs: The S4MA is used to test ESA's Hermes
 spaceplanefor Avions Marcel Dassault-BreguetAviation and ramjets.
 General Comments:The S4MA is the most important hypersonic facility
 in France, especially for mass flow. For more than 10 years, it was used
 only as a hot gas generator for air-breathing missile tests. At the request
 of CNES, the S4MA was reconfigured to its original hypersonic wind tun-
 nel configuration to test ESA’S
                               Hermes spaceplane.In fact, the S4MA is
 the reference wind tunnel for Hermes. The tunnel becameoperational
 again in December1988 after installation of the Mach 10 to 12 nozzle,
 work on quick-opening valves, an exchangeof insulating bricks and
 cement in the alumina pebble bed heater (due to dust on the models dur-
 ing test runs), and a changeof the alumina pebbles.
 Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

 References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
 tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, DC.: National
 Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, p. 264. Hoyt, Capt.
 Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology. London: European Office
 of Aerospace Researchand Development, 1986, p. 99 (EOARD Technical
 Report). Wendt, John F. “European Hypersonic Wind Tunnels.” In:
 Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles. Bristol, United Kingdom:
 NATD AGARD, 1987 (AGARD ConferenceProceedingsNo. 428). ONERA. Activ-
 ities 1986: Large Testing Facilities. Chatillon, France: ONERA, 1987, p. 24.
 ONERA. Resources,Facilities. Chatillon, France: ONERA, 1989, pp. 58-59
 and 70-72.
 Date of Information: September 1989




 Page 179                                GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                         Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
                                         ONERA S4MA Wind Tunnel




Figure V.54: Schematic Diagram of the
ONERA 84MA Wlnd Tunnel
                                                     Vacuum   tanks
                                                                                           Alumina   pebble bed heater
                                                                      Test chamber                    (1,850 K)



                                                                                                              2gm3        400bar



                                                                                               -u              High speea valve
                                                                                                                                 . .
                                                                                                    ,.
                                                                                              Mach 0 n&zle      10 P\
                                                                         Diffuse   inlet      cooled throat      filter      ,




                                        Source:   ONERA




Figure V.55: Model of the Hermes
Spaceplane on Model Support Table and
Mach 6 Nozzle in Test Section of the
ONERA S4MA Wlnd Tunnel




                                        Source:   ONERA




                                        Page 181                                       GAO/NSiAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                          Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
                                          0NER.A S4MA Wind Tunrlel




Figure V.67: Model Inside Test Chamber
of the ONERA S4MA Wind Tunnel




                                         Page 183                    GAO/NSIAD-SO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hyprvelacity  Wind Tunnel
ISL Hypersonic Shock Tunnel




References:Wendt, John F. “European Hypersonic Wind Tunnels.” In:
Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles. Bristol, United Kingdom:
NATO AGARD, 1987 (AGARD ConferenceProceedingsNo. 428).

Date of Information: April 1987




Page 185                             GAO/NSIAD-BO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                       Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel
                                       LRBA C, Reflected Shock Tunnel




                                       General Comments:The tunnel’s nozzle exit diameter is 107 cm with a
                                       useful core of 30 to 60 cm. LRBA belongsto the Directorate for Engines,
                                       General Delegatefor Armament, French Ministry of Defense.
                                       Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

                                       References:Hoyt, Capt. Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology.
                                       London: European Office of AerospaceResearchand Development,
                                       1986, p. 96 (EOARD Technical Report). Wendt, John F. “European Hyper-
                                       sonic Wind Tunnels.” In: Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles.
                                       Bristol, United Kingdom: NATO AGARD, 1987 (AGARD ConferenceProceed-
                                       ings No. 428). Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aero-
                                       nautical Facilities Catalogue: Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
                                       Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, p. 257.
                                       Date of Information: November 1989
Figure V.58: LRBA C, Reflected Shock
Tunnel




                                       Source:   LRBA




                                       Page lH7                               GAO/NSlAD-90-71FS Fore&   Test Facilities
Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel
ONERA ARC 2 Hotshot Wind Tunnel




Unique Characteristics: None
Applications/Current Programs: Not available

General Comments:The ONERA ARC 2 Hotshot Wind Tunnel has been
dismantled. Elements of the tunnel are being used in the ONERA F4 Wind
Tunnel currently under construction at ONERA'S Le Fauga-MauzacCentre
near Noe, France. In 1986, the ONEF~A ARC 2 Hotshot was inoperable
becauseof damageto the energy generator. Although the reservoir tem-
peratures and pressuressuggestedan impressive performance, the
medium in a hotshot facility is not clean and the only two comparable
U.S. facilities (AEDC'S Tunnel F and Boeing’s Hotshot Tunnel) were
scrapped becauseof lack of confidence in test results.

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:Hoyt, Capt. Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology.
London: European Office of AerospaceResearchand Development,
1986, p. 100 (EOARD Technical Report). Holden, Michael S. “A Review of
the Current Capabilities in Europe to Perform Experimental Researchin
Hypersonic Flow.” In: European Hypersonic Technology. London: Euro-
pean Office of AerospaceResearchand Development, 1986, pp. 34 and
36-38 (EOAHD Technical Report).
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 189                              GAO/NSIAD-90-7IFS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel

ONEFiA F4 Hotshot wind Tunnel



Country: France                                                       Performance
                                                                        Mach Number: 7 to 18
Location: Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,      Reynolds Number: Not available
  Le Fauga-Mauzac Centre, Noe, France                                  Total Pressure: 2,000 bars (maximum)
                                                                        Dynamic Pressure: Not available
Owner(s):                                                               To;el’$mperature: Reduced enthalpy less than 200 degrees
  Office Nationatd’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales
  29, Avenue dela Division Leclerc                                      Run Time: 20 to 100 ms
  Boite Postale 72                                                      Comments: None
  F-92322 Chatillon Cedex
  France                                                              Cost Information
                                                                        Date Built: 1989
Operator: Cffice Eational d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,      Date Placed in Operation: Expected in 1990
  Le Fauga-Mauzac Centre                                                Date(s) Upgraded: Not applicable
                                                                       Construction Cost: $10.6 million (1989)
International Cooperation: Not available                                Replacement Cost: Not applicable
                                                                       Annual Operating Cost: Unknown
Point OfContact: J&&-Marie Carrara, Office National d’Etudes et         Unit Cost to User: Unknown
  de Recherches Aerospatiales,        Le Fauga-Mauzac Centre,           Source(s) of Funding: Not available
  Tel.: [33]-(61)56-63-01
                                                                      Number and Type of Staff
Test Section Size: 0.4 to 1 m (nozzle exit diameter)                    Engineers: Not available
                                                                       Scientists: Not available
Operational Status: Under construction                                 Technicians: Not available
                                                                       Others: Not available
Utilization Rate: Unknown
                     - ..--      --                                    Administrative/Management:    Not available
                                                                       Total: Not available


                                                   Description: The ONERA F4 Hotshot Wind Tunnel will be a hotshot
                                                   hypervelocity wind tunnel. The energy will be stored in an inertial
                                                   wheel (16,000 kgat 6,000 rpm) connectedto an alternator rotor shaft.
                                                   The electrodes in the arc chamber will be connectedto the stator. The
                                                   excitation of the rotor will produce a reduction of the wheel rpm and an
                                                   electrical discharge at very high power (maximum 150 MW during about
                                                   0.1 S) in the arc chamber, with an increaseof pressure and enthalpy of
                                                   the gas (air or nitrogen).
                                                   Testing Capabilities: Various nozzleswill be used (with an exit diameter
                                                   ranging from 0.4 to 1 m), according to the required simulation (Mach
                                                   number, Reynolds Number, velocity, and kinetics parameter). The F4
                                                   Hotshot will be capable of conducting tests of forces and pressures,heat
                                                   flux measurementsand flow diagnostics (validation of CFD codes).
                                                   Data Acquisition: The F4 Hotshot will have 70 channels of data.
                                                   Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None

                                                   Unique Characteristics: None


                                                   Page 191                                  GAO/NSLAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
 Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell

 CEFr C-l Altitude Ehgine Test Facility



Country: France                                                    Performance
                                                                     Maes Flow: 121 lb/s
Lo;r$ll::   Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de Saclay, Orsay,        Altitude Range: 36,000 ft
                                                                     Temperature Ran 8: -86 to 175 degrees Fahrenheit
                                                                     Pressure Range: 7 to 17 psia
Owner(r):                                                            Speed Range: Mach 0 to 1
  Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de Saclay                          Comments: Free-jet and direct-connect turboshaft engines up to
  l44;;6 Orsay Cedex                                                   27,000-hp can be tested.

Operator(s): Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de Saclay             Cost Information
                                                                     Date Built: Not available
                                                                     Date Placed in Operation: Not available
lnternatlonal Cooperation: Not available                             Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
Point of Contact: M. Fayot, Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de       Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                     Replacement Cost: Not available
--1Saclay, Tel.: [33]-(6)-941-81-50                                  Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                     Unit Cost to User: Not available
lest Cell Size: 11 ft diameter x 26 ft long                          Source(s) of Funding: Not available

Operational Status: Not available                                  Number and Type of Staff
                                                                    Engineers: Not available
Utilization Rate: Not available
----”                                                               Scientists: Not available
                                                                    Technicians: Not available
                                                                    Others: Not available
                                                                    Admhfistrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                    Total: Not available


                                                Description: The CEPr C-l is an altitude engine test facility with both
                                                free-jet and direct-connect testing capability. The capacity of the
                                                installed thrust stand is about 2,260 lb/ft.

                                                Testing Capabilities: Not available
                                                Data Acquisition: Not available
                                                Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Not available

                                                Unique Characteristics: None
                                                Applications/Current Programs: These include turboshaft engines.
                                                General Comments:None
                                                Photograph/Schematic Available: No




                                               Page 193                                    GAO/NSIAIMO-71FS Foreign Test Fdtiea
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell

CEPr R-3 Altitude Ehgine Test Facility


                            --.     -._ -   _,-._ - . .-,. ,,. ,.,
Country: France                                                        Performance
                                                                         Mass Flow: 441 lb/s
Lo;~&$;: Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de Saclay, Orsay,               Altitude Range: 65,600 ft
                                                                         Temperature Ran 8: -85 to 390 degrees Fahrenheit
                                                                         Pressure Range: ! 0 psia
Owner(s):                                                                Speed Range: Mach 0 to 2.4
  Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de Saclay                              Comments: None
  F-91406 Orsay Cedex
  France                                                               Cost information
                                                                         Date Built: Not available
Operator(s): Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de Saclay                   Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                         Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
International Cooperation: Not available                                 Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                         Replacement Coat: Not available
Point of Contact: M. Fayot, Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de          Annual Operating Coat: Not available
  Saclay, Tel. 1331.(6).941-61-50                                        Unit Coat to User: Not available
                                                                         Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Teat Ceil Size: 11.5 ft diameter x 60 ft long
                                                                       Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Not available                                        Engineers: Not available
                                                                        Scientists: Not available
Utilization Rate: Not available                                         Technicians: Not available
                                                                        Others: Not available
                                                                        Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                        Total: Not available

                                                    Description: The CEPr R-3 is an altitude engine test facility with both
                                                    free-jet and direct-connect testing capability. The thrust level is
                                                    46,000 lb/ft.
                                                    Testing Capabilities: Not available
                                                    Data Acquisition: Not available
                                                    Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Not available
                                                    Unique Characteristics: None
                                                    Applications/Current Programs: These include testing small turbojets.
                                                    General Comments:None
                                                    Photograph/Schematic Available: No
                                                    References:Penaranda. Frank E,, and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
                                                    tical Facilities Catalogue:Airbreathing Propulsion and Flight Simula-
                                                    tors. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration,
                                                    1986, vol. 2, p. 88.
                                                    Date of Information: December 1985



                                                    Page 195                                   GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell
CER R-4 Altitude Engine Test Facility




References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
ts
tors. Washington, DC.: National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration,
1985, vol. 2, p. 88.
Date of Information: December1985




Page 197                                GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell
CEPr &II Altitude Engine Test Facility




References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Airbreathing Propulsion and Flight Simula-
tors. Washington, D.C.:National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration,
1986, vol. 2, p. 89.
Date of Information: December1986




Page 199                                 GAO/NSIAD90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell

ONERA ATD Rarry’etCells Nos. 8 and 9



Country: France                                                        Performance
                                                                         Mach Number: Up to 4.5
Location: Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,       Altitude: Up to 30,000 m
  Palaiseau Centre, Palaiseau, France                                    Mass Flow: Up to 50 kg s
                                                                         Pressure: Air stored at d50 bars
Owner(s :                                                                Temperature Range: U to 1,200 degrees Kelvin
  Office k ational d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales              Thrust Level: Up to 60, 800 N
  29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc                                      Run Time: Virtually unlimited in stand no. 4
  Boite Postale 72                                                      Comments: Air and fuel mass flow rates, stagnation temperature,
  ;;9,2,3,:2 Chatillon Cedex                                               and pressure are regulated by computer.


Operator(s): Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches                Cost Information
  Aerospatiales,   Palaiseau Centre
                                                                        Date Built: 1970 to 1979
                                                                        Date Placed in Operation: 1970 to 1979
lnternatlonal Cooperation: Not available                                Date(s) Upgraded: Permanent upgrading
                                                                       Construction Cost: $10,395,010 (1979)
Point of Contact: P. Cazin and P. Kuentzmann, Office National           Replacement Cost: Not available
    d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,   Chatillon Centre,
                                                                       Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                        Unit Cost to User: Not available
----Tel.: [331(1)-4657-l l-60                                          Source(s) of Funding: See General Comments
Test Section Site: Up to 430 mm (nozzle exit diameter)                Number and Type of Staff
                                                                       Engineers: 4 (engineers and/or scientists)
Operatlonal Status: Active                                             Scient+:   (See engineers)
                                                                       $e;iFyns:    5
Utilization Rate: Intensive (400 hours per year)
                                                                        $nin+nagement:                 0
                                                                             :


                                                   Description: The ONERA Aerothermodynamic (ATD) Ramjet Cells Nos. 8
                                                   and 9 are part of the large facilities located at ONERA'S PalaiseauCentre
                                                   neededfor research on air-breathing combustors.Of the nine ATD system
                                                   cells, only numbers 6,7,8, and 9 are currently being used for research
                                                   on air-breathing combustion. Cells Nos. 8 and 9 are equipped for perfect-
                                                   ing operational ramjets. This activity requires large facilities, including
                                                   general support and four test stands. General support equipment
                                                   includes (1) inlet air heaters, operating by the combustion of hydrogen
                                                   and the reoxygenation of the effluents, to achieve a temperature of
                                                    1,200 degreesKelvin, (2) a nozzle-effect vacuum generator to lower the
                                                   ambient pressure to 0.1 bars in the outlet plane of the combustor
                                                   nozzles,(3) a liquid fuel supply with a controlled temperature ranging
                                                   from -40 degreesCelsius to 70 degreesCelsius, and (4) numerous mea-
                                                   surement devices and automatic systems controlling the operation of the
                                                   engine and of the test facility. The tests are run either in a forced pipe,
                                                   in which the combustor caliber may reach 430 IIUII,or in a semi-freejet
                                                   where the caliber is limited to 200 mm. The ramjet test cells use water
                                                   vitiated air feeding. Liquid and solid fuel (or rich fuel solid propellants)
                                                   are used to test ramjets.



                                                   Page 201                                    GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell
                                           ONERA ATD Ramjet Cells Nos. 8 and 9




Flgure V&l: Kerosene Injection                        II   $
Reeearch Stand in the ONERA ATD Cell                       i,
No. 7




                                           Source: ONERA

Flgure V.62: Balance and Dynalpy
Decoupling Syrtem at Inlet In Teat Stand
No. 1 of the ONERA ATD Ramjet Cells
Nos. 9 and 9




                                           Source: ONERA




                                           Page 203                              GAO/NSIAD9O-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell
                                           ONERAATD~etCellaNos.8and9




                                                              - .-_-, ,,
Figure V&e: Teat of Ceramic Materials on   --         “’
199-mm Caliber Engine In Teat Stand
No. 4 of the ONERA ATD Ramjet Cell8
No,. 8 and 9                                88. ~
                                                            *. II




                                           Source: ONERA




                                           Page 205                             GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
    SubsonicWind Tunnel

;CIRA Lowspeed Wind Tunnel



Country: Italy                                                                Performance
                                                                                Mach Number: 0.05 (52) to 0.1 (Sl)
Locatlon: Centro Italian0 Ricerche Aerospaziali, Capua, Italy                   Reynolds Number: 2.3 x 106/m
                                                                                Total Pressure: Ambient plus dynamic pressure
Owner(s):                                                                       Dynamic Pressure: Up to 77 mbars
    Centro Italian0 Ricerche Aerospaziali                                       Total Temperature: Ambient
    Via Filangieri, 21                                                          Run Time: Continuous
    80100 Naples                                                                Comments: None
    Italy
                                                                              Cost Information
Operator(s): Centro Italian0 Ricerche Aerospaziali                              Date Built: Planned
                                                                                Date Placed in Operation: Not available
International Cooperation: None                                                 Date(a) Upgraded: Not applicable
                                                                                Construction Cost: About $45 million (1988)
Point of Contact: Dott. In         Mario Apolloni, Centro Italian0 Ricerche     Replacement Cost: Not available
    Aerospaziali, Tel.: [39]-( B 1)42-68-15                                    Annual Operating Cost: Unknown
-
                                                                                Unit Cost to User: Unknown
Test Sectlon Size: 4.5 x 3.5 m (Sl) and 6.4 x 5 m (S2)                         Source(s) of Funding: Italian government

Operational Status: Planned                                                   Number and Type of Staff
                                                                                Engineers: Not available
Utilization Rate: Unknown                                                      Scientists: Not available
                                                                               Technicians: Not available
                                                                               Others: Not available
                                                                               Administrative/Management:     Not available
                                                                               Total: Not available


                                                     Description: The CIRALow-SpeedWind Tunnel will be a subsonicwind
                                                     tunnel. It will have two interchangeable closedtest sectionsthat will
                                                     allow tests on both Short Takeoff and Landing (SIDL) and Vertical Take-
                                                     off and Landing (VTDL) helicopter models. An open test section will pro-
                                                     vided for noise testing and other applications.
                                                     Testing Capabilities: Static and dynamic measurementswill be made of
                                                     forces and moments and pressuresof both powered and unpowered
                                                     models. In addition to those usual capabilities, the tunnel will also pro-
                                                     vide the capability for flow visualization, particle image velocimetry
                                                     (PIV), and laser Doppler velocimetry by means of a dedicated laser
                                                     system.
                                                     Data Acquisition: Not available
                                                     Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
                                                     Unique Characteristics: The flow qualities required in the tunnel specifi-
                                                     cations will exceedNATO AGARD specifications.

                                                     Applications/Current Programs: Not available


                                                     Page 207                                         GAO/NSLAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
 Transonic Wind Tunnel

,CIRAHigh Reynolds Transonic Wind Tunnel



Country: Italy                                                          Performance
                                                                          Mach Number: 0.24 to 0.4 (continuous mode) and 0.4 to 1.4
Location: Centro Italian0 Ricerche Aerospaziali, Capua, Italy               (planned blowdown)
                                                                          Reynolds Number: 14 x 106/m
Owner(,):                                                                 Total Pressure: 0.5 to 6.1 bars
  Centro Italian0 Ricerche Aerospaziali                                   Dynamic Pressure: 0.257 bars at Mach 0.24
  Via Filangieri, 21                                                      Total Temperature: 310 degrees Kelvin
  80100 Naples                                                            Run Time: Continuous (subsonic) and 45 s (transonic with
  Italy                                                                     blowdown mode improvement)
                                                                          Comments: Fan power is about 17 MW (subsonic).
Operator(s): Centro Italian0 Ricerche Aerospaziali
lnternatlonal Cooperation: None                                         Cost Information
                                                                          Date Built: Planned
Point of Contact: Dott. Ing. Mario Apolloni, Centro Italian0 Ricerche    Date Placed in Operation: Expected in 1995
    Aerospaziali, Tel. [39]-(81).42-68-15
                                                                          Date(s) Upgraded: Not applicable
.--.-“-~.                                                                Construction Cost: About $120 million (1988)
                                                                          Replacement Cost: Not available
Test Section Sire: 4.5 x 3,5 m                                           Annual Operating Cost: Unknown
                                                                         Unit Cost to User: Unknown
Operational Staturr: Planned                                             Source(s) of Funding: Italian government

Utlllzation Rate: Unknown
w..-.-                                                                  Number and Type of Staff
                                                                          Engineers: Not available
                                                                         Scientists: Not available
                                                                         Technicians: Not available
                                                                         Others: Not available
                                                                         Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                         Total: Not available


                                                 Description: The CIRA High Reynolds Transonic Wind Tunnel will be a
                                                 pressurized transonic wind tunnel with interchangeable closed test sec-
                                                 tions that will provide the capability to test STDL, V?I)L, and helicopter
                                                 models. Four different carts will be provided to perform different types
                                                 of tests. The planned air storage system will require around 2,000 m3
                                                 tanks at 90 bars pressure. The filling of the tunnel and of the tanks will
                                                 be by multistage compressorswith a flow rate of about 36 kg/s.
                                                 Testing Capabilities: The tunnel will be capable of conducting static and
                                                 dynamic measurementsof forces and moments and pressuresof both
                                                 powered and unpowered models and provide the capabilities of flutter
                                                 testing at high Reynolds Number. Flow visualization, PIV, and laser
                                                 Doppler velocimetry capabilities will be provided by a dedicated laser
                                                 system. Air intake functioning test and thrust simulation on both jet and
                                                 prop model aircraft will be provided through a go-bar pressure com-
                                                 pressedair storage system.
                                                 Data Acquisition: Not available




                                                Page 209                                         GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

‘CIRA Plasma Wind Tunnel



Country: Italy                                                               Performance
                                                                               Mach Number: 4 to 6
Location: Centro Italian0 Ricerche Aerospaziali, Capua, Italy                  Reynolds Number: Not available
                                                                               Total Pressure: 1 to 200 mbars
Owner(s):                                                                      Dynamic Pressure: Not available
  Centro Italian0 Ricerche Aerospaziali                                        Total Temperature: Less than 2,000 degrees Celsius
  Via Frlangieri, 21                                                           Run Time: 5 to 25 min
  ;$I0 Naples                                                                  Comments: Maximum flow rate is 0.2 to 2 kg/s.

                                                                             Cost information
Operator(s): Centro Italian0 Ricerche Aerospaziali                             Date Built: Planned
                                                                               Date Placed in Operation: Expected by June 1992
International Cooperation: ESA, and CNES and Avions Marcel                     Date(s) Upgraded: Not applicable
  Dassault-Breguet     Aviation, France                                        Construction Cost: About $50 million (1988)
Point of Contact: Dott. In        Mario Apolloni, Centro Italian0 Ricerche
                                                                               Replacement Cost: Not available
  Aerospaziali,   Tel.: [39].(81)42-68-15
                                                                               Annual Operating Cost: Unknown
                                                                               Unit Cost to User: About $1,500 per hour (1989)
                                                                               Source(s) of Funding: Italian government, ESA, and CNES
Test Section Size: 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 m3                     -
                                                                             Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Planned                                                    Engineers: Not available
                                                                              Scientists: Not available
Utilization Rate: Unknown                                                     Technicians: Not available
                                                                              Others: Not available
                                                                              Administrative/Management:     Not available
                                                                              Total: 2


                                                     Description: The CIRA Plasma Wind Tunnel will be an arc-driven hyper-
                                                     --
                                                     sonic wind tunnel. Total enthalpy will range Between 5 and 55 MJ/kg.
                                                     The normal flow rate will be 0.1 to 0.5 kg/s. Initially, two nozzlesare
                                                     planned: a conical nozzle for testing stagnation point region and a
                                                     semielliptical nozzle for testing flat plate specimens.
                                                     Testing Capabilities: The tunnel will have thermocameras, video-
                                                     cameras,and pirometers.

                                                     Data Acquisition: Not available
                                                     Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): An extension of test
                                                     diagnostics to more sophisticated items is planned. Examples of items
                                                     under consideration are CARS, laser interferometry, and holography.

                                                     Unique Characteristics: None
                                                     Applications/Current Programs: The primary purpose of the tunnel is to
                                                     to study and qualify parts of the thermal protection system for the re-
                                                     entry phase of WA’S Hermes spaceplane.



                                                     Page 211                                        GAO/NE&W-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
    Appendix VII

    Aerospace Test Facilities in Japan


Flgure VII.1: Map of Test Facilities in Japan

I




                                                                                                                 National Aerospace

                                                                                                                 Fuji Heavy Industries

                                                                                                                University of Tsukuba
                          Kawasaki Heavy Industries
                                                                                                              Technical Research and
                                                                                                              Development Institute


        Mltsublshl   Heavy Industries
                                                                                                -       National Aerospace Laboratory

                                                                                                    Institute of Space and
                                                                                                    Astronautical Science
                                                                                          Mitsubishi    Heavy Industries




                                                          I@      National capital


                                                          I   l   Facility installation




                                                Source:   GAO




                                                Page 213                                             GAO/NSIAD-BO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Subeonic Wind Tunnel
PHI Low-Bpeed Wind Tunnel




Unique Characteristics: None
Applications/Current Programs: The tunnel is mainly used for the study
of low-speed aerodynamics, static and dynamic stability, and control of
military and general aviation and transport aircraft configurations. The
tunnel is rarely used for the non-aeronautical model tests (such as auto-
mobiles or containers).
General Comments:None
Photograph/Schematic Available: No
References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, p. 99.
Date of Information: November 1988




Page 215                               GAO/NSIAD-!30-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Submtic Wind Tunnel
                                           KHI 3.5 m Wind Tunnel




                                           General Comments:None

                                           Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
                                           References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
                                           tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
                                           Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 67.
                                           Date of Information: October 1989
Figure Vll.2: Schematic Dlagram of the KHI 3.5 m Wind Tunnel

                                                Contraction section

      Anti-turbulence screen




                                                                                                             motor




                                           Source:   KHI




                        Y




                                           Page 217                              GAO/NSIAD@-7lF3   Foreign Test Facilities
SubsonicWind Tunnel

lMl3I 2 m Lowspeed Wind Tunnel



Country: Japan                                                     Performance
                                                                     Mach Number: 0.06 to 0.23 or 20 to 85 m/s
Location: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture,     Reynolds Number: 0.4 to 2 x 106/m
  Japan                                                              Total Pressure: Atmos heric
                                                                     Dynamic Pressure: 0.if 45 to 4.428 kN/m*
Owner(s):                                                           Total Temperature: Ambient
  Mitsubishi Heavy Industries                                        Run Time: Continuous
  Na oya Aerospace SystemsWorks                                      Comments: None
  IO 8 ye-cho, Minato-ku
  Na oya                                                           Cost Information
  Air% Prefecture 445
  Japan
                                                                     Date Built: 1928
                                                                     Date Placed in Operation: 1928
Operator(s): Mitsubishi Heavy industries,                            Date(s) Upgraded: 1957,1971,1983, and 1989
  Nagoya Aerospace Systems Works
                                                                     Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                     Replacement Cost: $4.3 million (1985)
lnternatlonal Cooperation: None                                     Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                     Unit Cost to User: Not available
Polnt of Contact: Haruhiko Arakawa, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries,    Source(s) of Funding: Not available
  Tel.: [al]-(52)61   l-801 1
                                                                   Number and Type of Staff
Teat Section Size: 1.8 x 2 x 2.5 m                                  Engineers: Not available
                                                                    Scientists: Not available
                                                                    Technicians: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                          Others: Not available
                                                                    Administrative/Management:     Not available
Utilization Rate: IO hours per day                                  Total: Not available


                                               Description: The MHI 2 m Low-SpeedWind Tunnel is a continuous-flow,
                                               closed-circuit, single-return subsonicwind tunnel.
                                               Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is capable of conducting six-component
                                               force tests, pressure distribution tests, half-model tests, power effect
                                               (air intake or exhaust) tests, wake measurementtests, and flow visuali-
                                               zation tests, Two types of supporting models are available: sting support
                                               and strut support. Balancesinclude both internal six-component and
                                               sidewall. The range of angle of attack is from -30 to 60 degreesand
                                               bank angle from -180 to 180 degrees.The strut-support system covers
                                               attack angle from -13 to 22 degreesand yaw angle from -90 to 90
                                               degrees.The power effect equipment has a capability to produce pres-
                                               surized air (cold) up to 8 kg/cm2 and a weight flow rate of 2 kg/s. The
                                               tunnel is powered by a 450-kw DC motor with 8-bladed, 3-m diameter,
                                               variable pitch fans. The data acquisition/processing and tunnel control
                                               system was upgraded in 1983 to enable automatic model attitude set-
                                               ting, flow velocity control, data acquisition, and data processing.A PSI
                                               scanning system is available for pressure measurements.
                                               Data Acquisition: The tunnel has the capability to record 18-channel
                                               force data and S-channelpressure data simultaneously. The IBM


                                               Page 219                                   GAO/NSIAD-QO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                              Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                              MHI 2 m Low-Speed Wind Tunnel




Figure Vll.4: Schematic Drawlng of the MHI Aerodynamics Laboratory With the MHI 2 m Low-Speed Wind Tunnel and MI-II 60 cm
Trisonlc Wind Tunnel

                               High-Speed Wind Wmel
                               l Computer-controlled
                                 operation
                               l   On-line data processing


                                                                              /     Surer computer (NAL)




                                                                                              Optical fiber
                                                                                              network




                        CAD/CAM terminal v                   Nkachine


                                              Source: MHI




                                              Page 221                                GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                         Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                         MI-II 2 m Low-Speed Wind Tunnel




Figure Vii.6: Schematic Diagram of the
MHI 2 m Low-Speed Wind Tunnel




                                                                                                Honeycomb

                                                                                         /




                                                                                     /          Test section



                                                                                     /          Diffuser



                                                                                     /
                                                                                               Fan
                                                                              /
                                                                           me -.     /



                                                                           f 1                 Corner vanes



                                                                                     /




                                                                                               motor



                                         Source: MHI



                                         Page 223                                  GAO/NSIAD4041FS   Fore&a Test Facilities
                                                 Subeonic Wind Tunnel
                                                 MHI Smoke Tunnel




                                                 General Comments:None
                                                 Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
                                                 References:None available
                                                 Date of Information: December1988
Figure Vii.7: Schematic Drawing of the Mill Smoke Tunnel




                                                                                                  DOWNSTREAM   OBSERVATION   WINDOW




                                                           TURNTABLE1

                                          SMOKE      LINES
                                SMOKE   NOZZLE




               CON1 ‘RACT




                                                                               TEST SECTION

                                                             !AJuJY\- OBSERVATION        WINDOW

                                                                        CONTROLPANEL

                                                                 SMOKEGENERATOR

                                                     1SCREEN




                                                 Source:      MI-II




                                                 Page 225                                                      GAO/NSIAD-%I-71F’S Foreign Test Facilities
Subsonic Wind Tunnel
NAL 6 m LowSpeed Wind Tunnel LS




Applications/Current Programs: Current applications include studies of
the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics (at takeoff and landing) of
conventional and V/STOL airplanes, laminar flow control technology,
active control technology, and advancedturboprops.
General Comments:An important feature of the NAL 6 m Low-Speed
Wind Tunnel LS is its large test section which permits high angle of
attack and/or power tests of large, full-component aircraft models.
Photograph/Schematic Available: No
References:Penaranda,Frank E.. and M. Shannon Freda. eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.:National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 60. National
AerospaceLaboratory. NAL 1988. Chofu-shi, Tokyo: National Aerospace
Laboratory, 1988, p. 16.
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 227                              GAO/NSLAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Subsonic Wind Tunnel
TRDI Convertible Wind Tunnel




Uniaue Characteristics: None
Applications/Current Programs: The horizontal tunnel is used to con-
duct research on the low-speed aerodynamics of military aircraft and on
low-speed wind tunnel testing techniques. The vertical tunnel is used to
conduct research on the rotary aerodynamics of military aircraft during
spin motions and on spin test techniques.
General Comments:None
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Penaranda,Frank. E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 84.
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 229                              GAO/NSIAD-99-71FS Foreign Test FaciUtles
                                      Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                      TRDI Convertible Wind Tunnel




Figure Vl1.9: Sectional View of the
Vertical Contlguration of the TRbl
Convertible Wind Tunnel




                                                                Atmosphere
                                                                       t            Damper
                                                                     /\I \I\
                                                                                      -
                                                                                           in test room


                                                                                                     nozzle




                                      Source: TRDI




                                      Page 231                                 GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Subsonic Wind Tunnel
TRIM Low-Speed Wind Tunnel




Applications/Current Programs: These include studying high angle of
attack aerodynamic characteristics, low-speed aerodynamics of military
aircraft, and low-speed wind tunnel testing techniques. The tunnel is
also being used for studying store separation testing techniques.

General Comments:None
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels, Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 86.

Date of Information: October 1989




Page 233                              GAO/NSIAD-SO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
SubsonicWind Tunnel

University of Tsukuba Cryogenic Wind Tunnel



Country: Japan                                                           Performance
                                                                           Mach Number: 0.09 to 0.19 or 30 to 65 m/s
Location: University of Tsukuba, Institute of Engineering                  Reynolds Number: 1 x 105/ft to 1 x 107/ft (with a reference length
   Mechanics, Tsukuba, lbaraki Prefecture, Japan                             of 50 mm)
                                                                           Total Pressure: Up to 8 bars
Owner(s):                                                                  Dynamic Pressure: 0.54 to 60 kN/m’
   University of Tsukuba                                                   Total Temperature: 100 to 300 degrees Kelvin
   Institute of Engineering Mechanics                                      Run Time: Not available
   l-1-1 Tennodai                                                          Comments: Test gas used is nitrogen.
   Tsukuba
   lbaraki Prefecture 305                                                Cost information
   Japan                                                                   Date Built: 1982
Operator(s): University of Tsukuba, Institute of Engineering               Date Placed in Operation: 1984
   Mechanics
                                                                           Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
                                                                          Construction Cost: Not available
international Cooperation: Not available                                   Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                          Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Tsutomu Adachi, University of Tsukuba, Institute         Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                          Source(s) of Funding: Not available
. of_..--.*
     Engineering
            .._. ..----Mechanics,
                            --..  Tel.: [81]-(298)53-5121

lest   Section                                                           Number and Type of Staff
           ~.-._.- .-Size:
_.- .._.......       .-..-_- 0.5
                              .__..x-- 0.5  x 1.2 m
                                       .-.--_____                          Engineers: 3
                                                                           Scientists: 1
Operational Status: Active                                                Technicians: 0
                                                                          Others: 0
Utilization Rate: 100 hours (1988)                                        Administrative/Management:       1
                                                                          Total: 5


                                                      Description: The University of Tsukuba Cryogenic Wind Tunnel is a con-
                                                      tinuous-flow, closed-circuit subsonicwind tunnel. The inside of the tun-
                                                      nel is thermal-shielded.

                                                      Testing Capabilities: Models can be set in the test section. Model angle to
                                                      the flow can be controlled by a worm and worm wheel mechanism from
                                                      outside of the tunnel. Temperature and velocity can be measured using a
                                                      traversing mechanism, which is controlled from outside of the tunnel,
                                                      Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 50 temperature outputs and 60 pres-
                                                      sure outputs that can be taken and analyzed from outside of the tunnel.
                                                      Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
                                                      Unique Characteristics: None
                                                      Applications/Current Programs: Researchis mainly directed to the
                                                      study of low-speed and high Reynolds Number aerodynamics, especially
                                                      the study of drag and vortex shedding of two-dimensional bodies (circu-
                                                      lar and square cylinders).


                                                      Page 236                                    GAO/NSLAD90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                       Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                       University of Tsukuba Cryogenic
                                       Wind Tunnel




Figure VII.11: Univerrity of Tsukuba
Cryogenic Wlnd Tunnel




                                       Source:   University   of Tsukuba




                                       Page 237                            GAO/NSIADBO-71FS Fore&u Test Facilities
Transonic Wind Tunnel

ISAS Transonic Wind Tunnel



Country: Japan                                                        Performance
                                                                        Mach Number: 0.3 to 1.3 (maximum)
Location: Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,                 Reynolds Number: 1.l x 106/m
  Sagamihara-shi,   Kanawaga Prefecture, Japan                          Total Pressure: 5 atm (maximum)
                                                                        Dynamic Pressure: 216 kN/mz (maximum)
Owner(s):                                                              Total Temperature: Atmospheric
  institute of Space and Astronautical   Science                        Run Time: 50 s (minimum)
  3-l-l Yoshinodai                                                      Comments: None
  Sagamihara-shi
  Kanagawa Prefecture 229                                             Cost Information
  Japan                                                                 Date Built: 1988
Operator(cr): Institute of Space and Astronautical Science              Date Placed in Operation: 1989
                                                                        Date(s) Upgraded: None
international Cooperation: None                                        Construction Cost: $10 million (1988) (See General Comments)
                                                                        Replacement Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Professor Keiichi Karashima, Institute of Space      Annual Operating Cost: $220,000 (1990)
                                                                        Unit Cost to User: $1,000 per hour (1990)
- and Astronautical Science, Tel.: [81]-(427)57-3911, ext. 2812         Source(s) of Funding: Japanese government
Teet
---“- Section Size: 0.6 x 0.6 x 1 m                                   Number and Type of Staff
                                                                        Engineers: 1
Operational Statue: Active                                             Scientists: 0
                                                                       $;&;ciOans: 1
Utilization
..__-. -- Rate: 6 runs per day
                                                                       k$$@ative/Management:          1




                                                   Description: The ISASTransonic Wind Tunnel is a blowdown transonic
                                                   wind tunnel. It covers the range of Mach numbers from 0.3 to 1.3 contin-
                                                   uously where stagnation pressure from 2 to 6 atm is available for con-
                                                   ventional operations. Tests can be conducted in two operational modes.
                                                   These include fixed Mach number operations and sweep Mach number
                                                   operations.
                                                   Testing Capabilities: The tunnel has various testing capabilities includ-
                                                   ing six-component force tests, pressure measurement at 120 points, and
                                                   optical observation using schlieren and laser interferometry as well as a
                                                   high-speedvideo system.
                                                   Data Acquisition: A high-speed and multi-channel data acquisition sys-
                                                   tem is available, which consistsof a computer and the associatedmea-
                                                   surement devices.Data acquisition is obtained automatically.
                                                   Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
                                                   Unique Characteristics: None




                                                   Page 239                                  GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                          Transonic kind Tunnel
                                          ISAS Tranmonlc Wind Tunnel




Figure Vll.13: Schematic Diagram of the ISAS Supersonic and TransonIc Wind Tunnels




                                                                                                                       1




                                                                                                                     L1




                                          Source:   ISAS




                                          Page 241                                   GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Transonic Wind Tunnel

KHI 1 m Transonic Wind Tunnel



Country: Japan                                                  Performance
                                                                  Mach Number: 0.2 to 1.4
Location: Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Kakamigahara City, Gifu      Reynolds Number: 22 x 106/ft
  Prefecture, Japan                                               Total Pressure: 5 atm (maximum)
                                                                  Dynamic Pressure: 2.2 atm (maximum)
Owner(s):                                                        Total Temperature: Atmospheric
  Kawasaki Heavy Industries                                       Run Time: 6 s to 2 min
  Gifu Works                                                     Comments: Test gas used is air.
  1, Kawasaki-cho
  Kakamigahara City                                             Cost Information
  Gifu Prefecture 504                                             Date Built: 1988
  Japan                                                           Date Placed in Operation: 1988
Operator(s): Kawasaki Heavy Industries                            Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
                                                                  Construction Cost: $25 million (1988)
International Cooperation: None                                   Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                 Annual Operating Cost: Unknown
                                                                  Unit Cost to User: Not available
Point of Contact: Jun Okumura, Kawasaki Heavy Industries,        Source(s) of Funding: Kawasaki Heavy Industries
  Tel.: 1811-(583)-82-5346
                                                                Number and Type of Staff
Test Section
_I_____.__     Size: 1 x 1 m
        --“-_-.__-._-__--.                                        Engineers: 2
                                                                 Scientists: 1
Operational Status: Active                                        g;h;~p:l
Utilization Rate: 10 to 15 tests per dav                          AdminiLtrativajManagemenk    1
                                                                  Total: 5


                                             Description: The KHI 1 m Transonic Wind Tunnel is a blowdown tran-
                                             sonic wind tunnel. The tunnel has a hydraulic nozzle adjustment, porous
                                             walls to absorb the shock wave reflection from the walls, and two
                                             1,60@hpcompressors.

                                             Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is capable of conducting six-component
                                             force and moment tests, half-model tests, and pressure tests. It is also
                                             capable of exhaust jet simulation, optical tests, schlieren flow visualiza-
                                             tion, and wake measurements.
                                             Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 80 on-line channels of data. The host
                                             computer is a MV-7800.
                                             Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
                                             Unique Characteristics: The KHI 1 m Transonic Wind Tunnel is the larg-
                                             est transonic wind tunnel in Japaneseindustry and has one of the high-
                                             est Reynolds Number of any wind tunnel in Japan.




                                             Page 243                                  GAO/NSIAlMO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                               Transonic Wind Tunnel
                                               KHI 1 m Tranaonic Wind Tunnel




    Figure Vll.16: Schematic Diagram of the KHI 1 m Transonic Wind Tunnel
r                                                                  Wind tunnel gonwl olda r1.w




                                                                                   Compreeslng
                                                                                     tunnel Recilfylng




L


                                              Source:        KHI


Figure Vll.17: Plenum Chamber of the
KHI 1 m Transonic Wind Tunnel




                                              b     ,‘J;,:
                                                                       ,2”   ‘:,     x.(
                                                                                                                                 P.
                                                                                                                                 (LI
                                                                                               I
                                                                                     ,, ,,,,       ,..,_..._,, .,,                     ,*,_

                                              Source:        KHI




                                              Page 246                                                               GAO/NSLAD-90-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
Transonic     Wind Tunnel

KHI TvmDimensional Wind Tunnel



Country: Japan                                                 Performance
                                                                 Mach Number: 0.4 to 1.2
Location: Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Kakamigahara City, Gifu     Reynolclb Number: 5.1 to 23.7 x 106/ft
  Prefecture, Japan                                              Total Pressure: 1.5 to 5 atm
                                                                 Dynamic Pressure: 0.2 to 2.1 atm
Owner(s):                                                        Total Temperature: Ambient
  Kawasaki Heavy Industries                                      Run Time: 1 to 40 s
  Gifu Works                                                     Comments: None
  1, Kawasaki-cho
  Kakamigahara City                                            Cost Information
  Gifu Prefecture 504                                            Date Built: 1976
  Japan                                                          Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                 Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
Operator(8): Kawasaki Heavy Industries                           COtWtrUCtiOnCost: Not available
                                                                 Replacement Cost: Not available
lnternatlonal Cooperatlon: Not available                         Annual Operating Coat: Not available
                                                                 Unit Cost to User: Not available
Point of Contact: Jun Okumura, Kawasaki Heavy Industries,        Source(s) of Funding: Not available
  Tel.: f811-(5831-82-5346
                                                               Number and Type of Staff
Test Sectlon Size: 0.4 x 0.1 x 1 m                               Engineers: Not available
                                                                 Scientists: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                      Technicians: Not available
                                                                Others: Not available
Utilization Rate: 10 to 15 tests her dav                        Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                Total: 5


                                             Description: The KHI Two-Dimensional Wind Tunnel is a blowdown tran-
                                             sonic wind tunnel.

                                             Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is capable of conducting pressure mea-
                                             surements and schlieren flow visualization tests.
                                             Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 40 on-line channels of data.

                                             Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
                                             Unique Characteristics: None
                                             Applications/Current Programs: Current applications include funda-
                                             mental research on airfoils.

                                             General Comments:None
                                             Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes




                                             Page 247                                  GAO/NSIAIMO-71FS Foreign Test FacilMes



                                                                       ./,
                                              Transonic Wind Tunnel
                                              KM Two-Dimensional Wind Tunnel




Figure Vll.20: Schematic Diagram of the Test Section Configuration of ihe KHI Two-Dimensional Wind Tunnel

                                                                   PLENUMSHELL




                                 EXTRACTION
                                 HOLES    ,




                                                                                                          0        SILENCER




               STAIMCPRESSURE/
                   "" A., ..I. r , n
                                       /
                                                              T\   ANGLESE'ITING




                                              Source,   KHI




                                              Page 249                                 GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
‘l’ranmnic Wind Tunnel
NAL2mlkannontcWlndTbnnelHS




for low-speed (1 to about 1,000 Hz variable) acquisition. Test data before
balance-drift corrections are processedon-line by a computer system
attached to the wind tunnel.
Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Step-by-steprefur-
bishment of the major hardware componentsbegan in 1986 is still
underway.
Unique Characteristics: None
Applications/Current Programs: The major portion of the testing time is
devoted to data acquisition for the development of aerospacevehicles.
The tunnel is used for both domestic Japaneseand international aero-
spaceresearch and development work.

General Comments:None
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, DC.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 162. National
Aerospace Laboratory. NAL 1988. Chofu-shi, Tokyo: National Aerospace
Laboratory, 1988, pp. 16-16.
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 261                               GAO/NSLABBO-‘71FS Foreign Te& Fadlith
Transonic Wind Tunnel

NAL Two-DimensionaLTramonic Wind Tunnel



Country: Japan                                                         Performance
                                                                         Mach Number: 0.2 to 1.15
Location: National Aerospace Laboratory, Chofu-shi, Tokyo, Japan         Reynolds Number: 49 x 106/ft at Mach 0.8
                                                                         Total Pressure: 200 to 1,200 kPa
Owner(s):                                                                Dynamic Pressure: 350 kPa
  National Aerospace Laboratory                                          Total Temperature: Ambient
  7-44-l Jrndaijihigashi-machi                                           Run Time: 9 to 100 s
  Chofu-shr                                                              Comments: None
  Tokyo 182
  Japan                                                                Cost Information
Operator(s): National Aerospace Laboratory                               Date Built: 1979
                                                                         Date Placed in Operation: Not available
International Cooperation: None                                          Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
                                                                         Construction Cost: $6.26 million (1985)
Point of Contact: I. Kawamoto, National Aerospace Laboratory,            Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                        Annual Operating Cost: Not available
_.. Tel.: [81 J-(422)-47-591 1                                           Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                        Source(s) of Funding: Japanese government
Test Section Size: 1 x 0.3 m                                       -
                                                                       Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Active                                               Engineers: Not available
                                                                        Scientists: Not available
Utilization
      .-    Rate: 1 shift per day                                       Technicians: Not available
                                                                        Others: Not available
                                                                        Administrative/Management:    Not available
                                                                        Total: 5


                                              Description: The NAL Two-Dimensional Transonic Wind Tunnel is an
                                              intermittent blowdown transonic wind tunnel. The tunnel has a two-
                                              dimensional test section with slotted upper and lower walls and solid
                                              sidewalls. It can accommodatemodels with a chord length of 9.84 tn.
                                              Tunnel operation is automated and controlled by one person.
                                              Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is capable of testing models with an
                                              angle of attack ranging from -15 degreesto 26 degrees.Measurementof
                                              pressure distribution on the model and wake surveys are conducted. For
                                              wall interference correction, pressure distributions along the upper and
                                              lower walls are available. It is equipped with a sidewall boundary layer
                                              suction system. A pair of glass windows 25 cm in diameter mounted on
                                              sidewalls provide optical observation. The tunnel is capable of con-
                                              ducting schlieren flow visualization tests. Oil flow techniques are availa-
                                              ble as well.
                                              Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 48 analog channels and 24 digital
                                              channels of data that can be recorded on the data acquisition system
                                              with a Hewlett Packard 2113B minicomputer. The data can be reduced
                                              immediately after the tunnel run.



                                              Page 253                                        GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                              Trlsonic Wind Tunnel
                                              Delf’t University of Technology Blowdown
                                              Tunnel B (TST 27)




Figure VIII& Schematic Diagram of the Delft University of Technology’Blowdown              Wind Tunnel B (TST 27)




                                                                                                              -
                                                                                                       scale: 0   1   2     3   4     5m


              FLOW CONTROL VALVE
              INLE1 OIFFUSOR
              TRANSITION PART
              SETTLING CHAMBER
              INLET NOZZLE AND TEST SECTION
              MODEL SUPPORT SECTION
              CHOKE SECTION
              OUTLET OIFFUSOR




                                              Source:   Delft University   of Technology




                                              Page 317                                             GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Trisonic Wind Tunnel

Delft University of Technology GLT 20
Boundary Layer Tunnel


Country: The Netherlands                                           Performance
                                                                     Mach Number: 0.6 to 2.4 (continuously variable)
Location: Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands     Reynolds Number: 27 x 106/ft at Mach 2.4
                                                                    Total Pressure: 4 bars at Mach 1 to 10 bars at Mach 2.4
Owner(s):                                                            Dynamic Pressure: 88 to 250 kN/m2
  Delft University of Technology                                    Total Temperature: 280 degrees Kelvin
  Faculty of Aerospace Engineering                                   Run Time: 12 min
  Kluyverweg 1                                                       Comments: None
  2629 HS Delft
  The Netherlands                                                  Cost Information
                                                                     Date Built: Planned
Operator(s): Delft University of Technology                          Date Placed in Operation: Expected in 1990
                                                                     Date(s) Upgraded: Not applicable
International Cooperation: None                                      Construction Cost: $900,000 (1989 estimate)
Point of Contact: W.J. Bannink, Delft University of Technology,      Replacement Cost: $900,000 (1989 estimate)
                                                                    Annual Operating Cost: Unknown
  Tel.: [31]-(15)784500                                              Unit Cost to User: Unknown
                                                                    Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Test Section Size: 17 x 20 x 132 cm
                                                                   Number and Type of Staff
Operational Statue: Planned                                         Engineers: 2 (part-time)
                                                                    Scientists: 4 (part-time)
Utilization
_.          Rate:
             _. _ Unknown                                           g;e;cfns:      2 (part-trme)
                                                                     Admlni\trative/Management:       1 (part-time)
                                                                     Total: 9 (part-time)


                                                Description: The Delft University of Technology GLT 20 Boundary Layer
                                                Tunnel will be a trisonic wind tunnel with continuously variable Mach
                                                numbers from 0.6 to 2.4. The tunnel is being built to facilitate measure-
                                                ments in boundary layers and obtain thick boundary layers exposedto
                                                controlled pressure gradients. The boundary layer tunnel may be com-
                                                pared to the upper half of a symmetric wind tunnel, the lower half of
                                                which has been replaced by a long flat plate extending from upstream of
                                                the throat along the length of the nozzle and test section. The upper wall
                                                of the long and slender test section may be contoured to generate shock
                                                waves or pressure gradients. The sidewalls of the nozzle will diverge
                                                slightly in the flow direction to reduce secondary flows in the boundary
                                                layer. A separate test plate with a sharp leading edgemay be introduced
                                                in the test section to study boundary layers not affected by upstream
                                                history effects, The Mach number at the exit of the semiflexible nozzle
                                                can be continuously adjusted from subsonic speedto Mach 2.4. A simple
                                                adjustable secondthroat at the exit of the test section will control sub-
                                                sonic and transonic flows. Stagnation pressureswill be limited by the
                                                capacity of the flow control valve to 4 bars at Mach 1 and to 10 bars at
                                                Mach 2.4. The GLT 20 will be driven by dry, oil-free air delivered by a
                                                6,000-kw compressorplant and stored at 40 bar pressure in a 300-m3
                                                storage vessel.


                                                Page 319                                     GAO/NSIAD-90-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
                                               Trlnonlc Wind Tunnel
                                               Delft Utiverslty of Technology GLT 20
                                               Boundary Layer Tunnel




Figure Vlll.11: Schematic blagram of the Delft University of Technology OLT 20 Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel


                                                                                                                    Oiftusor and
                                                                                                               Instnmwntation Se&on

                                    Settling Chamkr                               Asymmetric                    Test section
                                 Stagnalh    Pmwn     1.5-10 bar              Flexible Plate Nozzle             17cm x 2Ocm
                                                                                 Mach 0.6- 2.L                                     \




                                                                                                                 flat todt plate



                                                                                                                      lC6cm




                                               Source:   Delft Unwewty   of Technology




                                               Page 321                                               GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Supersonic Wind Tunnel
Delft University of Technology Blowdown
Tunnel A (ST 15)




Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 26 on-line channels of data. Data are
collected, stored, and processedin the central data acquisition system
DRSof the Laboratory. For extensive numerical calculations, a terminal
provides accessto the IBM 3083 mainframe and Convex minisupercom-
puter at the University Computer Center.
Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
Unique Characteristics: Asymmetric nozzle blocks and test sections are
available for tests in curved supercritical flows. In this setup, the lower
nozzle block is shaped to generate supercritical flow simulating local
flow conditions over an airfoil, while the upper block is contoured
according to the calculated shape of a streamline in order not to inter-
fere with the development of the flow field. Automatic control of a
downstream sonic throat maintains the desired Mach number and posi-
tion of the shock wave.

Applications/Current Programs: These include the study of the interac-
tion of embeddedshock waves with the boundary layer over a curved
surface in a supercritical flow.
General Comments:None

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:Hoyt, Capt. Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology.
London: European Office of Aerospace Researchand Development,
1986, p. 88 (EOARD Technical Report). Delft University of Technology.
The Laboratory of High SpeedAerodynamics. Delft, The Netherlands:
Delft University of Technology, 1989, pp. 1-4.
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 323                                  GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
SupersonicWind Tunnel

NLR Continuous &qxmonic Wind Tunnel



Country: The Netherlands                                               Performance
                                                                         Mach Number: 1.2 to 6 (contoured)
Looatlon: Nationaal Lucht-en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium,     Amsterdam,     Reynolds Number: 20 to 30 x 106/m
  The Netherlands                                                        Total Pressure: 30 bars (maximum)
                                                                         Dynamic Pressure: Not available
Owner(s):                                                                Total Temperature: 300 to 500 degrees Kelvin
  Nationaal Lucht-en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium                             Run lime: Continuous (about 30 min)
  Anthony Fokkerweg 2                                                    Comments: None
  1059 CM Amsterdam
  The Netherlands                                                      Cost Information
                                                                         Date Built: Not available
Operator(r): Nationaal Lucht-en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium                  Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                         Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
International Cooperatlon: Not available                                 Construction Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: H. A. Dambrink, Nationaal Lucht-en                     Replacement Cost: Not available
  Ruimtevaartlaboratorium,   Tel.: T311-(20)-5-113-113
                                                                         Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                         Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                         Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Teat Section Site: 0.27 x 0.27 m
                                                                       Number and Type of Staff
Operational Statur: Active                                               En ineers: Not available
                                                                         SCBentists: Not available
Utlliration Rate: Not available                                         Technicians: Not available
                                                                        Others: Not available
                                                                        Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                        Total: 5


                                                  Description: The NLR Continuous SupersonicWind Tunnel is a continu-
                                                  ous blowdown facility fed by an air storage vessel containing 600 m3 of
                                                  dry air at a maximum pressure of about 4,000 kPa.
                                                  Testing Capabilities: Forces and moments are measured with a six-com-
                                                  ponent internal strain-gauge balance. For pressure measurements,the
                                                  model is equipped with a number of pressure leads connecting each
                                                  pressure plotting hole on the model with a pressure transducer. Heat
                                                  transfer measurementsare possible. Other types of measurements
                                                  include flow direction sensing,mass flow, and temperature measure-
                                                  ments. Flow visualization techniques include the oil and naphthalene
                                                  methods and the schlieren and shadow optical systems.

                                                  Data Acquisition: Not available
                                                  Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Not available
                                                  Unique Characteristics: Special features include a cold- and hot-jet
                                                  simulator.

                                                 Applications/Current Programs: Not available


                                                 Page 325                                      GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Supersonic Wind Tunnel
                                           NLR Continuous Supersonic Wind Tunnel




Figure Vlll.14: Schematic Diagram of the
NLR Continuous Supersonic Wind Tunnel




                                           Source:   NLR




                                           Page 327                                GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Supersonic Wind Tunnel
NLR Supersonic Wind Tunnel




Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Not available
Unique Characteristics: The tunnel has cold- and hot-jet simulation. An
important feature is the ability to exchangethe samemodel between the
NLR SupersonicWind Tunnel and the NLR High-SpeedWind Tunnel. In
special cases,it is also possible to test the NLR SupersonicWind Tunnel
and the NLR High-SpeedWind Tunnel models in the NLR Low-SpeedWind
Tunnel. This capability enablesthe user to test one model in different
velocity regimes.
Applications/Current Programs: These include forces, moments, pres-
sures, and mass flow. Tests of launchers and shuttles are being con-
ducted for I%%.The NLR SupersonicWind Tunnel is also being used to
test ESA'S Hermes spaceplanefor Avions Marcel Dassault-Breguet
Aviation.
General Comments:None

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue: Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, p. 213. Hoyt, Capt.
Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology. London: European Office
of Aerospace Researchand Development, 1986, p. 97 (EOARD Technical
Report). Wendt, John F. “European Hypersonic Wind Tunnels.” In:
Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles. Bristol, United Kingdom:
NATO AGARD, 1987 (AGARD ConferenceProceedingsNo. 428). National
Aerospace Laboratory. SupersonicWind Tunnel. Amsterdam: National
Aerospace Laboratory, 1988.
Date of Information: November 1988




Page 329                              GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
     .
                                            Supersonic Wind Tunnel
                                            NLR Supersordc Wind Tunnel




Figure V111.17:Model of Ariane 5 Launch
Vehicle With the Hermes Spaceplane in
the NLR Supersonic Wind Tunnel




                                                                         Source:   NLR




                                          Page 33 1                            GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
SubsonicWind Tunnel

ARA Bedford Tw~Dimensional Wind Tunnel



Country: United Kingdom                                             Performance
                                                                      Mach Number: 0.3 to 0.86
Location: Aircraft Research Association, Bedford, United Kingdom      Reynolds Number: 2 to 7 x 106/ft (based on 5 in. chord)
                                                                      Total Pressure: 20 to 60 psia
Owner(s):                                                             Dynamic Pressure: Not available
  Aircraft Research Association                                      Total Temperature: 520 degrees Rankine
  Manton Lane                                                         Run Time: 7 s
  Bedford, Bedfordshire MK41 7PF                                      Comments: None
  United Kingdom

Operator(s): Aircraft Research Association                          Cost Information
                                                                      Date Built: 1968
International Cooperation: Not available                              Date Placed in Operation: 1969
                                                                      Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
Point of Contact: Chief Executive, Aircraft Research Association,     Construction Cost: Not available
  Tel.: [44]-(234)50681
                                                                      Replacement Cost: Not available
         .._.._-- ~-                                                  Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                      Unit Cost to User: $24,750 per tvpical 200 data point test
Test Section Size: 8 x 18 in.                                           program (1989)            ’    ”
                                                                      Source(s) of Funding: Commercial contracts
Operational Status: Active
                                                                    Number and Type of Staff
Utilization Rate: 2,000 runs per year                                Engineers: Not available
                                                                     Scientists: Not available
                                                                     Technicians: Not available
                                                                     Others: Not available
                                                                     Administrative/Management:       Not available
                                                                     Total: Not available


                                                Description: The AFU Bedford Two-Dimensional Wind Tunnel is a varia-
                                                ble pressure, intermittent, blowdown subsonicwind tunnel.
                                                Testing Capabilities: The tunnel has the capability of testing airfoil
                                                models in both static and dynamic modes.For static testing, airfoils
                                                normally have a total of 44 surface pressureson the upper and lower
                                                surfaces and can be tested for an incidence range of - 11 to 20 degrees.
                                                For dynamic testing, airfoils normally have a total of 39 surface pres-
                                                sures and can be tested for a frequency range of 0 to 200 HZ and for
                                                amplitudes of up to about 22 degrees.
                                                Data Acquisition: For static testing, airfoil surface pressures are mea-
                                                sured with a scanivalve. For dynamic testing, airfoil surface pressures
                                                are measured with Kulite transducers. Lift and pitching moment coeffi-
                                                cients are obtainable by the integration of the measured pressures.Drag
                                                is measured by meansof a rake comb of 48 pitot tubes and 3 static tubes
                                                situated downstream of the model.
                                                Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None



                                                Page 333                                     GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
SubsonicWind Tunnel

BAe Brough 7 X 5 ft Lowspeed Wind Tunnel



Country: United Kingdom                                              Performance
                                                                       Mach Number: 0 to 0.25 or 0 to 85 m/s
Location: British Aerospace, Brough, United Kingdom                    Reynolds Number: 5.4 x 106/m
                                                                       Total Pressure: About 1 bar
Owner(s):                                                              Dynamic Pressure: 4.4 kN/m*
   British Aerospace                                                   Total Temperature: Ambient to 323 degrees Kelvin
   Military Aircraft, Ltd.                                             Run Time: Not available
   Brough, North Humberside, Cumbria HU15 1EQ                          Comments: None
   United Kingdom
Operator($): British Aerospace, Military Aircraft, Ltd.              Cost Information
                                                                       Date Built: 1937
International Cooperation: Not available                               Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                       Date(s) Upgraded: 1952, 1964,1975, and 1984
Point of Contact: Alan N. Dewar, British Aerospace, Military          Construction Cost: Not available
  Aircraft, Ltd., Tel.: 1441~(772)633333, ext. 52856
                                                                       Replacement Cost: $1.2 million (1984)
                                                                      Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                      Unit Cost to User: Not available
Test Section Size: 2.1 x 15 m                                         Source(s) of Funding: Not available

Operational Status: Decommissioned       (see General Comments)      Number and Type of Staff
                                                                       Engineers: Not available
Utllitation   Rate: Single shift                                      Scientists: Not available
                                                                      Technicians: Not available
                                                                      Others: Not available
                                                                      Administrative/Management:     Not available
                                                                      Total: Not available


                                                  Description: The BAe Brough 7 X 5 ft Low-SpeedWind Tunnel is a contin-
                                                  uous-flow, closed-circuit subsonicwind tunnel. The tunnel was decom-
                                                  missioned and sold in 1989 to a non-aeronautical company (seeGeneral
                                                  Comments).The working section is vented to atmosphere downstream.
                                                  The tunnel has an overhead mechanical balance. A floor and roof bound-
                                                  ary layer suction system is available for two-dimensional models, and
                                                  230 m3 air at 30 bars is available for blown models.

                                                  Testing Capabilities: The tunnel had the capability to conduct full- and
                                                  half-model tests at 76 m/s (Mach 0.22) continuously and at 85 m/s (Mach
                                                  0.26) intermittently. Blowing and suction systems for two- and three-
                                                  dimensional blown wing models were available.
                                                  Data Acquisition: The tunnel has a dedicated l&bit microcomputer for
                                                  data logging, post-run data reduction, and plotting. It also has multi-
                                                  scanivalve capability.
                                                  Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): A new operator con-
                                                  sole and standardized instrumentation databasewere planned.
                                                  Uniaue Characteristics: Not available


                                                  Page 336                                  GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                                         Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                                         BAe Brough 7 X 5 ft, Low-Speed Wind Tunnel




Figure 1X.2: Schematic Drawing of the EAe Brough 7 X 5 ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel




                            /fITA?
          400 H.P. MOTOR
           (FAN coomob
  DRIVlNt? 8 ft -8 BLyE,D   FAN I-
                               \




                                     8 BLADED   FAfr      ’ .\ ,              !
                                                              “j
                                          AIR DELIVERY     PIPE           .

                                                         OPERATINQ   CO:SOn




                                                         Source.   NASA




                             Y




                                                         Page 337                                     GAO/NSIAD-90-71PS Foreign Test Facilities
                                              Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                              BAe Filton 12 X 10 ft Wind Tunnel




                                              Unique Characteristics: Not available
                                              Appli.cations/Current Programs: Not available
                                              General Comments:The tunnel’s overall length is 187 ft and its circuit
                                              length is 413 ft. The volume is 160,000 ft3or 5.6 tons of air.

                                              Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
                                              References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
                                              tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, DC.: National
                                              Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, p. 68.
                                              Date of Information: January 1990
Figure 1X.3: Schematic Diagram of the BAe Filton 12 x 10 ft Wind Tunnel

                                                                                                 Circuit length 413 ft (126 m)
                      7 blade Ian                       Overall length 187 it (60 m)             Volume 160,000 ft3 (4,545 m3)
                      22 fl(6.7 m) diameter                                                      5.5 tons air

                                +




                                                                   Control room




                                                                                                                    Ii
                                                                                                                    ‘I
                                                                       Test Section
                                                                  width 12 11(3.66 m)
                                                                                                         I          il

                                                                  height IO ft (3.05 m)                            t-4
                                                                  length 25 ft (7.6 m)     Contraction                   2 x 2.5q gauzes
                                                                  Dropside Door            area ratio 6.65               in max section
                                                                  length 12.6 ft (3.8 m)                                 31 x 26 It (9.5 x 7.9 m)




                                              Source:     BAe Fliton




                                              Page 339                                                  GAO/NSI.AD-9OBlFS Foreign Test Facilities
Subwnlc Wind Tunnel
BAe Hatfleld 9 X 7 ft Wind Tunnel




Applications/Current Programs: These include conducting low-speed
tests in support of current and future British Aerospace,Commercial
Aircraft, Ltd., projects as well as conducting research.
General Comments:The tunnel has a good level of turbulence,
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, DC.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 93.
Date of Information: January 1990




Page 34 1                             GAO/NSLADW)-71FS Foreign Teet PacMbm
SubsonicWind Tunnel

BAe Hatfield 15 ft Wind Tunnel



Country: United Kingdom                                            Performance
                                                                     Mach Number: 0 to 0.125 or 0 to 140 ft/s
Location: British Aerospace, Hatfield, United Kingdom                Reynolds Number: 0 to 0.9 x 106/ft
                                                                     Total Pressure: Atmospheric
Owner s):                                                            Dynamic Pressure: 0 to 23 Ib/ft2
  Britis li Aerospace                                                Total Temperature: Ambient
  Commercial Aircraft, Ltd.                                          Run Time: Continuous
  Airlines Division                                                  Comments: Normal operating speed is Mach 0.11 or 125 ft/s.
  Wind Tunnel Department
  Manor Road                                                       Cost Information
  Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL10 9TL                                   Date Built; 1964
  United Kingdom                                                     Date Placed in Operation: 1964
                                                                     Date(s) Upgraded: None
Operator(s): British Aerospace, Commercial Aircraft, Ltd.            Construction Cost: $250,000 (1964
                                                                     Replacement Cost: $8 million 199cl)
International Cooperation: Not available                             Annual Operating Cost: $480,6 00 (1990)
Point of Contact: Robin G.B. Webb, British Aerospace, Commercial     Unit Coat to User: $1,900 per day (1990)
    Aircraft,
                                                                     Sourcelsl of Fundina: None
_-.----- ~I-. Ltd., Tel.: [44]-(7072)62345, ext. 52185
                                                                   Number and Type of Staff
Test
-.---- Section Size: 15 x 15 x 40 ft                                 En ineers: 4
                                                                    SCPentists: 0
Operational Status: Active                                          Technicians: 2
                                                                    Others: The support team is shared with the BAe Hatfield
IUtilization
 -.-...      Rate: 1 shift per day                                     9 x 7 ft Wind Tunnel.
                                                                     Administrative/Management:        1
                                                                     Total: At least 7


                                               Description: The BAe Hatfield 15 ft Wind Tunnel is a continuous-flow,
                                               open-circuit, closed-throat subsonic wind tunnel. A static test facility
                                               duplicating the test section structure is adjacent to the tunnel.
                                               Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is powered by 7 loo-hp electric motors
                                               driving lo-ft diameter fans at the downstream end. The virtual-center
                                               underfloor balance is equipped with a variety of mounting systems for
                                               complete models and half-models with the wing in a vertical plane. The
                                               tunnel uses a six-component mechanical balance. A variable height
                                               ground board/reflection plane is built into the tunnel floor, and another
                                               is available for mounting in the vertical or horizontal plane, as required.
                                               Compressedair supplies up to 20 lb/s at about 100 pig, and suction of
                                               11,000 ft3/tin at 20 in. mercury are available.
                                               Data Acquisition: Digital signals from the mechanical balance and ana-
                                               log signals from various devices (such as pressure transducers and
                                               strain gauges)are processedand fed into the Wind Tunnel Department’s
                                               own computer for on-line computation and presentation.




                                               Page 343                                        GAO/NSIAD-90.71Fs Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Subnic      Wind Tunnel
                                           BAe Hatfield 13 ft Wind Tunnel




Figure 1X.6: Schematic Dlagram of the BAe Hatfbld 15 It Wind Tunnel



                                             WORKINO     SECTION




                                            Source:   BAe Hatfield




                                            Page 346
Subsonic Wind Tunnel
BAe Warton 2.7 X 2.1 m LowSpeed
Wind Tunnel




Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): These include
maintenance and replacement of lifted equipment for long-term active
operation.
Unique Characteristics: Not available

Applications/Current Programs: The tunnel is currently used for air-
craft design and development, flight test support, new project assess-
ment, and aerodynamic research by a major manufacturer of combat
aircraft. It is fully active on a flexible program. It is also fully staffed
for design and manufacture of models, rigs, and strain-gauge balances,
as well as for calibration, testing, and analysis.
General Comments:None

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue: Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 96.
Date of Information: January 1990




Page 347                                 GAO/NSIAD-90-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
Subsonic Wind Tunnel

BAe Wrton 18 ft V/SToL Wind Tunnel



Country: United Kingdom                                               Performance
                                                                        Mach Number: 0.035 to 0.065 or 12 to 22 m/s
Location: British Aerospace, Preston, United Kingdom                    Reynolds Number: 0.8 to 1.5 x 106/m
                                                                        Total Pressure: Atmospheric
Owner 8):                                                               Dynamic Pressure: 0.09 to 0.3 kN/m*
  Britis I, Aerospace                                                   Total Temperature: Ambient
  Military Aircraft, Ltd.                                               Run Time: Not available
  Warton Aerodrome                                                      Comments: None
  Preston, Lancashire PR4 1AX
  United Kingdom                                                      Cost Information
                                                                        Date Built: 1963
Operator(s): British Aerospace, Military Aircraft, Ltd.                 Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                        Date(s) Upgraded: 1975 and 1980
International Cooperation: Not available                                Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                        Replacement Cost: $3.2 million (1990)
Point of Contact: Alan N. Dewar, British Aerospace, Military            Annual Operating Cost: Not available
  Aircraft. Ltd.. Tel.: 1441-(772).633333. ext. 52856                   Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                        Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Test Section Size: 5 x 5.5 m                              -
                                                                      Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Active                                              Engineers: Not available
                                                                        Scientists: Not available
Utilization
      ..- -. Rate:
              _ - Not available                                        Technicians: Not available
                                                                        Others: Not available
                                                                       Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                       Total: Not available


                                                   Description: The BAe Warton 18 ft V/STOL Wind Tunnel is a straight-
                                                   through circuit-to-atmosphere subsonic wind tunnel.

                                                   Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is powered by a 220-kw diesel engine
                                                   and uses a 2-bladed fan. Blade pitch can be varied to give speedsless
                                                   than 12 m/s (Mach 0.036). Speedis uniform to about 0.5 percent; upwash
                                                   and sidewash is within 0.3 degrees.The tunnel usessting mounting with
                                                   height adjustment from the floor to upper half of the working section.
                                                   Full-width boundary layer removal is possible. The tunnel has a 1.5-m
                                                   wide moving ground belt at 25 m/s. It has several internal strain-gauge
                                                   balances and six componentswith a normal force of 2 kN (maximum). It
                                                   has a rolling rig with about 60 rpm about the wind axis. Model mass is
                                                   limited to 60 kg.Incidence is about 90 degrees.Sideslip is by pitch and
                                                   roll. A six-component internal strain-gauge balance gives damping due
                                                   to the rate of roll. Air supplies of 240 m3 at 40 bars are supplied from the
                                                   BAe Warton 1.2 m High-SpeedWind Tunnel. Mass flows are limited only
                                                   by pipework and model design to 4 kg/s. The tunnel is equipped with
                                                   thrust and mass flow calibration rigs.




                                                   Page 349                                    GAO/NSIAD-90-7lF’S Foreign Test Facilities
                                            Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                            BAe Warton 16 ft V/SIDL Wind Tunnel




Figure 1X.7: Schematic Drawing of the ElAe Warton 18 ft V/STOL Wind Tunnel




                                   EX:I1 SCREEN
                                                                 DIESEL ENGINE


                         ‘~LAoED                    FA;     /        nm1mVC4 GROUND       ,.,       PONTnAcT,O’N;AKE               SCREEN
                                                                                            . . --.-    . . . . . -..---




                     AIR SUPPLY
                                                        I       B.L. SUCTION     -]

                       MODEL SUPPOP’.s au
                                                                       HONEYCOMB      ”         -
                       ATTITUDE CON ITROL
                                                    I                                       7                      ”          \
                                              OBSERVATION                             BAFFLES                              lq SCREEN
                                              ROOM




                                            Source: NASA




                                             Page 361                                                   GAO/NSL4D-90-7lFS Foreign Test Fiilities
SubsonicWind ,Tunnel

BAe Weybridge 3 X 2 ft High-Speed
Wind Tunnel


Country: United Kingdom                                              Performance
                                                                       Mach Number: 0.4 to 0.92 or 447 to 1,027 ft/s
Location: British Aerospace, Weybridge, United Kingdom                 Reynolds Number: 2.6 to 4.5 x 106/ft
                                                                       Total Pressure: Atmospheric
Owner(s):                                                              Dynamic Pressure: 200 to 700 Ib/ft*
  British Aerospace                                                    Total Temperature: Ambient
  Military Aircraft, Ltd.                                              Run Time: Not available
  Warton Aerodrome                                                     Comments: None
  Preston, Lancashire PR4 1AX
  United Kingdom                                                     Cost information
                                                                       Date Built: 1950
Operator(s): British Aerospace, Military Aircraft, Ltd.                Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                       Date(s) Upgraded: 1970 and 1980
International Cooperation: Not applicable                              Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                       Replacement Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Alan N. Dewar, British Aerospace, Military          Annual Operating Cost: Not available
.~-.Aircraft, Ltd., Tel.: [44]-(772)-633333, ext. 52856                Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                       Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Test Section Size: 2 x 3 x 5 ft
                                                                     Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Decommissioned       (see General Comments)        Engineers: Not available
                                                                       Scientists: Not available
Utilization Rate: Not operational                                     Technicians: Not available
                                                                       Others: Not available
                                                                      Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                      Total: Not available


                                                  Description: The BAe Weybridge 3 X 2 ft High-SpeedWind Tunnel was a
                                                  continuous-flow, closed-circuit, single-return subsonic wind tunnel. The
                                                  tunnel was decommissionedin 1989 and has been dismantled (see Gen-
                                                  eral Comments). The tunnel had a closedtest section that was cooled by
                                                  air exchange.It also had an underfloor strain-gauge balance and sting
                                                  balances.
                                                  Testing Capabilities: A 2-stage7-ft (2.1 m) diameter fan was driven
                                                  through the secondcorner by a 2,200-hp electric motor. The test section
                                                  was 2 X 3 ft (0.6 m X 0.9 m) with a floor turntable. The tunnel had under-
                                                  floor four-component strain-gauge balancesfor half-models and sting
                                                  balances for complete-models.
                                                  Data Acquisition: The tunnel had a dedicated PDP 1l/60 computer for
                                                  on-line data acquisition and multitasking with graph plotting and back-
                                                  ground computation roles. Data recording was achieved by 16 digital
                                                  and/or 16 analog inputs.
                                                  Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Not available
                                                  Unique Characteristics: Not available


                                                  Page 363                                    GAO/NSIAD-BO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                                  Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                                  BAe Weybrldge 3 X 2 ft High-Speed
                                                  Wind Tunnel




Figure 1X.9: Schematlc Drawing of the BAe Weybrldge 3 X 2 ft High-Speed Wind Tunnel


                                                                                       2400 HP ELECTRIC MOTOFj



           3 x 2-ft HIGH-SPEED WIND TUNNEL                                        /.


                                              WORKING
                                              SECTION ..
                            CONTRACTION   \
                                              \

            SETTLING
                                    .’                                                                        2.STAGE FAN

            CHAMBER    -y,//&        --
                                                                                                         HOT AIR OUTLET




       FLAPS CONTROLLINQ        ”
       FLOW OF COLD AIR




                                              Source’   NASA




                                              Page 366                                   GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Subsonic Wind Tunnel
BAe Warton 13 X 9 ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel




Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): A sting-mounting sys-
tem and high-pressure compressedair supply are to be installed in 1991.
Unique Characteristics: Not available

Applications/Current Programs: The tunnel currently is not used for
any applications or programs, since it was dismantled and is currently
being relocated and reactivated.
General Comments:The BAe Warton 13 X 9 ft Low-SpeedWind Tunnel
was formerly known as the BAe Weybridge 13 X 9 ft Low-SpeedWind
Tunnel. The tunnel was dismantled and is currently being relocated
from BAe Weybridge to BAe Warton in Preston. The British Aerospace site
at Weybridge has been closed and torn down. The tunnel is expected to
be rebuilt and reactivated by mid-1991.

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.:National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, p. 65.

Date of Information: January 1990




Page 357                                     GAO/NSLAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
SubsonicWind Tunnel

BAe Woodford 9 X 7 ft LowSpeed
Wind Tunnel


Country: United Kingdom                                               Performance
                                                                        Mach Number: 0 to 0.17 or 0 to 60 m/s
Locatlon: British Aerospace, Woodford, United Kingdom                   Reynolds Number: 0 to 4.3 x 106/m
                                                                        Total Pressure: Atmospheric
Owner(s):                                                               Dynamic Pressure: 0 to 2.2 kN/m2
  British Aerospace                                                     Total Temperature: Ambient
  Commercial Aircraft, Ltd.                                             Run Time: Not available
  Airlines Division                                                     Comments: None
  Chester Road
  Woodford, Bramhall                                                  Cost Information
  Stockport, Cheshire SK7 1QR                                           Date Bulk 1949
  United Kingdom                                                        Date Placed in Operation: Not available
Operator(s): British Aerospace, Commercial Aircraft, Ltd.               Date(s) Upgraded: 1955
                                                                        Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                        Replacement Cost: Not available
internatlonal Cooperation: Not applicable                               Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Polnt of Contact: Robin G.B. Webb, British Aerospace, Commercial        Unit Cost to User: Not available
  Aircraft. Ltd.. Tel.: 1441-(70721-62345. ext. 52185
                                                                        Source(s) of Funding: Not available

Telst Section 8128: 2.74 x 2.13 x 5.5 m                               Number and Type of Staff
                                                                        Engineers: Not available
                                                                        Scientists: Not available
Operational Status: Decommissioned        (see General Comments)       Technicians: Not available
                                                                        Others: Not available
Utlliratlon
--            Rate: Not available                                      Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                       Total: Not available


                                                   Description: The BAe Woodford 9 X 7 ft Low-SpeedWind Tunnel is a
                                                   continuous-flow, closed-circuit subsonicwind tunnel. The tunnel has
                                                   been decommissionedand sold to Manchester University where it has
                                                   been reactivated (seeGeneral Comments).
                                                   Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is equipped with an overhead semiauto-
                                                   matic six-component mechanical balance. A sting-mounting system with
                                                   strain-gauge balance is also available. Compressedair supplies of 2.5 lb/s
                                                   at 100 psiare available. The tunnel is driven by a single 12-ft diameter
                                                   fan powered by a SO@hp electric motor.

                                                   Data Acquisition: Not available
                                                   Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Not available

                                                   Unique Characteristics: Not available
                                                   Apulications/Current Programs: Not available

                                                   General Comments:The BAe Woodford 9 X 7 ft Low-SpeedWind Tunnel
                                                   was decommissionedand sold to Manchester University. The tunnel has


                                                   Page 359                                   GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Subsonic Wind Tunnel

RAE EMford 13 X 9 ft Lowapeed Wind Tunnel



Country: United Kingdom                                                 Performance
                                                                          Mach Number: 0.01 to 0.27 or 15 to 300 ft/s
Location: Royal Aerospace Establishment      Bedford, Bedford, United     Reynolds Number: 0.1 to 2 x 106/ft
  Kingdom                                                                 Total Preaaure: Atmos heric
                                                                          Dynamic Pressure: 0.f to 100 Ib/ft2
Owner a :                                                                 Total Temperature: Ambient
  Roya Ib. erospace Establishment Bedford                                 Run Time: Continuous
  Bedford, Bedfordshire MK41 6AE                                          Comments: None
  United Kingdom
Operator(a): Royal Aerospace Establishment      Bedford
                                                                        Coat Information
                                                                          Date Built: 1953
international Cooperation: Not available                                  Date Placed in Operation: 1953
                                                                          Date(s) Upgraded: 1968
Point of Contact: Dr. D.E. Mowbray, Royal Aerospace                       Construction Coat: Not available
                                                                          Replacement Coat: Not available
  Establishment   Bedford, Tel.: [44]-(234)225840                         Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                          Unit Cost to User: Not available
Teat Section Site: 9 x 13 x 30 ft                                         Source(a) of Funding: Not available

Operational Status: Active                                              Number and Type of Staff
                                                                          Engineers: Not available
Utilization Rate: Not available                                           Scientists: Not available                      /
                                                                         Technicians: Not available
                                                                         Others: Not available
                                                                         Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                         Total: Not available


                                                    Description: The RAE Bedford 13 X 9 ft Low-SpeedWind Tunnel is a con-
                                                    tinuous-flow, return-circuit subsonicwind tunnel. The tunnel has both
                                                    roof and floor balances,a high-incidence sting, and dynamic rigs. The
                                                    tunnel is powered by a l.l-MW motor driving a 30-ft diameter fan.
                                                    Testing Capabilities: Complete- and half-models can be supported on
                                                    (1) a six-component overhead mechanical balance, (2) a four-component
                                                    underfloor mechnical balance, and (3) various sting rigs for internal bal-
                                                    ance models. Special rigs can be used for dynamic stability tests. Longi-
                                                    tudinal turbulence level is better than 0.1 percent. The tunnel can
                                                    supply auxiliary air to models at 25 atm and at 10 lb/s. Suction at 3 lb/s is
                                                    also available. The tunnel is well equipped for flow visualization.,.      ,’
                                                    Data Acquisition: A dedicated system based on a Hewlett Packard 800
                                                    computer records all tunnel and model parameters for force and pres-
                                                    sure plotting tests and provides on-line reduction and presentation of
                                                    data. The tunnel has the capacity for nine low-level analog signals and
                                                    nine pressure scanning switches.
                                                    Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None



                                                    Page 361                                    GAO/NSL4D3O-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                             Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                             RAE Bedford 13 X 9 ft Low-Speed
                                             Wind Tunnel




Figure 1X.11: Schematic Diagram of the RAE Bedford 13 X 9 It Low-Speed Wind Tunnel




                                                                                                        lCREEN8
                                                                                                           I




                                IO BLADEDl                              CoMTunR   ROOM   /




                    TAN MOTOR




                                             Source: NASA




                                             Page 363                                        GAO/NSIAD-30-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Subsonic Wind Tunnel
RAE Famborough 5 m Low-Speed
Wind Tunnel




Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): These include an
enhancedblowing system to provide 35 kg/s of air at 200 bars, a new
underfloor balance on a new cart, a rotor testing facility, and an
enhanceddata acquisition system based on networked minicomputers.

Unique Characteristics: None
Applications/Current Programs: These include research on aircraft, heli-
copters (excluding rotor blades), and weapons.
General Comments:None
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, p. 105.
Date of Information: November 1989




Page 365                              GAO/NSIADSOQlFS   Foreign Test Facilities
SubsonicWind Tunnel

~RAEFarnborough11.5X8.5ftWindTunnel



Country: United Kingdom                                             Performance
                                                                      Mach Number: 0.01 to 0.32 or 5 to 110 m/s
Location: Royal Aerospace Establishment    Farnborough,               Reynolds Number: Up to 7.5 x 106/m
  Farnborough, United Kingdom                                         Total Pressure: 1 bar
                                                                      Dynamic Pressure: Up to 7.3 kN/m*
Owner@ :                                                              Total Temperature: Ambient
  Royal a erospace Establishment Farnborough                          Run Time: Continuous
  AE2 Division                                                        Comments: None
  Aerodynamics Department
  Farnborough, Hampshire GU14 6TD                                   Cost Information
  United Kingdom                                                      Date Built: 1944
                                                                      Date Placed in Operation: Not available
Operator(s): Royal Aerospace Establishment     Farnborough            Date(s) Upgraded: 1968
                                                                      Construction Cost: Not available
lnternatlonal Cooperation: Not available                              Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                     Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Superintendent,   AE2 Division, Royal Aerospace     Unit Cost to User: Not available
  Establishment   Farnborough, Tel.: [44]-(252)24461, ext. 5377       Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Test Section Size: 3.5 x 2.6 m                                      Number and Type of Staff
                                                                     Engineers: Not available
Operational Statur: Active                                           Scientists: Not available
                                                                     Technicians: Not available
Utlliration Rate: Not available                                      Others: Not available
                                                                     Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                     Total: Not available


                                                Description: The RAE Farnborough 11.6 X 8.5 ft Wind Tunnel is a contin-
                                                uous-flow, return-circuit subsonic wind tunnel.

                                                Testing Capabilities: The tunnel has an overhead three-component bal-
                                                ance, underfloor six-component virtual-center balance, and sting-sup-
                                                port system. Auxiliary air supplies for model blowing are available.

                                                Data Acquisition: The tunnel has a six-channel system for use with
                                                balances.

                                                Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
                                                Unique Characteristics: None
                                                Applications/Current Programs: The tunnel is being used to conduct
                                                general low-speed research on aircraft and weapons.
                                                General Comments:None
                                                Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes



                                                Page 367                                    GAO/NSlAD-!20-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
SubsonicWind Tunnel

RAE Faxnbcmugh 24 ft Anechoic Law-Speed
Wind Tunnel


Country: United Kingdom                                              Performance
                                                                       Mach Number: 0.01 to 0.15 or 5 to 50 m/s
Location: Royal Aerospace Establishment       Farnborough,             Reynolds Number: Up to 3.4 x 106/m
  Farnborough, United Kingdom                                          Total Pressure: 1 bar
                                                                       Dynamic Pressure: Up to 1.5 kN/m*
Owner@ :                                                              Total Temperature: Ambient
  Royal A erospace Establishment Farnborough                           Run Time: Continuous
  AE2 Division                                                         Comments: None
  Aerodynamics Department
  Farnborough, Hampshire GU14 6TD                                    Cost Information
  United Kingdom                                                       Date Built: 1934
                                                                       Date Placed in Operation: Not available
Operator(s): Royal Aerospace Establishment       Farnborough           Date(s) Upgraded: 1970
                                                                       Construction Cost: Not available
lnternatlonal Cooperation: Not available                               Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                      Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Superintendent,    AE2 Division, Royal Aerospace     Unit Cost to User: Not available
   Establishment
--_.--.--          Farnborough, Tel.: [44]-(252)24461, ext. 5377       Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Test  Section
-_~.__-
     .-__ _-I.~ Stze: 7.3 m circumference   x 7 m long               Number and Type of Staff
                                                                       Engineers: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                             Scientists: Not available
                                                                      Technicians: Not available
Utilization
-.-- __-._._.- Rate: Not available
            -.---.~                                                    Others: Not available
                                                                      Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                      Total: Not available


                                                  Description: The RAE Farnborough 24 ft Anechoic Low-SpeedWind Tun-
                                                  nel is an open-jet, single-return circuit, continuous-flow subsonic wind
                                                  tunnel.
                                                  Testing Capabilities: The tunnel has extensive acoustic treatment in the
                                                  test section and is used to measure propeller, rotor, and jet noise. It has
                                                  an overhead three-component mechanical balance and heavy-duty floor
                                                  two-component (lift and drag) balance. It also has auxiliary air supplies
                                                  for model blowing.

                                                  Data Acquisition: The tunnel has portable equipment for acoustic work
                                                  used in a number of tunnels and laboratories. Outside users of the tunnel
                                                  bring their own data acquisition systems.
                                                  Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None

                                                  Unique Characteristics: None
                                                  Applications/Current Programs: The tunnel is being used to test a wide
                                                  variety of work (such as propeller, rotor, and jet noise).



                                                  Page 309                                   GAO/NSIAD4@71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Transonic Wind Tunnel

ARA Bedford Transonic Wind Tunnel (TVVT)



Country: United Kingdom                                             Performance
                                                                      Mach Number; 0 to 1.4
Location: Aircraft Research Association, Bedford, United Kingdom      Reynolds Number: 1.5 to 5.5 x 106/ft
                                                                      Total Pressure: 11.8 to 17.6 psia
Owner(a):                                                             Dynamic Pressure: 0 to 900 Ib/ft2
  Aircraft Research Association                                       Total Temperature: Up to 580 degrees Rankine
  Manton Lane                                                         Run Time: Continuous
  Bedford, Bedfordshire MK41 7PF                                      Comments: The tunnel has rapid change model carts.
  United Kingdom
                                                                    Cost Information
Operator(a): Aircraft Research Association                            Date Built: 1953 to 1956
                                                                      Date Placed in Operation: 1956
International Cooperation: Not available                              Data(s) Upgraded: Continuous
                                                                      Construction Cost: $4,185,000 (1955)
Polnt of Contact: Chief Executive, Aircraft Research Association,     Replacement Cost: Not available
  Tel.: [44]-(234)50681                                               Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                      Unit Cost to User: $37,950 to $46,200 per day (1989)
Test Sectlon Size: 9 x 8 ft                                           Source(s) of Funding: Commercial contracts

Operational Statua: Active                                          Number and Type of Staff
                                                                     Engineers: Not available
Utilizatlon Rate: 14 hours per day                                   Scientists: Not available
                                                                     Technicians: Not available
                                                                     Others: Not available
                                                                     Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                     Total: Not available


                                                Description: The AR.ABedford Transonic Wind Tunnel is a closed-circuit,
                                                continuous flow transonic wind tunnel.
                                                Testing Capabilities: The TWT is capable of testing complete models of
                                                aircraft and missiles generally using a rear-mounted sting and semispan
                                                models with floor mounting. A computer-controlled automatic model
                                                movement system is used for most test programs. It has turbine-
                                                powered simulators, an isolated cowl rig, afterbody rigs, store trajectory
                                                simulators, high-pressure air capability, and a Mach simulation tank
                                                ground test facility for model duct flows.
                                                Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 256 channels for strain-gauge bal-
                                                ances,scanivalves, electronic pressure scanners,various other transduc-
                                                ers, and dynamic transducers to measure mean and unsteady flows,
                                                temperatures, and pressures.Force data can be recorded in continuous
                                                or “move and pause” modes.Full on-line processingand interactive
                                                color graphics are available.

                                                Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): These include general
                                                enhancements.



                                                Page 371                                    GAO/NSIAD-90-‘Ill%       Foreign Test Facilities
Tra.nsonic Wind Tunnel
A&4 Bedford Transonic Wind Tunnel (IWT)




Unique Characteristics: The TWT has a sting-holder mechanism that is
capable of subjectingmodels to high values of roll rate on a continuous
basis, a constant angle of attack and yaw performance curve, and pro-
peller and acoustic testing capability.

Applications/Current Programs: Current programs include industry
projects and research.
General Comments:The ARA Bedford Transonic Wind tunnel is a highly
productive commercial facility with a utilization rate of about 1,700
hours per year. A new brochure is expected to be available in December
1989.
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:Penaranda.Frank E.. and M. Shannon Freda. eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 167.

Date of Information: October 1989




Page 372                                  GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                          Tmnsonlc Wind Tunnel
                                          AR4 Bedford Transonlc Wind Tunnel (TWT)




Figure IX.1 5: ARA Tranaonic Wind Tunnel (TWT)
            f        .a-




                                          Source: ARA




                                          Page 373                                  GAO/NSlAL%90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Transonic Wind Tunnel

RAE Farnborough 8 X 6 ft Transonic
Wind Tunnel


Country: United Kingdom                                               Performance
                                                                        Mach Number: 0 to 1.25
Location: Royal Aeros ace Establishment      Farnborough,               ReMy;cqklp2NgUmber:
                                                                                          24 x 106/m at Mach 0.3 and 9 x 106/m at
   Farnborough, Unite CPKingdom
                                                                        Total P&sure: 0.1 to 3.5 bars
Owner 0 :                                                               Dynamic Pressure: 36 kN/m2 (maximum)
   Roya \l erospace Establishment Farnborough                           Total Temperature: 328 degrees Kelvin
   AE2 Division                                                         Run Time: Not available
   Aerodynamics Department                                              Comments: None
   Farnborough, Hampshire GU14 6TD
   United Kingdom                                                     Cost information
Operator(r): Royal Aerospace Establishment      Farnborough
                                                                        Date Built: 1942
                                                                        Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                        Date(s) Upgraded: 1955 and 1956
international Cooperation: Not available                                Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                        Replacement Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Superintendent,     AE2 Division, Royal Aerospace    Annual Operating Cost: Not available
   Establishment    Farnborough, Tel.: [44]-(252)24461, ext. 5377       Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                       Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Teat Section Size: 1.8 x 2.4 m
                                                                      Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Active                                             Engineers: Not available
                                                                       Scientists: Not available
Utiiitstion   Rate: Not available                                      Technicians: Not available
                                                                       Others: Not available
                                                                       Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                       Total: Not available


                                                  Description: The RAE Farnborough 8 X 6 ft Transonic Wind Tunnel is a
                                                  continuous-flow, closed-circuit, annular-return transonic wind tunnel. It
                                                  has a single-stagefan, slotted walls, and a 12,000-hp fan drive with an
                                                  8,000-hpplenum chamber suction drive.
                                                  Testing Capabilities: The tunnel has sting and half-model balances avail-
                                                  able as well as a quadrant with straight and cranked stings to cover a
                                                  high range of angles of attack. Ample compressedair supplies are avail-
                                                  able at the working section. The tunnel also has a three-phase variable-
                                                  frequency supply for large electric motors, such as propellers. It con-
                                                  tains a sting for weapon trajectories and flow surveys, Midwood
                                                  manometers, and a scanivalve/transducer system. The 8,000-hpplenum
                                                  chamber compressor also drives the RAE 2 X 1.5 ft Transonic Wind
                                                  Tunnel.
                                                  Data Acquisition: The tunnel has a computer-baseddata acquisition sys-
                                                  tem and on-line processing and display strain-gauge balances.

                                                  Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None



                                                  Page 374                                    GAO/NSIAD!W71FS          Foreign Test Facilities
    Trausonic Wind Tunnel
    RAE Farnborough 8 X 6 ft Tramonic
    Wind Tunnel




    Unique Characteristics’:None
    Applications/Current Programs: These include research on aircraft and
    weapons including boundary layer surveys and flowfield traverses.
    General Comments:None

    Photograph/Schematic Available: No
    References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
    tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, DC.: National
    Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 169.

    Date of Information: November 1989




Y




    Page 375                             GAO/NSIADfMJ-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Trisonic Wind Tunnel

BAe Brough 27 X 27 in. Tmn.sonic/Supersonic
Blowdown Wind Tunnel


Country: United Kingdom                                                Performance
                                                                         Mach Number: 0.1 to 2.5
Location: British Aerospace, Rough, United Kingdom                       Reynolds Number: 2.9 to 66 x 106/m (transonic) and 2.9 to 148 x
                                                                           106/m (supersonic)
Owner 8):                                                                Total Pressure: 1.2 to 4 bars (transonic) and 1.2 to 9 bars
  Britis L Aerospace                                                       (supersonic)
  Military Aircraft, Ltd.                                                Dynamic Pressure: 0.8 to 174 kN/m* (transonic) and 0.8 to 428
  Trough, North Humberside, Cumbria HU15 1EQ                               kN/m2 (supersonic)
  United Kingdom                                                         Total Temperature: 273 degrees Kelvin
                                                                         Run Time: Not available
Operator(s): British Aerospace, Military Aircraft, Ltd.                  Comments: None
International Cooperation: Not available                               Cost information
Point of Contact: Alan N. Dewar, British Aerospace, Military             Date Built: 1958
                                                                         Date Placed in Operation: Not available
-- Aircraft, Ltd., Tel.: [44]-(772)633333,   ext. 52856                  Date(s) Upgraded: 1963 and 1984
                                                                        Construction Cost: Not available
Test   Sectlon Size: --0.66 x 0.68 x 2.1 m                               Replacement Cost: $28 million (1990)
                                                                        Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Operational Status: Decommissioned           (see General Comments)      Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                         Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Utilization Rate: 1 shift per day
                                                                       Number and Type of Staff
                                                                        Engineers: Not available
                                                                        Scientists: Not available
                                                                        Technicians: Not available
                                                                        Others: Not available
                                                                        Administrative/Management:       Not available
                                                                        Total: Not available


                                                     Description: The BAG Brough 27 X 27 in. Transonic/Supersonic Blowdown
                                                     Wind Tunnel is a trisonic wind tunnel. The tunnel has been decommis-
                                                     sioned and is being sold by British Aerospace(see General Comments).
                                                     Testing Capabilities: The tunnel has a 22-percent porosity working sec-
                                                     tion (normal holes) and interchangeable nozzlesfor Mach 1.4 to 2.6.
                                                     Tunnel operations (such as Mach number and Reynolds Number) are
                                                     computer-controlled. The tunnel is used for overall 6-degreeforce mea-
                                                     surements, flutter, weapon jettisons, buffet, and flow visualization on
                                                     full-, half-, and part-models.
                                                     Data Acquisition: The tunnel is capable of computer-controlled data log-
                                                     ging of 24 channels with immediate post-run data reduction. It also has
                                                     multiscanivalve capability.
                                                     Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): In 1986 the tunnel’s
                                                     capability was enhancedto 9 bars at a cost of about $480,000.
                                                     Unique Characteristics: Not available


                                                     Page 376                                   GAO/NSIAD-go-71F3 Foreign Test Facilities
Trieonlc Wind Tunnel
BAe Brough 27 X 27 in. Transonic/Supersonic
Blowdown Wind Tunnel




Applications/Current Programs: These included novel methods of
weapon release,overall forces on advancedShort Takeoff and Vertical
Landing (STOVL) configurations, and other combat aircraft. Other current
programs include flutter technique development and in-service weapon
clearance/aiming problems.

General Comments:The BAe Brough 27 X 27 in. Transonic/Supersonic
Blowdown Wind Tunnel has been decommissionedand is being sold by
British Aerospace.The tunnel is expected to be reactivated at another
facility installation.

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 178.
Date of Information: January 1990




Page 377                                      GAO/NSIAD-90-71s   Foreign Test Facilities
                                         Trbonlc Wind Tunnel
                                         BAe Brough 27 X 27 in. Traneonic/Supersonic
                                         Blowdown Wlud Tunnel




Figure 1X.16: Schematic Drawing of the
SAe Brough 27 x 27 in. Tran#onic/
Supersonic Blowdown Wind Tunnel
                                                                               PROORAMML   CONSOLE

                                                                                                        D!ND CONSOLe
                                                                                                     ETTLINO CHAMBER




                                                                    ALUMINUM    WOOL
                                                                   wwa.ewe      scneeN ROTATlNQ




                                                                                                                       AIR PIPE FROM
                                                                                                                       COMPRESSOR8




                                         Source: NASA




                                         Page 379                                               GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Trlsonic Wind Tunnel

BAe Wmn                                     1.2 m High-SpeedWind Tunnel



Country: United Kingdom                                                Performance
                                                                         Mach Number: 0.4 to 4
Locatlon: British Aerospace, Preston, United Kingdom                     Reynolds Number: 80 x 106/m (maximum)
                                                                         Total Pressure: 1.38 to 5 bars (transonic)
Owner@):                                                                 Dynamic Pressure: Not available
  British Aerospace                                                      Total Temperature: Ambient
  Military Aircraft, Ltd.                                                Run Time: 7 to 40 s (depends on Mach number and stagnation
  Warton Aerodrome                                                         pressure)
  Preston, Lancashire PR4 1AX                                            Comments: Typical recharge time is 40 min.
  United Kingdom
                                                                       Cost Information
Operator(s): British Aerospace, Military Aircraft, Ltd.                  Date Built: 1959
                                                                         Date Placed in Operation: Not available
International Cooperation: Not available                                 Date(s) Upgraded: 1972‘1980, and 1988
                                                                         Construction Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Alan N. Dewar, British Aerospace, Military             Replacement Cost: $35 million (1990)
  Aircraft, Ltd., Tel.: [44]-(772)633333,   ext. 52856                   Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                         Unit Cost to User: Not available
Teat Section Size: 1.22 x 1.22 x 3 m                                     Source(s) of Funding: Not available

Operational Status: Active                                             Number and Type of Staff
                                                                         Engineers: Not available
UtllitatlonRate: Double shift; 13 hours per day,                         Scientists: Not available
  5 days per week                                                       Technicians: Not available
                                                                        Others: Not available
                                                                        Administrative/Management:     Not available
                                                                        Total: Not available


                                                    Description: The BAe Warton 1.2 m High-SpeedWind Tunnel (formerly
                                                    known as the BAe Warton 4 ft Blowdown Wind Tunnel) is a trisonic wind
                                                    tunnel.
                                                    Testing Capabilities: The tunnel has a supersonic nozzle and flexible
                                                    roof and floor that can be set to any Mach number. It has a transonic
                                                    working section with 19-percent perforations, diffuser suction on the
                                                    plenum chamber, and secondthroat control of Mach number. The full
                                                    range of stagnation pressures are used regularly. The tunnel is equipped
                                                    for (1) six-component tests, two sting-mounting carts, and internal
                                                    strain-gauge balances,(2) pressure plotting (typically 400 points),
                                                    (3) afterbody drag measurementsand wing tip stings (transonic and
                                                    supersonic tests), (4) store load and store jettison testing, (5) roll damp-
                                                    ing derivatives and rolling sting (transonic only at 300 rpm), (6) flutter
                                                    measurements(damping or destructive), and (7) half-model cart (tran-
                                                    sonic only) with model mounting from the turret floor.

                                                    Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 70 analog, 6 digital, and 6 scanivalve
                                                    channels on a PDP 1l-based data acquisition and control system. The
                                                    tunnel also has a scanivalve “ZOCHyscan” solid state system that uses


                                                    Page 379                                   GAO/NSIAD-So-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Trisonlc Wind Tunnel
BAe War&m 1.2 m High-Speed Whd Tumwl




segmented,dual-ported modules, 42-track magnetic tape recording and
subsequentdigitization, and Fourier analysis for high-frequency data. A
dedicated VAX 1l/780 computer is used for data reduction, which is
fully corrected, plotted, and tabulated in 2 to 10 rnin after the run. Com-
puter storage of 15-year results with indexed retrieval is also available.
Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): No improvements are
necessaryin the near future.
Unique Characteristics: Not available
Applications/Current Programs: The tunnel is used for aircraft design
and development, flight test support, new project assessment,and aero-
dynamic research by a major manufacturer of combat aircraft. The tun-
nel is fully active on a flexible program, allowing quick reaction to new
demands.It is fully staffed for the design and manufacture of models,
rigs, and strain-gauge balancesand for calibration, testing, and analysis.

General Comments:The BAe Warton 1.2 m High-SpeedWind Tunnel was
formerly known as the BAe Warton 4 ft Blowdown Wind Tunnel.

Photograph/Schematic Available: No

References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue: Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, p. 173.
Date of Information: January 1990




Page 380                                GAO/NSlAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
    Supersonic Wind Tunnel
    ABA Bedford Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT)




    Photograph/Schematic Available: No
    References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds, Aeronau-
    tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
    Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 230.
    Date of Information: October 1989




Y




    Page 382                                   GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Supersonic Wind Tunnel
BAe Woodford 30 X 27 in. Supersonic
Wind Tunnel




Photograph/Schematic Available: No

References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 217.
Date of Information: January 1990




Page 384                              GAO/NSIAD-9OBlFS Foreign Test Facilities
 8u~1?rnordc Wind   fiMd
CambrSdge University Supemonk
 Wind Tunnels




References:Hoyt, Capt. Anthony R. European Hyperdonic Technology.
London: European Office of AerospaceResearchand Development,
1986, p. 84 (EOARD Technical Report).
Date of Information: September 1989




Page 386                              GAO/NSIAD-90-‘Ill?3 Foreign Test Facilities
Supersonic Wind Tunnel
RAE Bedford 3 X 4 ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel




Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None

Unique Characteristics: None
Applications/Current Programs: Not available
General Comments:None

Photograph/Schematic Available: No
References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, p. 228. Hoyt, Capt.
Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology. London: European Office
of Aerospace Researchand Development, 1986, p. 103 (WARD Technical
Report). Wendt, John F. “European Hypersonic Wind Tunnels.” In:
Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles. Bristol, United Kingdom:
NATO AGARD, 1987 (AGARD ConferenceProceedingsNo. 428).

Date of Information: November 1989




Page 388                                      GAO/NSIAD-BO-7lFS Foreign Test Facllitkw
Supcreonic Wind Tunnel
RAE Bedford 8 X 8 f’t Subsonic/Supersonic
Wind Tunnel




balance, and provides on-line reduction and presentation of data. The
tunnel has the capacity for 48 low-level analog signals and 24 pressure
scanning switches.
Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
Unique Characteristics: None

AnnlicationsKurrent Programs: Not available
General Comments:None
PhotograuhBchematic Available: No

References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 202.
Date of Information: November 1989




Page 390                                    GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Fore&u Test Facilities
Iiypemonlc Wind Tunnel
ARA Bedlord M4T Blowdown Wind Tunnel




Photograph/Schematic Available: No

References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue: Wind Tunnels. Washington, DC.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 279. Hoyt, Capt.
Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology. London: European Office
of AerospaceResearchand Development, 1986, p. 81 (EOARD Technical
Report). Wendt, John F. “European Hypersonic Wind Tunnels.” In:
Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles. Bristol, United Kingdom:
NATD AGARD, 1987 (AGARD ConferenceProceedingsNo. 428).

Date of Information: October 1989




Page 392                               GAO/NSIAD-99-71FS Fore&n Test Facilities
HypersonicWind Tunnel
ABA Bedford M7T Blowdown Wind Tunnel




Photograph/Schematic Available: No
References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 278. Hoyt, Capt.
Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology. London: European Office
of Aerospace Researchand Development, 1986, p. 81 (EOARD Technical
Report). Wendt, John F. “European Hypersonic Wind Tunnels.” In:
Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles. Bristol, United Kingdom:
NAIQ AGARD, 1987 (AGARD ConferenceProceedingsNo. 428).

Date of Information: October 1989




Page 394                               GAO/NSIAD-99-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Wygtersotic Wind Tunnel
BAe War&m Guided Weapon Wind Tunnel




secondcan be recorded and reduced to engineering units locally. An off-
line VAX 1l/780 computer is used to processthe data.
Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): The working section
is to be rebuilt in 1990 with new flexible liner plates to improve the flow
quality. All hydraulic and electronic control systems will be replaced
between 1990 and 1992.

Unique Characteristics: Not available
Applications/Current Programs: Current programs include project and
research force and moment, pressure plotting, and kinetic heating tests
on missile shapesfor British Aerospace and the British government,
aerodynamics of fin-stabilized shells and slender delta platforms, behav-
ior of lateral thrusters, and tests on lifting reentry shapes.The open-jet
facility is used for live firings of rocket motors and jettison trials on
production or development hardware.

General Comments:The BAe Warton Guided WeaponsWind Tunnel was
recommissionedduring 1984 after operating for a number of years in a
secondary role as a high-speedopen-jet test facility with a speedrange
of Mach 0.1 to 1.8. The tunnel was not used between 1979 and 1984.

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue: Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, p. 271. Hoyt, Capt.
Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology. London: European Office
of Aerospace Researchand Development, 1986, p. 83 (EOARD Technical
Report). Wendt, John F. “European Hypersonic Wind Tunnels.” In:
Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles. Bristol, United Kingdom:
NATO AGARD, 1987 (AGARD ConferenceProceedingsNo. 428).

Date of Information: January 1990




Page 396                                GAO/NSLAD-90-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypersonic       Wind Tunnel

The University of Southamptm Hypersonic
Gun Tunnel


Country: United Kingdom                                               Performance
                                                                        Mach Number: 8.4 (conical) and up to 12
Location: The University of Southampton, Southampton, United            Reynolds Number: 1 to 10 x 106/ft and 2 x 106/ft at Mach 12
  Kingdom                                                               Total Pressure: Up to 600 bars
                                                                        Dy;m&;Fsure:        Up to 2.2 bars at Mach 8.4 and 0.4 bar at
Owner(s):
  The University of Southampton                                         Total Temperature: Up to 1,100 degrees Kelvin
  Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics                            Run Time: 20 ms
  The University, Highfield                                             Comments: Nozzle exit diameter is 12 cm.
  Southampton, Hampshire SO9 5NH
  United Kingdom                                                      Cost information
                                                                        Date Built: 1959
Operator(s): The University of Southampton                              Date Placed in Operation: 1960
                                                                        Date(s) Upgraded: Continuous process
International Cooperation: Not available                               Construction Coet: Not available
                                                                        Replacement Cost: Not available
Polnt of Contact: Professor Robin A. East, The University of           Annual Operating Cost: $66,000 (1989)
   Southampton, Tel.: [44]-(703)~592324
_l_l.-_---__--.-..-_                                                    Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                        Source(s) of Funding: British government, British industry, and
Test                                                                      The University of Southampton.
_-.- Sectlon
      --.---_-- Size: 0.12 m diameter (open-jet)

Operational Status: Active                                            Number and Type of Staff
                                                                        Engineers: 1
Utillzatlon
__--      -_-- Rate:  5 -.--
                        tests per
               _...__._..     ~- day
                                                                       Scientists: 0
                                                                       Technicians: 1
                                                                       Others: 0
                                                                       Administrative/Management:      0
                                                                       Total: 2


                                                   Description: The University of Southampton Hypersonic Gun Tunnel is
                                                   an intermittent hypersonic wind tunnel. The tunnel is a hypersonic flow
                                                   facility in which nitrogen is compressedand heated by a supersonic
                                                   light piston. An open-jet test section provides flow durations of approxi-
                                                   mately 20 KISat Mach numbers up to 12.
                                                   Testing Capabilities: The facility is equipped for flow visualization, heat
                                                   transfer, and force measurements.
                                                   Data Acquisition: The facility has six on-line channels of data.

                                                   Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Development of
                                                   equipment to continually record the motion of models in free flight is
                                                   taking place.
                                                   Unioue Characteristics: None

                                                   Applications/Current Programs: Recentwork carried out in this facility
                                                   has been concernedwith force measurementson various slender lifting
                                                   hypersonic configurations over a range of angles of attack up to 70


                                                   Page 398                                    GAO/NSIAD-SO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Hypemonlc Wind Tunnel
                                           The University of Southampton Hypemonk
                                           Gun Tunnel




Figure 1X.18: Schematic Diagram of The University of Southampton Hypersonic Gun Tunnel




                                     3.0     m                         I

     1. High pressure vessel               5. Second diaphragm
        (V = 0.1m3, p = 600 bar)           6. Nozzle (0.12m exit diameter, Mach 8.4)
     2. Barrel (V = 0.0023m3)              7. Test section (open jet)
     3. First diaphragm                    8. Dump chamber (2m3 volume)
     4. Piston (0.015 by mass)




                                           Source:   The University   of Southampton




                                           Page 400                                    GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Iiypemonic Wind ‘hnnel
The Univerolty of Southampton L4jht P&on
Isentropic Compression Facility




Uniaue Characteristics: This facility, which possessesan unusually long
and steady flow period(l S) for a short duration facility, retains the -
economy of intermittent-operation but with flow quality typical of con-
tinuous flow facilities.
Applications/Current Programs: Current programs include experiments
and semi-empirical predictions of dynamic stability of simple axisym-
metric shapesand hyperballistic vehicles; free-oscillation and experi-
mental techniques for studying large amplitude non-linear effects on
hypersonic dynamic stability; dynamic effects of hypersonic separated
flow, for example, a rapidly deployed control surface; development of a
continuous recording technique for free-flight studies in short duration
hypersonic facilities using optical position sensors;aerodynamic charac-
teristics of a range of basic vehicle configurations with lower surface
flow containment; development of liquid crystal thermography for heat
transfer investigations; and a study of interference effects on kinetic
heating of slender finned bodies. The facility is currently being used for
aerodynamic heating tests for HAL and unsteadinessof flap-induced
separations for ESA’S Hermes spaceplane.
General Comments:The facility has been principally used for hyper-
sonic aerodynamic work. It has also been used as a high-pressure com-
bustion facility. Various liquid/gaseous fuels have been used, including
hydrogen. The range and conditions are unusually large for a combus-
tion facility. Operational safety is achieved by short test periods and the
limited quantities of fuel used.
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, The Univer-
sity of Southampton. Departmental ResearchReport 1986. Southamp-
ton: The University of Southampton, October 1986, pp. 69-70. Hoyt,
Capt. Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology London: European
Office of Aerospace Researchand Development, 1986, p. 104 (EOARD
Technical Report). Holden, Michael S. “A Review of the Current Capabil-
ities in Europe to Perform Experimental Researchin Hypersonic Flow.”
In: European Hypersonic Technology. London: European Office of Aero-
spaceResearchand Development, 1986, pp. 21-26 (EOARD Technical
Report). Wendt, John F. “European Hypersonic Wind Tunnels.” In:
Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles. Bristol, United Kingdom:
NATO AGARD, 1987 (AGARD ConferenceProceedingsNo. 428).

Date of Information: September 1989


Page 402                                   GAO/NSIAD@O-71PS Foreign Test Facilities
                                          Trlsonic Wind Tunnel
                                          DLR Goettingen Rotating Cascades Wind
                                          Tunnel (RGG)




Fiaure X.28: Schematic Dlaaram of the Test Section of the DLR Goettingen Rotating Cascades Wlnd Tunnel (RGG)


                                                                                                                0
                                                                          , Probe Traverse Mechanism,,




                  S\ip   Ring   Device


                                                                                      --_          -   -.----




                                          Source:   DLR




                                          Page 600                                          GAO/NSIADfIO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Trleonic Wind Tunnel
DLR Koln-Pon Msonic Wind Tunnel (TMK)




Data Acquisition: The tunnel has a go-channel A/D converter input and
on-line data processingperformed by Hewlett Packard A900/A600
computers.
Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): These include an ejec-
tor for variation of dynamic pressure.
Uniaue Characteristics: None
Applications/Current Programs: Primary research is directed at the
investigation of the aerodynamics of missiles and missile components.
Basic and concept-oriented fluid mechanical investigations on flying
objects and spacevehicles are also performed. The tunnel can accommo-
date models with a wingspan up to 20 cm, length up to 50 cm, and fuse-
lage diameter up to 6 cm. Other programs include the dynamic stability
of wings and bodies at high anglesof attack.
General Comments:None

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:DFVLR. Experimental Plants. Koln, West Germany: DFVLR,
 1983, p. B3.2-6 (in German). Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon
Freda, eds. Aeronautical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washing-
ton, D.C.: National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1,
p. 220. Esch, Helmut. Die 0,6 m X 0,6 & Trisonische Messtrecke(TMK) der
DFVLR in Koln-Porz (Stand 1986) (The 0.6 X 0.6 m Trisonic Test Section
(TMK) of DFVLR in Kiln-Porz (St&us 1986). Koln, West Germany: DFVLR,
1986 (DFVLR-Mitteihng   86-21)(in German andtranslatedin ESA-TT-
1052, 1987).
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 502                                GAO/NSIADQO-‘71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Trisonic Wind Tunnel

DLR Koln-Porz Vertical Free-jet Test
Chamber (VMK)


Country: West Germany                                                        Performance
                                                                               Mach Number: 0.2 to 3.2
Location: Deutsche Forschungsanstalt           fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt,       Reynolds Number: 1.4 x 106/m to 2.5 x 10*/m
  Goettingen, West Germany                                                     Total Pressure: 2 to 35 bars
                                                                               Dynamic Pressure: Not available
Owner(s):                                                                      Total Temperature: 300 to 800 degrees Kelvin
  Deutsche Forschungsanstalt         fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt                  Run Time: 60 s
  Hauptabteilung Windkanale                                                    Comments: The test cycle is 10 min (unheated) and 60 min
  Abteilung Koln-Porz                                                            (heated).
  Linder Hoehe
  0.5000 Koln 90                                                             Cost Information
  West Germany                                                                 Date Built: 1957
Operator(s): Deutsche Forschungsanatalt           fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt
                                                                               Date Placed in Operation: 1964
                                                                               Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
                                                                               Construction Cost: Not available
International Cooperation: None                                                Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                              Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: E.O. Krohn, Deutsche Forschungsanstalt             fuer      Unit Cost to User: $145 per test and $1,668 per day (1989)
.- Luft-
   -“-_ .und_-Raumfahrt,
              _-.-..- -.--..-.Tel.: [49]-(2203)601-2278                        Source(s) of Funding: Not available
lest Section Size: 18, 27, and 34 cm diameter (subsonic) and 15,             Number and Type of Staff
  22, and 31 cm diameter (supersonic) free-jet exchangeable                    Engineers: Not available
  nozzles                                                                     Scientists: Not available
                                                                              Technicians: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                                    Others: Not available
                                                                              Administrative/Management:      Not available
Utilization Rate: 1 shift per day                                             Total: Not available


                                                          Description: The DLR Koln-Porz Vertical Free-jet Test Chamber is an
                                                          intermittent operating blowdown subsonic and supersonic wind tunnel.
                                                          For the subsonic range, three axially symmetrical nozzlesof different
                                                          cross sections can be used. For the supersonic range, 14 nozzlescover a
                                                          range from Mach 1.57 to 3.2. The static temperature of the wind tunnel
                                                          flow can be varied between 300 and 800 degreesKelvin by a storage
                                                          heater. With a maximum static pressure of 35 bars, ground conditions
                                                          up to Mach 3 can be simulated. The tunnel is designedfor the testing of
                                                          ramjet enginesand is installed in an explosion-proof building. A hydro-
                                                          gen supply for combustion tests is available. The special features of the
                                                          facility permit heavy utilization.
                                                          Testing Capabilities: The tunnel has a thrust balance, internal balances,
                                                          a multi-channel pressure scanning device, and a high-speedcamera. It
                                                          can conduct flow visualization tests using schlieren optics and jet simu-
                                                          lation with cold air (at 300 bars). The tunnel is also capable of injecting
                                                          models into the flow.
                                                          Data Acquisition: The tunnel has on-line data processingperformed by
                                                          Hewlett Packard A900/A600 computers.


                                                          Page 804                                   GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                      Trlsonlc Wind Tunnel
                                      DLR Koln-Pon Vertical Free-jet Test
                                      Chamber (VMK)




Flgure X.30: DLR Koln-Porz Vertical
Free-jet Test Chamber (VMK)




                                      Source: DLR




                                      Page 506                              GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Supersonic Wind Tunnel
DLR Goettingen High-Speed Wind
Tunnel (HKG)




Unique Characteristics: None
Applications/Current Programs: The tunnel is used for aerodynamic
standard investigations for industry and research on flying objects or
airplane models and their components.The tunnel’s special construction
and the easy accessibility of the test chambers allow special investiga-
tions of models’ variable configurations, flow visualization, the separa-
tion of outside loads in free flight, burning engines,and jet simulation.
General Comments:None
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:DIWLR. Experimental Plants. Koln, West Germany: DFVLR,
1983, p. B3.2-2 (in German). Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon
Freda, eds. Aeronautical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washing-
ton, D.C.: National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1,
p, 183.

Date of Information: October 1989




Page 609                               GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                        Supersonic Wind Tunnel
                                        DLR Koln-Pon Calibrating Wind
                                        Tunnel (EMK)




                                        Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Not applicable
                                        Unique Characteristics: None

                                        Applications/Current Programs: These included probes for aerodynamic
                                        tests, componentsof engine inlets, and boundary layers on plane and
                                        curved plates.
                                        General Comments:The tunnel was decommissionedand has been
                                        disassembled.
                                        Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

                                        References:DFVLR. Experimental Plants. Koln, West Germany: DFVLR,
                                        1983, p. B3.2-9 (in German).
                                        Date of Information: October 1989
Vgure X.32: DLR Koln-Porr Calibrating
runnet (EMK)




                                        &nms:   i&R




                                        Page 511                              GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Supersonic Wind Tunnel

DLR Koln-Porz Calibrating Wind Tunnel (EMK)



Country: West Germany                                                    Performance
                                                                           Mach Number: 0.3 to 0.8 (subsonic) and 1.3 to 3.1 (supersonic)
Location: Deutsche Forschungsanstalt       fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt,       Reynolds Number: 3.9 x 106/m to 8.7 x lO’/m
  Koln-Porz, West Germany                                                  Total Pressure: 0.5 to 6 bars
                                                                           Dynamic Pressure: Not available
Owner(s):                                                                 Total Temperature: Less than 300 degrees Kelvin
  Deutsche Forschungsanstalt       fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt                Run Time: Up to 10 min
  Hauptabteilung Windkanale                                                Comments: None
  Abteilung KolnPorz
  Linder Hoehe                                                           Cost Information
  D-5000 Koln 90                                                           Date Built: Not available
  West Germany                                                             Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                           Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
Operator(s): Deutsche Forschungsanstalt       fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt     Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                           Replacement Cost: Not available
International Cooperation: None                                           Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                           Unit Cost to User: Not available
Point of Contact: Deutsche Forschungsanstalt       fuer Luft- und          Source(s) of Funding: Not available
   Raumfahrt,
-.__..
    ----_     Tel.: [491-(2203)-60-l 1
                                                                         Number and Type of Staff
Test Section Size: 0.203 m x 0.381 m* (subsonic) and 0.203 m x            Engineers: Not available
  0.203 m2 (supersonic) -                                                 Scientists: Not available
                                                                          Technicians: Not available
Operational Status: Dismantled (see General Comments)                     Others: Not available
                                                                          Administrative/Management:      Not available
Utilization Rate: Not applicable                                          Total: Not available


                                                   Description: The DLR Koln-Porz Calibrating Wind Tunnel was an inter-
                                                   mittently working supersonic wind tunnel primarily used in blowdown
                                                   operations. The tunnel was decommissionedand has been disassembled.
                                                   By attaching a vacuum sphere, it could also be used for suction or com-
                                                   bined blowdown-suction operation. It had a closedtest section cross sec-
                                                   tion measuring 0.203 X 0.381 m for subsonicvelocities and a closedtest
                                                   section measuring 0.203 X 0.203 m for supersonic velocities. An asym-
                                                   metrical nozzleblock system permitted continuous variation of the Mach
                                                   number between Mach 1.3 and 2.7. Temperature control was absent.
                                                   Blow times dependedon the kinds of operation and lasted up to several
                                                   minutes. The calibrating tunnel was used for calibrating probes, testing
                                                   new test methods, and conducting tests on single componentsof models
                                                   (such as inlet diffusers).
                                                  Testing Capabilities: The tunnel was capable of conducting pressure
                                                  tests with a measuring position switch and flow observation with schlie-
                                                  ren optics. The tunnel was also equipped with three-component outside
                                                  balancesand a laser Doppler anemometer.
                                                  Data Acquisition: On-line data collection and evaluation was performed
                                                  with a Hewlett Packard 2100 computer with drum plotter.


                                                  Page 510                                       GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Supersonic Wlnd Tunnel
DLR Koln-Porz High&peed Wind
Tunnel (HMK)




Unique Characteristics: None

Applications/Current Programs: The tunnel is used for basic and con-
cept-oriented fluid mechanical investigations for missiles and space
vehicles. The tunnel can accommodatemodels with a length of 26 cm, a
wingspan of 16 cm, and a fuselage diameter of 3 cm.
General Comments:The tunnel shares a common storage heater and
pressure regulation with the DLR Koln-Porn Vertical Free-jet Test Cham-
ber (VMK).
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:DFVLR. Experimental Plants, Koln, West Germany: DFVLR,
1983, p. B3.2-7 (’m German). Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon
Freda, eds. Aeronautical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels, Washing-
ton, D.C.: National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1,
p. 226.
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 513                              GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Supersonic Wind Tunnel

DLR Koln-Porz HighSpeed Wind Tunnel (HMK)



Country: West Germany                                                        Performance
                                                                               Mach Number: 0.4,0.7, 1.57, 2.252.89, and 4.15
Location: Deutsche Forschungsanstalt           fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt,       Reynolds Number: 0.6 to 16.3 x 107/m
  Koln-Porz, West Germany                                                     Total Pressure: 2 to 35 bars
                                                                               Dynamic Pressure: Not available
Owner(s):                                                                     Total Temperature: 300 to 600 degrees Kelvin
  Deutsche Forschungsanstalt         fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt                  Run Time: 60 s
  Hauptabteilung Windkanale                                                    Comments: Test frequency is 5 min.
  Abteilung Koln-Porz
  Linder Hoehe                                                               Cost Information
  D,5000 Koln 90                                                               Date Built: 1959
  West Germany                                                                 Date Placed in Operation: 1964
                                                                               Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
Operator(s): Deutsche Forschungsanstalt           fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt    Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                               Replacement Cost: Not available
International Cooperation: None                                               Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                               Unit Cost to User: $145 per test and $1,668 per day (1989)
Point of Contact: Helmut Esch, Deutsche Forschungsanstalt            fuer      Source(s) of Funding: Not available
   Luft-.-..
_-.-.--.  und-------
                Aaumfahrt, Tel.: [49]-(2203)601-2345
                                                                             Number and Type of Staff
lest
__..._._Section
         .-......~-. Size: 0.3 m x 0.3 m2 (cross section)                      Engineers: Not available
                                                                              Scientists: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                                    Technicians: Not available
                                                                              Others: Not available
Utilization Rate: 1 shift per day                                             Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                              Total: Not available


                                                        Description: The DLR Koln-Porz High-SpeedWind Tunnel is an intermit-
                                                        tent, blowdown, subsonic and supersonic wind tunnel. In the subsonic
                                                        range, the Mach number can be varied continuously. In the supersonic
                                                        range, the Mach number can be varied by exchangeablenozzles.The
                                                        supersonictunnel has a closedtest chamber measuring 30 cm X 30 cm2.
                                                        The static temperature of the flow, which can be varied between ambi-
                                                        ent and 600 degreesKelvin, can be kept constant during a test by a heat
                                                        exchanger.The tunnel is used primarily for fundamental research. The
                                                        special features of the central air supply plant and the tunnel permit its
                                                        heavy utilization.
                                                       Testing Capabilities: The tunnel has six-component internal balances,a
                                                       multi-channel pressure scanning device, and a high-speedcamera. It can
                                                       conduct flow visualization tests using schlieren and oil film pictures and
                                                       jet simulation with cold air (at 300 bars).

                                                        Data Acquisition: The tunnel has on-line data processingperformed by
                                                        Hewlett Packard A900/A600 computers. The tunnel also has a laser
                                                        Doppler velocimeter.
                                                        Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None


                                                        Page 612                                     GAO/NSIAD90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
 iypersonic Wind Tunnel

Xl3 Goettingen Hypersonic Vacuum
Tunnel 1 (VlG)


Country: West Germany                                                      Performance
                                                                             Mach Number: 7 to 25
Location: Deutsche Forschungsanstalt        fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt,        Reynolds Number: 5 x 104/m to 5 x 106/m
  lnstitut fuer Experimentelle    Stroemungsmechanik, Goettingen,            Total Pressure: 0.1 to 250 bars
  West Germany                                                               Dynamic Pressure: 2 x lo2 Pa to 2 x IO3 Pa
                                                                             Total Temperature: 300 to 2,600 degrees Kelvin
Owner(s):                                                                    Run Time: Continuous (several hours)
  Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt                        Comments: None
  lnstitut fuer Experimentelle Stroemungsmechanik
  Bunsenstrasse 10                                                         Cost Information
  0.3400 Goettingen                                                          Date Built: 1965
  West Germany                                                               Date Placed in Operation: 1966
                                                                             Date(s) Upgraded: 1987 to 1992
Operator(s): Deutsche Forschungsanstalt       fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt,     Construction Cost: Not available
  lnstitut fuer Experimentelle    Stroemungsmechanik                         Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                            Annual Operating Cost: Not available
International Cooperation: Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan; and             Unit Cost to User: Not available
  r$f$$?$, CNES, and Avions Marcel Dassault-Breguet         Aviation,       Source(s) of Funding: Not available

Point of Contact: Dr. H. Legge, Deutsche Forschungsanstalt          fuer   Number and Type of Staff
  Luft- und Raumfahrt, lnstitut fuer Experimentelle                          Engineers: Not available
  Stroemungsmechanik, Tel.: [49]-(551)709-2326----.                          Scientists: Not available
                                                                             Technicians: Not available
                                                                             Others: Not available
Test Section Size: 0.25 m diameter x 0.5 m long                .-____-       Administrative/Management:    Not available
                                                                             Total: 2
Operational Status: Active
Utilization Rate: Not available


                                                    Description: The DLR Goettingen Hypersonic Vacuum Tunnel 1 is a
                                                    hypersonic wind tunnel. It simulates high Mach numbers in high alti-
                                                    tudes. Due to extreme expansion, the gas must be heated in advanceto
                                                    avoid condensation.The requirements of different altitudes or gas den-
                                                    sities require wider pressure variation on the high- and low-pressure
                                                    side. The tunnel is mainly used for testing flow problems on flying
                                                    objects, sounding devices, and spacevehicles in altitudes from 70 to
                                                    120 km. It is also used for conducting basic research in the field of rar-
                                                    efied and real gas flows of high Mach numbers.
                                                    Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is capable of conducting force, pressure,
                                                    and heat transfer measurementson models. It can also conduct pitot
                                                    pressure, temperature, velocity, and concentration measurementsin the
                                                    flow field. Test time is practically unlimited. The tunnel has three- and
                                                    six-component strain-gauge balances,pressure test boxes with switches
                                                    for eight positions, a test chamber for the thin skin and thick wall tech-
                                                    nique to determine heat transfer, an electron beam test chamber for
                                                    determining the state of energy and the absolute velocity of molecules,
                                                    flow visualization by glow discharge or electron beam excitation, and an


                                                    Page 516                                       GAO/NSLAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                        Supersonic Wind Tunnel
                                        DLR Koln-Pan High&-seed Wind
                                        Tunnel (HMK)




Figure X.33: DLR Koln-Port High-Speed
Wind Tunnel (HMK)




                                        Source:   DLR




                                        Page 614                       GAO/NSIADdO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
DLR Goettiugen Hypersonic Vacuum
Tunnel 1 (VlG)




installation for producing models by the galvanoplastic method. The
tunnel also usesthe liquid crystal technique for heat transfer studies.

Data Acquisition: The tunnel has on-line data processingby personal
computers.
Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): These include higher
Reynolds Numbers, larger test sections,contoured nozzles,a laser tech-
nique, and improved balances.
Unique Characteristics: None
Applications/Current Programs: The tunnel is used to test flying objects
reentry vehicles (such as ESA'S Hermes spaceplaneand MBB'S Sanger II),
basic shapes,reaction control, gas and fluid jets, nozzlejets, and-
processesof condensation.
General Comments:None
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Hoyt, Capt. Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology.
London: European Office of AerospaceResearchand Development,
1986, p. 90 (EOARD Technical Report). Holden, Michael S. “A Review of
the Current Capabilities in Europe to Perform Experimental Researchin
Hypersonic Flow.” In: European Hypersonic Technology. London: Euro-
pean Office of Aerospace Researchand Development, 1986, pp. 29 and
31-33 (EOARD Technical Report). Wendt, John F. “European Hypersonic
Wind Tunnels.” In: Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles. Bris-
tol, United Kingdom: NATO AGARD, 1987 (AGARD ConferenceProceedings
No. 428). DFVLR. Experimental Plants. Koln, West Germany: DWLR, 1983,
p. B3.3-3 (in German).
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 516                               GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Fore&u Test Facilities
 hypersonic Wind Tunnel

XR Goettingen Hypersonic Vacuum
Tunnel 2 (‘KG)


Country: West Germany                                                     Performance
                                                                            Mach Number: IO to 20 (conical)
,ocation: Deutsche Forshungsanstalt        fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt,        Reynolds Number: 5 x 104/m to 5 x 105/m
  lnstitut fuer Experimentelle    Stroemungsmechanik, Goettingen,          Total Pressure: 0.25 to 40 bars
  West Germany                                                              Dynamic Pressure: 30 Pa to 1.3 Pa x 1O*
                                                                            Total Temperature: 300 to 1,800 degrees Kelvin
3wner(s):                                                                   Run Time: Continuous (several hours)
  Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Aaumfahrt                       Comments: None
  lnstitut fuer Experimentelle Stroemungsmechanik
  Bunsenstrasse 10                                                        Cost Information
  O-3400 Goettingen                                                         Date Built: Not available
  West Germany                                                              Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                            Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
3perator(s): Deutsche Forschungsanstalt       fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt,     Construction Cost: Not available
  lnstitut fuer Experimentelle    Stroemungsmechanik                        Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                            Annual Operating Cost: Not available
International Cooperation: None                                             Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                          - Source(s)  of Funding: Not available
Point of Contact: Dr. H. Legge, Deutsche Forschungsanstalt        fuer
  Luft- und Raumfahrt, lnstitut fuer Experimentelle
  Stroemungsmechanik, -...Tel.: [49]-(551)709-2326                        Number and Type of Staff
                                                                            Engineers: Not available
                                                                           Scientists: Not available
Test
_-.^I” _Section Size:
                ._ . 0.4
                      ..-...-m diameter
                               - .~     x 0.8 m long -__.                  Technicians: Not available
                                                                           Others: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                                 ~~tdn$n~trative/Management: Not available
Utilization Rate: Not available


                                                    Description: The DLR Goettingen Hypersonic Vacuum Tunnel 2 is a
                                                    hypersonic wind tunnel. It simulates high Mach numbers in high high
                                                    altitudes. Due to extreme expansion, the gas must be heated in advance
                                                    to avoid condensation.The requirements of different altitudes or gas
                                                    densities require wider pressure variation on the high- and low-pressure
                                                    side. The tunnel is mainly used for testing flow problems on flying
                                                    objects, sounding devices,and spacevehicles in altitudes from 70 to
                                                    120 km. It is also used for conducting basic research in the field of rar-
                                                    efied and real gas flows of high Mach numbers.
                                                    Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is capable of conducting force, pressure,
                                                    and heat transfer measurementson models. It can also conduct pitot
                                                    pressure, temperature, velocity and concentration measurementsin the
                                                    flow field. Test time is practically unlimited. The tunnel has three- and
                                                    six-component strain-gauge balances,pressure test boxes with switch
                                                    for eight positions, a test chamber for the thin skin and thick wall tech-
                                                    nique to determine heat transfer, an electron beam test chamber for
                                                    determining the state of energy and the absolute velocity of molecules,
                                                    flow visualization by glow discharge or electron beam excitation, and an



                                                    Page 619                                      GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Hypersouic Wind Tuunel
                                           DLR Goettingen Hypersonic Vacuum
                                           Tunnel 1 (VlG)




Figure X,35: Schematic Diagram of the DLR Goettingen Hypersonic Vacuum Tunnel 1 (VlG)


                                                                 1. test sect@      VlG

                                                                                                            oumbmg system

                                                1            i          ‘.\   ;/’         1’                m,,, a 50000 mbor I/s
                                             00,- N,        nozzle model dllfusor   cc&                            IIM) g/s , I+1
                                              haotrr         /
                                                                   /‘/
                                                        I
                                                                                                                  Ruvac :


                           t


                                                       2. test      section
                                                                 V3-j




                           L

        Q _N,    hqud
                pc;rator
                               NI liquid




                                                                                               m,..   = IS000 mbar I/s




                                           Source:     DLR




                                           Page 518                                                       GAO/NSLAD-90-71FS Foreigu Test Facilities
                                          Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
                                          DLR Guettiugen Hypersonic Vacuum
                                          Tunnel 2 (V2G)




‘igure X.36: DLR Goettingen Hypersonic
Vacuum Tunnel 2 (V20)




                                         Source:   GAO




                                         Page 521                            GAO/NSIAJJ-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
DLR Goctthgen Hypersonic Vacuum
Tunnel 2 (VBG)




installation for producing models by the galvanoplastic method. The
tunnel also usesthe liquid crystal technique for heat transfer studies.
Data Acquisition: The tunnel has on-line data processingby personal
computers.
Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): These include larger
test sections,contoured nozzles,and a laser technique for flow
diagnostics.
Unique Characteristics: None

Applications/Current Programs: The tunnel is used to test flying objects,
reentry vehicles (such as E&i's Hermes spaceplaneand MBB'S Sanger II),
basic shapes,separation, reaction control, gas and fluid jets, nozzlejets,
and processesof condensation.
General Comments:None

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Hoyt, Capt. Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology.
London: European Office of AerospaceResearchand Development,
1986, p. 91 (EOARD Technical Report). Holden, Michael S. “A Review of
the Current Capabilities in Europe to Perform Experimental Researchin
Hypersonic Flow.” In: European Hypersonic Technology. London: Euro-
pean Office of Aerospace Researchand Development, 1986, pp. 29 and
31-33 (EOARD Technical Report). Wendt, John F. “European Hypersonic
Wind Tunnels.” In: Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles. Bris-
tol, United Kingdom: NATO AGARD, 1987 (AGARD ConferenceProceedings
No. 428). DFVLR. Experimental Plants. Koln, West Germany: DFVLR, 1983,
p. B3.3-3 (in German).
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 620                               GAO/NSIADSO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
 HypersonicWind Tunnel

 DLFtGoettingen High-Vacuum Tunnel 3 (V3G)



Country: West Germany                                                      Performance
                                                                             Mach Number: 6 to 25 (sonic orifice free-jet)
Location: Deutsche Forschun sanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt,               Reynolds Number: 4 x 102/m to 4 x 105/m
  lnstitut fuer Experimentelle     B troemungsmechanik,   Goettingen,        Total Pressure: 0.005 to 15 bars
  West Germany                                                               Dynamic Pressure: Not available
                                                                             Total Temperature: 300 to 850 degrees Kelvin
Owner(s):                                                                    Run Time: Continuous
  Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt                        Comments: None
  lnstitut fuer Experimentelle Stroemungsmechanik
  Bunsenstrasse 10                                                         Cost Information
  D-3400 Goettingen                                                          Date Built: 1968
  West Germany                                                               Date Placed in Operation: 1969
                                                                             Date(s) Upgraded: 1975
Operator(s): Deutsche Forschungsanstalt        fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt,    Construction Cost: Not available
  lnstitut fuer Experimentelle     Stroemungsmechanik                        Replacement Cost: Not available
international Cooperation: ESTEC, The Netherlands; and Avions               Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                             Unit Cost to User: Not available
  Marcel Dassault-Breguet        Aviation, France                           Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Point of Contact: Dr. H. Legge, Deutsche Forschungsanstalt         fuer
    Luft- und Raumfahrt, lnstitut fuer Experimentelle                      Number and Type of Staff
   Stroemungsmechanik,
---- ..-.-.------          Tel.: [49]-(551)709.2326                          Engineers: Not available
                                                                             Scientists: Not available
                                                                            Technicians: Not available
Test
-_._.- Section Size: 1,300 mm diameter x 3,300 mm long                      Others: Not available
                                                                            Administrative/Management:      Not available
Operational Status: Active                                                  Total: 2
Utilization Rate: Not available
--^---


                                                    Description: The DLR Goettingen High-Vacuum Tunnel 3 is a hypersonic
                                                    wind tunnel. It broadens the operating range of the two test chambers of
                                                    the vacuum tunnel toward higher altitudes and lower densities. Due to
                                                    the prevailing influence of viscosity, a sonic orifice free-jet expansion
                                                    must be used. With the aid of a secondpump system, a molecular beam
                                                    can be produced. The tunnel is especially suited for investigating satel-
                                                    lite aerodynamics, studying gas surface interactions, and for simulating
                                                    flow processesin a high-vacuum environment. This includes plume flow
                                                    from satellite thrusters and the flow impingement on satellite surfaces.
                                                    Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is capable of conducting force, pressure,
                                                    and heat transfer tests. It can also conduct measurementof the recovery
                                                    temperature and flow visualization by glow discharge.The tunnel uses
                                                    the molecular beam technique and has electrodynamic one- and two-
                                                    component balances,Patterson pressure probes, temperature probes,
                                                    cryogenic liquid-nitrogen cooling of the test chamber walls, cryo-pump-
                                                    ing, and a separate Auger spectrometer.




                                                    Page 523                                       GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                                                                                                                                             -
                                            Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
                                            DLR Goettingen Hypersonic Vacuum
                                            Tunnel 2 (V2G)




Figure X.37: Schematic Diagram of the DLR Goettingen Hypersonic Vacuum Tunnel 2 (V2G)




                                                            1. test section          VlG
                                                                                                                                            AS-      + a00
                                                                                                                                             -w      ”
                                                                                                            pumping system
                                                                                                            rj * 30000 I/S
                                                                                                            m,,, s SONlOmbar I/r                     s a00
                                                                                                                                               o-
                                                 air - N, mhe       model diffuror                                  II00 g/s , N21
                                                                                                                                            b-l--

                                                                /                                                                                    s 000
   comprrrlorl                                                                                                      Ruvac :
                                                                                                    107          01        57         L6



                                        --ii-l
                                                        2. test section
                                                             V2G                     vawum valves
                                                                                                    [molecular   bramrl//,rtagnatii        chamber
                                                                                               \
                                                                                           I




                                        Source: DLR




                                       Page       622                                                  GAO/NSLAD-90-71FS Fore&u Test Facilities
                                    Hyptmonlc Wind Tunnel
                                    DLR Coettingen High-Vacuum
                                    Tunnel 3 (V3G)




tigure X.38: DLR Qoettingen High-
lacuum Tunnel 3 (VW)




                                    Source: DLR




                                     Page 625                    GAO/NSIAD90-7lFS   Foreign Test Facilities
Hypereonlc Wind Tunnel
DLR Guettlngen High-Vacuum
Tunnel 3 (VSG)




Data Acquisition: The tunnel has on-line data processingby personal
computers.
Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): These include seeded
beam technique for orbital speedsat speedsgreater than 6 km/s.

Unique Characteristics: None
Applications/Current Programs: The tunnel is used to test free molecu-
lar and rarefied flow, spaceflying objects, satellites, gasjets, gas surface
interaction, and impingement of spacecraft surfaces from control
thrusters.
General Comments:Model size in the free-jet is less than 10 mm.

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:Hoyt, Capt. Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology.
London: European Office of Aerospace Researchand Development,
1986, p. 91 (EOARD Technical Report). Holden, Michael S. “A Review of
the Current Capabilities in Europe to Perform Experimental Researchin
Hypersonic Flow.” In: European Hypersonic Technology. London: Euro-
pean Office of AerospaceResearchand Development, 1986, pp. 29 and
31-33 (EOAHD Technical Report). Wendt, John F. “European Hypersonic
Wind Tunnels.” In: Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles. Bris-
tol, United Kingdom: NATO AGARD, 1987 (AGARD ConferenceProceedings
No. 428). DFVL~ Experimental Plants. Koln, West Germany: DFVLR, 1983,
p. B3.3-4 (in German).
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 624                                GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Fore&u Test Facilities
Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

DLR Goettingen Tube Wind Tunnel (RWG)



Country: West Germany                                                      Performance
                                                                             Mach Number: 3,4,5, 6,7,9, 10, and 11
Location: Deutsche Forschungsanstalt       fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt,         Reynolds Number: 3 to 50 x 106/m at Mach 5
  lnstitut fuer Experimentelle   Stroemungsmechanik, Goettingen,             Total Pressure: Greater than 2 bars at Mach 3 and less than 100
  West Germany                                                                 bars at Mach 11
                                                                             Dynamic Pressure: Not available
Owner(s):                                                                    Total Temperature: See General Comments
  Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt                        Run Time: 0.4 s
  lnstrtut fuer Experimentelle Stroemungsmechanik                            Comments: None
  Bunsenstrasse 10
  II.3400 Goettrngen                                                       Cost Information
  West Germany                                                               Date Built: 1967 to 1968
                                                                             Date Placed in Operation: 1968
Operator(s): Deutsche Forschungsanstalt      fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt,       Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
  lnstitut fuer Experimentelle   Stroemungsmechanik                          Construction Cost: $505,178 (1967)
                                                                             Replacement Cost: Not available
International Cooperation: None                                              Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                             Unit Cost to User: Not available
Point of Contact: Dr. G. Hefer, Deutsche Forschungsanstalt      fuer        Source(s) of Funding: Not available
  Luft- und Raumfahrt, lnstitut fuer Experimentelle
  Stroemungsmechanik, Tel.: [49]-(551)709-2323                         -   Number and Type of Staff
                                                                             Engineers: Not available
Test Section Size: 0.5 m diameter                                           Scientists: Not available
                                                                            Technicians: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                                  Others: Not available
                                                                            Administrative/Management:     Not available
Utilization Rate: About 4 test per hour                                     Total: Not available


                                                   Description: The DLR Goettingen Tube Wind Tunnel is an intermittently
                                                   operating hypersonic wind tunnel. Simple construction and good flow
                                                   quality are guaranteed by applying the Ludwieg system, which ensures
                                                   that constant flow parameters are maintained during the entire test
                                                   period without special control devices.The tunnel has three separate
                                                   reservoir tubes for low, medium, and high Mach numbers. It has
                                                   exchangeablenozzlesfor Mach numbers 3,4,5,6,7,9, 10, and 11.
                                                  Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is capable of conducting six-component
                                                  force and moment measurementsusing the strain-gauge technique, pres-
                                                  sure measurementsusing strain-gauge or piezoelectric transducers, heat
                                                  transfer tests using the thin-skin technique, thermal mapping using
                                                  thermochronic liquid crystals, and flow visualization tests using oil flow
                                                  and schlieren methods. The test section can accommodatemodels with a
                                                  platform area less than 100 cm2 and a length less than 20 cm for high
                                                  angle of attack models (cranked sting-supports) and less than 50 cm for
                                                  small angle of attack models.
                                                  Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 16 channels and digital recording of
                                                  test data. It also has off-line data reduction.


                                                  Page 527                                         GAO/NSLAD80-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                         Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
                                         DLR Goettingen High-Vacuum
                                         Tunnel    3 (V3G)




Figure X.39: Schematic Diagram of the DLR Goettingen High-Vacuum Tunnel 3 (V3G)



                                                         1. test section      VlG

       (fqjy/--y-qr’h                                                      ay!q           pumpmg system
                                                                                          i, : 30000 I/S                      P-l‘““”
                                                                                          i,,,.         50004 mbar I/s
                                            a, - N, i-ante model dlffusor         ewler                 LIOOg/s , N21

                                                                                                                                        s a00
                                                                                                       Ruvac :
                                                                                                  a7         57          L6




                                                    2. test section
                                                         V’3


                                                                  plasma heater

                                                                      I-




                                         Source.   DLR




                                         Page 626                                         GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                         Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
                                         DLR Goettingen Tube Wind Tunnel (RWG)




Figure X.40: DLR Goettingen Tube Wind
Tunnel (RWG)




                                        D.

                                        Source: DLR




                                        Page 629                                 GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
DLR GoettIngen Tube Wind Tunnel (RWG)




Planned Imnrovements (ModificationslUnarades): None

Unique Characteristics: None
Applications/Current Programs: The tunnel is used to conduct basic
research on transition, flow separation, and heat transfer. It is also used
to conduct contract work for aerospaceprojects. On request, the tunnel
is used for investigating special problems of wind tunnel testing tech-
nology and for developing new testing techniques.
General Comments:Total temperature is less than 130 degreesCelsius at
Mach 3 to 4, less than 460 degreesCelsius at Mach 6, and less than 860
degreesCelsius at Mach 9 to 11.
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:DFVLR. Hoyt, Capt. Anthony R. European Hypersonic Tech-
nology. London: European Office of AerospaceResearchand Develop-
ment, 1986, pp. 89-90 (EOARD Technical Report). Holden, Michael S. “A
Review of the Current Capabilities in Europe to Perform Experimental
Researchin Hypersonic Flow.” In: European Hypersonic Technology.
London: European Office of AerospaceResearchand Development,
1986, pp, 29-31 and 33 (EOARD Technical Report). Wendt, John F. “Euro-
pean Hypersonic Wind Tunnels.” In: Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lift-
ing Vehicles. Bristol, United Kingdom: NATO AGARD, 1987 (AGARD
ConferenceProceedingsNo. 428). DFVLR. Experimental Plants. Koln,
West Germany: DFVLR, 1983, p. B3.2-3 (in German).
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 528                                GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
 Iypersonic Wind Tunnel

 IX Koln-Porn High-Enthalpy Wind
 Tunnel 1 (PlK)

                                                                                    -I-
Country: West Germany                                                                     Performance
                                                                                            Mach Number: 5 to 20 (conical)
Location: Deutsche Forschungsanstalt                fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt,               Reynolds Number: 1 x 103/m to 1 x 104/m
   Koln-Porz, West Germany                                                                  Total Pressure: 0.1 to 4 bars
                                                                                            Dynamic Pressure: Not available
Owner(s):                                                                                   Total Temperature: 1,000 to 4,000 degrees Kelvin
   Deutsche Forschungsanstalt               fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt                        Run Time: Continuous
   Hauptabteilung Windkanale                                                                Comments: None
   Abteilung Koln-Porz
   Linder Hoehe
   D-5000 Koln 90
                                                                                          Cost Information
   West Germany
                                                                                            Date Built: Not available
                                                                                            Date Placed in Operation: Not available
Operator(s): Deutsche Forschungsanstalt                fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt
                                                                                            Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
                                                                                            Construction Cost: Not available
International Cooperation: None                                                             Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                                            Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: K. Kindler, Deutsche Forschungsanstalt               fuer Luft-
                                                                                            Unit Cost to User: Not available
   und Raumfahrt,     Tel.: [49]-(2203).601-2464
                                                                                            Source(s) of Funding: Not available
--__.-  . - .._- -.“_-..~

Test     Section                                                                          Number and Type of Staff
_-_....I.~   ---. Size:
         ___.-.      - Up to 110 mm diameter                                                Engineers: 0
                                                                                            Scientists: 0
Operational Status: Mothballed (see General Comments)                                      g;e;cFns:      4
Utilization
--.-            Rate:
      ___..._._-__.._    Not -__.----
                              operational
                     - ._.-I.__                             -                               Admin:strative/Managemen1:     0
                                                                                            Total: 4
                                                                                    *




                                                            Description: The DLR Koln-Porz High-Enthalpy Wind Tunnel 1 is a hyper-
                                                            sonic wind tunnel. It operates continuously and has a test chamber 0.8 m
                                                            in diameter and a vacuum pump set. The gas is heated by a 20- to
                                                            zoo-kW electric arc heater. Operating gasesare nitrogen, argon, helium,
                                                            and dry air. Setting and adjustment of the desired flow condition occur
                                                            by exchangeof the nozzle configurations and infinite variation of the
                                                            mass flux and the energy feed-in. The nozzle throat diameter is between
                                                            2 and 6 mm,conical nozzleshave half-angles between 8 and 20 degrees,
                                                            and the exit diameter is between 190 and 400 mm.The test chamber is an
                                                            open cylinder and is perpendicular to the flow. The tunnel is used for
                                                            pressure, temperature, force, and heat transfer tests in high-velocity
                                                            flows. Although currently out of service, the tunnel can be made avail-
                                                            able, on short notice, for heavy utilization.
                                                            Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is capable of conducting pressure tests
                                                            and heat transfer investigations using thermoelement measurements
                                                            and colored-lacquer and infrared methods. The tunnel has a three-com-
                                                            ponent strain-gauge internal balance, capacitive and wire-strain-gauge
                                                            pressure absorption inside a range between 10 bars and 1 mbar. The tun-
                                                            nel also has a fully programmable compound micrometer motion table.



                                                            Page 631                                              GAO/N&ID-9OQlFS     Foreign Test Facilities
                                         Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
                                         DLR Goettlngen Tube Wind Tunnel (RWG)




Fioure X.41: Schematic Diagram of the DLR Qoettingen Tube Wind Tunnel (RWG)




   A                                                                                         --        -




                                                                                 @ Supply-Tube
                                                                                 @ Fast-Acting Valve
                                                                                 @ Nozzle
                                                                                 @I Movabie Model-Support
                                                                                 @ Valve
                                                                                 Q> Vacuum Tank




                                         Source: DLR
                     Y




                                         Page 530                                  GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                   Hypemmic Wind Tunnel
                                   DLR Koln-Pan High-Enthalpy Wind
                                   Tunnel 1 (PlK)




Vgurs  X.42: DLR Koln-Port High-
Enthalpy Wind Tunnel 1 (PlK)




                                    Page 633                         GAO/NSIAD-99-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
DLR Koln-Pon High-Enthalpy Wind
Tunnel 1 (PlK)




Data Acquisition: Test data collection and evaluation are performed on-
line a Hewlett Packard data collection unit with a core memory and
magnetic tape.
Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None

Unique Characteristics: None

Applications/Current Programs: The tunnel was used to test infinite
model and probe adjustments.
General Comments:The tunnel is not used at the present time.

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Hoyt, Capt. Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology.
London: European Office of AerospaceResearchand Development,
1986, p. 92 (EOARD Technical Report). DFVLR. Experimental Plants, Koln,
West Germany: DFVLR, 1983, p. B3.3-5 (in German).

Date of Information: October 1989




Page 632                              GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypemnlc Wind Tunnel
DLR Koln-POIZ High-Enthalpy Wind
Tunnel 2 (P2K)




test range between 100 bars and 100 microbars. The tunnel is capable of
conducting temperature and density tests, flow visualization by electron
beam stimulation, pressure tests, and heat transfer tests by thermoele-
ment measurementsand infrared thermography.
Data Acquisition: Test data collection and evaluation are performed on-
line by a Hewlett Packard data collection unit equipped with a 16,000-
byte core memory and magnetic tape.
Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): These include a 6-MW
rectifier and contoured nozzles.
Unique Characteristics: The tunnel has a device for mixing liquid nitro-
gen with air, which makes the P 2 test chamber suitable for investiga-
tions in cryogenic subsonicfree-jets.
Applications/Current Programs: These include testing operational sys-
tems in high-enthalpy flow.
General Comments:Technical data for cryogenic operations are as
follows: test cross section, 70 mm;Mach number range, 0.4 to 0.9; static
temperature, 80 to 300 degreesKelvin; pressures,0.2 to 0.6 bars;
Reynolds Number, up to 2 X 107/m(relative to 1 m); and test time, about
2 hours (time is dependent on liquid nitrogen flux and limited by a 2 m3
liquid nitrogen tank).

PhotogranhSchematic Available: Yes

References:Hoyt, Capt. Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology.
London: European Office of AerospaceResearchand Development,
1986, p. 93 (EOARD Technical Report). Wendt, John F. “European Hyper-
sonic Wind Tunnels.” In: Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles.
Bristol, United Kingdom: NA~D AGARD, 1987 (AGARD ConferenceProceed-
ings No. 428). DFVL~ Experimental Plants. Koln, West Germany: DFVLR,
1983, p. B3.3-6 (in German).
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 536          I                    GAO/NSIAIHO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

DLR Koln-Porz High-Enthalpy Wind
Tunnel 2 (P2K)


Country: West Germany                                                     Performance
                                                                            Mach Number: 3 to 20 tonicalJ
Location: Deutsche Forschungsanstalt      fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt,         Reynolds Number: 0.0 3 to 0. 5 x 106/m
  Koln-Porz, West Germany                                                   Total Pressure: 0.1 mbar to 10 bars
                                                                            Dynamic Pressure: Not available
Owner(s):                                                                   Total Temperature: 1,000 to 6,000 degrees Kelvin
  Deutsche Forschungsanstalt      fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt                  Run Time: Continuous
  Hauptabteilung Windkanale                                                 Comments: See General Comments
  Abteilung KolnPorz
  Linder Hoehe                                                            Cost Information
  D-5000 Koln 90                                                            Date Built: Not available
  West Germany                                                              Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                            Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
Operator(s): Deutsche Forschungsanstalt      fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt       Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                            Replacement Cost: Not available
International Cooperation: ONERA, France                                   Annual Operating Cost: $791,557 (1989)
                                                                            Unit Cost to User: Not available
Point of Contact: K. Kindler, Deutsche Forschungsanstalt     fuer Luft-    Source(s) of Funding: Not available
  und Raumfahrt, Tel.: [49]-(2203)601-2484
                                                                          Number and Type of Staff
Test Section Size: About 250 mm diameter (cross section)                    Engineers: 2
                                                                           Scientists: 3
Operational Status: Active                                                 Technicians: 1
                                                                           Others: 0
Utilization Rate: Not available                                            Administrative/Management:     0
                                                                           Total: 6


                                                 Description: The DLR Koln-Porz High-Enthalpy Wind Tunnel 2 is a con-
                                                 tinuous-flow hypersonic wind tunnel. The tunnel is equipped with an
                                                 open-jet test chamber 2.6 m in diameter and a vacuum pump set. The gas
                                                 is heated by a 20-kW to l-MW electric arc heater. Specific thermal power
                                                 in the flow can be set at up to 2 MW/m’. Test gasesinclude nitrogen,
                                                 argon, helium, and dry air. The setting and adjustment of the desired
                                                 flow condition occurs by exchangeof nozzle configurations and the vari-
                                                 ation of the mass flux and the energy feed-in. The conical nozzleshave
                                                 half-angles between 8 and 20 degrees,the nozzlethroat diameter is
                                                 between 2 and 29 mm, and the exit diameter is between 100 and 600 mm.
                                                 The test chamber is an open cylinder perpendicular with its axis to the
                                                 direction of the flow. On request, the tunnel can be utilized for pressure,
                                                 temperature, force, and heat transfer testing.
                                                 Testing Capabilities: The tunnel has a probe adjustment device along
                                                 three coordinates; a model displacement device; a mirror and lens sys-
                                                 tem, which allows each point of the flow field to be examined with opti-
                                                 cal probes; a monochromator; and an adjustable diffusor. The tunnel
                                                 also has probes for total enthalpy and flow density; an electron beam
                                                 probe; a three-component strain-gauge balance; and a wire-strain-gauge,
                                                 pressure absorption, and ionization vacuum meter with a total covered


                                                 Page534                                          GAO/NSIADQOBlFSForeignTestFacilities



                                                                               Y,
HypersonicWind Tunnel

ILR Koln-Porn;High-Enthalpy Wind
Tunnel 3(P3K)


Country: West Germany                                                        Performance
                                                                               Mach Number: 3 to 15 (conical)
.ocation: Deutsche Forshungsanstalt       fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt,            Reynolds Number: 1 x 105/m to 1 x 107/m
  Koln-Porz, West Germany                                                      Total Pressure: 30 bars (maximum)
                                                                               Dynamic Pressure: Not available
)wner(s):                                                                      Total Temperature: 2,000 to 6,000 degrees Kelvin
  Deutsche Forschungsanstalt      fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt                     Run Time: Continuous
  Hauptabteilung Windkanale                                                    Comments: Test gas used is air. Open jet test section is 4 m3.
  Abteilung Koln-Porz
  Linder Hoehe                                                               Cost Information
  D-5000 Koln 90                                                               Date Built: Not available
  West Germany                                                                 Date Placed in Operation: Not available
>perator(s): Deutsche Forschungsanstalt         fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt
                                                                               Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
                                                                               Construction Cost: Not available
nternational Cooperation: None                                                 Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                               Annual Operating Cost: $791,557 (1989)
saint of Contact: K. Kindler, Deutsche Forschungsanstalt        fuer Luft-
                                                                               Unit Cost to User: Not available
   und   Raumfahrt, Tel.: [49]-(2203)601-2484
                                                                              Source(s) of Funding: Not available
-.-_.._- ~---~
                                                                             Number and Type of Staff
rest
 _-..--~-Section -.---_--
                   Size: -_~-.--
                          250 mm diameter (cross section)                      Engineers: 2
                                                                              Scientists: 3
Operational Status: Standby                                                   z;e;c;ns:     1
Jtlllzatlon Rate: Not in operation                                             $fmlin~Managemant:             0



                                                    Description: The DLR Koln-Porz High-Enthalpy Wind Tunnel 3 is a hyper-
                                                    sonic wind tunnel. It operates continuously with a vacuum pump set.
                                                    The gas is heated by a 20-kW to l-MW electric arc heater. Test gases
                                                    include nitrogen, argon, helium, and dry air. Specific thermopower in
                                                    the flow can be set up to 4.5 MW/m2. Setting and adjustment of the
                                                    desired flow condition occurs by exchangeof throat and nozzle configu-
                                                    rations and variation of the mass flux and the energy feed-in. For this
                                                    purpose, different nozzle configurations with conical extensions are
                                                    available. Throat diameters measure between 6 and 100 mm,and conical
                                                    nozzle configurations have exhaust diameters of between 30 and
                                                    600 mm.The test chamber diameter is about 250 mm.The test chamber is
                                                    a cube (1.5 m) with four entries. Due to the high specific thermopower
                                                    available, the tunnel is especially suited for investigations of heat trans-
                                                    fer and protection systems.
                                                    Testing Capabilities: The tunnel has probes for measuring total enthalpy
                                                    and flow density, a laser light scanning probe, ablation scales,and an
                                                    ionization vacuum meter with a total test range of 100 bars to 10
                                                    microbars. The tunnel is capable of conducting flow visualization tests
                                                    and studies of nonequalibrium thermodynamics.



                                                    Page 637                                          GAO/NSIALMO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities



                                                                                                        ,’
                                    Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
                                    DLR Koln-Pon High-Enthalpy Wind
                                    Tunnel 2 (P2K)




Figure X.43: DLR Koln-Porz High-
Enthalpy Wind Tunnel 2 (P2K)




                                   Source: DLR




                                   Page 636                           GAO/N&ID-90-71FS   Foreign Teat Facilities
                                   Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
                                   DLR Koln-Pon High-Enthalpy Wind
                                   Tunnel 3 (P3K)




Vgure X.44: DLR Koln-Porz Hlgh-
Enthslpy Wind Tunnel 3 (P3K)




                                  Source: DLR




                                  Page 639                           GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypereonlc Wind Tunnel
DLR Koln-Pon High-Enthalpy Wind
Tunnel 3 (P3K)




Data Acquisition: Test data collection and evaluation tire performed on-
line by a Hewlett Packard data collection unit equipped with a 16,000-
byte core memory and magnetic tape.

Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
Uniaue Characteristics: None
Applications/Current Programs: These included material testing.
General Comments:The tunnel is currently in a standby status.

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Hoyt, Capt. Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology.
London: European Office of AerospaceResearchand Development,
 1986, p. 93 (E&RD Technical Report). Wendt, John F. “European Hyper-
sonic Wind Tunnels.” In: Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles.
Bristol, United Kingdom: NAM AGARD, 1987 (AGARD ConferenceProceed-
ings No. 428). DFVLR. Experimental Plants. Koln, West Germany: DFVLR,
1983, p. B3.3-7 (in German).
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 538                              GAO/NSLiD-90-7lFS   Foreign Test Facilities
                                        Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
                                        DLR Koln-Porz Hypersonic Wind
                                        Tunnel 1 (HlK)




e                                       Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
                                        Uniaue Characteristics: None

                                        Applications/Current Programs: The tunnel was used to conduct aerody-
                                        namic and thermodynamic tests on flying and reentry vehicles. Typical
                                        model measurementswere 30 cm (length of fuselage), 20 cm (wingspan),
                                        and 10 cm (fuselage diameter).
                                        General Comments:The tunnel is out of operation and will not be
                                        reactivated.
                                        Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
                                        References:DEVLR. Experimental Plants. Koln, West Germany: DFVLR,
                                        1983, p. B3.3-1 (in German).
                                        Date of Information: October 1989
Figure X.45: DLR Koln-Porz Hypersonic
Wind Tunnel 1 (HlK)




                         Y
                                        Source: DLR




                                        Page 641                              GAO/NSIAD90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Ilypersonic Wind Tunnel

DLR Koln-Porz Hypersonic Wind
Tunnel 1 (HlK)


Country: West Germany                                                          Performance
                                                                                 Mach Number: 4,5, 6,8,7, and 11,2
Location: Deutsche Forschungsanstalt             fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt,       Reynolds Number: 3.6 x 105/m to 3 x 107/m
   Koln-Porz, West Germany                                                       Total Pressure: Not available
                                                                                 Dynamic Pressure: 0.5 to 60 bars
Owner(s):                                                                       Total Temperature: 300 to 1,100 degrees Kelvin
  Deutsche Forschungsanstalt             fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt                Run Time: 60 s
  Hauptabterlung Windkanale                                                      Comments: Test frequency was 20 min (including evacuation of
  Abteilung Koln-Porz                                                              the vacuum sphere).
  Linder Hoehe
  D.5000 Koln 90                                                               Cost information
  West Germany                                                                   Date Built: Not available
                                                                                 Date Placed in Operation: Not available
Operator(s): Deutsche Forschungsanstalt             fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt     Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
                                                                                Construction Cost: Not available
international Cooperation: None                                                  Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                                Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Helmut Esch, Deutsche Forschungsanstalt              fuer      Unit Cost to User: Not available
  Luft. und
         .-.-_Raumfahrt,
              _-....     Tel.: [49]-(2203)601-2345                              Source(s) of Funding: Not available
lest Section Size: 60 x 36 cm for Mach 4.5                                     Number and Type of Staff
                                                                                 Engineers: Not available
Operational Status: Mothballed (see General Comments)                            Scientists: Not available
                                                                                Technicians: Not available
Utilization
..--“.ll_..... Rate:
               _.-.--_ Not operational                                          Others: Not available
                                                                                Administrative/Management:       Not available
                                                                                Total: Not available


                                                         Description: The DLR Koln-Porz Hypersonic Wind Tunnel 1 was a contin-
                                                         uously operating blowdown wind tunnel. It has been mothballed and
                                                         will not be reactivated. It also operated intermittently at higher Mach
                                                         numbers. Six nozzleswere available ranging from Mach 5.7 to 14.6.
                                                         Static temperature was infinitely variable through an electric air heater
                                                         of 400 kw. The tunnel had a free-jet test chamber provided with a model
                                                         swing-in device equipped with angle of attack adjustment and a three-
                                                         coordinate probe adjustment. All mechanismscould be controlled by a
                                                         computer. The tunnel was primarily used for basic research, especially
                                                         for measuring pressure and temperature fields.
                                                        Testing Capabilities: The tunnel had three- and six-component internal
                                                        balances,a high-speedcamera, pressure measuring devicesfrom 0.1
                                                        mbar to 60 bars, a test position switch, and a baratron. The tunnel was
                                                        capable of conducting flow visualization using schlieren pictures, heat
                                                        transfer measurementsby color, and the phase reversion method with
                                                        an infrared camera.
                                                         Data Acquisition: Not available



                                                        Page 640                                         GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
DLR Koln-Porz Hypersonic Wind
Tunnel 2 (H2K)




Unique Characteristics: None
Applications/Current Programs: The tunnel has been used to conduct
flow tests on basic models of reentry vehicles. Typical model measure-
ments are 40 cm (length of fuselage), 16 cm (wingspan), and 5 cm (fuse-
lage diameter). At the present time, the tunnel is used to conduct tests
on ESA’SHermes spaceplaneand MBB’S SangerII.
General Comments:None
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Penaranda,,Frank E,, and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, DC,: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, p. 262. Wendt,
John F. “European Hypersonic Wind Tunnels.” In: Aerodynamics of
Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles. Bristol, United Kingdom: NATO AGARD, 1987
(AGARD ConferenceProceedingsNo. 428). DFVLR. Experimental Plants.
Koln, West Germany: DFVLFt, 1983, p. B3.3-2 (in German).
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 543                               GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

DLR Koln-Porz Hypersonic Wind
Tunnel 2 (H2K)

--
Country: West Germany                                                   Performance
                                                                          Mach Number: 4.8, 5.3, 6, 8.7, and 11.2
Location: Deutsche Forschungsanstalt      fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt,       Reynolds Number: 2.4 x 105/m to 5.5 x 107/m
  Koln-Porz, West Germany                                                 Total Pressure: 5 to 50 bars
                                                                          Dynamic Pressure: Up to 80 kN/m2 at Mach 6
Owner(s):                                                                 Total Temperature: 300 to 1,300 degrees Kelvin
  Deutsche Forschungsanstalt      fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt                Run Time: Typically 30 s
  Hauptabteilung Windkanale                                               Comments: Test frequency is less than 20 min (including
  Abteilung Koln-Porz                                                       evacuation of the vacuum sphere)               __.___
  Lrnder Hoehe
  D.5000 Koln 90                                                        Cost Information
  West Germany                                                            Date Built: 1968
                                                                          Date Placed in Operation: 1968 and 1984 (reactivated)
Operator(s): Deutsche Forschungsanstalt      fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt     Date(s) Upgraded: Continuously since 1984
                                                                         Construction Cost: $876,754 (1968)
International Cooperation: None                                           Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                         Annual Operating Cost: $527,704 (1989)
Point of Contact: Joachim Niezgodka, Deutsche Forschungsanstalt           Unit Cost to User: Not available
  fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Tel.: [49]-(2203).6012367                     Source(s) of Funding: West German government       --___-
Test Section Size: 0.6 cm diameter                                      Number and Type of Staff
                                                                          Engineers: 1
Operational Status: Active                                                Scientists: 1
                                                                         Technicians: 1
Utilization Rate: Not available                                          Others: 0
                                                                         Administrative/Management:   0
                                                                         Total: 3                   -


                                                  Description: The DLR Koln-Porz Hypersonic Wind Tunnel 2 is an inter-
                                                  mittently operating blowdown wind tunnel. The tunnel has five nozzles
                                                  available ranging from Mach 4.8 to 11.2. Static temperature can be
                                                  varied continuously by an air-heating plant to a maximum of 2,500 kw.
                                                  The tunnel has a free-jet test chamber and a model swing-in device with
                                                  an angle of attack and angle of sideslip adjustment.
                                                  Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is mainly used for force, pressure, and
                                                  temperature measurementson missiles and reentry vehicles. It is capa-
                                                  ble of conducting flow visualization tests using schlieren and oil film pic-
                                                  tures and heat transfer tests with an infrared camera. It has a high-
                                                  speedcamera, pressure measuring devices from 0.1 mbar to 10 bars, a
                                                  baratron, and thermoelements.
                                                  Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 40 channel A/D converter input and on-
                                                  line data reduction performed by a Hewlett Packard lOOO/A900com-
                                                  puter with suitable peripherals.
                                                  Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None



                                                  Page 542                                      GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
lypervelocity Wind Tunnel

DLR Goettingen High-Enthalpy Tunnel (HEG)



Country: West Germany                                                    Performance
                                                                           Mach Number: 7
Location: Deutsche Forschungsanstait       fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt,       Reynolds Number: Not available
  lnstitut fuer Experimentelle   Stroemungsmechanik, Goettingen,           Total Pressure: 1,500 bars
  West Germany                                                             Dynamic Pressure: 1 to 2 bars
                                                                           Total Temperature: 10,000 degrees Kelvin
Owner(s):                                                                  Run Time: 1 ms
  Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt                      Comments: Test gas usually will be air.        ___ ____.. -..-..-
  lnstitut fuer Experimentelle Stroemungsmechanik
  Bunsenstrasse 10                                                       Cost Information
  D-3400 Goettrngen                                                        Date Built: Under construction
  West Germany                                                             Date Placed in Operation: Not available
Operator(s): Deutsche Forschungsanstalt      fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt,
                                                                           Date(s) Upgraded: Not applicable
  lnstttut fuer Experimentelle   Stroemungsmechanik
                                                                           Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                           Replacement Cost: Not available
International Cooperation: None                                            Annual Operating Cost: Unknown
                                                                           Unit Cost to User: Unknown
                                                                           Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Point of Contact: Dr. G. Eitelberg, Deutsche Forschungsanstait
  fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, lnstitut fuer Experimentelle
  Stroemungsmechanik, Tel.: -.[49]-(551)709-2339                         Number and Type of Staff
                                  .~. .-.-.-.-__--                         Engineers: 1
                                                                          Scientists: 4
Test Section Size: Not available
                             _ ~. -_.. _..---                             z;;trTns:     1

Operational Status: Under construction                                     AdminiktrativejManagement:     0
                                                                           Total: 6
Utilization Rate: Unknown


                                                   Description: The DLR High-Enthalpy Tunnel consistsof a compression
                                                   tube, a shock tube, a nozzle, a measuring chamber, and a vacuum tank.
                                                   In the compressiontube, a piston separatesthe compressed-airsupply,
                                                   which is supposedto acceleratethe piston from the propellant gas that
                                                   is to be compressed.Helium is chosenas the propellant gas becauseit is
                                                   a light gas and monatomic, which enablesthe piston to attain as high a
                                                   speedof sound as possible for a given compressionratio. The compres-
                                                   sion tube is separated at the right end by a membrane from the shock
                                                   tube, which contains the test gas. At the right end of the shock tube, a
                                                   secondthin membrane separatesthe test gas from the Lava1nozzle and
                                                   the measuring section, in which a medium vacuum is located before
                                                   testing.
                                                   Testing Capabilities: The tunnel will be able to conduct tests of reentry
                                                   conditions,

                                                   Data Acquisition: Not available
                                                   Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Not applicable



                                                   Page 646                                      GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                        Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
                                        DLR Koln-Pan Hypersonic Wind
                                        Tunnel 2 (H2K)




Figure X.46: DLR Koln-Porz Hypersonic
Wind Tunnel 2 (H2K)




                                        Source:   DLR




                                        Page 644                       GAO/NSIAD-SO-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
                                         Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel
                                         DLB Goetthgen High-Enthalpy Tunnel (HEG)




Figure X.47: Schematic Drawing of the DLR Goettingen High-Enthalpy Tunnel (HEG)




                                         Source:   DLR




                        Y




                                         Page 647                                   GAO/NSIAD-SO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel
DLR Goektingen High-Enthalpy Tunnel (IlEG)




Unique Characteristics: None
Applications/Current Programs: It will be possible to use a model held
into the flow to study the flow phenomenathat can be attributed to real
gas effects, such as effects of dissociation.
General Comments:None
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:DLR. Description of the High-Enthalpy Tunnel (HE).                Koln,
West Germany: DLR, 1989 (in German).

Date of Information: October 1989




Page 546                                     GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel

RWTH Aachen Shock Tunnel



Country: West Germany                                                 Performance
                                                                        Mach Number: 6 to 24 (conical at 10.5 degrees)
Location: Rheinisch-Westfalischen   Technischen Hochschule              Reynolds Number: 1.2 x 107/m
  Aachen. lnstttut fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Aachen, West Germany       Total Pressure: 1,500 bars (maximum)
                                                                        Dynamic Pressure: 2 to 800 kN/m2
Owner(s):                                                               Total Temperature: 7,000 to 8,000 degrees Kelvin (maximum)
  Rhernrsch-Westfalischen Technischen Hochschule Aachen                 Run Time: 10 ms (maximum)
  Instrtut fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt                                     Comments: Gases used are nitrogen and air.
  Stosswellenlabor
  Templergrahen, 55                                                   Cost Information
  D-5100 Aachen                                                         Date Built: 1971
  West Germany                                                          Date Placed in Operation: 1973
Operator(s): Rhelnisch-Westfalischen   Technischen Hochschule
                                                                        Date(s) Upgraded: 1987
  Aachen, lnstrtut fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt
                                                                        Construction Cost: $1,435,956 (1971)
                                                                        Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                       Annual Operating Cost: $791,556 (1989)
International Cooperation: ESA; and CNES and Avions Marcel              Unit Cost to User: Available upon request
  Dassault-Breguet   Aviation, France                                   Source(s) of Funding: ESA, CNES, BMFT, and NRW
Point of Contact: Professor t-t. Groni
                                     Rheinisch-Westfalischen
  Technischen Hochschule Aachen, 9,et.: [49]-(241)80-4606             Number and Type of Staff
                                                                        Engineers: 0
Test Section Size: 500 x 500 mm (maximum)                              Scientists: 2
                                                                       Technicians: 1
                                                                       Others: 3
Operational Status: Actrve                                             Administrative/Management:     2
                                                                       Total: 8
Utilization Rate: 1 or 2 tests per day (maximum)


                                                   Description: The RWTH Aachen Shock Tunnel is a high-enthalpy shock
                                                   tunnel. In the reflected mode, the shock tunnel consists of a driver sec-
                                                   tion with a length of 6 m, a driven section with a length of 16 m, and a
                                                   conical nozzle with exit diameters of 570, 1,000, and 2,000 mm.
                                                   Testing Capabilities: The shock tunnel is capable of achieving driver
                                                   heating up to 300 degreesCelsius. It is capable of partial Mach number
                                                   and Reynolds Number simulation, duplication of flight velocity up to
                                                   4 km/s (Mach 11.75) and simulation of real gas effects. Measurement
                                                   techniques include heat transfer, pressures,schlieren and shadow
                                                   optics, and interferometry.
                                                   Data Acquisition: The shock tunnel has 60 channels of data.

                                               Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Detailed calculations
                                               and further tunnel calibration tests are underway. Force and moments
                                               balance improvements are being made as well as installation of a con-
                                               toured nozzle.
                                               Unique Characteristics: None


                                               Page 549                                      GAO/NSLAD-SO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                              Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel                                                          t
                                              DLR GoeMngen High-Enthalpy Tunnel (IKEG)                                           I




Figure X.48: Schematic Diagram of the DLR Qoettingen High-Enthalpy Tunnel (HEG)
I


          Air supply            Compression    tube                     Shock tube                     Test section




                Piston                                   1st membrane                2nd membrane                     Model
                mass = 800 kg


                                                             Length = 60 m
                                                                                                                          *I




                                              Source: DLR




                       Y




                                              Page 548                                      GAO/NSlAD-BO-71F’S Foreign Test Facilities
                                            Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel
                                            RWTH Aachen Shock Tunnel




    zigure X.50: Schematic Diagram of the RWTH Aachen Shock Tunnel
                                                                                                                              1




                                                                LP




                                                                                       Diffusion
                                                                                                        6
                                                                                                        6
       8    Valve
      8    Manometer



                                                                                  75
                   1

     w
      c3   Vacuum pump
           Compressor
                                                                                      Balloon

I 0         Storage vessel                            I system          I
                                                                            l-l


I
                                            Source,   U.S Air Force EOARD




                             J




                                            Page 661                              GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                        Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel
                                        RWTH Aachen Shock Tunnel




                                        Applications/Current Programs: Current programs include research of
                                        hypersonic flow phenomena and reentry flow simulation of ESA'S
                                        Hermes spaceplane.
                                        General Comments:None
                                        Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
                                        References:Hoyt, Capt. Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology.
                                        London: European Office of AerospaceResearchand Development,
                                        1986, p. 102 (EOARD Technical Report). Holden, Michael S. “A Review of
                                        the Current Capabilities in Europe to Perform Experimental Researchin
                                        Hypersonic Flow.” In: European Hypersonic Technology. London: Euro-
                                        pean Office of Aerospace Researchand Development, 1986, pp. 41-43
                                        (FBARD Technical Report). Wendt, John F. “European Hypersonic Wind
                                        Tunnels.” In: Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles. Bristol,
                                        United Kingdom: NATO AGARD, 1987 (AGARD ConferenceProceedings
                                        No. 428).
                                        Date of Information: September 1989
Figure X.49: RWTH Aachen Shock Tunnel




                                        Source:   RWTH Aachen




                                        Page 550                              GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                            Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel
                                            Technical University of Braunschweig
                                            Gun Tunnel




                                            Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
                                            References:Hoyt, Capt. Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology.
                                            London: European Office of AerospaceResearchand Development,
                                            1986, p, 82 (EOARD Technical Report). Gersten, K., and G. Kausche.Die
                                            Hyperschallversuchsanlage(Gun Tunnel) der DeutscheForschungsan-
                                            stalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt. (The Hypersonic Experimental Installa-
                                            tion (Gun Tunnel) of the German ResearchInstitution for Air and Space
                                            Flight (German AerospaceResearchEstablishment)) Z. Flugwiss. 14,
                                            1966, pp. 217-229.Hummel, Dietrich. “Experimental Investigations on
                                            Blunt Bodies and Corner Configurations in Hypersonic Flow.” In: Aero-
                                            dynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles. Bristol, United Kingdom: NATO
                                            AGARD, 1987, pp. 6-l to 6-16 (AGARD ConferenceProceedingsNo. 428).

                                            Date of Information: January 1990
Figure X.51: Schematic Diagram of the Technical University of Braunschweig Gun Tunnel




                   High -Pressure     Vessel                                     Testing Chamber               Vacuumton k
                      /            Piston               Barrel                   Nozzle.        \          /         111\




                                            Source:   TechnIcal   Umversity   of Braunschweig




                                            Page 663                                                GAO/NSIAD-SO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel

Technical University of Braunschweig
Gun Tunnel


Country: West Germany                                                     Performance
                                                                            Mach Number: 8 to 16 (conical)
Location: Technische Universitat Braunschwei         lnstitut fuer          Reynolds Number: 0.8 x 106/ft at Mach 8
  Stroemungsmechanik,       Braunschweig,    West 8,ermany                  Total Pressure: 500 bars (maximum)
                                                                            Dynamic Pressure: 230 kN/mZ (maximum)
Owner(s):                                                                   Total Temperature: 1,700 degrees Kelvin (maximum)
  Technrsche Universitat Braunschweig                                       Run lime: 100 ms
  lnstitut fuer Stroemungsmechanik                                          Comments: None
  Btenroder weg 3
  D-3300 Braunschweig                                                     Cost Information
  West Germany                                                              Date Built: 1962
                                                                            Date Placed in Operation: 1965
Operator(s): Technrsche Universitat Braunschweig, lnstitut fuer             Date(s) Upgraded: 1988 to 1989
  Stroemungsmechanik                                                        Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                            Replacement Cost: Not available
International Cooperation: Not available                                   Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                            Unit Cost to User: Not available
Point of Contact: Professor Dietrich Hummel, Technische                     Source(s) of Funding: Technical University of Braunschweig and
  Unrversrtat Braunschwei , lnstitut fuer Stroemungsmechanik,                 Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft    (DFG)
  Tel. 1491.(531j-3-91-24-3 #
                                                                          Number and Type of Staff
Test Section Size:
                _-.. 16 cm    (nozzle exit diameter)
                         . -.~_                                             Engineers: 0
                                                                           Scientists: 2
Operational Status: Active                                                 Technicians: 1
                                                                           Othe!s; 2 (laborers)
Utilization Rate: 30 tests per day (see General Comments)                  F$mptratlve/Management:        0



                                                       Description: The Technical University of Braunschweig Gun Tunnel is a
                                                       hypervelocity wind tunnel.

                                                       Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is capable of conducting six-component
                                                       balance, pressure, heat transfer, and surface flow visualization tests.
                                                       Data Acquisition: The tunnel has six on-line channels of data.
                                                       Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): These include
                                                       extending to 12 the number of on-line channels of data, upgrading the
                                                       optical systems, and installing a new nozzle and test section.
                                                       Unique Characteristics: None
                                                       Applications/Current Programs: Current programs include basic
                                                       research,tests on lifting bodies, and corner flow investigations.
                                                       General Comments:The tunnel is used continuously throughout the
                                                       year.



                                                       Page 562                                   GAO/NSIAD-SO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test CeLl
University’of Stuttgart Altitude Engine
Test Facility




Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None

Unique Characteristics: When it was built, the facility was the only alti-
tude test bed for aero-enginesin West Germany.
Applications/Current Programs: These include tests of single spool jet
engines(steady, transient, and ignition tests of the Orpheus 803 engine
and ignition tests of the 579 engine), by-passjet engines(RB-199 engine
and windmilling tests of the RB-153 engine), turboshaft engines(DB
720, APU T 112, and APU T 312 engines),aero-engines(Porsche PFM
3200 engine), pulse engines,and engine components(compressorsand
turbines). Compressortests have been conducted on the HP compressor
RB-199, IP compressorRB-199, transonic compressor(single-stage),
transonic compressor(six-stage), and ATAR compressor.Turbine tests
have been conducted on the JTlO D LP compressor,PW 2037 LP com-
pressor, and V 2500 LP compressor.

General Comments:None
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Airbreathing Propulsion and Flight Simula-
tors. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration,
1985, vol. 2, p. 91. Institute for Aeronautical Propulsion, University of
Stuttgart. “Altitude Test Bed for Aero-engines.” In: Description of Test
Plant. Stuttgart, West Germany: University of Stuttgart, 1987 (ILA-87 A
02).
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 666                                  GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell

University of Stuttgart Altitude Engine
Test Facility

                                                                      -T-
Country: West Germany                                                       Performance
                                                                              Mass Flow: 140 kg/s
Location: Universitat Stuttgart, lnstitut fuer Luftfahrtantriebe,             Altitude Range: 65,600 ft or 20 km
  Stuttgart, West Germany                                                     Temperature Ran e: -100 to 430 degrees Kelvin (maximum)
                                                                              Pressure Range: h .4 bars
Owner(s):                                                                     Speed Range: Mach 2.2
  Universitat Stuttgart                                                       Comments: Test time at maximum power is limited to
  lnstrtut fuer Luftfahrtantnebe                                                approximately   6 hours by the capacity of the storage system.
  Pfaffenwaldring 6                                                             Approximately   one day is required for regeneration.
  D-7000 Stuttgart 80
  West Germany                                                              Cost Information
                                                                              Date Built: 1960 to 1964
Operator(s): Universrtat Stuttgart, lnstitut fuer Luftfahrtantriebe           Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                              Date(s) Upgraded: 1981,1982, 1985, and 1987
International Cooperation: Not available                                     Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                              Replacement Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Professor Wolfgang Braig, Universitat Stuttgart,           Annual Operating Cost: Not available
  lnstrtut fuer Luftfahrtantriebe,   Tel.: [49]-(711)6853597                 Source(s) of Funding: West German government, industries, and
                                                                                universities,
Test Ceil Size: IO ft diameter x 33 ft long
                                                                            Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Active                                                    Engineers: Not available
                                                                             Scientists: Not available
Utilization Rate: Not available                                              Technicians: Not avarlable
                                                                             Others: Not available
                                                                             Administrative/Management:        Not available
                                                                             Total: Not available


                                                     Description: The University of Stuttgart Altitude Engine Test Facility
                                                     was designedto test enginescapable of a sea level mass flow of approxi-
                                                     mately 70 kg/sand with reheat. Aero-engines and their components(par-
                                                     ticularly compressorsand turbines) are run and tested under altitude
                                                     conditions. Engines are normally installed in one of the two test cells
                                                     with connectedintake. The capacity of installed thrust stand is
                                                     22,500 ib/ft..The facility has direct-connect and free-jet testing capabil-
                                                     ity. For turboshaft engines,the facility is capable of generating 6,000 hp
                                                     in a full engine and flight environment.
                                                     Testing Capabilities: The facility is capable of conducting tests on
                                                     engines and engine components(compressorsand turbines).
                                                     Data Acquisition: For recording steady and transient measured data,
                                                     several measuring systems have been developed and built. The main
                                                     measuring system (ZME 5) can record up to 945 pressures,256 tempera-
                                                     tures, and approximately 2C digital values, The measuring system is
                                                     controlled by a microprocessor,while data output and preliminary test
                                                     evaluation are performed by a computer.



                                                     Page 664                                        GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                        AhBreathing Propulsion Test Cell
                                        University bf Stuttgart Altitude Engine
                                        Test Facility




 igure X.53: Turbo-Fan Engine in Teat
:ell 1 of the Univerrity of Stuttgart
Jtitude Teat Bed




                                        Source:   University   of Stuttgart




                                        Page 657                                  GAO/NSLAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
             AWhatNng      Propulsion Teat ceu
             u~venslty of 6tUttgart Altitude En&e
             Test Facility




  Source: University   of Stuttgart




Page   666
                                                    GAO/NSMD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Appendix Xl
List of Installation   Addresses




Institut Aerotechnique de St. Cyr
15, Rue Marat
F-78210 St. Cyr YEcoleCedex
France
Telephone: [33)-(3)-046-00-09

Institut de Mecanique des Fluides
1, Rue Honnorat
F-13003 Marseille Cedex
France
Telephone: [33]-(91)-081690

Institut de Saint-Louis
12, Rue de 1’Industrie
Boite Postale No. 301
F-68301 Saint-Louis Cedex
France
Telephone: [33]-(89)-89-69-50-00
Laboratoire d’Aerothermique du Centre National
   de la RechercheScientifique
4 ter Route des Gardes
F-92190 Meudon Cedex
France
Telephone: [33]-(l)-46-34-75-50

Laboratoire de RecherchesBalistiques et Aerodynamiques
Boite Postale 914
F-27207 Vernon Cedex
France
Telephone: [33]-(32)-21-43-24
Office National d’Etudes et de
  RecherchesAerospatiales
29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc
Chatillon-sous-Bagneux(Hauts de Seine)
Adresse Postale: Boite Postale 72
F-92322 Chatillon Cedex
France
Telephone: [33]-(1)-46-57-l l-60




Page 569                            GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Appendix 31

List of Installation Addresses


Australia       The Australian National University
                Shock Tunnel Laboratory
                Department of Physics and Theoretical Physics
                P.O.Box 4
                Canberra, ACT 2601
                Australia
                Telephone: [61]-(62)-49-2747
                University of Queensland
                Department of Mechanical Engineering
                St. Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland4067
                Australia
                Telephone: [61]-(7)-377-3597


Belgium         von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics
                Chausseede Waterloo, 72
                B-1640 Rhode Saint Genese
                Belgium
                Telephone: [32]-(2)-358-1901


France          Aerospatiale-Aquitaine
                Establishment d’Aquitaine
                F-33165 Saint Medard-en-JallesCedex
                France
                Telephone: [33]-(56)-058405

                Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de Saclay
                F-91406 Orsay Cedex
                France
                Telephone: [33]-(6)-941-81-50
                Centre d’Etudes Aerodynamiques et Thermiques
                43, Route de 1’Aerodrome
                F-86000 Poitiers Cedex
                France
                Telephone: [33]-(49)-58-37-50




                Page 668                              GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Appendix. XI
List of Installation   Addresses




Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.
Aircraft and Special Vehicles Headquarters
Nagoya Guidanceand Propulsion SystemsWorks
1200, Higashi-tanaka
Komaki-shi
Aichi Prefecture 486
Japan
Telephone:[81]-(668)-79-2111,ext. 4610
National AerospaceLaboratory
7-44-l Jindaijihigashi-machi
Chofu-shi
Tokyo 182
Japan
Telephone: [81]-(422)-475911

National AerospaceLaboratory
Kakuda Branch
Kimigaya
Kakuda
Miyagi Prefecture
Japan
Telephone: [8 l]-( 224)-68-3111

Technical Researchand Development Institute
The First Division
Third ResearchCenter
l-2-10 Sakae-cho
Tachikawa-shi
Tokyo 190
Japan
Telephone: [81]-(426)-24-2411,ext. 130
University of Tsukuba
Institute of Engineering Mechanics
l-l-l Tennodai
Tsukuba
Ibaraki Prefecture 305
Japan
Telephone: [81]-(298)-53-5121




Page 561                             GAO/NSIAD-BO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
        Appendix XI
        List of Installation   Addresses




Italy   Centro Italian0 RicercheAerospaziali
        Via Filangieri, 2 1
        80100 Naples
        Italy
        Telephone: [39]-(81)-42-68-15

        Fuji Heavy Industries, Ltd.
        Aircraft Engineering Division
        l-l-l 1 Yonan
        Utsunomiya
        Tochigi Prefecture 320
        Japan
        Telephone:[811-(286)-58-l111
        Institute of Spaceand Astronautical Science
        3-l-l Yoshinodai
        Sagamihara-shi
        Kanagawa Prefecture 229
        Japan
        Telephone:[81]-(427)-67-3911,ext. 2812
        Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.
        Aero-Engines and SpaceOperations
        Shin Ohtemachi Building, 2-chome
        2-1 Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku
        Tokyo 100
        Japan
        Telephone:[81]-(426)~66-7241
        Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.
        Gifu Works
        1, Kawasaki-cho
        Kakamigahara City
        Gifu Prefecture 604
        Japan
        Telephone: [81]-(583)-82-6111
        Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.
        Nagoya AerospaceSystemsWorks
        10, Oye-cho,Minato-ku
        Nagoya
        Aichi Prefecture 466
        Japan
        Telephone: [81]-(62)-61l-801 1



        Page 660                               GAO/NSLID-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Appendix XI
List of Installation   Addresses




British Aerospace
Commercial Aircraft, Ltd.
Airlines Division
Wind Tunnel Department
Manor Road
Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL10 QTL
United Kingdom
Telephone: (44]-(7072)-62300,ext. 2186
British Aerospace
Military Aircraft, Ltd.
Warton Aerodrome
Preston, Lancashire PR4 1AX
United Kingdom
Telephone: [44]-(772)-633333,ext. 52866
British Aerospace
Commercial Aircraft, Ltd.
Airlines Division
Chester Road
Woodford, Bramhall
Stockport, Cheshire SK7 IQR
United Kingdom
Telephone: (44]-(61)-439-6050
Cambridge University
Department of Engineering
Trumpington Street
Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB2 1PZ
United Kingdom
Telephone: [44]-(223)-332634
Cranfield Institute of Technology
Collegeof Aeronautics
Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 OAL
United Kingdom
Telephone: [44]-(234)-762743
Imperial College
Department of Aeronautics
Prince Consort Road
London SW7 2BY
United Kingdom
Telephone: [44]-(1)-689-5111,ext. 4011



Page 663                             GAO/NSIALMO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Appendix Xl
List of Installation   Addresses




Delft University of Technology
Faculty of AerospaceEngineering
Kluyverweg 1
2629 HS Delft
Postal Address: P.O.Box 5068
2600 GB Delft
The Netherlands
Telephone:[3l]-( 16)-784600
Duits-NederlandseWindtunnel
Voorsterweg 3 1
8316 PR Marknesse
Postal Address: Postbus 176
8300 AD Emmeloord
The Netherlands
Telephone: [31]-(5274)-8562
Nationaal Lucht-en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium
Anthony Fokkerweg 2
1069 CM Amsterdam
The Netherlands
Telephone:(31]-(20)-6-113-113

Aircraft ResearchAssociation
Manton Lane
Bedford, Bedfordshire MK41 7PF
United Kingdom
Telephone: [44]-(234)-60681
British Aerospace
Military Aircraft, Ltd.
Brough, North Humberside, Cumbria HU16 1EQ
United Kingdom
Telephone: [44]-(482)-667-121
British Aerospace
Commercial Aircraft, Ltd.
Airbus Division
P.O.Box 77
Filton House
Filton, Bristol, Avon BS99 7AR
United Kingdom
Telephone: [44]-(272)-69-38-31, ext. 2809




Page St32                             GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
               Appendix       XI
               List of   Installation   Addresses




               The University of Southampton
               Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics
               The University, Highfield
               Southampton, Hampshire SO95NH
               United Kingdom
               Telephone: [44]-(703)-692324


West Germany   DeutscheForschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt
               Hauptabteilung Windkanale
               Abteilung Braunschweig
               Flughafen
               D-3300 Braunschweig
               West Germany
               Telephone: [49]-(531)-396-2460

               DeutscheForschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt
               Hauptabteilung Windkanale
               Abteilung Goettingen
               Bunsenstrasse10
               D-3400 Goettingen
               West Germany
               Telephone: [49]-(651)-709-2179
               DeutscheForschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt
               Institut fuer Experimentelle Stroemungsmechanik
               BunsenstrasseIO
               D-3400 Goettingen
               West Germany
               Telephone: [49)-(56l)-709-2 179
               DeutscheForschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt
               Hauptabteilung Windkanale
               Abteilung Koln-Porz
               Linder Hoehe
               D-5000 Koln 90
               West Germany
               Telephone: [49]-(2203)-60-11




               Page 565                             GAO/NSLW-@O-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Appendix XI
List of Installation   Addresses




Oxford University
Department of Engineering Science
Parks Road
Oxford, Oxfordshire OX1 3PJ
United Kingdom
Telephone: [44]-(866)-59-988
Rolls-Royceplc
P.O.Box 31
Derby, Derbyshire DE2 8BJ
United Kingdom
Telephone:[44]-(332)-246701
Rolls-Royceplc
P.O.Box 3
Filton, Bristol, Avon BS127QE
United Kingdom
Telephone:[44]-(272)-796064
Royal AerospaceEstablishment Bedford
Bedford, Bedfordshire MK41 6AE
United Kingdom
Telephone: [44]-(234)-226840
Royal AerospaceEstablishment Farnborough
AE2 Division
Aerodynamics Department
Farnborough, Hampshire GU14 6TD
United Kingdom
Telephone: [44]-(262)-24461,ext. 6377
Royal AerospaceEstablishment Pyestock
Propulsion Department
Farnborough, Hampshire GU14 OLS
United Kingdom
Telephone: [44]-(262)-644411
The University of Sheffield
Department of Mechanical and ProcessEngineering
Chemical Engineering and Fuel Technology
Mappin Street
Sheffield, South Yorkshire S13JD
United Kingdom
Telephone: [44]-(742)-768555



Page 504                            GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Appendix XII

Comments From the Director of Defense
ResearchswndEngineering, U.S. Department
of Defense

                               DIRECTOR   OF DEFENSE      RESEARCH      AND     ENGINEERING

                     I                     WASHINGTON,        DC   20301-3010



                                                                                              9 AUG 1989
               (R&AT)


               Mr. Frank C. Conahan
               Assistant    Comptroller     General
               National    Security   and International
                 Affairs    Division
               U.S. General Accounting        Office
               Washington,     D.C.    20540

               Dear Mr. Conahan;
                     This is the Department    of Defense (DOD) response to the
               General Accounting  Office    (GAO) draft   repOrt,   “FOREIGN AEROSPACE
               INVESTMENT: Technical     Data and Information      on Test Facilities,"
               dated July 19, 1989, (GAO Code 392403/0SD Case 8065).
                     The DOD has reviewed    the report,               and concurs with its
               contents.   The Department    appreciates               the opportunity  to comment
               on the report  in draft   form.
                                                         Sincerely,



                                                         Robert       C. Duncan




                    Page 567                                             GAO/NSIAD-90.71FSForeign Test Facilities
Appendix XI
List of Installation   Addresses




DeutscheForschungsanstalt fuer luft- und Raumfahrt
Institut fuer Experimentelle Stroemungsmechanik
Abteilung Turbulenzforschung
Muller-Breslau Strasse8
D-1000 Berlin 12
WestGermany
Telephone:[49]-(30)-313-30-83
European Transonic Windtunnel
Linder Hoehe
Postfach 90 61 16
D-5000 Koln 90
West Germany
Telephone:[49]-(2203)-609-124
Hermann-Foettinger Institut fuer Thermo- und Fluiddynamik der
  TechnischenUniversitat Berlin
Abteilung Turbulenzforschung
Mueller-Breslau Strasse8
D-1000 Berlin 12
West Germany
Telephone:[49]-(30)-313-30-83
Rheinisch-WestfalischenTechnischenHochschuleAachen
Institut fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt
Stosswellenlabor
Templergraben, 55
D-5100 Aachen
West Germany
Telephone: [49]-(241)-80-4606
TechnischeUniversitat Braunschweig
Institut fuer Stroemungsmechanik
Bienroder weg 3
D-3300 Braunschweig
West Germany
Telephone: [49]-(531)~3-91-24-33
Universitat Stuttgart
Institut fuer Luftfahrtantriebe
Pfaffenwaldring 6
D-7000 Stuttgart 80
West Germany
Telephone: [49]-(71l)-685-3597




Page 666                             GAO/NSL4D-90-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
Appendix XIV

Comments From the Chief Financial Officer,
U.S. Department of State



                                                                    United     States Department         of State

                                                                    Worhingron, D.C.    20520




               Dear Mr. Conahan:
                    This is in reply to your letter     of July 19, 1589 to the
               Secretary   which forwarded  copies of the draft     report   entitled
               "Foreign  Aerospace Investment:     Technical   Data   and Information
               on Test Facilities"    (Code 392403) for review and comment.
                   Department officials            have reviewed        the report      and do not
               have any comments.
                       We appreciate      being   given   the opportunity          to review       the
               draft     report.
                                                                Sincerely,



                                                      /         Chief    Financial      Officer

               Mr.     Frank C. Conahan,
                       Assistant      Comptroller    General,
                              National     Security    and
                                 International      Affairs   Division,
                                     U.S. General Accounting         Office,
                                             Washington,    D.C.




                     Page 569                                           GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Appendix XIII

Comments From the Acting Associate
A dministrabr for Aeronautics md Space
Technology, National Aeronautics and
SpaceA dministration

                National Aeronautics and
                Space Administration
                Vhh;tgton. DC..                                            SEP 18 1989




                Mr. Frank C. Conahan
                Assistant Comptroller General
                National Security and International
                 Affairs Division
                U.S. General Accounting Office
                Washington, DC 20548
                Dear Mr. Conahan:
                The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) appreciates the
                opportunit~r to comment on the General Accounting Office (GAO) draft report
                entitled, “Foreign Aerospace Investment: Technical Data and Information on
                Test Facilities” (GAO Code 392403).
                NASA haa reviewed the draft report, and editorial comments have been pro-
                vided separately to Mr. Mark Pross.

                Sincerely,



                Rchert Rosen
                Acting Associate Administrator for
                Aeronautics and Space Technology




                Page 668                                   GAO/NSIAD80-7lFS   Foreign Test Facilities
           Appendix XV
           Commenta From the Assistant Secretary for
           Administration, U.S. Department
           of Commerce




                                                UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT           OF COMMERCE
                                                The Under Secrarary for International   Trade
                                                Washmgton. D.C. 20230




                                                                        AUG 2 I 1989




Mr. Frank c. Conahan
Assistant   comptroller     General
United States General Accounting           Office
Washington,   D.C.      20548
Dear Mr. Conahan:
        Thank you for the opportunity     to review the General
Accounting     Office   (GAO) draft report of July 1989 addressing
foreign    aerospace investment.      Because of the subject  matter of
this report,      I also asked the Office    of Aerospace to review it.
         The information     contained      in this report    is valuable  to
the policymakers         and industry     analysts    in aerospace trade
development.        Detailed    information      on foreign   aerospace test
facilities      is very helpful       in our efforts      to assess the
capabilities       of our foreign       competitors.
        The Department of Commerce has no comments on this
report.     However, we would like to know when it is released                     to
the public.
                                             Sincerely,


                                         mJJ++-

                                         d  J. Michael        Farren




          Page 671                                         GAO/NSIAD-9OdlFS      Foreign Test Facilities
Comments From the Assistant Secretary for
A dministration, U.S. Depadment of Commerce



                                                      UNITED STATES     DEPARTMENT      OF COMMERCE
                                                      Tho Aaristent Sscretary   for Administration
                                                      Waehingto~. O.C. 20230




                                                                      AUG2 3 19891




           Mr. Frank C. Conahan
           Assistant    Comptroller    General
           National    Security   and International
             Affairs    Division
           U.S. General Accounting       Office
           Washington,     D.C.    20548
           Dear Mr. Conahan:
           This is in reply to GAO'S letter   of July 19, 1989, requesting
           comments on the fact sheet report   entitled, "Foreign  Aerospace
           Investment:   Technical Data and Information  on Test Facilities."
           We have reviewed the enclosed comments of the Under Secretary                      for
           International   Trade and believe   they are appropriate to the
           matters discussed    in the report.
           Sincerely,




              for   Administration
           Enclosure




                    Page ,570                                      GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Appendix XVII

Major Contributors-to This Report


                          Norman J. Rabkin, Associate Director
~National Security and    Charles W. Thompson, Assistant Director
 International Affairs    Mark A. Pross,Evaluator-in-Charge
Division,   Washington,   John S. Townes, Evaluator
                          John G. Barmby, Technical Advisor
DC.                       Celia J. Thomas, Economist
                          Karen S. Blum, Writer-Editor


                          La Verne G. Tharpes, Site Senior
European Office,          Becky Kithas, Evaluator
Frankfurt, West
Germany




                          Page 673                            GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Appendix XVI

Cbmments From the Director of Congressional
Affairs, Central Intelligence Agency


                                                    Central lntellipce Agency




                                                                     23 August       1989
               Mr. Frank C. Conahan
               Assistant      Comptroller      General
               United States General Accounting                   Office
               National      Security      and
               International        Affairs    Division
               441 G Street,        N.W.
               Room 4844
               Washington,      D.C. 20548
               Dear Mr.      Conahan:
                      The Director  has asked me to respond to your letter      of
               July 27, 1989 that forwarded      a draft  report entitled  areign
               -eJsw--l                               Data and -            On Tcxik
               Facllltles     (GAO Code 392403).
                    As you are aware, GAO agreed to forward this draft     report
               for review by the Central    Intelligence Agency.  The review
               has now been completed,    and I have been advised by the
               appropriate   components that they concur with this version     of
               the draft   report.
                     Enclosed please find the draft          report which is being
               returned    to your office.       If possible,     the components would
               appreciate    receiving    several   copies of the final      report.
                                                                    Sincerely,



                                                            E. Norbert           Garrett
                                               Di
               Enclosure




                  Page 572                                                 GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Glossary


Aeroballistic              The flight characteristics of projectiles or high-speedvehicles in the
                           atmosphere.


Air-Breathing              An aerodynamic vehicle engine that requires air for combustion of its
                           fuel.


Air-Breathing Propulsion   A ground test facility used to test an aircraft engine that requires air for
Test Cell                  combustion of its fuel.


Airflow                    A flow or stream of air.


Airfoil                    A specially contoured body (such as an airplane wing or propeller blade)
                           designedto provide a desired reaction force (such as lift or thrust) when
                           in motion relative to the surrounding air.


Altitude Wind Tunnel       A wind tunnel in which the air pressure, temperature, and humidity            can
                           be varied to simulate conditions at different altitudes.


Ambient Temperature        The temperature of the gas around a test model, which is unaffected by
                           the model’s presence.


Anechoic Chamber           A test room in which all surfaces are lined with a sound-absorbing
                           material to reduce reflections of sound to a minimum.


Anemometer                 A device which measuresair speed.


Angle of Attack            The acute angle between the direction of the relative airflow and the
                           chord (i.e., the straight line joining the leading and trailing edgesof an
                           airfoil) of the test model.




                           Page 574                                 GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
 Coherent Anti-Stokes      A phenomenonobserved in the scattering of light as it passesthrough a
 Raman Scattering          transparent medium. The light undergoesa changein frequency and a
                           random alteration in phase due to a changein rotational or vibrational
                           energy of the scattering molecules.


 Computational Fluid       A tool for predicting the aerodynamics and fluid dynamics of air around
 Dynamics                  flight vehicles by solving a set of mathematical equations with a com-
                           puter. Also known as numerical aerodynamic simulation, computational
                           fluid dynamics is used in aerospacevehicle research and development
                           programs to improve the understanding of hypersonic flow physics and
                           as an aerospacevehicle design tool.


’ Computer-Aided Design/   The generation of computer automated designs(such as pictures and
  Computer-Aided           specifications) for display on cathode-ray tubes and for electronic stor-
                           age, and the use of computers to communicate work instructions to auto-
  ManuWting                matic machinery for the handling and processingneededto produce an
                           object.


Cryogenic                  Operating at extremely low temperatures.


Differential               The design and use of an optical interferometer in which a wavelength i$
Interferometry             interfered with a shifted version of itself, resulting in fringes along
                           which the slope or derivative of the wavefront is constant. A differen-
                           tial interferometer is also known as a lateral shear interferometer.


Diffuser                   The expansion section of a wind tunnel that decreasesthe velocity of a
                           fluid (such as air) and increasesits pressure.


Doppler Effect             The changein the observed frequency of an acoustic or electromagnetic
                           wave due to relative motion of source and observer.


Doppler Shift              The amount of the changein the observed frequency of a wave due to
            Y              the Doppler effect. It is usually expressedin hertz.




                           Page 676                              GAO/NSIAD-9081FS Foreign Test Facilities
                   Glosmry




Graphite Heater    A hypervelocity wind tunnel in which nitrogen is used to fill a heater to
ISlowdown Tunnel   a pressure that is one-fourth of the desired test pressure. A graphite
                   heater element heats the gas at a constant volume, increasing its pres-
                   sure to the desired stagnation pressure. The nitrogen is confined to the
                   heater by a double diaphragm. To begin a test, the diaphragm is rup-
                   tured by significantly increasing the pressure in the interdiaphragm vol-
                   ume. Controlled pressure cold gas is introduced into the bottom of the
                   heater pushing the hot test gas up like a piston out of the heater. The
                   hot test gas is then acceleratedin a hypersonic nozzle over the model in
                   the test section providing flows with Mach numbers up to 14 for rela-
                   tively long run times of 0.25 to 2.5 S.


Gun Tunnel         A hypervelocity wind tunnel in which a shock wave generated in a
                   shock tube ruptures a seconddiaphragm in the throat of a nozzle at the
                   end of a tube. Gasesemerge from the nozzle over the model in the test
                   chamber and into a vacuum dump tank. Speedsachieved in a gun or
                   shock tunnel typically range from Mach 6 to 25.


Gust Tunnel        A wind tunnel that is used to test the effect of gusts on a model airplane
                   in free flight. Models are passedover a vertical jet or jets simulating
                   gusts.


Heat Exchanger     An apparatus for cooling or heating the air in a wind tunnel.


Heat Transfer      The transfer or exchangeof heat by radiation, conduction, or convection
                   within a substanceand between the substanceand its surroundings.


Holographic        The study of the formation and interpretation of the fringe pattern
Interferometry     which appears when a wave, generated earlier and stored in a hologram,
                   is later reconstructed and causedto interfere with a comparison wave.


Holography         An optical technique for recording, and later reconstructing, the ampli-
                   tude and phase distributions of a wave disturbed by the test body. It is
                   widely used as a method of three-dimensional optical image formation (a
                   hologram).



                   Page 678                               GAO/NSIAD-W-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Isentropic         Constant entropy or without change in entropy (a measure of the
                   unavailability of energy).


Joule              The unit of energy in the meter-kilogram-second system of units equal to
                   the work done by a force of magnitude of 1 N when the point at which
                   the force is applied is displaced 1 m in the direction of the force.


Kelvin             A unit of absolute temperature equal to l/273.16 of the absolute tem-
                   perature (Kelvin scale) of the triple point of water (a particular temper-
                   ature and pressure at which three different phasesof one substancecan
                   coexist in equilibrium such as ice, liquid, and vapor). It equals the Cel-
                   sius degree and, accordingly, absolute zero is 0 degrees,or the equiva-
                   lent of -273.16 degreesCelsius.


Kilohertz          One thousand hertz (a unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second).


Kilo-Newton        One thousand newtons (the unit of force in the meter-kilogram-second
                   system that is equal to the force that will impart an acceleration of
                   1 m/s2 to the International Prototype Kilogram mass).


Kinetics           A branch of sciencethat deals with the effects of forces on the motion of
                   material bodies or with changesin a physical or chemical system.


Knudsen Number      A number used to describe the flow of low-density gases,equal to the
                   ratio of the mean free path of the gas molecule divided by a characteris-
                    tic length, such as boundary layer thickness or apparatus dimension.


Laser Anemometer   An anemometer in which the flow being measured passesthrough two
                   perpendicular laser beams, and the resulting change in velocity of one or
                   both beams is measured.




                   Page 680                               GAO/NSIADBO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                           Glossary




Pascal                     A unit of pressure equal to the pressure resulting from a force of 1 N
                           acting uniformly over an area of 1 m2.


Piezoelectric Transducer   A piezoelectric crystal used as a transducer, either to convert mechani-
                           cal or acoustical signals to electric signals or vice versa.


Piston-Driven              A type of shock tunnel in which energy is created by a piston being fired
                           (or driven) down a cylinder, compressingthe test gas ahead of it. The
                           pressure and temperature of the test gas is increased, creating a shock.


Pitot Tube                 An instrument that measuresthe stagnation pressure of a flowing fluid.
                           It consists of an open-endedtube pointing into the fluid flow and is con-
                           nected to a pressure-indicating device.


Plasma-Jet Tunnel          A wind tunnel that has the capability of developing the highest temper-
                           ature (approximately 35,000 degreesFahrenheit) and the longest run
                           time (several minutes) of any hypervelocity tunnel. It is arc-heated and
                           is capable of achieving relatively high velocities (up to 20,000 ft/s), but
                           few plasma-jet tunnels have been built or planned for obtaining Mach
                           numbers above 10.


Plenum Chamber             An enclosedsection of a wind tunnel in which air is collected at pressure
                           greater than that in the outside atmosphere for slow distribution
                           downstream.


Pressure Transducer        An instrument component that detects a fluid pressure and produces an
                           electrical, mechanical, or pneumatic signal related to the pressure.


Ramjet                     An air-breathing engine that compressesor “rams” the onrushing air
                           and slows it down to subsonic speeds,at which time it is burned with
                           the fuel in a combustion chamber. The exhaust is expelled through the
                           nozzle, causing the thrust. A ramjet is a propulsion system for air-
                           breathing aerodynamic vehicles operating at supersonic speedsof about
                           Mach 2 to 6.6.




                           Page 583                                GAO/NSIALMO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Ramrocket         A rocket motor mounted coaxially in the open front end of a ramjet that
                  is used to provide thrust at low speedsand to ignite the ramjet fuel.


Rankine           A scale of absolute temperature in which the temperature in degrees
                  Rankine is equal to nine-fifths of the temperature in Kelvins and to the
                  temperature in degreesFahrenheit plus 459.67.


Reynolds Number   A dimensionlessnumber used as an indication of scale of fluid flow. It is
                  significant in the design of a model of any system in which the effect of
                  viscosity is important in controlling the velocities or the flow pattern of
                  a fluid. Reynolds Number is equal to the density of a fluid times its
                  velocity times a characteristic length divided by the fluid viscosity.


Rock Wool         A fibrous glass substance,also known as mineral wool, used as insula-
                  tion in cryogenic wind tunnels. Rock wool is made from molten slag,
                  rock, glass, or a selectedcombination of these ingredients, and is
                  fabricated into fine fibers by blowing or drawing.


Schlieren         An optical technique that detects density gradients occurring in a fluid
                  flow. Schlieren is a German word that means “striations.” It refers to
                  various shadowgraphic techniques for optical investigations. Variations
                  in density in flow through, for example, shock waves and supersonic
                  flow are sharply visible in tonal gradations.


Scramjet          A supersonic combustion ramjet air-breathing engine in which air flows
                  through the combustion chamber at supersonic speeds.Hydrogen is
                  injected into the combustion chamber where it is ignited by the hot air.
                  The exhaust is expelled through the nozzle, causing the thrust.
                  Scramjets are being designedto operate at hypersonic speedsgreater
                  than Mach 4.


Shadowgraph       A photographic image in which disturbances that occur in fluid flow at
                  high velocity are made visible. Light passing through a flowing fluid is
                  refracted by density gradients in the fluid, resulting in bright and dark
              *   areas on a screenplaced behind the fluid.




                  Page 584                                GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                      Gloeaary




Shock Tube            A wind tunnel for conducting tests at hypervelocity speedsin which
                      fluid (such as air or someother test gas) at high pressure, usually
                      involving rapid combustion to increase energy, is releasedby rupturing
                      a diaphragm and acceleratedthrough an evacuated working section
                      (test chamber) containing the model.


Shock Tunnel          A hypervelocity wind tunnel in which a shock wave generated in a
                      shock tube ruptures a seconddiaphragm in the throat of a nozzle at the
                      end of a tube. Gasesemerge from the nozzle over the model in the test
                      chamber and into a vacuum dump tank. Speedsachieved in a shock tun-
                      nel typically range from Mach 6 to 25.


Sonic                 The speedof sound in air (761.5 mph at sea level).


Spectrometer          An optical instrument with a prism or grading which produces a spec-
                      trum of light for measurement of refraction or radiant intensities at var-
                      ious wavelengths.


Stagnation Point      The point on the surface of a body in a viscous fluid flow where the
                      fluid particles have zero velocity with respect to the body. The flow in
                      the boundary layer on each side of the stagnation point is in opposite
                      directions.


Stagnation Pressure   The pressure at the stagnation point. In a compressibleflow, it is the
                      pressure exhibited by a moving gas or liquid brought to zero velocity by
                      an isentropic process.It is also known as dynamic pressure, impact pres-
                      sure, and total pressure.


Stator                A stationary machine part in or about which a rotor turns.


Sting                 A long cantilever tube in a wind tunnel’s test chamber used to support
                      the model. It is usually attached to the rear of the model and contains
                      connections so that information from sensorsembeddedin the model
                      can be transmitted to instrumentation outside of the wind tunnel.



                      Page 685                               GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                             l
                  Glossary




Strain-Gauge      A device which usesthe changeof electrical resistance of a wire under
                  tension to measure mechanical deformation or pressure.


Strouhal Number   A dimensionlessnumber used in studying the vibrations of a body past
                  which a fluid is flowing. Strouhal number is equal to a characteristic
                  dimension of the body times the frequency of vibrations divided by the
                  fluid velocity relative to the body.


Subsonic          A range of speedbelow the speedof sound in air.


Supersonic        A range of speedbetween about one and five times the speedof sound in
                  air.


Test Cell         A horizontal test stand for an air-breathing or rocket engine surrounded
                  on three sides by a shelter providing protection from weather and lim-
                  ited protection from an accidental explosion.


Test Chamber      The test section of a wind tunnel.


Thermocouple      A device which converts thermal energy directly into electrical energy.


Thermography      A method of measuring surface temperature by using luminescent
                  materials.

                  The force exerted in any direction by a fluid jet.


Tomography        A diagnostic technique using X-ray photographs to show detail in a pre-
                  determined plane while blurring the images of structures in other
                  planes.




                  Page 686                                GAO/NSIAJHO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                    Glossary




 Torr               A unit of pressure equal to l/760 atmosphere or to approximately
                    133.3224pascals.


Total Pressure      The pressure of a fluid resulting from its motion when brought to rest
                    on a surface. It is also known as dynamic pressure, impact pressure, and
                    stagnation pressure.


Total Temperature   The temperature of a particle of fluid at its stagnation point.


Transonic           A range of speedbetween about 0.8 and 1.2 times the speedof sound in
                    air.


Trisonic            Three ranges of speedcapability in a wind tunnel (such as subsonic,
                    transonic, and supersonic).


    acuum Tunnel    A wind tunnel operated at pressure that is much lower than sealevel
                    pessure.


Velocimeter         A continuous wave reflection Doppler system used to measure the radial
                    velocity of an object.


Voltmeter           An instrument for measuring in volts the differences in potential
                    between different points of an electrical circuit.


Wind Tunnel         A ground test facility used to test flight characteristics of an aircraft by
                    directing a controlled stream of air around a scale model and measuring
                    the results with attached instrumentation.




(:M#240:3)          Page 687                                 GAO/NSIAJMO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                                                                                                 -




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The Office of Scienceand Technology Policy in the Executive Office of
the President also reviewed a draft of this report and concurred with
the facts as presented.

We are sending copies of this report to the Secretariesof Defense,State,
Commerce,the Air Force, and the Navy; the Administrator, National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration; and the Directors, Defense
Advanced ResearchProjects Agency, Strategic DefenseInitiative Organ-
ization, Central Intelligence Agency, Office of Managementand Budget,
and Office of Scienceand Technology Policy in the Executive Office of
the President. We are also sending copies of this report to other inter-
ested parties and will make copies available to others.
Pleasecontact me at (202) 276-4268 if you or your staff have any ques-
tions concerning this report. Other major contributors to this report are
listed in appendix XVII.

Sincerely yours,



+%Yy
Nancy R. Kingsbury
Director
Air Force Issues




Page 2                                 GAO/NSIAD-W-?lFS   Foreign Test Facllitiee
Contents



Appendix I                                                                                          30
Introduction              Explanation of Facility Data Sheets                                       30
                          Wind Tunnels and Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cells                      32
                          Quick Referenceto Test Facilities                                         36
                          Objectives,Scope,and Methodology                                          46

Appendix II                                                                                         52
Definition and
Explanation of Data
Elements
Appendix III                                                                                        58
Aerospace Test            Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel Data Sheets                                     59
                             ANU T-3 Shock Tunnel                                                   59
Facilities in Australia      University of QueenslandT-4 Shock Tunnel                               64

Appendix IV                                                                                         68
Aerospace Test            SubsonicWind Tunnel Data Sheets                                           69
                               VKI Cold Wind Tunnel CWT-1                                           69
Facilities in Belgium          VKI Low-SpeedCascadeTunnel C-l                                       72
                               VKI Low-SpeedWind Tunnel L-1A                                        76
                          Transonic Wind Tunnel Data Sheet                                          79
                               VKI CompressionTube Annular CascadeFacility                          79
                                 CT-3
                          Trisonic Wind Tunnel Data Sheet                                           81
                               VKI High-SpeedCascadeTunnel C-3                                      81
                          SupersonicWind Tunnel Data Sheet                                          84
                               VKI Supersonic/Transonic Wind Tunnel S-l                             84
                          Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel Data Sheets                                     87
                               VKI Isentropic Light Piston CompressionTube CT-2                     87
                               VKI Longshot Free Piston Tunnel ST-1                                 90
                          Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell Data Sheet                             93
                               VKI High-SpeedCompressorFacility R-4                                 93




                          Page 4                              GAO/NSIAJHO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                           ONERA ATD Ramjet Cells Nos. 8 and 9                                 201

Appendix VI                                                                                    206
Aerospace Test        SubsonicWind Tunnel Data Sheet
                          CIRA Low-SpeedWind Tunnel
                                                             .                                 207
                                                                                               207
Facilities in Italy   Transonic Wind Tunnel Data Sheet                                         209
                          CIRA High Reynolds Transonic Wind Tunnel                             209
                      Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Data Sheet                                        211
                          CIRA Plasma Wind Tunnel                                              211

Appendix VII                                                                                   213
Aerospace Test        SubsonicWind Tunnel Data Sheets
                           FHI Low-SpeedWind Tunnel
                                                                                               214
                                                                                               214
Facilities in Japan        KHI 3.5 m Wind Tunnel                                               216
                           MHI 2 m Low-SpeedWind Tunnel                                        219
                           MHI Smoke Tunnel                                                    224
                           NAL 6 m Low-SpeedWind Tunnel LS                                     226
                           TRDI Convertible Wind Tunnel                                        228
                           TRDI Low-SpeedWind Tunnel                                           232
                           University of Tsukuba Cryogenic Wind Tunnel                         235
                      Transonic Wind Tunnel Data Sheets                                        239
                           ISAS Transonic Wind Tunnel                                          239
                           KHI 1 m Transonic Wind Tunnel                                       243
                           KHI Two-Dimensional Wind Tunnel                                     247
                           NAL 2 m Transonic Wind Tunnel HS                                    250
                           NAL Two-Dimensional Transonic Wind Tunnel                           253
                      Trisonic Wind Tunnel Data Sheets                                         256
                           FHI 2 X 2 ft High-SpeedWind Tunnel                                  255
                           MHI 60 cm Trisonic Wind Tunnel                                      257
                      SupersonicWind Tunnel Data Sheets                                        260
                           ISAS SupersonicWind Tunnel                                          260
                           NAL 1 m Wind Tunnel                                                 264
                      Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Data Sheet                                        267
                           NAL 60 cm Hypersonic Wind Tunnel                                    267
                      Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell Data Sheets                           272
                           MHI Small Turbojet Development Test Cell (1007)                     272
                           NAL Ram/ScranQetEngine Test Facility                                274
                           IHI High-PressureTurbine Facility                                   278
                           NAL High-Temperature Turbine Cooling Facility                       280
                           IHI Large-ScaleAero-Engine CompressorFacility                       283
                           NAL Fan/Compressor/Turbine Facility 1600-kW DC                      286
                             Electric Dynamometer


                      Page 6                              GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Contents




     RAE Farnborough 8 X 6 ft Transonic Wind Tunnel                      374
Trisonic Wind Tunnel Data Sheets                                         376
     BAe Brough 27 X 27 in. Transonic/Supersonic                         376
       Blowdown Wind Tunnel
     BAe Warton 1.2 m High-SpeedWind Tunnel                              379
SupersonicWind Tunnel Data Sheets                                        381
     ARA Bedford SupersonicWind Tunnel (SWT)                             381
     BAe Woodford 30 X 27 in. SupersonicWind Tunnel                      383
     Cambridge University SupersonicWind Tunnels                         386
     RAE Bedford 3 X 4 ft SupersonicWind Tunnel                          387
     RAE Bedford 8 X 8 ft Subsonic/SupersonicWind                        389
       Tunnel
Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Data Sheets                                       391
     ARA Bedford M4T Blowdown Wind Tunnel                                391
     ARA Bedford M7T Blowdown Wind Tunnel                                393
     BAe Warton Guided WeaponsWind Tunnel                                396
     The University of Southampton Hypersonic Gun                        398
       Tunnel
     The University of Southampton Light Piston                          401
       Isentropic CompressionFacility
Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel Data Sheets                                    407
     Cranfield Gun Tunnel                                                407
     Imperial College Heated N, Wind Tunnel                              409
     Imperial College Hypersonic Gun Tunnel No. 2                        412
     Oxford University Gun Tunnel                                        416
     RAE Farnborough Shock Tunnel-LICH Tube                              417
     RAE Farnborough Shock Tunnel-Ludwieg Tube                           419
       Mode
     RAE Farnborough Shock Tunnel-Shock Tube Mode                        421
     The University of Sheffield Shock Tunnel                            423
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell Data Sheets                           426
     RAE Pyestock ATF Cell 1 Altitude Engine Test                        426
       Facility
     RAE Pyestock ATF Cell 2 Altitude Engine Test                        428
       Facility
     RAE Pyestock ATF Cell 3 Altitude Engine Test                        430
       Facility
     RAE Pyestock ATF Cell 4 Altitude Engine Test                        433
       Facility
     RAE Pyestock ATF Cell 3W Altitude Engine Test                       436
       Facility
     Rolls-RoyceATE?C-l Altitude Engine Test Facility                    437
     Rolls-RoyceATF C-2 Altitude Engine Test Facility                    439


Page 8                              GAO/NSIAD-90-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
                        Contenta




                             DLR Koln-Porz High-Enthalpy Wind Tunnel 1 (PlK)                        531
                             DLR Koln-Porz High-Enthalpy Wind Tunnel 2 (P2K)                        634
                             DLR Koln-Porz High-Enthalpy Wind Tunnel 3 (P3K)                        537
                             DLR Koln-Porz Hypersonic Wind Tunnel 1 (HlK)                           640
                             DLR Koln-Porz Hypersonic Wind Tunnel 2 (H2K)                           642
                        Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel Data Sheets                                       546
                             DLR Goettingen High-Enthalpy Tunnel (HEG)                              646
                             RWTH Aachen Shock Tunnel                                               549
                             Technical University of Braunschweig Gun Tunnel                        662
                        Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell Data Sheet                               664
                             University of Stuttgart Altitude Engine Test Facility                  664

Appendix XI                                                                                        668
List of Installation
Addresses
Appendix XII                                                                                       667
Comments From the
Director of Defense
Research and
Engineering, U.S.
Department of
Defense
Appendix XIII                                                                                      668
Comments From the
Acting Associate
Administrator for
Aeronautics and Space
Technology, National
Aeronautics and Space
Administration



                        Page 10                                GAO/NSIADBO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Contents




Figure 111.3:Schematic Diagram of The Australian                            62
    National University T-3 Shock Tunnel
Figure 111.4:Reentry Test on a Model of HOL in The                          63
    Australian National University T-3 Shock Tunnel
Figure 111.5:University of QueenslandT-4 Shock Tunnel                       66
Figure 111.6:Schematic Diagram of the University of                         67
    QueenslandT-4 Shock Tunnel
Figure IV. 1: Map of Test Facilities in Belgium                             68
Figure IV.2: von Karman Institute Cold Wind Tunnel                          70
    CWT-1
Figure IV.3: Schematic Diagram of the von Karman                            71
    Institute Cold Wind Tunnel CWT-1
Figure IV.4: von Karman Institute Low-SpeedCascade                          74
    Tunnel C-l
Figure IV.5: Schematic Diagram of the von Karman                            75
    Institute Low-SpeedCascadeWind Tunnel C-l
Figure IV.6: von Karman Institute Low-SpeedWind                             77
    Tunnel L-1A
Figure IV.7: Schematic Diagram of the von Karman                            78
    Institute Low-SpeedWind Tunnel L-1A
Figure IV.8: von Karman Institute High-SpeedCascade                         82
    Tunnel C-3
Figure IV.9: Schematic Diagram of the von Karman                            83
    Institute High-SpeedCascadeTunnel C-3
Figure IV. 10: von Karman Institute Supersonic/Transonic                    85
    Wind Tunnel S-l
Figure IV. 11: Schematic Diagram of the von Karman                          86
    Institute Supersonic/Transonic Wind Tunnel S-l
Figure IV.12: von Karman Institute Isentropic Light                         88
    Piston CompressionTube CT-2
Figure IV.13: Schematic Diagram of the von Karman                           89
    Institute Isentropic Light Piston CompressionTube
    CT-2
Figure IV. 14: von Karman Institute Longshot Free Piston                    92
    Tunnel ST-1
Figure IV.15: Schematic Diagram of the von Karman                           92
    Institute Longshot Free Piston Tunnel ST-1
Figure IV.16: von Karman Institute High-Speed                               94
    CompressorFacility R-4
Figure IV.17: Schematic Diagram of the von Karman                           96
    Institute High-SpeedCompressorFacility R-4
Figure V. 1: Map of Test Facilities in France                               96



Page 12                              GAO/NSL4D-9O-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
    Contents




    Figure V.22: ONERA IMFL Transonic Wind Tunnel                               122
    Figure V.23: ONERA SlMA Wind Tunnel                                         125
    Figure V.24: Schematic Diagram of the ONERA SlMA                            125
        Wind Tunnel
    Figure V-26: Mirage 2000 Model on Tripod Support in                         126
        Test Section of the ONERA SlMA Wind Tunnel
    Figure V.26: Ground Effect Test on Airbus A320 Model in                     127
        Test Section of the ONERA SlMA Wind Tunnel
    Figure V.27: ONERA S3ChTransonic Wind Tunnel                                130
    Figure V.28: Setup on Balance-Stingin Test Section of the                   130
        ONERA S3Ch Transonic Wind Tunnel
    Figure V-29: Schematic Diagram of the ONERA T2 Wind                         132
        Tunnel
    Figure V.30: Airfoil in Presenceof Adaptive Walls of Test                   133
        Section of the ONERA T2 Wind Tunnel
    Figure V.31: ONERA R4.3 CascadeWind Tunnel                                  137
    Figure V.32: Schematic Diagram of the ONERA R4.3                            138
        CascadeWind Tunnel
    Figure V.33: ONERA SZMA Wind Tunnel                                         141
    Figure V.34: Schematic Diagram of the ONERA SBMA                            142
        Wind Tunnel
    Figure V.36: Airbus Model on Variable-Elbow Sting in                        143
        Transonic Test Section of the ONERA SBMA Wind
        Tunnel
    Figure V.36: Half-Model of Airbus With Engine Simulator                     144
        Mounted on Wall Turret and Balance in Transonic
        Test Section of the ONERA SBMA Wind Tunnel
    Figure V.37: Rafale Model on Sideslip Sting Assembly                        145
        With Motorized Roll in Transonic Test Section of the
        ONERA SBMA Wind Tunnel
    Figure V.38: Stores Trajectory Under Jaguar Model With                      146
        Six-Degree-of-FreedomDevice in Transonic Test
        Section of the ONERA SBMA Wind Tunnel
    Figure V.39: ONERA S3MA Wind Tunnel                                         149
    Figure V.40: Schematic Drawing of the ONERA S3MA                            150
        Wind Tunnel
    Figure V.41: Schematic Diagram of the ONERA S3MA                            151
        Wind Tunnel
    Figure V.42: Variable Mach Nozzle of the ONERA S3MA                         151
        Wind Tunnel
Y
    Figure V.43: Two-Dimensional Test Section of the ONERA                      162
        S3MA Wind Tunnel



    Page 14                               GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Contents




Figure V.63: Test With Simulation of External Kinetic                      204
    Heating in Test Stand No. 2 of the ONERA ATD
    Ramjet Cells Nos. 8 and 9
Figure V.64: Tests on 180~mmCaliber Ramrocket in Test                      204
    Stand No. 3 of the ONERA ATD Ramjet Cells Nos. 8
    and9
Figure V.66: Test of Ceramic Materials on 100~mmCaliber                    205
    Engine in Test Stand No. 4 of the ONERA ATD
    Ramjet Cells Nos. 8 and 9
Figure VI.l: Map of Test Facilities in Italy                               206
Figure V1.2:Schematic Drawing of the CIRA Low-Speed                        208
    Wind Tunnel
Figure VII. 1: Map of Test Facilities in Japan                             213
Figure VII.2: Schematic Diagram of the KHI 3.6 m Wind                      217
    Tunnel
Figure VII.3: Test Section Configuration of the KHI 3.6 m                  218
    Wind Tunnel
Figure VII.4: Schematic Drawing of the MHI                                 221
    Aerodynamics Laboratory With the MHI 2 m Low-
    SpeedWind Tunnel and MHI 60 cm Trisonic Wind
    Tunnel
Figure VII.5 Schematic Drawing of the MHI 2 m Low-                         222
    SpeedWind Tunnel
Figure VII.6: Schematic Diagram of the MHI 2 m Low-                        223
    SpeedWind Tunnel
Figure VII.7: Schematic Drawing of the MHI Smoke                           225
    Tunnel
Figure VII.8: Schematic Diagram of the TRDI Convertible                    230
    Wind Tunnel
Figure VII.9: Sectional View of the Vertical Configuration                 231
    of the TRDI Convertible Wind Tunnel
Figure VII. 10: Schematic Diagram of the TRDI Low-Speed                    234
    Wind Tunnel
Figure VII. 11: University of Tsukuba Cryogenic Wind                       237
    Tunnel
Figure VII. 12: Schematic Diagram of the University of                     238
    Tsukuba Cryogenic Wind Tunnel
Figure VII. 13: Schematic Diagram of the ISAS Supersonic                   241
    and Transonic Wind Tunnels
Figure VII. 14: Schematic Diagram of the ISAS Transonic                    242
    Wind Tunnel
Figure VII.15: KHI 1 m Transonic Wind Tunnel                               244



Page 10                               GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Contents




Figure VII.38: NAL Ram/Scramjet Combustor Test                            300
    Facility
Figure VII.39: Schematic Diagram of the Vitiated Heater/                  301
    Nozzle of the NAL Ram/Scramjet Combustor Test
    Facility
Figure VIII. 1: Map of Test Facilities in The Netherlands                 302
Figure VIII.2: DNW Low-SpeedWind Tunnel                                   306
Figure VIII.3: Schematic Diagram of the DNW Low-Speed                     306
    Wind Tunnel
Figure VIII.4: Schematic Diagram of the Airflow Circuit of                307
    the DNW Low-SpeedWind Tunnel
Figure VIII& NLR Low-SpeedWind Tunnel                                     310
Figure VIII.6: Schematic Diagram of the NLR Low-Speed                     310
    Wind Tunnel
Figure VIII.7: Schematic Diagram of the NLR High-Speed                    313
    Wind Tunnel
Figure VIII.8: Model of Fokker 100 Aircraft in the NLR                    314
    High-SpeedWind Tunnel
Figure VIII.9: Schematic Diagram of the Delft University                  317
    of Technology Blowdown Wind Tunnel B (TST 27)
Figure VIII. 10: Schematic Diagram of the Transonic Test                  318
    Section of the Delft University of Technology
    Blowdown Wind Tunnel B (TST 27)
Figure VIII. 11: Schematic Diagram of the Delft University                321
    of Technology GLT 20 Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel
Figure VIII. 12: Schematic Diagram of the Delft University                324
    of Technology Blowdown Wind Tunnel A (ST 16)
Figure VIII. 13: NLR Continuous SupersonicWind Tunnel                     326
Figure VIII. 14: Schematic Diagram of the NLR Continuous                  327
    Supersonic Wind Tunnel
Figure VIII. 16: NLR SupersonicWind Tunnel                                330
Figure VIII. 16: Schematic Diagram of the NLR Supersonic                  330
    Wind Tunnel
Figure VIII. 17: Model of Ariane 6 Launch Vehicle With                    331
    the Hermes Spaceplanein the NLR SupersonicWind
    Tunnel
Figure IX. 1: Map of Test Facilities in the United Kingdom                332
Figure 1X.2: Schematic Drawing of the BAe Brough 7 X 6                    337
    ft Low-SpeedWind Tunnel
Figure 1X.3: Schematic Diagram of the BAe Filton 12 X 10                  339
    ft Wind Tunnel
Figure 1X.4:Schematic Diagram of the BAe Hatfield 9 X 7                   342
    ft Wind Tunnel


Page 18                               GAO/NSIAKMO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Contents




Figure 1X.24:Schematic Diagram of the Imperial College                     414
    Hypersonic Gun Tunnel No. 2
Figure 1X.26:Schematic Diagram of the RAE Farnborough                      418
    Shock Tunnel-LICH Tube
Figure 1X.26:Schematic Diagram of the RAE Farnborough                      420
    Shock Tunnel-Ludwieg Tube Mode
Figure 1X.27:Schematic Diagram of the RAE Farnborough                      422
    Shock Tunnel-Shock Tube Mode
Figure 1X,28:The University of Sheffield Shock Tunnel                      426
Figure 1X.29:Rectangular Test Section With WedgeFuel                       426
    Injectors of The University of Sheffield Shock Tunnel
Figure 1X.30:Schematic Drawing of the RAE Pyestock                         427
    ATF Cell 1 Altitude Engine Test Facility
Figure 1X.31:Schematic Drawing of the RAE Pyestock                         429
    ATF Cell 2 Altitude Engine Test Facility
Figure 1X.32:Schematic Drawing of the RAE Pyestock                         432
    ATF Cell 3 Altitude Engine Test Facility
Figure 1X.33:Schematic Drawing of the RAE Pyestock                         434
    ATF Cell 4 Altitude Engine Test Facility
Figure 1X.34:Schematic Diagram of the RAE Pyestock                         436
    ATF Cell 3W Altitude Engine Test Facility
Figure X. 1: Map of Test Facilities in West Germany                        443
Figure X.2: DLR Berlin Evacuable Free-jet Experimental                     446
    Plant 1
Figure X.3: Schematic Diagram of the DLR Berlin Low-                       449
    Velocity Wind Tunnel
Figure X.4: DLR Berlin Unsteady Wind Tunnel                                461
Figure X.6: Schematic Diagram of the DLR Braunschweig                      464
    3.26 m X 2.8 m2Wind Tunnel (NWB)
Figure X.6: DLR Braunschweig Jet-simulation Wind                           467
    Tunnel (SSB)
Figure X.7: Schematic Diagram of the DLR Braunschweig                      468
    Jet-simulation Wind Tunnel (SSB)
Figure X.8: Schematic Diagram of the Combustion                            469
    Chamber, Inlet, Test Section, and Probe Traverse
    Gear of the DLR Braunschweig Jet-simulation Wind
    Tunnel (SSB)
Figure X.9: DLR Braunschweig Model SubsonicWind                            461
    Tunnel (MUB)
Figure X.,10:Schematic Diagram of the DLR                                  462
    Braunschweig Model SubsonicWind Tunnel (MUB)
Figure X. 11: Schematic Diagram of the DLR Goettingen 1                    466
    m Wind Tunnel (1MG)


Page 20                               GAO/NSW!MJ-71Fs   Foreign Test Facilities
Figure X.34: DLR Goettingen Hypersonic Vacuum Tunnel                    617
    1 (VlG)
Figure X.36: Schematic Diagram of the DLR Goettingen                    618
    Hypersonic Vacuum Tunnel 1 (VlG)
Figure X.36: DLR Goettingen Hypersonic Vacuum Tunnel                    621
    2 (V2G)
Figure X.37: Schematic Diagram of the DLR Goettingen                    622
    Hypersonic Vacuum Tunnel 2 (V2G)
Figure X.38: DLR Goettingen High-Vacuum Tunnel 3                        626
    (V3G)
Figure X.39: Schematic Diagram of the DLR Goettingen                    626
    High-Vacuum Tunnel 3 (V3G)
Figure X.40: DLR Goettingen Tube Wind Tunnel (RWG)                      629
Figure X.41: Schematic Diagram of the DLR Goettingen                    630
    Tube Wind Tunnel (RWG)
Figure X.42: DLR Koln-Porz High-Enthalpy Wind Tunnel                    633
    1 (PlK)
Figure X.43: DLR Koln-Porz High-Enthalpy Wind Tunnel                    636
    2 (P2K)
Figure X.44: DLR Koln-Porz High-Enthalpy Wind Tunnel                    639
    3 (P3K)
Figure X.46: DLR Koln-Porz Hypersonic Wind Tunnel 1                     641
    WK)
Figure X.46: DLR Koln-Porz Hypersonic Wind Tunnel 2                     644
    (H2K)
Figure X.47: Schematic Drawing of the DLR Goettingen                    647
    High-Enthalpy Tunnel (HEG)
Figure X.48: Schematic Diagram of the DLR Goettingen                    648
    High-Enthalpy Tunnel (HEG)
Figure X.49: RWTH Aachen Shock Tunnel                                   560
Figure X.60: Schematic Diagram of the RWTH Aachen                       661
    Shock Tunnel
Figure X.61: Schematic Diagram of the Technical                         663
    University of Braunschweig Gun Tunnel
Figure X.62: Test Cells 1 and 2 of the University of                    666
    Stuttgart Altitude Test Bed
Figure X.63: Turbo-Fan Engine in Test Cell 1 of the                     667
    University of Stuttgart Altitude Test Bed




Page 22                            GAO/NSIAIMJO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Contents




DC         direct current
DFG        DeutscheForschungsgemeinschaft(German Research
               Association)
DFVLR      DeutscheForschungs-und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und
               Raumfahrt (German Researchand Experimental
               Institution for Air and SpaceFlight, commonly referred to
               as the German AerospaceResearchEstablishment)
DLR        DeutscheForschungsanstalt fuer Luft-und Raumfahrt
               (German Aerospace ResearchEstablishment)
DNW        Duits-NederlandseWindtunnel/Deutsch Niederlandischer
               Windkanal (German-Dutch Wind Tunnel)
DOD        Department of Defense
EC         European Communities
EGG        Ebener Gitterwindkanal Goettingen (Goettingen Plane
               CascadesWind Tunnel)
EMK        Eichkanal Koln-Porz (Koln-Porz Calibrating Tunnel)
EOARD      European Office of Aerospace Researchand Development
Es4        European SpaceAgency
ESTEC      European SpaceResearchand Technology Center
ETW        European Transonic Windtunnel
FHI        Fuji Heavy Industries
ft         foot
ft/s       foot per second
8          gram
GAO        General Accounting Office
GARTEUR    Group for Aeronautical Researchand Technology in Europe
GW         Guided Weapons
HlK        Hyperschall-Windkanal 1 Koln-Porz (Koln-Porz Hypersonic
               Wind Tunnel 1)
H2K        Hyperschall-Windkana12 Koln-Porz (Koln-Porz Hypersonic
               Wind Tunnel 2)
HDG        Hochdruck-Windkanal Goettingen (Goettingen High-Pressure
               Wind Tunnel)
HEX        Hoch-Enthalpie-Kanals Goettingen (Goettingen High-Enthalpy
               Tunnel)
HIME‘      Highly Maneuverable Experimental Space[vehicle]
HKG        Hochgeschwindigkeitskanal Goettingen (Goettingen High-
               Velocity Wind Tunnel)
HMK        Hyperschall-Kanal Koln-Porz (Koln-Porz SupersonicTunnel)
HOPE       H-II Orbiting Plane
HCJIDL     Horizontal Takeoff and Landing
b          horsepower
HS         high speed


Page 24                                GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Content8




MJ         megajoule
MJ/kg      megajouleper kilogram
mm         millimeter
MPa        megapascal
mph        mile per hour
ms         millisecond
m/s        meter per second
MTU        Motoren- und Turbinen-Union
MUB        Modellunterschall-Windkanal Braunschweig (Braunschweig
               Model SubsonicWind Tunnel)
MW         megawatt
N          newton
NAL        National AerospaceLaboratory
NASA       National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration
NASDA      National SpaceDevelopment Agency of Japan
NASP       National Aero-SpacePlane
NATO       North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NIVR       Nederlands Instituut Voor Vliegtuigontwikkeling en
               Ruimtevaart (Netherlands Institute for Aerospace
               Programs)
NLR        Nationaal Lucht-en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium (National
               AerospaceLaboratory)
Nm3/min    newton cubic meter per minute
NWB        Niedergeschwindigkeitswindkanal Braunschweig
               (Braunschweig Low-Velocity Wind Tunnel)
NWG        Niedergeschwindigkeitswindkanal Goettingen (Goettingen
               Low-Velocity Wind Tunnel)
OECD       Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
ONERA      Office National d’Etudes et de RecherchesAerospatiales
               (National Office for AerospaceStudies and Research)
OSD        Office of the Secretary of Defense
OSTP       Office of Scienceand Technology Policy
PlK        Hochenthalpie-Windkanal 1 Koln-Porz (Koln-Porz High-
               Enthalpy Wind Tunnel 1)
P2K        Hochenthalpie-Windkana12 Koln-Porz (Koln-Porz High-
               Enthalpy Wind Tunnel 2)
P3K        Hochenthalpie-Windkana13 Koln-Porz (Koln-Porz High-
               Enthalpy Wind Tunnel 3)
Pa         Pascal
PIV        particle image velocimeter
psi        pound per square inch
psia       pounds per square inch absolute
psb3       pounds per square inch gauge


Page 26                              GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Contents




VlG        Hypersonischer Vakuum-Windkanal Goettingen, 1 Messtreche
              (Goettingen Hypersonic Vacuum Tunnel, 1st Test
              Chamber)
V2G        Hypersonischer Vakuum-Windkanal Goettingen, 2 Messtreche
              (Goettingen Hypersonic Vacuum Tunnel, 2nd Test
              Chamber)
V3G        Hochvakuum-Windkanal Goettingen, 3 Messtreche(Goettingen
              High-Vacuum Tunnel, 3rd Test Chamber)
VKI        von Karman Institute
VMK        Vertikale Freistrahimesstrecke Koln-Porz (Koln-Porz Vertical
              Free-jet Test Chamber)
V/SToL     Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing
VTOL       Vertical Takeoff and Landing
W          watt




Page 28                               GAO/NSL4D-9O-71FS Foreign Test Fadlties
Appendix I

Introduction


                       This document provides a databaseof key foreign aerospacetest facili-
                       ties from which an assessmentcan be made of foreign countries’ capa-
                       bilities in research, development, and testing of future aerospace
                       vehicles. This’ document is also a catalogue of facilities that provides
                       technical data and information on principal European, Japanese,and
                       Australian wind tunnels1and air-breathing propulsion test cells,2includ-
                       ing the location, owner, operator, point of contact, performance charac-
                       teristics (i.e., technical parameters describing the facility’s principal
                       capabilities and operating range), cost information, and the number and
                       type of staff required to operate the facility. This catalogue also pro-
                       vides narrative information describing each facility, its testing capabili-
                       ties, planned improvements, unique characteristics, and current
                       programs.
                       The document discussesprincipal aerospacetest facilities in Australia,
                       Belgium, France, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom,
                       and West Germany. Soviet aerospacetest facilities will be included in a
                       subsequentreport on aerospaceinvestment in the Soviet Union. Aero-
                       spacetest facilities in the United States are not included in the scopeof
                       our reviewe3

                       This is the first in a planned series of reports on aerospaceinvestment in
                       foreign countries. Subsequentreports will address aerospaceinvestment
                       in individual countries and our overall evaluation and conclusions.

                       The technical data and information in this report were provided by the
Explanation of         facility owners or operators. We designedthe format used in this report
Facility Data Sheets   by modifying data sheetsdeveloped by the National Aeronautics and
                       SpaceAdministration (NASA) and Arnold Engineering Development

                       ‘Wind tunnels are ground test facilities used to test flight characteristics of an aircraft by directing a
                       controlled stream of air around a scale model and measuring the results with attached
                       instrumentation.
                       2Air-breathing propulsion test cells are ground test facilities used to test an aircraft engine that
                       requires air for combustion of its fuel.
                       3U.S. wind tunnels and air-breathing propulsion test cells are documented and catalogued in several
                       publications, including the following. Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronautical
                       Facilities Catalogue: Wind Tunnels. Washington, DC.: National Aeronautics and Space Administra-
                       tion, 1986, vol. 1. Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronautical Facilities Catalogue:
                                                                                    , DC.: National Aeronautics and Space
                                                                                    Data Base: Wind Tunnels. Arnold Air
                       Force Base, Tullahoma, Tennessee: Arnold Engineering Development Center, 1987, vol. 1. Crook,
                       Robert T. Test Facility Data Base: Airbreathing Propulsion Test Cells and Rocket Altitude Test Cells.
                       Arnold Air Force Base, Tullahoma, Tennessee: Arnold Engineering Development Center, 1987, vol. 2.



                       Page 30                                                  GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                        AQQendx        I
                        Introduction




                        programs currently being conducted. The name, organization, and tele-
                        phone number of the point of contact for each facility are also included,
                        Appendix II provides a definition and explanation of each data element
                        used in the facility data sheets.Appendix XI contains a list of installa-
                        tion addressesby country for each facility’s owner or operator.

                        Ground test facilities, such as wind tunnels and air-breathing propulsion
Wind Tunnels and Air-   test cells, are used to conduct various tests of aircraft and aerospace
Breathing Propulsion    vehicle models and components.Ground tests establish a database and
Test Cells              validate computational fluid dynamic6(CFD) simulations.


Wind Tunnels            Wind tunnels are used to test the basic aerodynamic forces and moments
                        acting on an aircraft in flight. These forces-lift, drag, and side force-
                        can be tested in a wind tunnel by directing a controlled stream of air (or
                        someother test gas such as helium or nitrogen) around a scale model
                        held stationary in the airstream and measuring the results with instru-
                        mentation attached to the model.
                        Wind tunnels consist of an enclosedpassagethrough which a test gas is
                        driven by a fan or someother type of drive system (such as high pres-
                        sure or a piston). The key component of a wind tunnel is the test section
                        in which a scale model of an airplane-or aerospacevehicle, missile, or
                        inlet of a supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet), for example-is
                        supported in a carefully controlled airstream. The airstream produces a
                        flow around the model, simulating the flow around a full-scale aircraft.
                        The aerodynamic characteristics of the model and its flow field are
                        directly measured by balancesand test instrumentation.
                        Wind tunnels are used to conduct aerodynamic research, validate new
                        aircraft designs,and refine design configurations. In addition, wind tun-
                        nels are used to measure aerodynamic forces and moments and such
                        parameters as pressure, heat transfer, and temperature distribution.

                        “Computational fluid dynamics is a tool for predicting the aerodynamics and fluid dynamics of air
                        around flight vehicles by solving a set of mathematical equations with a computer. CFD, also known
                        as numerical aerodynamic simulation, is used in aerospace vehicle research and development pro-
                        grams to improve the understanding of hypersonic flow physics and as an aerospace vehicle design
                        tool.

                        7A scramjet is an air-breathing engine in which air flows through the combustion chamber at super-
                        sonic speeds. Hydrogen is injected into the combustion chamber where it is ignited by the hot air. The
                        exhaust is expelled through the nozzle, causing the thrust. Scramjets are being designed to operate at
                        speeds of about Mach 4 to 25.



                        Page   32                                              GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                 Appendix I
                                 Introduction




                                 transonic, and supersonic).Typically, they have interchangeable nozzles
                                 and/or test sections for each speedregime.

SupersonicWind Tunnels           Supersonicwind tunnels tend to have more distinct characteristics than
                                 subsonic and transonic wind tunnels such as size, speedrange, tempera-
                                 ture range, and Reynolds Number. Supersonicwind tunnels have a
                                 speedrange between Mach 1.2 and 5.
Hypersonic Wind Tunnels          Most hypersonic wind tunnels are consideredunique due to their size,
                                 speedrange, temperature range, and Reynolds Number. Hypersonic
                                 wind tunnels have a speedcapability greater than Mach 5.
Hypervelocity Wind Tunnels       Hypervelocity wind tunnels have speedand temperature capabilities
                                 greater than hypersonic tunnels and have a velocity range greater than
                                 5,000 ft/s at Mach numbers 1 up to about 25. They operate at considera-
                                 bly higher supply temperatures and pressuresthan do hypersonic tun-
                                 nels. Major types of hypervelocity wind tunnels currently operating and
                                 their speedranges are discussedbelow.

                             . Hotshot tunnels can achieve Mach numbers of 10 to 27.
                             l Shock tunnels can achieve Mach numbers of 6 to 25 with velocities of
                               4,000 to 15,000 ft/s.
                             . Graphite heater blowdown tunnels can achieve Mach numbers up to 14.
                             . Plasma-jet tunnels have the capability of generating the highest temper-
                               ature (approximately 35,000 degreesFahrenheit) and the longest run
                               time (several minutes) of any hypervelocity tunnel. Relatively high
                               velocities (up to 20,000 ft/s) are achievable, but few plasma tunnels have
                               beenplanned or built for obtaining Mach numbers above 10.
                             9 Gun tunnels are capable of achieving speedsbetween Mach 2 and 18.
                             . Shock tubes can study the characteristics of shock waves at speedsof
                               Mach 30 to 35.
                             . Expansion tubes can achieve speedsof about Mach 10.
                             . Wave superheater tunnels are capable of achieving speedsin the
                               hypervelocity range.


Air-Breathing Propulsion         Air-breathing propulsion test cells are used to test aircraft and aero-
Test Cells                       spacevehicle engines.These facilities are divided into the following
                                 main categories:propulsion wind tunnels, altitude engine test facilities,
             Y                   and propulsion component facilities for engine turbines, compressors,
                                 and combustors. According to NASA, these three categoriescover the full
                                 range of principal facilities required to develop and improve aircraft
                                 and aerospacevehicle engines.


                                 Page 34                                GAO/NSLAD-90-71FS Foreigu Test Facilities
                              Appendlx I
                              Introduction




                              engine operation at high Mach numbers or at high altitude and low Mach
                              numbers. Not all facilities offer all of the desired conditions because
                              somefacilities were designedfor specific applications or had certain lim-
                              itations imposed due to cost or the technology available at the time of
                              construction.
                              In free-jet engine test stands, the engine and inlet are mounted so that
                              the air from a nozzle can strike the engine’s inlet. The test stand’s con-
                              figuration is similar to a wind tunnel, except that the quality of airflow
                              is not as good. Nonetheless,free-jet facilities are more economical,since
                              the air can be directed right at the engine’s inlet. Provisions for good
                              temperature simulation are also available. Generally, a free-jet capabil-
                              ity is available as an option or specific configuration of a direct-connect
                              facility.
Engine/Propulsion Component   Engine/propulsion component facilities are limited to those used for
Facilities                    testing or conducting research on engine turbines, compressors,and
                              combustors.Component facilities are smaller, simpler, and considerably
                              less costly than propulsion wind tunnels and engine test facilities, which
                              require large complexesand usually large capital investments. The com-
                              ponent facilities are most often used for conducting more basic and
                              applied research plus experimental studies on propulsion subsystems,
                              whereas wind tunnels and engine test facilities are principally used for
                              testing and development of complete propulsion systems.


                              Tables I.1 and I.2 serve as a quick reference to test facility capabilities.
Quick Reference to            The tables contain the most important parameters and characteristics of
Test Facilities               each facility. Appendixes III through X describe each facility in detail.
                              Table I. 1 shows the principal capabilities and operating range of wind
                              tunnels by country and speedregime.




                              Page 36                                 GAO/NSIALbBO-71FS Foreign Test Faclllties
                                                                                                 Appendix I
                                                                                                 Introduction




Installation and---______
-----.-.-.^       facility                                                   Test section size                  Mach number                       Reynolds Number                            Page
ONERA    S3Ch
  ...-. _.--....._Transonic
                  - ..._ ..__._.                                             0.8 x 0.8 m                        0.3 to 1.2                        Not available                                  128
ONERA T2                                                                     0.4 x 0.4 x 1.6 m                  1.1                               51 x 106/m                                     131
Trisonic
_-. _. Wind
         __..-.-. Tunnels
                   .--~ -----..~-_~__                                                                                                                                                       --
LBRA C4 Trisonic                                                             0.4 x 0.4 m                        0.15 to 4.29                      12 x 106/m at Mach 4.29                        134
ONERA Fi4.3 Cascade                                                          210 to 370 x 120 mm                0.3 to 1 and 1.45                 Not available                                  136
                                                                                (transonic), and 600 x 120
                                                                                mm (supersonic)
ONERA S2MA                                                                   1.75 x 1.77 m (transonic) and      0.1 to 1.3 (transonic) and 1.5    5.5 to 29.4 x 106/m                            139
                                                                                1.75 x 1.93 m (supersonic)         to 3.1 (supersonic)
                                                                                                                           .                                                                 I_.
ONERA S3MA                                                                   0.78 x 0.56 m (transonic) and      0.1 to 1 .I (subsonic/            64 x 106/m                                     147
                                                                               0.8 x 0.76 m (suoersonic)
                                                                                             .    I
                                                                                                                   transonic): 2. 3.4. 4.5. and
                                                                                                                   5.5 (su e&on& fixed); and
                                                                                                                   1.7 to B.8 (supersonic
-_ __..... _ ^...                                       .^....                                                     variable)
St. Cvr Sioma 4                                                              0.85 x 0.85 m                      0.3 to 2.8                        Not available                                  154
Supersonic Wind Tunnels
.. . . ..L   _._     ..~         -.---           .~

Aerospatiale-A uitarne Arc                                                   5 to 32 cm* (throat area)          Less than 2,4                     Not available                                  156
  Heater J.P. 2a 0                                                                                                                    ,
CEAT S.150 Supersonic                                                        15 x 15 cm (nozzle exit            2, 3.5, and 4.3                   20 x 106/m                                     156
  Blowdown                                                                      diameter)
ONERA SSCh Transonic and                                                     0.3 x 0.3 m                        0.8 to 1.I5 (transonic), 1.2,     Not available                                  160
  Supersonic                                                                                                       and 1.45 to 3.15
                                                                                                                   (supersonic)
Hypersonic     Wind ..-...-
_-..-- -. -..----    tunnels__-.
CEAT H.210 Blowdown                                                          21 cm (nozzle exit diameter)       7 and 8                           1.3 to 9.2 x 106/m at Mach 7                   162
                                                                                                                                                    and 1.5 to 4.2 x 106/m at
                                               ~.- ~.--.              --__      .___                                                                 Mach 8
CNRS sR.3
       --.-~-                                                                15 to 30 cm (nozzle exit           2 to 30                           2 x 103/m to 2 x 106/m            -164
                                                                               diameter) to Mach 7 and
                                                                               36 cm (nozzle exit
                                                                               TFiane3ri between Mach
l”_l-_  -._ ..~.                                  .._..._~                                                                                                                                   __-
IMF Blowdown                                                                 15 cm (nozzle exit diameter)       2.3, 4, 5, 6, and 7               2x106/matMach7and16x                         168
                                                                                                                                                     106/m at Mach 5                  -~~
ONERA R2Ch Blowdown                                                          0.19 m (nozzle exit diameter)      3, 4, 5, 6, and 7                 3 x 106/m at Mach 3 and                        170
                                                                                at Mach 3 and 4 and                                                 3.5 x 106/m at Mach 7
                                                                                0.33 m at Mach 5,6, and 7
ONERA R3Ch Blowdown                                                          0.35 m (nozzle exit diameter)      10 (contoured)                    0.6 to 3.5 x 106/m                             173
                                                                                at Mach 10
ONERA S4MA                                                                   0.68 m diameter (Mach 6            6andlOto12                        3 to 27 x 106/m                                178
                                                                                nozzle) and 1 m diameter
                                                                                (Mach IO to 12 nozzle)
Hy ervelocity Wind
_ p.unnels
     .._.   --.__---_____
ISL Hypersonic                                                               20 x 20 cm (nozzle exit            4 to 11 (conical)                 Not available                                  184
                                                                               diameter)      -_
LRBA C, Reflected                                                            1.2 m diameter                     8 to 16 (conical) and 16          0.26 to 2.9 x 106/m                            186
__-.           ~~.     _--.-_-           .._    ~..   2.-   __...__
                                                                                                                   (contoured)
ONERA ARC 2 Hotshot                                                          70 cm (nozzle exit diameter)       15‘to 20       ’                  4.2 x 106/m at Mach 15                       188
                                                                                                                                                                                      (continued)



                                                                                                 Page 38                                               GAO/NSL4D-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                                    Appendix I
                                                    Introduction




installation and facility     Tort aection rlre                     Mach number                Reynolds Number                           Page
                                                                                                                                            -
Hyperbonlc Wind Tunnel
NAL 50 cm Hypersonic          50 cm diameter                        5,7,9, and 11              0.3 to 7.2 x 106/m                          267
                                (axisymmetric)

                                                                   THE NETHERLANDS
Subsonic Wind Tunnels
DNW Low-Speed                 9.5 x 9.5 m, 6 x 8 m, and             0.18, 0.34, and 0.45       3.9 to 5.8 x 106/m                          303
                                 6 x 6 m (closed and oben)
NLR Low-Speed                 3x2.25x8.75m             ’ ’          0.25                       Oto6x    106/m                              308
Transonic Wind Tunnel
NLR High-Speed                1.6 x 2 x 2.7 m                       1.25                       10t015x106/matMach                          311
                                                                                                 1.25 and 31 x 106/m at
                                                                                                 Mach 0.7
Trisonic Wind    TUtInd8
Delft Blowdown Tunnel B       27 x 28 x 40 to 90 cm                 Less than 4.2 (variable)   37 to 130 x 106/m                           315
  (TST 27)
Delft GLT 20 Boundary Layer   17 x 20 x 132 cm                      0.6 to 2.4 (continuously   27 x 106/ft at Mach 2.4                     319
                                                                      variable)
Supersonic Wind Tunnel8
Delft Blowdown Tunnel A       15xl5x25cm                            Less than 3                20 x 106/m at Mach 3                        322
  (ST 15)
NLR Continuous Supersonic     0.27 x 0.27 m                         1.2 to 6 (contoured)       20 to 30 x 106/m                            325
NLR Supersonic                1.2 x 1.2 m                           1.2 to 4                   75 x 106/m at Mach 3.9                      328


---                                                                UNITED KINGDOM
Subsonic Wind Tunnels
--_
ARA Bedford Two-              8 x 18 in.                            0.3 to 0.86                2to7x106/ft                                 333
    Dimensional
BAe Brough 7 x 5 ft           2.1 x 1.5m                            0 to 0.25                  5.4 x 106/m                                 335
    LowSpeed       ---___
BAe Filton 12 x 10 ft         lOx12x25ft                            0 to 0.25                  0 to 1.8 x   106/ft                         338
BAe Hatfield 9 x 7 ft         6.7 x 8.7 x 18.5 ft                   0 to 0.22                  0 to 1.6 x   106/ft                         340
i                             15x15x40ft                            0 to 0.125                 0 to 0.9 x   106/ft                         343
BAe Warton 2.7 x 2.1 m        2.1 x 2.7 m                           0.003 to 0.197             0.1 to 5 x   106/m                          346
    Low-Sbeed
BAe Warton 18 ft V/STOL       5 x 5.5 m                             0.035 to 0.065             0.8 to 15 x 106/m                           349
BAe Weybridge 3 x 2 ft        2x3x5ft                               0.4 to 0.92                2.6 to 4.5 x 106/ft                         353
II_.Hugh-Speed
BAe Warton 13 x 9 ft          9x 13ft                               0.18 to 0.27               0 to 2.2 x 106/ft                           356
    Low-Speed
BAe Woodford 9 x 7 ft         2.74 x 2.13 x 5.5 m                   0 to 0.176                 0 to 4.3 x 106/m                            359
    Low-Speed
RAE Bedford 13 x 9 ft         9xl3x30ft                             0.01 to 0.27               0.1 to 2 x loG/ft                           361
    Low-Speed          y
                                                                                                                                   (continued)




                                                    Page 40                                         GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                                         Appendix I
                                                         Introduction




Installation
 _.. .._. “... and
               _..I facility
                         .._.--__-   Teet section size                  Mach number                     Reynolds Number                           Page
RAE Farnborough Shock                0.76 m diameter x 1 m long         7 (conical)                     3.7 x lO’/m at Mach 7                       417
  Tunnel-LICH Tube
RAE Farnborough Shock                0.76 m diameter x 1 m long         5 (contoured)                   1.7 to 4.3 x 108/m                          419
  Tunnel-Ludwieg    Tube
RAE Farnborough Shock                0.38 x 0.38 x 0.3 m                7,9, 10, and 13 (conical) and   1.4 x lO?m at Mach 7 and                    421
  Tunnel-Shock    Tube                                                     9 and 13 (contoured)           2xlO/matMachlO
Sheffield Shock Tunnel               8 ;mmdliaageter x less than        6 to 15 (flight) and 1 to 5     About 1 x 105/ft                            423
                                                                           (combustor)


                                                                        WEST GERMANY
Subsonic Wind Tunnels
DLR Berlin Evacuable                     1.2 x 2.8 m (cylindrical)      Less than 0.4                   5 x 105/m                                   444
    Free-jet Experimental
    Plant 1
DLR Berlin Low-Velocity                  Not available                  0.14                            4.5 x 106/m                                 447
DLR
 __._ _Berlin Unsteady
                    ._ ..~~_ _.._.-~^.-- x 0.5 x 6 m
                                         0.5                            0.08                            Not available                               450
DLR Braunschweig 3.25 m x 3.25 m x 2.8 m2 x 6.2 m and                   0.22 (open) and 0.26 (closed)   5 x 106/m (open) and 6 x                    452
    2.8 rn” (NWB)                           9.1 m2 (test chamber                                           106/m (closed)
                                            cross section)
DLR Braunschwei                          440 mm diameter                0.35 to 0.8                     7 to 14 x 106/m                             455
    Jet-simulation
                 .-._ (8 SB) ~--~_~~-
DLR Braunschweig Model                   No. 1: 1.3 m x 1.3 m2 x 2.46   0.14 to 0.38                    Not available                               460
    Subsonic (MUB)                          m and No. 2: 0.82 m x
 ..-I. .._ ^..       ^. .   _ .^..-^----    0.82 m2 x 1.64 m
DLR Goettingen 1 m (1 MG)
.-_-                                     1 x0.7x1.3m                    0.002 to 0.19                   1.3 x 106/m                                 463
DLR Goett/ngen 3 x 3 m                   3 m x 3 m2 x 6 m and 9 m2      oto0.19                         4.4 x 106/m                                 466
    Subsonic (NWG)                          (test chamber cross
                                            section)
DLR Goettingen Cryogenic                 0.4 x 0.35 m                   0.3 to 0.9                      4.5 x 10*/m                                 469
    Tube (KRG)
DLR Goettrngen Hrgh-                     0.6 x 0.6 x 0.575 m (open)     0.1                             2 x 106/m                                   470
    Pressure (HDG)                          and 0.4 x 0.6 x 1 m
                                            (closed)
DLR Goettingen Low-                      0.3 m x 1.5 m2 x 6.25 m        0.13                            1 x 106/m                                   473
    Turbulence (TUG)
DLR Koln-Porz 2.4 x 2.4m-~~-‘2~4-r&               2.4 m2 x 5.4 m        0.01 to 0.36                    36 x 106/m                                  475
    Cryogenic (KKK)
DLR Kofn-Porz European                   270 mm x 228 mm2               0 to 0.9                        Not available                               480
    Transonic Test Rig
fransonic    Wind Tunnels
DLR Braunschweig                     0.34 m x 0.6 m2                    0.4 to 0.95                     2t07x107/m                                  482
  Transonic (TWB)
European Transonic (ETW)             2.4 x 2 m                          0.15 to 1.3                     About 50 x 106/m                            486
Trisonic Wind Tunnels
DLR Goettingen 1 x 1 m               lxlm                               0.5 to 2                        0.3 to 1.2 x 107/m                          489
  Transonic (TWG)      .
                                                                                                                                            (continued)




                                                        Page 42                                              GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                                    Appendix I
                                                    Introduction




                                                    Table I.2 shows the principal capabilities and operating range of air-
                                                    breathing propulsion test cells by country and category (i.e., propulsion
                                                    wind tunnels; altitude engine test facilities; and engine turbine, compres-
                                                    sor, and combustor research facilities).

Table 1.2:Air-Breathing Propulsion Teat Ceil Facilities by Country

Propulsion Wind Tunnels
lnstallatlon and
  facility            Test section size                Mach number                  Altitude range              Temperature range               Page

                                                                       FRANCE
ONERA Sl MA                 8 m diameter x 14 m       0.023 to approximately        20,000 ft                  .5 and 122 degrees                 123
-.. .....---..___
               I---____-      long                       1                                                         Fahrenheit

                                                                   THE NETHERLANDS
DNW Low-Speed               9.5 x 9.5 m, 6 x 8 m,     0.18, 0.34, and 0.45          Atmospheric                 Ambient                           303
                               and6x6m


Altitude Enaine Test Facilities
lnstsllatlon and                                   Air supply
-~ facility                Mass flow rate    Temperature range                 Pressure range Mach number             Altitude range            Page

_---_                                                                  FRANCE
CEPr C-l                   121 lb/s          -86 to 175 degrees                7tol7psia          0 to 1              36,000 ft                   193
_-_--       --                                  Fahrenheit
CEPr R-3                   441 lb/s          -85 to 390 degrees                30 psia            0 to 2.4            65,600 ft                   195
--. --.--~                                     Fahrenheit
CEPr R-4                   441 lb/s          -85 to 370 degrees                30 psia            0 to 2.4            65,600 ft                   196
_---.                                          Fahrenheit
CEPr R-5                   825 lb/s          1,200 degrees                     100 psia           0 to 4              65,600 ft                   198
---__.--. _____                                Fahrenheit
CEPr S-l                   221 lb/s          661 degrees                       29 psia            2                   62,000 ft                   200
-.-.___                                        Fahrenheit
ONERA ATD Ramjet           50 kg/s           1,200 degrees Kelvin              250 bars           4.5                 30,000 m                    201
   Cells Nos. 8 and 9

..__.__-_...-..._._.
              -__-                                                      JAPAN
MHI Small Turbo&           12 lb/s            -30 to 180 dearees               33 osia            0 to 1.2             Sea level to               272
   Development Test             ’               Fahrenheit ”                                                             20,000 ft
   Cell (1007)
-I-~____
NAL Ram/Scramjet           10.41 kg/s        2,557 degrees Kelvin              10.25 MPa          6.73                 Up to 35,000 m             274
   Enaine Test Facility
                                                                                                                                          (continued)




                                                    Page 44                                                  GAO/NSIMMO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                            Appendix I
                                            Introduction




Compressor Component Research Facilities
lnstaiiation and Maximum            Maximum                Temperature
   tacility ._-   flow rate            power                 range              Pressure level      Speed range                Page

~---                                                        JAPAN
IHI Large-Scale        310 lb/s        18,000 hp           Ambient              2 atm               13,000 rpm                  283
   Aero-Engine
   Compressor
   Facility
--~.-
NAL Fan/               Not available   Not available       Ambient              Ambient             15,500 rpm                  285
   Compressor/
   Turbine Facility


Combustor Comoonent Research Facilities
Installation and Maximum flow                              Temperature
  faclllty         rate              Maximum power           range              Pressure level      Speed range                Page

                                                            JAPAN
IHI Medium-            24 lb/s         Not available       180 to 780 degrees   7 atm               Not available               287
   Pressure                                                  Fahrenheit
   Combustor
   Facility _-._I___~_
NAknku ;;Pressure      13.5 kg/s       Not available       660 degrees Kelvin   900 kPa             Not available               289
         9
   Combustor Test
-~ Facility
NAL High-Pressure      4 kg/s          Not available       Ambient to 730       5 MPa               Not available               291
   Combustor Test                                            degrees Kelvin
   Facility
___-------
NAL Propulsion         Not available   Not available       Ambient              Ambient             Not available               297
   Test Cell
NAL Ram/Scramjet       Not available   Not available       800 to 2,500         1.5 MPa             Not available               299
   Combustor Test                                            degrees Kelvin
   Facilitv




                                            The Chairman of the HouseCommittee on Science,Space,and Technol-
Objectives, Scope,and                       ogy asked us to (1) collect data and information on foreign government
Methodology                                 and industry investment in aerospacevehicle research and technological
                                            development efforts, focusing on those critical or enabling technologies
                                            that could allow foreign countries to develop and build future aerospace
                                            vehicles, and (2) identify indicators to measure foreign countries’ cur-
                                            rent state of aerospacevehicle technological development and progress.
                                            The Committee requested that we provide it with technical data and
                                            information on foreign aerospacetest facilities to assessforeign coun-
                                            tries’ research, development, and testing capabilities for future aero-
                                            spacevehicles. The Committee is particularly interested in the potential



                                            Page 46                                       GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Appendix I
Introduction




Our methodology involved reviewing studies and pertinent documents
and interviewing appropriate officials in Washington, DC., at the
Departments of Defense,the Air Force, State, and Commerce;the
DefenseAdvanced ResearchProjects Agency @ARPA); NASA; and the
Office of Scienceand Technology Policy (OSTP) in the Executive Office of
the President. We also met in Washington, DC., with officials of Gellman
ResearchAssociates,Inc., of Jenkintown, Pennsylvania; the Deutsche
Forschungs-und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DFVLR);*'
and National SpaceDevelopment Agency of Japan (NASDA).
We also visited the NASP Joint Program Office (JPO), the Foreign Technol-
ogy Division of the Air Force SystemsCommand,and Air Force Wright
Aeronautical Laboratories (AFWAL), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base
(AFB), Dayton, Ohio; AEDC and the Foreign Technology Division of the
Air Force SystemsCommand,Arnold AFB, Tullahoma, Tennessee;and
Lovelace Scientific Resources,Inc., Albuquerque, New Mexico.

We met with Air Force, NASA, and contractor officials, engineers,and
scientists to help us develop our approach and methodology, determine
key enabling technologies,and identify specific data requirements
neededto measurethe status of a country’s technological maturation
and capability to develop and build a future air-breathing aerospace
vehicle,

Our methodology also involved reviewing studies and pertinent docu-
ments; interviewing appropriate U.S. Embassy, international organiza-
tion, and foreign government, industry, and university officials; and
visiting key test facilities in France, West Germany, the United King-
dom, The Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Japan, and Australia.

We conducted review work in Paris at the U.S. Embassy,U.S. Mission to
the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD),
OECD Headquarters, Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES), Office
National d’Etudes et de RecherchesAerospatiales (ONERA), North Atlan-
tic Treaty Organization’s (NATO) Advisory Group for AerospaceResearch
and Development (AGARD), ESA, SocieteEuropeennede Propulsion (SEP),
and SocieteNationale d’Etude et de Construction de Moteurs d’Aviation

“In December 1988 DFVLR changed its name to Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und
Raumfahrt (DLR). However, DLR is still commonly referred to in English as the German Aerospace
Research Establishment. Foreign acronyms and names with their translations are included in the list
of abbreviations.



Page   48                                             GAO/NSIAD-90-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
          Appendix I
          Introduction




          We also visited the Duits-NederlandseWindtunnel (DNW) at NLR'S
          Noordoostpolder site near Marknesse;NLR'S High-SpeedWind Tunnel,
          SupersonicWind Tunnel, flight simulator, and computer center in
          Amsterdam; and ESA’SEuropean SpaceResearchand Technology Center
          (ESTEC) in Noordwijk.



Iklgium   We conducted review work in Brussels at the U.S. Embassy, US. Mission
          to the European Communities, European Communities (EC) Headquar-
          ters, and SocieteAnonyme Belge de Constructions Aeronautiques
          (SABCA).

          We also visited the VKI Longshot Free Piston Wind Tunnel ST-l at the
          von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics in Rhode Saint Genese.


Italy     We conducted review work in Romeat the U.S. Embassy, Agenzia Spazi-
          ale Italiana (AS), and Centro Italian0 RicercheAerospaziali (CIFU); in
          Colleferro at the Societa Nazionale Industria Applicazlone-Bomprini
          Parodi Delfino (SNIA-BPD); and in Turin at Aeritalia-Societa Aerospaziale
          Italiana and Fiat Aviazione.


Japan     We conducted review work in Tokyo at the U.S. Embassy,Office of
          Naval Research,Air Force Office of Scientific Research,Army Research
          Office, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Scienceand Tech-
          nology Agency, SpaceActivities Commissionof Japan, NASDA,
          Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI), and The Japan Society for
          Aeronautical and SpaceSciences;in Chofu at the National Aerospace
          Laboratory (NAL); in Sagamihara at the Institute of Spaceand Astronau-
          tical Science(GAS); in Tanegashimaat NASDA'S TanegashimaSpace
          Center; in Tsukuba at NASDA'S Tsukuba SpaceCenter; in Uchinoura at
          ISAS’sKagoshima SpaceCenter; in Utsunomiya at Fuji Heavy Industries
          (FHI); in Gifu at Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI); and in Nagoya and
          Komaki at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI).
          We also visited the JapaneseExperimental Module mock-up and space
          vehicle assembly building at NASDA'S Tsukuba SpaceCenter in Tsukuba;
          Takesaki Rangesmall rocket launch site, Osaki RangeControl Center,
          Mobile Service Tower for the H-I rocket booster, Static Firing Test Facil-
          ity for the LE-7 engine, Yosinobu Rangefor the H-II rocket launcher, and




          Page 60                                GAO/NSLAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
km?ndix   11

Definition and Explanation of Data Elefients


                The following list of technical data and information categoriesprovides
                a definition of technical parameters and an explanation of each data ele-
                ment used in this report. Technical terms used in the facility data sheets
                are defined in the glossary.
                Type of facility: Wind tunnel or air-breathing propulsion test cell. Wind
                tunnels are further categorizedby speedregimes (subsonic,transonic,
                trisonic, supersonic,hypersonic, and hypervelocity wind tunnels). Air-
                breathing propulsion test cells are grouped according to category (pro-
                pulsion wind tunnels; altitude engine test facilities; and propulsion com-
                ponent facilities for engine turbines, compressors,and combustors).
                Name: Proper or generic name of the facility, with additional qualifiers
                or identifiers (such as name of installation or owner), as appropriate.
                When the size of a wind tunnel is used in its name, the units of measure-
                ment used are those by which the facility is best known.

                Country: Country where test facility is located.
                Location: Name of installation, city, and country where facility is
                located.
                Owner(s): Foreign government organization or agency, foreign industry,
                consortium, and/or university; street and/or postal address;city; and
                country.

                Operator(s): Foreign government organization or agency, foreign indus-
                try, consortium, and/or university that actually runs the test facility.
                International cooperation: List of countries and/or international organi-
                zations that use test facility through, for example, contracts, a data
                exchangeagreement,memorandum of agreement,memorandum of
                understanding, or arrangement.
                Point of contact: Nameof person, organization, and telephone number
                ([country code]-(city code)-localnumber) to contact for further
                information.
                Test section size (wind tunnels): The dimensions of the test section are
                given in the following order: height times width times length, or diame-
                ter and length. The units of measurementused are either feet (ft) or
                meters (m) except where inches (in.), centimeters (cm), or millimeters



                Page ii2                               GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Appendix   II
Daflnition and Explanation   of Data Elements




   Active status. The activity is described under Planned improvements
   or Applications/current programs.
   Planned: A new facility is planned, and governmental approval, if
   required, has been sought or obtained to build the facility.

Utilization rate: How frequently and to what extent the facility is used.
May be expressedin terms of number of test runs or hours per day,
month, or year, etc., or shifts per day.
Performance (wind tunnels)

  Mach number: Listed as maximum speedor a range of speedin Mach
  number and/or in feet per second(ft/s) or meters per second(m/s), as
  appropriate.

  Reynolds Number: Indicated in millions (106)per foot (R&t) or meter
  (R,/m).
  Total pressure: Indicated in atmospheres(atm) or bars.
  Dynamic pressure: A range given in pounds per square foot (ib/ft2) or
  kilo-newtons per square meter (W/m2).

  Total temperature: The wind tunnel’s stagnation temperature shown
  in degreesFahrenheit, Kelvin, or Rankine.

  Run time: Test time shown in milliseconds (ms), seconds(s), or charac-
  terized as continuous.
  Comments:Supplementary information on the performance range or
  special conditions of the wind tunnel. Types of test gas may also be
  indicated.
Performance (air-breathing propulsion test cells)
  Dynamic pressure: For propulsion wind tunnels, a range given in
  pounds per square foot (lb/ft2) or kilo-newtons per square meter (k~/
  m2).


  Mass flow: For altitude engine test facilities, an indication of the
  amount of air flowing into an engine’s inlet in a test section in pounds
  per second(lb/s).


Page 54                                         GAO/NSW9@71FS   Foreign Test Facilities
Appendlx II
Defltdtlon and Explanation of Data Elements




   Replacementcost: Best estimate of the current value of the facility or
   the cost to replace facility with all improvements in current dollars.
   Annual operating cost: Operations and maintenance costs per year
   expressedin current dollars.
   Unit cost to user: Typical cost, such as dollars per hour or test.

   Source(s)of funding: Principal foreign government organizations or
   agencies,foreign industry, and/or universities that provide funding
   for construction, improvement, and/or operation of facility.

Number and type of staff: Number and type of personnel working at a
facility, including, for example, engineers,scientists, technicians, others
(such as laborers and research assistants), and administrative/manage-
ment personnel.
Description: Narrative description of the facility.

Testing capabilities: Narrative description of the kinds of tests normally
done or possible. Emphasis on specialized, unusual, or unique
capabilities.

Data acquisition: Narrative description of data acquisition, conversion,
recording, or reduction capabilities and equipment.
Planned improvements: Narrative description of major improvements in
plant, facility, data acquisition, or test capabilities planned, including
dates.

Unique characteristics: Narrative description of any unique characteris-
tics or performance capabilities of facility in the country where located
or in the world.
Applications/current programs: Narrative description of types of appli-
cations and list of activities in recent past (2 to 3 years). A description
of the operational status for inactive facilities is also given.
General comments:Narrative comments regarding facility capabilities or
applications not contained in any category above. Additional comments
may also be provided.




Page K6                                       GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Appendix III

Aerospace Test Facilities in Australia


Figure 111.1:Map of Test Facilities in Aurtralia




                                                                              University of Queensland   -a         c




                                                          The Australian National University




                                               Source:   GAO




                                               Page 58                                         GAO/NSIAD80-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel
ANU T-3 Shock Tunnel




Applications/Current Programs: The T-3 is being used to test ISA’S
Hermes spaceplanefor Avions Marcel Dassault-BreguetAviation, HUTDL
(Horizontal Takeoff and Landing) vehicle and surface catalysts for
British Aerospace,CFD code validation for MBB, and scramjet diagnostics
and biconic geometry work,for NASA. ANU is also planning to use the T-3
to calibrate a Re-entry Air Data System and Scramjet Air Data System
for British AerospaceAustralia. ANU is establishing a cooperative pro-
gram on scrarqjet combustion efficiency with NASA'S Langley Research
Center in Hampton, Virginia.
General Comments:Test gasesinclude air, argon, nitrogen, methane,
oxygen, and helium.
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:Stalker, Ray J., and R, John Sandeman.The Australian
National University Free Piston Shock Tunnel T-3 Facility Handbook.
Canberra: The Australian National University, 1986.
Date of Information: September 1989




Page 60                               GAO/NSIAD9O-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                            Hypewelocity Wind Tunnel
                                            ANU T-3 Shock Tunnel




Figure 111.3:Schematic Diagram of The Australian National University T-3 Shock Tunnel




                            I               I
                                  3m
                                                                   T3




                                           Source:   ANU




                                           Page 62                                      GAO/NSIAD4%71FS Forem Test Facilities
                                                                                                                                    -
                                            Hyw-velocity   Wind Tunnel
                                            ANU T-8 Shock Tunnel




Figure 111.4:Reentry Teat on a Model of HOTOL in The Australian National University T-3 Shock Tunnel




                                           Source:   BAe




                                          Page 68                                       GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
    HypervelocityWind Tunnel
    University of QueenslandT-4 Shock Tunnel



    Country: Australia                                                   Performance
                                                                           Mach Number: 5 to 10
    Location: University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland,             Reynolds Number: 2 x 106/ft at Mach 6
      Australia                                                            Total Pressure: 1 ,150 atm
                                                                           Dynamic Pressure: Not available
    Owner(s):                                                             Total Temperature: 40 MJ kg
      University of Queensland                                             Run Time; About 0.5 to 0. i 5 ms
      Department of Mechanical Engineering                                 Comments: See General Comments
      St. Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4067
      Australia                                                          Cost Information
    Operator(r): University of Queensland                                  Date Built: 1983
                                                                           Date Placed In Operation: 1987
    International Cooperatlon: ESA, France, the United Kingdom, the        Date(s) Upgraded: None
      United States, and West Germany
                                                                           Construction Cost: $900,000 (1983)
                                                                           Replacement Cost: $1,230,000 1989
                                                                          Annual Operating Cost: About $3 1,5b0 (1989)
    Polnt of Contact: Professor Ray J. Stalker, University of              Unit Cost to User: Not available
      Queensland, Tel,: 1611-(7).3773597                                   Source(s) of Funding: Australian Department of Science,
                                                                             $s;?lian   Research Counal, University of Queensland, and
    Tort Bectlon Slrer: 12 in. diameter

    Operational Status: Active                                           Number and Type of Staff
                                                                           En ineers: 0
,   Utllizatlon Rate: 600 tests per year; up to 10 tests per day           SCBentlsts: 2
                                                                          Technicians: 3
                                                                           Others: 1 ex erimenter and 1 operator
                                                                          Admlnistrat Pve/Management: 0
                                                                          Total: 2 to 7


                                                     Description: The University of QueenslandT-4 Shock Tunnel is a free
                                                     piston shock tunnel. The T-4 is a facility that produces a test flow at
                                                     orbital velocities for short periods (milliseconds). It uses a large free pis-
                                                     ton compressoroperating on a single stroke cycle, which heats the gas
                                                     that drives the tunnel.
                                                     Testing Capabilities: The T-4 is capable of conducting pressure measure-
                                                     ments, heat transfer measurements,and flow visualization.
                                                     Data Acquisition: The T-4 has 34 channels of on-line transient data that
                                                     are processedon a personal computer.
                                                     Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): These include build-
                                                     ing a Mach 8 nozzle for increased flow to 15 in., developing techniques to
                                                     measure forces, and installing instrumentation, including optical sys-
                                                     tems such as schlieren, mass spectrometry, and differential
                                                     interferometry.
                                                     Unique Characteristics: The T-4 is capable of achieving real gas effects
                                                     at orbital velocities with a hypersonic flow.


                                                    Page 64                                      GAO/NSIAD-QO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hyprveloclty   Wind Tunnel
University of Queensland T-4 Shock Tunnel




Applications/Current Programs: The T-4 is currently being used for
upper surface flows and shock boundary layer interaction on ESA'S
Hermes spaceplanefor Avions Marcel Dassault-BreguetAviation and
scramjet combustion for NASA.
General Comments:The T-4 was built specifically to test scramjets.
However, it has not yet reached its designedoperating levels. Operating
pressure levels have been raised so that total pressuresof 1,150 atm
have been achieved.This figure represents a little over one-half the
nominal design value. It also represents the T-4’s design value for rou-
tine operation. The test gas usually used is air and a combination of oxy-
gen and nitrogen.

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

Refereces:Stalker, Ray J. “Shock Tunnels for Real GasHypersonics.” In:
Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles. Bristol, United Kingdom:
NA?O AGARD, 1987 (AGARD ConferenceProceedingsNo. 428). University of
Queensland.Free Piston Shock Tunnel T-4, Initial Operation and Cali-
bration St. Lucia. Queensland.Australia: Universitv of Queensland,
1987.

Date of Information: September 1989




Page 68                                     GAO/NSIAD90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                             Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel
                                             University of Queensland T-4 Shock Tunnel




Figure 111.5:Uni versitv_ of Queenrland T-4 Shock Tunnel
                      ,s.            1,*“,--,.
                                                /
                           a
                                                                                         i:.’   ‘1,
                                                                                         :




                                             Source:   GAO




                                             Page 66                                       GAO/NSIAD-90-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Hypecvelocity Wind Tunnel
                                           University of Quemsland T-4 Shock Tunnel




Figure 111.6:Schematic Diagram of the University of Queensland T-4 Shock Tunnel




                                                                                                    Test         Dump
                      Compression                                                     Shock        section       tanks




                        Reservoir



                                           Source:   University   of Queensland




                                          Page 07                                       G+O/NSIAD-9O-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Appendix      IV

Aerospace Test Facilities in Belgium


Figure IV.l: Map of lest Facilities in Belgium




                                                              Rhode Saint Genese
                                                                                     @a
                                                                                      Brussels




                                                                                 i




                           von Karman Institute
                             for Fluid Dynamics




        @     National capital

         0     Facility installation
         0              25                  50   kilometers

         i,                            ;5                       5b miles



                                                                Source     GAO




                                                                Page 68                          GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Subsonic Wind Tunnel

VKI Cold Wind Tunnel CWT-1



Country: Belgium                                                     Performance
                                                                       Mach Number: 0.73 or 63 m/s
Location: von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode Saint         Reynolds Number: 4 x lO”/m (maximum)
  Genese, Belgium                                                      Total Pressure: 1 bar
                                                                       Dynamic Pressure: 2 kN/mz
Owner(s):                                                              Total Temperature: -70 degrees Celsius to ambient
  von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics                              Run Time: Continuous
  Chaussee de Waterloo, 72                                             Comments: None
  B-1640 Rhode Saint Genese
  Belgium                                                            Cost Information
                                                                       Date Built: 1984
Operator(b): von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics                   Date Placed in Operation: 1984
International Cooperation: ESA and 16 NATO member countries            Date(s) Upgradea: 1989
  (See General Comments)
                                                                       Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                       Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                      Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Professor Mario Carbonaro, von Karman Institute      Unit Cost to User: Not available
  for Fluid Dynamics, Tel.: [32]-(2)358-1901                     -     Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Test Section Size: 0.1 x 0.3 x 2.2 m
                                                                     Number and Type of Staff
Operatlonal Status: Active                                            Engineers: 0
                                                                      Scientists: 0
Utilization Rate: 50 days per year                                    Technicians: 1
                                                                      Others: 0
                                                                      Administrative/Management:    0
                                                                      Total: 1


                                               Description: The VKI Cold Wind Tunnel CWT-1 is a low-speed, closed-cir-
                                               cuit subsonicwind tunnel capable of operating at subfreezing tempera-
                                               tures. It incorporates a centrifugal fan, a settling chamber, a 12.4 to 1
                                               contraction ratio, a rectangular test section with a 0.1 X 0.3 m cross sec-
                                               tion and 2.2 m length, a diffuser, and return circuit. The top and bottom
                                               walls of the test section are made of double glazing, thus providing opti-
                                               cal access.The remainder of the facility is thermally insulated with a
                                               S-cm rock wool layer. The fan is driven by a variable rpm 8-kw DC motor
                                               providing a maximum flow velocity of 63 m/s (Mach 0.73) that can be
                                               reached in a minimum time of 30 s after starting the tunnel. Cooling of
                                               the test air is provided by spraying liquid nitrogen into the return
                                               circuit.
                                               Testing Capabilities: This tunnel was especially designedto study the
                                               motion of films of anti-icing fluids applied to aircraft wings during simu-
                                               lated takeoffs. It is also suited for optical measurementsof skin friction,
                                               as well as for general flow studies at temperatures as low as -70
                                               degreesCelsius.
                                               Data Acquisition: Not available


                                               Page 69                                      GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                         Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                         VKI Cold Wind Tunnel (XT-1




                                         Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None

                                         Unique Characteristics: Flow acceleration in the tunnel simulates air-
                                         craft takeoff.
                                         Applications/Current Programs: These include behavior of anti-icing
                                         fluids on aircraft wings.
                                         General Comments:NATO member countries consist of Belgium, Canada,
                                         Denmark, France, Greece,Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands,
                                         Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United
                                         States, and West Germany.

                                         Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
                                         References:von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics. Facilities and
                                         Instrumentation 1986. Rhode Saint Genese,Belgium: von Karman
                                         Institute for Fluid Dynamics, 1986, p. 6.

                                         Date of Information: November 1989
Figure IV.2: von Karman Institute Cold
Wlnd Tunnel CWT-1




                                         Source:   VKI




                                         Page 70                                GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Subsouk Wind Tunnel
                                           WI Cold Whd Tunnel CWT-1




Figure IV.3: Schematlc Diagram of the
von Karman Institute Cold Wind Tunnel
CWT-1                                                                                   , Insulated   return   circuit




                                                        /Centrifugm   1Liquid nitrogq     cooler                         \ Test section




                                        Source:   VKI




                                        Page 71                                                         GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
SubsonicWind Tunnel

VKI LowSpeed CascadeTunnel C-l



Country: Belgium                                                      Performance
                                                                        Mach Number: Not available
Location: von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode Saint          Reynolds Number: Not available
  Genese, Belgium                                                       Total Pressure: Not available
                                                                        Dynamic Pressure: Not available
Owner(s):                                                               Total Temperature: Not available
  von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics                               Run Time: Not available
  Chaussee de Waterloo, 72                                              Comments: None
  B-1640 Rhode Saint Genese
  Belgium                                                             Coat Information
                                                                        Date Built: Not available
Operator(s): von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics                    Date Placed in Operation: Not available
lnternstlonal   Cooperatlon: ESA and 16 NATO member countries           Date(a) Upgraded: Not available
                                                                        Construction Coat: Not available
                                                                        Replacement Coat: Not available
Point of Contact: Professor John F. Wendt, von Karman Institute for     Annual Operating Cost: Not available
    Fluid Dynamics, Tel.: [32]-(2)358-1901
.- --~                                                                  Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                        Source(a) of Funding: Not available
Test
-.-.. Section Size: 12 x 50 cm
                                                                      Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Not available                                      Engineers: Not available
                                                                       Scientists: Not available
Utilization Rate: Not available                                        Technicians: Not available
                                                                       Others: Not available
                                                                       Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                       Total: Not available


                                               Description: The VKI Low-SpeedCascadeTunnel C-l is a continuous-flow
                                               subsonicwind tunnel with a rectangular cross section of 12 x 60 cm.

                                               Testing Capabilities: Tests are made using either compressoror turbine
                                               cascades,where each cascademay contain from 7 to 10 blades. Two-
                                               dimensional flow conditions are obtained by removal of sidewall bound-
                                               ary layers using a suction system independent of the main air supply. A
                                               blade mounted in the center of the cascademay be equipped with pres-
                                               sure taps. Flow measurementsupstream and downstream of a cascade
                                               are made using two remotely-actuated probe carriages.
                                               Data Acquisition: On-line data reduction of probe measurementsis avail-
                                               able by connection to the medium-speed16-channelacquisition system
                                               that is connecteddirectly to the data acquisition computer.
                                               Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Reynolds Number
                                               capability has been improved over the critical value for cascadetesting.

                                               Unique Characteristics: None
                                               Applications/Current Programs: Not available


                                               Page 72                                        GAO/NSLAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Subsonic Wind Tunnel
VKI LowSpeed Cascade Tunnel C-1




General Comments:None

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
IEeferences:von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics. Facilities and
f nstrumentation 1986. Rhode Saint Genese,Belgium: von Karman
Institute for Fluid Dynamics, 1986, p. 3.
Date of Information: November 1989




Page 73                               GAO/NSJAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                     Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                     VKI LowSpeed Cascade Tunnel C-1




                                                                ,,,I   ,....   “..-z


Figure IV.4: von Karman Institute                                                      i




Low-Speed Cascade Tunnel C-l




                                    Source:   VKI




                                    Page 74                                                GAO/NSIAD-90-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
                                       Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                       VKI Low-Speed Cascade Tunnel Cl




Figure IV.& Schematic Diagram of the
von Karman lnetltute Low-Speed
Carcade Wind Tunnel C-l

                                         DOWNSTREAM      PROBE                                                                              BLOWER
                                         TRAVERSING    MECHANISM

                                                                     CONTRACTION
                                                                                           SETTLING        CHAMBER
                                                                     -T-Y---

                                                                                                      ‘.   SUCTION




                                                               \~NLET      PROBE

                                                       SIDE   WALL   BOUNDARY      LAVER    SUCTION




                                       Source:   VKI




                                       Page 76                                                                   GAO/NSIAD-9OBlFS Foreign Test Facilities
SubsonicWind Tunnel

VKI Low-Speed Wind Tunnel LIA



Country: Belgium                                                    Performance
                                                                      Mach Number: 0.17 or 60 m/s
Location: von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode Saint        Reynolds Number: 4 x 106/m
  Genese, Belgium                                                     Total Pressure: 1 bar
                                                                      Dynamic Pressure: 2 kN/m2
Owner(a):                                                             Total Temperature: Ambient
  von Karman lnstrtute for Fluid Dynamics                             Run Time: Continuous
  Chaussee de Waterloo, 72                                            Comments: None
  B-1640 Rhode Saint Genese
  Belgium                                                           Cost Information
                                                                      Date Built: 1949
Operator(s): von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics                  Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                      Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
International Cooperation: ESA and 16 NATO member countries          Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                      Replacement Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Professor Mario Carbonaro, von Karman Institute    Annual Operating Cost: Not available
  for Fluid Dynamics, Tel.: [32]-(2)358-1901                          Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                      Sourcefs) of Fundina: Not available
lest Section.- Size: 3 ___...-
                       m diameter (open-jet)
                                                                    Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Active                                            Engineers: 1
                                                                      Scientists: 0
Utilization Rate: Not available                                      Technicians: 1
                                                                     Others: 0
                                                                     $n,ir$strative/Management:      0
                                                                           :


                                               Description: The VKI Low-SpeedWind Tunnel L-1A is a subsonicwind
                                               tunnel. It has a free-jet test section of 3 m diameter. The contrarotating
                                               fans are driven by a variable speedDC motor of 580 kw, allowing a con-
                                               tinuous variation of velocity from 2 to 60 m/s (Mach 0.006 to 0.17). The
                                               contraction ratio is 4 with a typical turbulence level of 0.3 percent.

                                               Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is provided with a full-range of test
                                               equipment, including a six-component overhead hydromechanical bal-
                                               ance for aircraft model testing. The test section may also be equipped
                                               with a flat plate/turntable system including means for atmospheric
                                               wind simulation to be used for tests on ground structures and on envi-
                                               ronmental problems. For special applications, a number of multi-
                                               component strain-gauge balances,instrumentation for the measurement
                                               and recording of pressure and flow characteristics, and flow visualiza-
                                               tion methods are available.
                                               Data Acquisition: The facility may be connectedto the medium- and
                                               high-speeddata acquisition systems of the Computer Center.
                                               Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None



                                               Page 76                                      GAO/NSIAD-90QlFS    Foreign Test Facilities
                                          Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                          VKI Low-Speed Wind Tunnel LlA




                                          Unique Characteristics: None
                                          Applications/Current Programs: These include general aeronautical
                                          testing.
                                          General Comments:None

                                          Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
                                          References:von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics. Facilities and
                                          Instrumentation 1986. Rhode Saint Genese,Belgium: von Karman
                                          Institute for Fluid Dynamics, 1986, p. 11,
                                          Date of Information: November 1989
Figure IV.6: von Karman Institute Low-Speed Wind Tunnel L-1A




                                          Page 77                               GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                        SubmonkWind Tunnel
                                        VKI k#Qeed    Wind Tunnel LlA




Figure IV.7: Schematic Diagram of the
von Karmrn Inrtltuto Low-Speed Wlnd
Tunnel L-l A




                                                          /
                                                                                                j
                                                          I WCULAR   TEST SECTION    L 1A


                                                                           ‘V’      ----F




                                        Source: VKI




                                        Page 78                                             GAO/N&ID-90-71FS   Foreign Test Facilities
 Transonic Wind Tunnel

;vKI CompressionT’ubekl.nrular Cascade
1Facility CT-3

                                                                                                                                     . _
Country: Belgium                                                     Performance
                                                                       Mach Number: See General Comments
Location: von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode Saint         Reynolds Number: See General Comments
  Genese, Belgium                                                      Total Pressure: 1 to 5 bars
                                                                       Dynamic Pressure: Not available
Owner(s):                                                             Total Temperature: 300 to 500 degrees Kelvin
  von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics                              Run Time: 100 to 500 ms
  Chaussee de Waterloo, 72                                             Comments: None
  8.1640 Rhode Saint Genese
  Belgium                                                            Cost Information
                                                                       Date Built: Not available
Operator(s): von Karman lnstltute for Fluid Dynamics                   Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                       Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
International Cooperation: EC, France, Italy, and West Germany        Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                      Replacement Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Professors Claus H. Sleverding and T. Arts,         Anhual Operating Cost: Not available
  von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Tel.: [32]-(2).358-1901    Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                      Source(s) bf Funding: Not available
Test Section Size: 850 mm (maximum tip), 600 mm (hub mirjmum),
  and 50 to 70 mm (typical blade height)                             Number and Type of Staff
                                                                      Engineers: Not available
Operational Status: Not available                                     Scientists: Not available
                                                                      Technicians: Not available
Utilization Rate: Not available
                           .~   .~~...~..~~                           Others: Not available
                                                                      Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                      Total: Not available


                                                 Description: The VKI CompressionTube Annular CascadeFacility CT-3 is
                                                 a transonic wind tunnel. The CT-3 is an isentropic light piston compres-
                                                 sion tube annular cascadefacility that provides full similarity with mod-
                                                 ern aero-inlet guide vanes with respect to Mach number and Reynolds
                                                 Number as well as free-stream/wall/coolant flow temperature ratios.
                                                 The facility consistsof (1) a 1.6 m diameter X 8 m long tube containing a
                                                 lightweight piston with a central pressure releasevalve to prevent pres-
                                                 sure loads that are too high, (2) a fast-opening shutter valve mounted on
                                                 the cylinder end plate opening the flow path via a radial diffuser to a
                                                 small settling chamber (900 mm tip and 500 mm hub), (3) a test section
                                                 containing the inlet guide vanes with provision of film cooling of all
                                                 blades as well as top and bottom endwalls, and (4) a diffuser discharging
                                                 the flow into a large dump tank. A variable sonic hole device in the dif-
                                                 fuser stabilizes the vane exit static pressure.
                                                 Testing Capabilities: Pressure,temperature, and convection heat trans-
                                                 fer measurementsare performed using fast responsetransducers or
                                                 transient techniques. A fast moving pneumatic drive probe carriage
                                                 with pressure and temperature probes allows surveying the exit flow
                                                 field over an annular sector of 40 degrees.



                                                 Page 79                                     GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Tranaonlc Wind Tunnel
VKl Comprersion Tube Annular Cascade
Facility Cl’3




Data Acquisition: The data are acquired by a 48-channel high-speeddata
acquisition system. The data are visualized and processedon a VAX
3600 computer. Tunnel operation is controlled by an IBM personal
computer.
Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None

Unique Characteristics: None
Applications/Current Programs: Not available

General Comments:Mach number and Reynolds Number are in the typi-
cal range for transonic gasturbines.

Photograph/Schematic Available: No

References:None available

Date of Information: November 1989




Page 80                                GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Trisonic Wind Tunnel

VKI HighSpeed CascadeTunnel C-3



Country: Belgium                                                        Performance
                                                                          Mach Number: 0.2 to 2
Location: von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode Saint            Reynolds Number: Not available
  Genese, Belgium                                                         Total Pressure: 1 to 3 bars
                                                                          Dynamic Pressure: Not available
Owner(s):                                                                 Total Temperature: 290 degrees Kelvin
  von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics                                 Run Time: Up to 20 min
  Chaussee de Waterloo, 72                                                Comments: None
  B-1640 Rhode Saint Genese
  Belgium                                                               Cost information
                                                                          Date Built: Not available
Operator(s): von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics                      Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                          Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
International Cooperation: France, Italy, the United Kingdom, the        Construction Cost: Not available
  United States, and West Germany                                         Replacement Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Professor Claus H. Sieverding, von Karman              Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                          Unit Cost to User: Not available
     Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Tel.: [32]-(2)358-1901
.-.,,__--._-.-.-_--                                                      Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Test
___- Section Size: 100 x 250 mm2                                        Number and Type of Staff
                                                                          Engineers: Not available
Operational Status: Not available                                        Scientists: Not available
                                                                         Technicians: Not available
Utilization
-           Rate:
              .-_~ Not available                                         Others: Not available
                                                                         Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                         Total: Not available


                                                     Description: The VKI High-SpeedCascadeTunnel C-3 is a blowdown
                                                     trisonic wind tunnel with discharge to atmosphere. The maximum test
                                                     section dimensions are 100 X 260 m&. The tunnel is only used for testing
                                                     turbine cascades.
                                                     Testing Capabilities: The inlet angle can be changedcontinuously by
                                                     rotating the test section. The measuring equipment includes differential
                                                     electric transducers for the pressure readings taken by probes mounted
                                                     on remotely controlled carriages, multimanometers for blade surface
                                                     pressure distributions and schlieren systems for flow visualization.
                                                     Data Acquisition: The low-speed on-line data acquisition system samples
                                                     the probe data at a rate of 100 HZ. Data are processedon the central VAX
                                                     3300 computer.
                                                     Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None

                                                     Unique Characteristics: None




                                                     Page 81                                    GAO/NSIALb9O~71F8 Foreign Test Facilities
                                    Trlmnlc Wind Tunnel
                                    WI High-Speed Cascade Tunnel G3




                                    Applications/Current Programs: These include transonic turbine cas-
                                    cade testing, shock boundary layer interaction, trailing edge flow, and
                                    wake mixing.
                                    General Comments:None
                                    Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
                                    References:von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics. Facilities and
                                    Instrumentation 1986. Rhode Saint Genese,Belgium: von Karman
                                    Institute for Fluid Dynamics, 1986, p. 3.
                                    Date of Information: November 1989
Figure IV.8: von Karman Institute
High-Speed Carcade Tunnel C-3




                                    Source: VKI




                                    Page 82                               GAO/NSIAD-SO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                          Trbonic Wind Tunnel
                                          VlU High-Speed Cascade Tunnel G3




Figure IV.9: Schematic Diagram of the von Karman Institute High-Speed Cascade Tunnel C-3

                                                     Nozzle blocks
                   Honeycomb
                          \                      I




                    high pressure air supply
                                          Source: VKI




                                           Page 83                                    GAO/NSLALM@71ES Foreign Test Facilities
Supersonic Wind Tunnel

VKI Supersonic/Transonic Wind Tunnel S-l



Country: Belgium                                                      Performance
                                                                        Mach Number: 0.4 to 1.05 (slotted transonic), 1.43, and 2 to 2.25
Location: von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode Saint            (contoured supersonic)
  Genese, Belgium                                                       Reynolds Number: 4 x 106/m at Mach 2
                                                                        Total Pressure: 0.3 bars
Owner(s):                                                               Dynamic Pressure: 10 kN/m*
  von Karman institute for Fluid Dynamics                               Total Temperature: 300 degrees Kelvin
  Chaussee de Waterloo, 72                                              Run Time: Continuous
  B-1640 Rhode Saint Genese                                             Comments: None
  Belgium

Operator(s): von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics                  Cost Information
                                                                        Date Built: About 1950
                                                                        Date Placed in Operation: Not available
International Cooperation: ESA and 16 NATO member countries             Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
Point of Contact: Professor John F. Wendt, von Karman Institute for     Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                        Replacement Cost: Not available
  Flurd Dynamics, Tel.: [32]-(2)358-1901                                Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                        Unit Cost to User: Not available
Test Section Size: 40 x 40 cm (transonic) and 40 x 40 cm                Source(s) of Funding: Not available
  (supersonic)
                                                                      Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Active                                              Engineers: 1
                                                                       Scientists: 0
Utilization Rate: 100 days per year                                    g;e;crns:     1

                                                                        ;lmlin$trative/Management:      0
                                                                              :


                                               Description: The VKI Supersonic/Transonic Wind Tunnel S-l is a continu-
                                               ous-flow, closed-circuit supersonic wind tunnel. The tunnel is of the
                                               Ackeret type and is driven by a 615-kw axial flow compressor.Two 40 X
                                               40 cm test sections (one supersonic and one transonic) are available. The
                                               tunnel has Mach 2 and 2.25 contoured nozzlesand a slotted transonic
                                               test section with a Mach 0.4 to 1.05 nozzle.A Mach 1.43 solid half-nozzle
                                               is also available for shock wave and boundary layer interaction studies.
                                               The test section, which is followed by a variable geometry diffuser, con-
                                               tains a three-degree-of-freedomtraversing mechanism for model and
                                               probe support, as well as a variable incidence mechanism (less than 35
                                               degrees).The tunnel is equipped with shadow and schlieren systems.
                                               Testing Capabilities: Instrumentation includes scanivalves for pressure
                                               distribution measurements,multi-component strain-gauge balances,a
                                               4-w laser Doppler velocimeter with programmable table, and data acqui-
                                               sition systems.
                                               Data Acquisition: The tunnel may be connectedto the von Karman
                                               Institute’s data acquisition system.



                                               Page 84                                         GAO/NSIADSO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                     Supersonic Wind Tunnel
                                     VKI Supersouic/Transonic   Wind Tunnel S-l




                                     Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None

                                     Uniaue Characteristics: None

                                     Applications/Current Programs: These include projectile stability and
                                     general aeronautical testing and research.
                                     General Comments:None
                                     Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
                                     References:von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics. Facilities and
                                     Instrumentation 1986. Rhode Saint Genese,Belgium: von Karman
                                     Institute for Fluid Dynamics, 1986, p. 23.
                                     Date of Information: November 1989
Figure IV.10: von Karman Institute
Supersonic/Trensonic Wind Tunnel




                                     ma
                                     Source: VKI




                                     Page 86                                      GAO/NSIADBO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Supersonic Wind Tunnel
                                           VKI Supermnic/Traueouic        WLud Tunnel S-l




Figure IV.1 1: Schematic Diagram of the
von Karman Institute Supersonic/
Transonic Wind Tunnel S-l




                                                        -.-..-
                                                    I




                                                                     -.
                                                                                                                           I




                                          Source: VKI




                                          Page 86                                           GAO/NHAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel

VKI Isentropic Light Piston Compression
Tube CT-2


Country: Belgium                                                      Performance
                                                                        Mach Number: Not available
Location: von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode Saint          Reynolds Number: Not available
  Genese. Belgium                                                      Total Pressure: 0.5 to 7 bars
                                                                        Dynamic Pressure: Not available
Owner(s):                                                              Total Temperature: 300 to 600 degrees Kelvin
  von Karman lnstrtute for Fluid Dynamics                               Run Time: 100 to 800 ms
  Chaussee de Waterloo, 72                                              Comments: None
  E-1640 Rhode Saint Genese
  Belgium                                                             Cost information
Operator(s): von Karman lnstrtute for Fluid Dynamics                    Date Built: Not available
                                                                        Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                        Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
International Cooperation: France, Italy, the United Kingdom, the       Construction Cost: Not available
  United States, and West Germany                                       Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                       Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Professor T. Arts, von Karman Institute for Fluid     Unit Cost to User: Not available
  Dynamics, Tel.: [32]-(2)358-1901
                   _          _ ~- --.   ~___.__                        Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Test
^.. Section
         --. Size:    250 x 100 mm
              ..~_...----~~..___._-__.                                Number and Type of Staff
                                                                        Engineers: Not available
Operational Status: Not available                                       Scientists: Not available
                                                                       Technicians: Not available
Utilization Rate: Not avarlable                                        Others: Not available
                                                                       Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                       Total: Not available


                                                Description: The VKI Isentropic Light Piston CompressionTube CT-2 is a
                                                shock tunnel. It is a short-duration facility that provides full similarity
                                                with modern aero-engineswith respect to Mach and Reynolds Numbers
                                                as well as free-stream, wall, and coolant temperature ratios. It consists
                                                of a 5 m long, 1 m diameter cylinder containing a lightweight piston that
                                                is isolated from the test section by a fast opening valve. As the piston
                                                moves,the gas in front of it is isentropically compresseduntil it reaches
                                                the desired pressure and temperature levels. The fast opening valve is
                                                then actuated, allowing the pressurized air to flow over the model, typi-
                                                cally a cascade.Steady free-stream flow conditions are maintained for
                                                100 to 800 ms; they can be varied between 300 and 600 degreesKelvin
                                                and 0.5 and 7 bars. A 15-19dump tank allows downstream pressure
                                                adjustments between 0.1 and 4 bars. Secondary air to be used in film
                                                cooling applications can be produced at temperatures as low as 170
                                                degreesKelvin, The maximum test section dimensions are 250 X 100 mm.
                                                Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is capable of conducting pressure, tem-
                                                perature and convective heat transfer measurements,Additional quali-
                                                tative information is obtained from oil flow or schlieren visualizations,




                                                Page 117                                      GAO/NSLAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                         Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel
                                         VKI Isentropic Light Piston Compression
                                         Tube CT-2




                                         Data Acquisition: Measurementsare performed using fast response
                                         transducers or transient techniques. They are acquired by a 48channel
                                         high-speedcomputer, visualized, and processedusing the VAX 1l/780
                                         computer.
                                         Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
                                         Unique Characteristics: None
                                         Applications/Current Programs: Not available

                                         General Comments:None
                                         Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

                                         References:von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Facilities and
                                         Instrumentation 1986. Rhode Saint Genese,Belgium: von Karman
                                         Institute for Fluid Dynamics, 1986, p. 6.

                                         Date of Information: November 1989
Flgure IV.12: von Karman lnrtitute
Irontropic Llght PI&on Comprerrlon
Tube CT-2

                                     I        ,,m -




                                     Source: VKI




                                     Page 88                                       GAO/NSIAD80-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel
                                           Mu Isentropic Light Piston Compression
                                           Tube CT-2




Flgure IV.13: Schematic Diagram of the von Karman Institute Isentropic Light Piston Compression Tube CT-2

       Exhaust
                           Test section
                          I          Shutter valve                                   Piston




                                                                   High pressure air supply



     L
                                 \
                                      Cascade


                      \
                          Dump tank                                                                       To silencer


                                          Source. VKI




                      Y




                                          Page 89                                      GAO/NHAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Faclllties
Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel

VKI Longshot Free Piston Tunnel ST-1



Country: Belgium                                                       Performance
                                                                         Mach Number: 15 (contoured) and 20 (conical)
Location: von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode Saint           Reynolds Number: 20 x 106/m (maximum)
   Genese, Belgium                                                       Total Pressure: 4,000 bars (maximum)
                                                                         Dynamic Pressure: 1 to 2 bars
Owner(s):                                                                Total Temperature: 2,400 degrees Kelvin (maximum)
   von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics                               Run lime: 5 to 10 ms
   Chaussee de Waterloo, 72                                              Comments: Gas used is nitrogen. Nozzle exit diameters are 43
   B-1640 Rhode Saint Genese                                               cm (Mach 15 contoured nozzle) and 60 cm (Mach 20 conical
   Belgium                                                                 nozzle).

Operator(s): von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics                   Cost Information
                                                                         Date Built: Early 1960s
International Cooperation: ESA and 16 NATO member countries              Date Placed in Operation: 1967
                                                                         Date(s) Upgraded: 1987 to 1988
Point of Contact: Professor John F. Wendt, von Karman Institute for     Construction Cost: $400,000 (early 1960s)
   Fluid Dynamics, Tel.: [32]-(2)-X58-1901                               Replacement Cost: $4 million (1989)
                                                                        Annual Operating Cost: $400,000 (1989)
Test Section Size: 16 m3 (open-jet section)                              Unit Cost to User: $3,000 per test (1989)
                                                                        Source(s) of Funding: See General Comments
Operational Status: Active
                                                                       Number and Type of Staff
Utilization
_....-.. _.”_... ._ Rate:
                     ..--...-~1 to 2 tests per day                       Engineers: 1 (full-time)
                                                                         Scientists: 2 (part-time)
                                                                        Technicians: 4 (2 full-time)
                                                                        Others: 2 (doctoral degree students)
                                                                        Administrative/Management:          0
                                                                        Total: 3 full-time plus 6 part-time


                                                     Description: The VKI Longshot Free Piston Tunnel ST-l, also known as
                                                     the VKI Longshot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel, is a piston-driven intermit-
                                                     tent facility. Compressednitrogen is trapped at peak reservoir condi-
                                                     tions by a series of check valves.
                                                     Testing Capabilities: Measurementsare made of heat transfer, pres-
                                                     sures, forces, and moments. Reynolds Numbers (based on a typical
                                                     model length of 30 cm) range from 2 to 6 x 10f5/m at Mach 15.
                                                     Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 64 transient recorders, operating at
                                                     50 KHz each, that are controlled by a personal computer. Data reduction
                                                     is performed on a VAX computer.
                                                     Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): A precision model
                                                     incidence mechanismwill be ready by March 1990.
                                                     Unique Characteristics: The VKI Longshot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel has
                                                     the highest unit Reynolds Number of any facility in the world in the
                                                     Mach 15 to 20 range.



                                                     Page 90                                    GAO/NSLAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hyperveloclty Wind Tunnel
VlU Longshot Free Piston Tunnel ST-1




Applications/Current Programs: The VKI Longshot is being used to test
hypersonic heat transfer and aerodynamic characteristics of reentry
vehicles. Since 1986 it has been used to test ISA’S Hermes spaceplanefor
Avions Marcel Dassault-BreguetAviation.

General Comments:The VKI Longshot has been operational since 1967
and has had the sameteam of technical personnel since 1976. It was
reactivated in 1982. Sourcesof funding include ESA,the Belgian Science
Policy Office, CNES, and Avions Marcel Dassault-BreguetAviation.
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Hoyt, Capt. Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology
London: European Office of Aerospace Researchand Development,
1986, p. 106 (EOARD Technical Report). Holden, Michael S. “A Review of
the Current Capabilities in Europe to Perform Experimental Researchin
Hypersonic Flow.” In: European-HypersonicTechnology. London: Euro-
pean Office of AerospaceResearchand Development, 1986, pp. 26-28
(EOARD Technical Report). Wendt, John F. “European Hypersonic Wind
Tunnels.” In: Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles. Bristol,
United Kingdom: NA~D AGARD, 1987 (AGARD ConferenceProceedings
No. 428). Simconides,G., and John F. Wendt. Modernization of the VKI
Longshot Hypersonic Tunnel. Rhode Saint Genese,Belgium: von Karman
Instltute, 1988 (von Karman Institute preprint).

Date of Information: November 1989




Page 91                                GAO/NSIAD-WI-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                         Hypellreloclty Wind Tunnel
                                         VKI Longshot Free Piston Tunnel ST-1




Figure IV.14: von Karman lnrtitute
Longshot Free Piston Tunnel ST-1




                                         Source: VKI

Figure IV.15: Schematic Diagram of the
von Karman Institute Longshot Free
Piston Tunnel ST-l                            DRiVER TUBE                                DRIVEN        TUBE
                                                                                                                           RESERVOIR
                                                                                                                          PO s 4000 bar
                                                                                                                                                      1
                                               ID 12 5 cm                                 --..-
                                                                    PISTON
                                                                 ..---


                                                   6m       *
                                                                                                                                      TEST   SECTKm




                                                                PRIMARY      DIAPHRAGM   SECONDARY           DIAPHRAGM
                                                                                                  TUNGSTEN
                                                                                                  -.-_--~.---_-   THROA


                                                                                                  36 cm NOZZLE    EXIT DIAMETER
                                                                                                  ---_..- MACH No __
                                                                                                                  15 or 20 --.



                                         Source: U S. AN Force EOARD

                     Y




                                         Page 92                                                  GAO/NSLAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell

VKI HighSpeed CompressorFacility R-4



Country: Belgium                                                      Performance
                                                                        Maximum Flow Rate: Not available
Location: von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode Saint          Pressure Level: 0.1 to 2.5 atm
   Genese, Belgium                                                      Inlet Temperature Range: Ambient
                                                                        Speed Range: 25,000 rpm
Owner(s):                                                               Power Level: Not available
   von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics                              Comments: None
   Chaussee de Waterloo, 72
   B-1640 Rhode Saint Genese                                          Cost Information
   Belgium                                                              Date Built: Not available
                                                                        Date Placed in Operation: Not available
Operator(s): von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics                    Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
                                                                       Construction Cost: Not available
International Cooperation: ESA and 16 NATO member countries             Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                       Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Professor John F. Wendt, von Karman Institute for     Unit Cost to User: Not available
   Fluid Dynamics, Tel.: [32]-(2)358-1901                               Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Component Size: Not available                                         Number and Type of Staff
                                                                        Engineers: Not available
Operatlonal Status: Not available                                       Scientists: Not available
                                                                       Technicians: Not available
Utilization
     .._ _^.... Rate:    Not available
                 ._.. _..___   ----                                    Others: Not available
                                                                       Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                       Total: Not available


                                               Description: The VKI High-SpeedCompressorFacility R-4 is a compressor
                                               component research facility. The R-4 is a closed-loopsystem, which
                                               allows testing of axial or radial compressorsusing air or other gases.For
                                               axial compressors,rotor diameters must not exceed0.4 m and hub-tip
                                               ratio may be as low as 0.35, Freon 12 or air can be used for rotor, single-
                                               stage, and multistage testing. The facility is driven with a boo-kW elec-
                                               tric motor with continuously variable speed.Maximum shaft speedis
                                               either 25,000 or 69,000 rpm.
                                               Testing Capabilities: The facility is instrumented with pressure trans-
                                               ducers, scanivalves, a torquemeter, a flow measurement device, and a
                                               gas analyzer.
                                               Data Acquisition: Measurementsare recorded on a data logger through
                                               an eight-channel automatic scanning system that is microprocessor-
                                               controlled. A secondunit keeps track of three directional probes for the
                                               automatic detection and recording of the aerodynamic and thermody-
                                               namic quantities at preselectedradial stations. The high-frequency sig-
                                               nals from velocity and pressure sensorsare directly sent to a data
                                               acquisition computer for further processing.

                                               Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None


                                               Page 93                                        GAO/NSIAD-BO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                     &r-Breathing Propulsion Teet Cell
                                     VKI High-Speed Compressor Facility R4




                                     Unique Characteristics: None

                                     Applications/Current Programs: Not available
                                     General Comments:None
                                     Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
                                     References:von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics. Facilities and
                                     Instrumentation 1986. Rhode Saint Genese,Belgium: von Karman
                                     Institute for Fluid Dynamics, 1986, p. 21.
                                     Date of Information: November 1989
Figure IV.16: von Karman Institute
High-Speed Compressor Facility R-4




                                     Source: VKI




                                     Page 94                                 GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                         Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell
                                         VKI High-Speed Compressor Facility R-4




Figure IV.17: Schematic Diagram of the
von Karman Institute High-Speed
Compressor Facility R-4
                                                         COOLER
                                                                                       SETTLING   CHAMBER
                                                                         I                                                                DC   MOTOR
                                                                                                                            GEAR   BOX




                                                                  TEST       SECTION
                                                                                                            1   COLLECTOR




                                         Source:   VKI




                                         Page 96                                                                GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Appendix V

Aerospace Test Facilities in France


Flgure V.1: Map of Test Facllltler In France

                                                                                    ONERA lnstltut de Mecanlque
                                Laboratoire de Recherches                           der Fluldes de Lllle
                                Balistlques et Aerodynamiques

        Centro Natlonal de la Recherche Scientiflque                                          ONERA Palaiseau Centre




                                                                                            Centre d’Essals des
                                                                                            Propulseurs de Saclay




                    Aerospatlale-
                        Aqultalne




   ONERA Centre d’Etuder et de                                      .    Toulouse
   Rechercher de Touloure                                       .       No6




                                               Source:   GAO




                                               Page 96                                     GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
SubsonicWind Tunnel

CEPRA 19 Anechoic Wind Tunnel



Country: France                                                     Performance
                                                                      Mach Number: Greater than 0.29 at 2 m diameter and greater
Lo;~;~F;: Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de Saclay, Orsay,             than 0.18 at 3 m diameter
                                                                      Reynolds Number: Up to 66 x 106/m at 2 m diameter and up to
                                                                        2.2 x 106/m at 3 m diameter
Owner(s):                                                             Total Pressure: Atmospheric
  Centre d’fssais des Propulseurs de Saclay and Office National       Dynamic Pressure: Not available
    d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales                           Total Temperature: Ambient
  F-91406 Orsay Cedex                                                 Run Time: Not available
  France                                                              Comments: None
Operator(s): Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de Saclay and Office   Cost Information
  National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales                    Date Built: 1979
International Cooperation: Not available                              Date Placed in Operatlon: Not available
                                                                      Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
                                                                     Construction Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: M. Fayot, Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de        Replacement Cosl: Not available
--- Saclay, Tel.: [33]-(6)941-81-50                                   Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                      Unit Cost to User: Not available
lest Section Size: 2 or 3 m diameter and 11 m long                   Source(s) of Funding: CEPr and ONERA

Operational Status: Active                                          Number and Type of Staff
                                                                      Engineers: Not available
Utilization Rate: Not available                                       Scientists: Not available
                                                                     Technicians: Not available
                                                                     Others: Not available
                                                                     Administrative/Management:       Not available
                                                                     Total: 5


                                              Description: The CEPRA 19 Anechoic Wind Tunnel is a subsonicwind tun-
                                              nel with a continuous-flow, open-circuit, and open-jet test circuit inside
                                              a large anechoicchamber. The tunnel was built jointly by CEPr and
                                              ONERA. The free test section occupiesthe central part of a vast anechoic
                                              chamber where the flow can reach 100 m/s (Mach 0.29).
                                              Testing Capabilities: The CEPRA 19 Anechoic is used to study the acoustic
                                              effects of an airflow on various active models (nozzlesor rotors) or pas-
                                              sive models (airfoils). It is specially dedicated to acoustic testing driven
                                              by a centrifugal exhauster on an electric motor.
                                              Data Acquisition: The tunnel has a data acquisition system for noise
                                              analysis on and around the models.

                                              Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
                                              Unique Characteristics: None
                                              Applications/Current Programs: The CEPRA 19 Anechoic is being used to
                                              conduct tests of noise around submarine models, helicopter rotors,


                                              Page 97                                        GAO/NSIAD-90.7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
                                         Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                         CEPRA 19 Anechoic Wind Tunnel




                                         engine exhaust (high bypass ratio and afterburning engines),and full-
                                         scale small jet engines.
                                         General Comments:Tests are conducted by a joint                    CEPI~ONERA      team.
                                         Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

                                         References:ONERA. Activities 1986: Physics. Chatillon, France: ONERA,
                                         1987, p. 36. Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
                                         tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, DC.: National
                                         Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 116. ONERA.
                                         Resources,Facilities. Chatillon, France: ONERA, 1989, p. 121.

                                         Date of Information: October 1989
Figure V.2: Schematic Drawing of the CEPRA 19 Anechoic Wind Tunnel




            Honeycomb
        1               \




                                                                     Outlet   belmouth
                                                                                                              Exhaust stack
                                                                                                              with final muffler
                                                                          ehaust         muffler
                                                                                                   -   ._




                                         Source:   ONERA




                                         Page 98                                            GAO/NSIAIMO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                         Subsonic Wind ‘Iknnel
                                         CEPR4 19 Anechoic Wind Tunnel




                                                                                    -
Figure V.3: Aerospatiale Rotor Tert
Bench and Microphones lnrtalled Inrldo
Test Chamber ot the CEPRA 19 Anecholc
Wind Tunnel




                                         Source:   ONERA




                                         Page 99                         GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Subsonic Wind Tunnel

ONEXA Fl Wind Tunnel



Country: France                                                        Performance
                                                                         Mach Number: 0.37 or 125 m/s
LOCatiOn: Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,       Reynolds Number: 10 x 106/ft
  Le Fauga-Mauzac Centre, Noe, France                                    Total Pressure: 4 bars
                                                                         Dynamic Pressure: 14,000 Pa
Owner(s):                                                                Total Temperature: 263 to 313 degrees Kelvin
  Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales                Run Time: Continuous
  29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc                                      Comments: None
  Boite Postale 72
  F-92322 Chatillon Cedex
  France
                                                                       Cost Information
                                                                         Date Built: 1974
Operator: Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,       Date Placed in Operation: 1977
  Le Fauga-Mauzac Centre
                                                                         Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
                                                                        Construction Cost: Not available
lnternatlonal Cooperation: Not available                                 Replacement Cost: $58.7 million (1989)
                                                                        Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Jean-Marie Carrara, Office National d’Etudes et        Unit Cost to User: Not available
  de Recherches Aerospatiales,        Le Fauga-Mauzac Centre,
                                                                         Source(s) of Funding: Not available
  Tel.: [33]-(61)56-63-01
                                                                       Number and Type of Statt
                                                                        Engineers: Not available
Test Section Size: 3.5 x 4.5 x 10 m                                      Scientists: Not available
                                                                        Technicians: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                              Others: Not available
                                                                        Administrative/Management:     Not available
Utilization
    .._-- ..^.___Rate: Single shift
                   ~_.-._--                                             Total: Not available


                                                   Description: The ONERA Fl Wind Tunnel is a continuous-operation sub-
                                                   sonic wind tunnel. It is driven by a variable-pitch constant-speedfan
                                                   powered by an electric motor with a maximum output of 9.5 MW. The
                                                   airflow is water-cooled. The test section is installed inside a cart that
                                                   moves on rails in front of the cells where the tests are prepared, The
                                                   side walls and ceiling of the test section remain fixed to the cart. The
                                                   floor, which supports the test devices,is a removable pallet assembly.
                                                   After testing, the pallet is rolled out of the cart and placed in one cell to
                                                   pick up another test pallet. The pallet then returns to its place in the
                                                   airflow. The tunnel has four fully equipped pallets.
                                                   Testing Capabilities: Pallet no. 1 is equipped with a computer-controlled
                                                   stingholder sector that varies the model’s angle of incidence and roll
                                                   variation. Pallets nos. 2,3, and 4 are equipped with a (1) turret that can
                                                   support either a six-component balance for wall half-models, complete
                                                   models on a three-mast support, or an incidence table for testing com-
                                                   plete models mounted on a single mast, (2) “2 k pi” device for testing
                                                   models at very high angles of attack and slideslip, (3) civilian aircraft
                                                   intake device, and (4) two-dimensional airfoil test set-up. A computer-
                                                   controlled probing device explores the wake and flow around the airfoil.



                                                   Page 100                                    GAO/NSIAD-90BlFS        Foreign Test Facilities
Subeouic Wind Tunnel
ONERA Fl Wind Tunnel




The Fl can be connectedto the 1l-bar and 120-bar compressedair sys-
tems used for engine simulations. Special test devicesused in the Fl
include a four-degree-of-freedomflow survey device (with or without a
vertical translational mast), a six-degree-of-freedomdevice, and an air-
intake survey. Special acquisition techniques commonly used include
hot-wire and film transducers and pressure scanners(scanivalve and
PSI). Several visualization techniques are also used including
acenaphtheneand infrared thermography for transition and surface
visualizations by oil and colored pigments, and tufts in black light. A
laser tomography setup is installed on the fixed section ceiling and is
used for incensevisualizations.
Data Acauisition: Each pallet has its own 64-channel measurement SNS-
tern connectedto the wind tunnel’s DEC 6320 computer (through a l?ew-
lett Packard 1000 acquisition computer).
Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): A two-dimensional
laser Doppler anemometermeter will be installed on one of the lateral
walls of the Fl.
Unique Characteristics: None

Applications/Current Programs: Current programs include Airbus,
ATR 42, and Rafale development and performance control on complete
or half-scaled models for low-speed configurations. The Fl is also used
for research programs, aeroelastic testing, and intake testing.

General Comments:None

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:ONERA. Activities 1986: Large Testing Facilities. Chatillon.
France: ONERA, 1987, pp. 28-32. ONERA. Resource; Facilities. Chatillon,
France: ONERA, 1989, pp. 78-84. Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon
Freda, eds. Aeronautical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels.
Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985,
vol. 1, p. 106.
Date of Information: September 1989




Page 101                              GAO/NSIAD90-7lFS   Foreign Test Facilities
                                       Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                       ONERA Fl Wind Tunnel




Flguro V.5: Schematic Diagram of the
ONERA Fl Wind Tunnel                                                         72   m




                                                        I




                                                        Gate valvas h
                                                                         I




                                                              Cart




                                                             Pallets /




                                       Source:   NASA




                                       Page 103                                       GAO/NSIAD-90-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
                                            Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                            ONERA Fl Wind Tunnel




Figure V.6: Movement of Test Cart and
Pallets in the ONERA Fl Wind Tunnel




                                            Source:   ONERA


Figure V.7: Mirage 2000 on Stingholder in
Pallet No. 1 of the ONERA Fl Wind
Tunnel




                                            Source:   ONERA




                                            Page 104               GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Subeonic Wind Tunnel
                                           ONERA Fl Wind Tunnel




Figure V.8: Probing of Wake Behind the
Wing of an Airbus A310 Half-Model In
Pallet No. 1 of the ONERA Fl Wind
Tunnel                                           ml
                                                              I       I

                                                              B   J




                                           Source:    ONERA


Figure V.9: Test on Full Airbub Model on
Three-Mmt Setup in Pallet No. 1 of the
ONERA Fl Wind Tunnel




                                           Source:   ONERA




                                           Page 106               GAO/NSIAD-9041FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                          Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                          ONERA Fl Wind Tunnel




Figure V.10: Schematic Dlagram of
“2 k pl” Test Device in the ONERA Fl
Wind Tunnel




                                          Source:   ONERA


Figure V.11: Two-Dimensional Flow
Airfoil Test Setup in the ONERA Fl Wind
Tunnel




                                          Source:   ONERA




                                          Page 106               GAO/NSIAD-96-71FS Foreign Test Facllitiee
                                          Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                          ONERA Fl Wind Tunnel




Figure V.12: Laser Tomography Device in
the ONERA Fl Wind Tunnel




                                          Source: ONERA




                                          Page 107               GAO/NSIAD-90-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
SubsonicWind Tunnel

ONERA F2 Wind Tunnel



Country: France                                                      Performance
                                                                       Mach Number: 0.3 or 105 m/s
Location: Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,     Reynolds Number: 6 x 106/m
  Le Fauga-Mauzac Centre, Noe, France                                  Total Pressure: Atmospheric
                                                                       Dynamic Pressure: 5.8 kN/m*
Owner(s):                                                              Total Temperature: 313 degrees Kelvin
  Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales              Run Time: Not available
  29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc                                    Comments: None
  Boite Postale 72
  F-92322 Chatillon Cedex                                            Cost Information
  France                                                               Date Built: 1983
                                                                       Date Placed in Operation: 1983
Operator: Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,     Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
  Le Fauga-Mauzac Centre                                               Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                       Replacement Cost: Not available
international Cooperation: Not available                              Annual Operating Coat: Not available
                                                                       Unit Cost to User: Not available
Point of Contact: Jean-Marie Carrara. Office National d’Etudes et      Source(s) of Funding: Not available
  de Recherches Aerospatiales,      Le Fauga-Mauzac Centre,
  Tel.: [33]-(61).56-63-01
                                                                     Number and Type of Staff
                                                                      Engineers: 1
Test Section Size: 1.8 x 1.4 x 5 m                                    Scientists: 0
                                                                      Technicians: 3
Operational Status: Active                                            Others: 0
                                                                      Administrative/Management:    0
Utilization Rate: 1 shift per day                                     Total: 4


                                                 Description: The ONERA F2 Wind Tunnel is a continuous-operation sub-
                                                 sonic wind tunnel with a fixed-blade, variable-speedfan driven by a
                                                 680-kw DCmotor. The airflow is water-cooled. The stagnation pressure is
                                                 closeto atmospheric (the airflow is open to the atmosphere at the end of
                                                 the test section), and the wind velocity can be varied continuously from
                                                 0 to 105 m/s (Mach 0 to 0.3). The lateral walls of the test section are
                                                 made of a set of removable opaque or transparent panels, which allows
                                                 easy installations and extensive observation areas.
                                                 Testing Capabilities: The F2 is equipped with a permanent laser flow
                                                 diagnostics system (LDA and tomography) on a moving support. Three
                                                 velocity componentscan be measuredsimultaneously. It also has a sting
                                                 support and half-model devices.
                                                 Data Acquisition: 32 channels are available. Data processingis per-
                                                 formed by a Hewlett Packard 1000 computer system.
                                                 Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None

                                                 Unique Characteristics: None
                                    Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                    ONERA F2 Wind Tunnel




                                    Applications/Current Programs: The F2 is used for research testing by
                                    ONERA'S Aerodynamics Department and the Centre d’Etudes et de
                                    Recherchesde Toulouse (CERT).

                                    General Comments:None
                                    Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
                                    References:ONERA. Activities 1986: Large Testing Facilities. Chatillon,
                                    France: ONERA, 1987, pp. 32-33. ONERA. Resources,Facilities. Chatillon,
                                    France: ONERA, 1989, p. 84. Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda,
                                    eds. Aeronautical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, DC.:
                                    National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 124.
                                    Date of Information: September 1989
Figure V.13: ONERA F2 Wind Tunnel




                                    Source:   ONERA




                                    Page 109                              GAO/NSLAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                          Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                          ONERA F2 Wind Tunnel




Figure V.14: Schematic Diagram of the
ONERA F2 Wind Tunnel




                                          Source:   ONERA


Figure V.15: Schematic Drawing of the
Laser Velocimetry Setup Around the Test
Section of the ONERA F2 Wind Tunnel




                                          Source:   ONERA




                                          Page 110               GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                        Subsonic Wind Turmel
                                        ONERA F2 Wind Tunnel




Figure V.161 Laser Doppler Anemometer
Stand Around the Tort Section of the
ONERA F2 Wlnd Tunnel




                                         Source:   ONERA




                                         Page 111              GAO/NSIAD-!+O-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Subsonic Wind Tunnel

ONERA IMF’L SV4 Spin Wind Tunnel



Country: France                                                              Performance
                                                                               Mach Number: 0.12 or 40 m/s
Location: Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,             Reynolds Number: Up to 2.7 x 106/m
  lnstitut de Mecanique des Fluides de Lille, Lille, France                    Total Pressure: 1 bar
                                                                               Dynamic Pressure: Up to 1 kN/m*
Owner(s):                                                                      Total Temperature: Atmospheric
  Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales                      Run Time: Not available
  29 Avenue de la Division Leclerc                                             Comments: None
  B&e Postale 72
  F-92322 Chatillon Cedex                                                    Cost Information
  France                                                                       Date Built: 1966
                                                                               Date Placed In Operation: Not available
Operator(r): Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches                         Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
  Aerospatiales,   lnstitut de Mecanique des Fluides de Lille                  Construction Coat: Not available
                                                                               Replacement Cost: Not available
International Cooperation: Not Available                                       Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                               Unit Cost to User: Not available
Point of Contact: Marc Pianko, Office National d’Etudes et de                  Sourcefsl of Fundina: Not available
  Recherches Aerospatiales,       lnstitut Mecanique des Fluides de Lille,
  Tel.: [33]-(20)53-61-32
                                                                             Number and Type of Staff
                                                                              Engineers: Not available
Test Section Site: 4 m diameter x 36 m high                                   Scientists: Not available
                                                                              Technicians: Not available
Operational Statur: Active                                                    Others: Not available
                                                                              Administrative/Management:      Not available
Utilization Rate: Not available                                               Total: Not available


                                                    Description: The ONERA IMFL SV4 Spin Wind Tunnel is a continuous-flow,
                                                    annular-return circuit subsonicwind tunnel. It has an open-jet test sec-
                                                    tion This vertical wind tunnel is primarily used for the investigation of
                                                    aircraft behavior at high anglesof attack. Appropriate models are used
                                                    for various configurations, including free spin, instrumented spin, and
                                                    rotary balance. The open-sectionvertical tunnel is 4 m in diameter and
                                                    36 m high. The height of the free section is 3.5 m, and a total height of 6
                                                    m may be used for observation. The 13-bladefan is driven by a 460-kw
                                                    DCmotor. The maximum wind velocity is 40 m/s (Mach 0.12) which can
                                                    be controlled continuously and set to any velocity up to that point
                                                    within about 4 S. The velocity gradient is slightly negative with the
                                                    height of the test section, and can be adjusted by special flaps. The sec-
                                                    tion is surrounded with a removable protective net for free spin testing.

                                                    Testing Capabilities: The SV4 is used to investigate spin characteristics
                                                    of airplanes by testing free spinning of dynamically scaled models
                                                    (Foude criteria). The test section can be equipped with a new rotary bal-
                                                    ance rig for studying the dynamic derivatives on the samemodels,
                                                    including the steady characteristics up to very large angles of attack
                                                    and sideslip combinations.



                                                    Page 112                                         GAO/NSIAD-90-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
SubeonIc Wind Tunnel
ONJZRAIMFL SV4 Spin Wind Tunnel




Data Acquisition: The tunnel is capable of recording onboard instrumen-
tation (accelerometers)and control surfaces positions.
Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None

Unique Characteristics: None
Applications/Current Programs: SV4 tests are used to define spin and
recovery procedures for test pilots and to study possible geometric mod-
ifications for series-built aircraft, either to correct for phenomenathat
are judged critical or to devise emergencysystems for full-scale tests. In
addition to free-spin tests, the SV4 is used to study the stability of vari-
ous bodies in an airflow. These bodies include meteorological rockets,
parachutes, and the ESAHermes spaceplaneejection cabin.

General Comments:None

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue: Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 113. ONERA.
Resources,Facilities. Chatillon, France: ONERA, 1989, pp. 147-148.

Date of Information: January 1989




Page 113                                GAO/NSIADQO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                         Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                         ONERA IMFL SV4 Spin Wind Tunnel




Figure V.17: Schematic Diagram of the ONERA IMFL SV4 Spin Wind Tunnel




                                                            J                  I
                                                                 \      4m     ’
                                                                 \’           -&
                                                                      --m-m




                                        Source:   ONERA




                                        Page 114                                   GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                           ONERA IMFL SV4 Spin Wind Tunnel




Figure V.18: Free Spin Test In the ONERA
IMFL SV4 Spin Wind Tunnel




                                           . -_ -... --      _. ..,,.
                                           Source:   ONERA




                                           Page 115                          GAO/NSLADSO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                          Subsouk Wind Tunnel
                                          ONERA IMFL SV4 Spin Wlnd Tunnel




Figure V.19: Rotary Balance Teat in the
ONERA SV4 Spln Wind Tunnel




                                          Source:   ONERA




                                          Page 116                          GAO/NSL4D-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Subsonic Wind Tunnel

ONERA S2Ch SubsonicWind Tunnel



Country: France                                                         Performance
                                                                          Mach Number: 0.29 or 100 m/s
Location: Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,        Reynolds Number: Not available
  Chalais-Meudon    Centre, Chalais-Meudon,        France                 Total Pressure: Not available
                                                                          Dynamic Pressure: Not available
Owner(s):                                                                 Total Temperature: Not available
  Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales                 Run Time: Not available
  29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc                                       Comments: None
  Boite Postale 72
  F-92322 Chatillon Cedex                                               Cost Information
  France                                                                  Date Built: Not available
Operator(s): Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches                    Date Placed In Operation: 1964
                                                                          Date(s) Upgraded: 1978, 1985, and 1987
  Aerospatiales,   Chalais-Meudon     Centre                             Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                          Replacement Cost: Not available
International Cooperation: Not available                                 Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                         Unit Cost to User: Not available
Point of Contact: M.C. Capelier, Office National d’Etudes et de          Source(s) of Funding: Not available
  Recherches Aerospatiales,       Chalais-Meudon    Centre,
  Tel.: [33]-(1)-46-57-l l-60
                                                                        Number and Type of Staff
                                                                          Engineers: Not available
Test Section Size: 3 m diameter x 5 m long                                Scientists: Not available
                                                                         Technicians: Not available
Operational Status: Not available                                        Others: Not available
                                                                         Administrative/Management:      Not available
Utilization Rate: Not available                                          Total: Not available


                                                     Description: The ONERA S2ChSubsonicWind Tunnel from the “Service
                                                     Technique Aeronautique” of Issy-les-Mouineauxwas put into operation
                                                     in Chalais-Meudonin 1964. The S2Ch is a continuous-flow, Eiffel-type
                                                     subsonic wind tunnel. The guided test section is 3 m in diameter and 6 m
                                                     long, The maximum speedis normally 100 m/s (Mach 0.29).

                                                     Testing Capabilities: Not available
                                                     Data Acquisition: Not available
                                                     Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Not available
                                                     Unique Characteristics: None
                                                     Applications/Current Programs: Initially, the tunnel was used by divi-
                                                     sions of Sud-Aviation company involved in designing the Concordefor
                                                     testing the static and dynamic stability of the model, studying air
                                                     intakes at low speed,and simulating takeoff conditions. Beginning in
                                                     1968, tests were conducted mainly on an Airbus A300 model. The S2Ch
                                                     is used regularly by Avions Marcel Dassault-BreguetAviation in its



                                                     Page 117                                   GAO/NSIADSOBlFS          Foreign Test Facilities
Subnoulc Wind Tunnel
ONERA S2Ch Subsonic Wind Tunnel




aerodynamic studies of the trajectories of stores releasedfrom a fuse-
lage or wing. In addition, the S2Chis increasingly being used for funda-
mental research, since its dimensions are well suited for research needs.
Its dimensions are intermediate in size and fall between those of the
ONERA F2 and ONERA Fl tunnels. In 1978, a bench was installed for stud-
ying helicopter rotors and analyzing the aerodynamic behavior of the
blade tips in unsteady flow, particularly in a critical regime. Tests are
carried out either on models provided by Aerospatiale or on a specific
rotor model designedfor general research. Since 1986, the test section
walls can be soundproofed to study the acoustical signatures of various
blade tips. A cyclic pitch system was installed in 1987 to simulate better
actual operating conditions of a rotor. Also, the inclination of the rotor
head can now be adjusted during the test to study rotor characteristics
in forward flight.
General Comments:None
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:ONERA. Resources,Facilities. Chatillon, France: ONERA, 1989,
pp. 8-9.
Date of Information: January 1989




Page 118                               GAO/NSIADSOBlFS   Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                           ONERA 5243 $ubeonic Wind Tunnel




Figure V.20: Obiate Ellipsoid With Laser
Doppler Anemometer in Test Section of
the ONERA S2Ch Subsonlc Wlnd Tunnel




                                           Source:   ONERA




                                           Page 119                          GAO/NSIAD-SO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                       Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                       ONERA S2Ch Subsonic Wind Tunnel




Figure V.21: Three-Dlmenrlonal Laser
Doppler Anemom6try Setup In the
ONERA 82Ch Subronlc Wlnd Tunnel




                                       Source: ONERA




                                       Page 120                          GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Transonic Wind Tunnel

ONERA IMm Transonic Wind Tunnel



Country: France                                                      Performance
                                                                       Mach Number: 0.3 to 1 ,l
Location: Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,     Reynolds Number: 140,000 per cm (14 x 10*/m) at Mach 0.8
  lnstitut de Mecanique des Fluides de Lille, Lille, France            Total Pressure: Atmospheric
                                                                       Dynamic Pressure: Not available
Owner(s):                                                              Total Temperature: 30 to 50 degrees Celsius
  Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales              Run Time: Not available
  29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc                                    Comments: None
  Boite Postale 72
  F-92322 Chatillon Cedex                                            Cost Information
  France                                                               Date Built: Not available
                                                                       Date Placed in Operation: 1948
Operator(s): Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches                 Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
  Aerospatiales,   lnstitut de Mecanique des Fluides de Lille          Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                       Replacement Cost: Not available
internatlonal Cooperation: Not available                               Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                       Unit Cost to Usec Not available
Polnt of Contact: Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches            Sourcelsl of Fundina: Not available
  Aeros atiales, lnstitut de Mecanique des Fluides de Lille,
  Tel.: [ l 3]-(20).53-61-32
                                                                     Number and Type of Staff
                                                                      En ineers: Not available
Test Sectlon Size: No. 1: 200 x 42 x 350 mm; and No. 2: 42 x          SCPentlrrts: Not available
  240 mm                                                              Technicians: Not available
                                                                      Others: Not available
Operational Statur: Not available                                     Administrative/Management:     Not available
                                                                      Total: Not available
Utilization Rate: Not available


                                                  Description: The ONERA IMFL Transonic Wind Tunnel is a two-dimensional
                                                  wind tunnel used essentially for research testing of a fundamental or
                                                  applied character. The tunnel has a return circuit and operates in a con-
                                                  tinuous mode. The guided test section has longitudinal slots in the upper
                                                  and lower walls providing a permeability of sevenpercent. The diver-
                                                  genceof these walls can be varied. The guided test section can be
                                                  replaced with a 42 X 240 mmtest section. The aspiration device has two
                                                  electric blowers (SOand 76 kW). The tunnel is also equipped with a 66-kw
                                                  regeneration system.
                                                  Testing Capabilities: The aerodynamic fields around the airfoils are
                                                  studied, including explorations of boundary layers and wakes. Surface
                                                  flow patterns can also be visualized, and high-speedschlieren or shadow
                                                  visualizations of the flow can be made. The models are also equipped
                                                  with unsteady pressure transducers.
                                                  Data Acquisition: Most of the calculations involved in analyzing the test
                                                  data are done on the IMFL computation systems, in particular on the
                                                  Perkin Elmer 8/32 and 3230 computers.



                                                  Page 121                                   GAO/NSLAD90-71FS Foreign Test Fadlities
                                        Tranaonic Wind Tunnel
                                        ONERA IMFL Transonic Wind Tunnel




                                        Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Not available
                                        Unique Characteristics: None
                                        Applications/Current Programs: These include fundamental and applied
                                        research.
                                        General Comments:Not available

                                        Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

                                        References:ONERA. Resources,Facilities. Chatillon, France: ONERA, 1989,
                                        pp. 155166.
                                        Date of Information: January 1989

    Figure V.22: ONERA IMFL Transonic
    Wind Tunnel
,




                                        Source: ONERA




                                        Page 122                              GAO/NSIAD-90-‘ILFS Foreign Test Facilities
Transonic Wind Tunnel

ONEIDASlMA Wind Tunnel



Country: France                                                        Performance
                                                                         Mach Number: 0.023 to approximately 1
Locatlon: Office National @Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,        Reynolds Number: 13.5 x 106/m
  Modane-Avrieux    Centre, Modane, France                               Total Pressure: 0.91 bars
                                                                         Dynamic Pressure: 0 to 33 kN/m2
Owner(s):                                                                Total Temperature: 263 to 333 degrees Kelvin
  Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales                Run Time: Not available
  29: Avenue de la Division Leclerc                                      Comments: The lowest sDeed Dossible is 2.5 m/s.
  Bolte Postale 72
  F-92322 Chatillon Cedex                                              Cost Information
  France                                                                 Date Built: 1948
                                                                         Date Placed in Operation: 1952
Operator(s): Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches                   Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
  Aerospatiales,   Modane-Avrieux   Centre                               Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                         Replacement Cost: $150.9 million (1989)
international Cooperation: Not available                                 Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                         Unit Cost to User: Not available
Point of Contact: Jean Laverre, Office National d’Etudes et de           Source(s) of Funding: Not available
  Recherches Aeros atiales, Modane-Avrieux        Centre,
  Tel.: 1331-1791-20-2
                     8 -00
                                                                       Number and Type of Staff
                                                                         Engineers: Not available
Test Section
__I___--.---     Size: 8 m diameter x 14 m long
             --.__--.-.                                                 Scientists: Not available
                                                                        Technicians: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                              Others: Not available
                                                                        Administrative/Management:     Not available
Utilization Rate: 1,800 hours per year (of which about 500 hours are    Total: 15 to 16
  actual test run time)



                                                   Description: The ONERA SlMA Wind Tunnel is a continuous flow tran-
                                                   sonic wind tunnel and is equipped with three interchangeable test carts.
                                                   The maximum power is 88 MW. It is driven by two counter-rotating fans
                                                   16 m in diameter, powered by water turbines, and cooled by air
                                                   exchangewith the atmosphere. The velocity can be varied from 2.6 m/s
                                                   to approximately Mach 1. The stagnation pressure is atmospheric pres-
                                                   sure, or 0.91 bars (the tunnel is at an altitude of 1,100 m). The stagna-
                                                   tion temperature can be controlled by exchanging air with the
                                                   atmosphere, and can be raised up to 50 degreesCelsius. This avoids
                                                   problems of water condensationfrom the atmospheric air.
                                                   Testing Capabilities: Test section no. 1 is used for sting setups (aircraft
                                                   and missile anglesof incidence) and wall testing. Test section no. 2 is
                                                   used for low-velocity tests, A special device is used for tests with
                                                   ground effect with the boundary layer blowing. Test section no. 3 is
                                                   used for engine tests, helicopter or tilt rotor tests, propeller tests, and
                                                   store separation tests from airplanes filmed by high-speedcameras.




                                                   Page 123                                    GAO/NSIAD90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
l’ransoxdc Wind Tunnel
ONERA SlMA Wind Tunnel




Data Acquisition: The measurement system with its basic 80 channels
can be expanded if necessary.The data are processedin real time on a
DEC 6320 computer, which is reserved for wind tunnel-related uses

Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): A new helicopter
rotor is in operation with an electric motor drive offering up to 500 kW
of power. Also, a more powerful test stand of more than2,bOOkW is
being designedfor propellers- single or counter-rotating, isolated or
ducted-and for jet engineswith a very high bypass ratio. Acoustic wall
treatment for tests up to speedsof Mach 0.86 is currently being studied.
Unique Characteristics: Special devices are provided for various tests
such as air intake tests; canopy releases;parachute openings; and bad
weather, rain, and icing tests.
Applications/Current Programs: Current programs include the Mirage
2000; Alphajet; Rafale; Airbus A320, A330, and A340; J-15 turbo
engine; and HT3 propeller; store separation tests; icing tests on helicop-
ter rotors; air intake tests; and missile tests.

General Comments:The SlMA has one of the largest sonic test sections
in the world (8 m diameter).

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, DC.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, p. 146. ONERA.
Activities 1986: Large Testing Facilities. Chatillon, France: ONERA, 1987,
pp. 19-21.ONERA. Resources,Facilities. Chatillon, France: ONERA, 1989,
pp. 58-64.
Date of Information: September 1989




Page 124                                GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                        TransonIc Wind Tunnel
                                        ONERA SlMA Wind Tunnel




Figure V.23: ONERA Sl MA Wind Tunnel       I-




                                        Source: ONERA

Figure V.24: Schematic Diagram of the
ONERA SlMA Wind Tunnel                                                            155m
                                                                                             “._._.            -




                                                                                                                         Air intake   rp 4

                                                          1.   Test section cart                      5. Net
                                                          2.   Fans Vl and V2                         6. Preparation cells
                                                          3.   Air intake no. 1 (annular)             7. Engine power check
                                                          4.   Air intake no. 2 (vertical)               test position


                                        Source:   ONERA



                                        Page 125                                                        GAO/NSLAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                        Ransonic Wind Tunnel
                                        ONERA SIMA Wind Tunnel




Figure V.25: Mirage 2000 Model on
Tripod Support in Test Section of the
ONERA Sl MA Wind Tunnel




                                        Source:   ONERA




                                        Page 126                 GAO/NSIADdO-7lFS   Foreign Test Facilities
Tranaonic Wind Tunnel

ONERA S3Ch Transonic Wind Tunnel



Country: France                                                          Performance
                                                                           Mach Number: 0.3 to 1.2
Location: Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,         Reynolds Number: Not available
  Chalais-Meudon    Centre, Chalais-Meudon,        France                  Total Pressure: Not available
                                                                           Dynamic Pressure: Not available
Owner(8 :                                                                  Total Temperature: Not available
  Office Icational d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales                 Run Time: Not available
  29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc                                        Comments: None
  Boite Postale 72
  F-92322 Chatillon Cedex                                               Cost information
  France                                                                  Date Built: Not available
                                                                          Date Placed in Operation: 1949
Operator(s): Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches                    Date(s) Upgraded: 1983 and 1986 to 1987
  Aerospatiales,   Chalais-Meudon     Centre                             Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                          Replacement Cost: Not available
international Cooperation: Not available                                 Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                         Unit Cost to User: Not available
Point of Contact: MC. Capelier, Office National d’Etudes et de           Source(s) of Funding: Not available
  Recherches Aerospatiales,       Chalais-Meudon    Centre,
  Tel.: [33]-(1)46-57-1160
                                                                        Number and Type of Staff
                                                                         Engineers: Not available
Test Section Size: 0.6 x 0.8 m                                           Scientists: Not available
                                                                         Technicians: Not available
Operational Status: Not available                                        Others: Not available
                                                                         Administrative/Management:       Not available
Utiiiration Rate: Not available                                          Total: Not available


                                                     Description: The ONERA S3Ch Transonic Wind Tunnel is an unpressurized
                                                     closed-circuit transonic wind tunnel. It was originally constructed to
                                                     serve as a 1 to 8 scalemodel of the ONEFU SlMA Transonic Wind Tunnel
                                                     at ONERA'S Modane-Avrieux Centre. The tunnel operates continuously
                                                     with partial renewal of the air.

                                                     Testing Capabilities: The transonic test section has permeable walls. The
                                                     tunnel has a gust generator with oscillating blown flaps for unsteady
                                                     flow measurements,The performance of the S3Ch is such that it is used
                                                     periodically in perfecting specific test systems for later use in the indus-
                                                     trial-size wind tunnels of the ONERA'S Large Testing Facilities
                                                     Department.
                                                     Data Acquisition: Not available
                                                     Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): A renovation was
                                                     undertaken in 1983 with the installation of a cooler. The tunnel was
                                                     shut down from mid-1986 to mid-1987 for additional improvements
                                                     involving the collector, test section, diffuser, and fan drive to upgrade
                                                     its performance to a maximum Mach number of 1.2 and to make the test
                                                     section readily accessible.This modernization is to be continued with the


                                                     Page 128                                    GAO/NSIAD-90-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
                                         Transonic Wlnd Tunnel
                                         ONERA S3Ch Traneonic Wind Tunnel




Figure V.27: ONERA SBCh Transonic
Wind Tunnel




                                         Source:   ONERA


Figure V.28: Setup on Balance-Sting in
Test Section of the ONERA S3Ch
Transonic Wind Tunnel




                                         Source:   ONERA




                                         Page 130                           GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                        Transontc Wind Tunnel
                                        ONERA T2 Wind Tunnel




                                        Unique Characteristics: None
                                        Applications/Current Programs: The T2 is being used to conduct basic
                                        two-dimensional tests on calibration models (CAST 7 and 10) including
                                        Reynolds Number effects through stagnation pressure and temperature
                                        variations.
                                        General Comments:Initially designedas a pilot facility for studying new
                                        test techniques, the T2 has becomea full-blown measuring instrument
                                        and is now a valuable facility for detailed analysis of transonic flows.
                                        Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
                                        References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
                                        tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, DC.: National
                                        Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 142. ONERA.
                                        Resources,Facilities. Chatillon, France: ONERA, 1989, pp. 174-176.

                                        Date of Information: September 1989
Figure V.29: Schematic Diagram of the
ONERA T2 Wind Tunnel
                                                                                                                                         1



                                                     * BLOWDOWN       INJECTION   * REYNOLDS    NUMBERNBO    x lo6
                                                            DRIVEN W-T              ON A 2 DIM. AIRFOIL   AT MzO.8
                                                              (t-lmn)               (c=O.ltim, T=120 K, P=4 BARB




                                        Source:   NASA




                                        Page 132                                         GAO/NSIADM-71FS       Foreign Test Facilities
Trisonic Wind Tunnel

LRBA C4 Trisonic Wind Tunnel



Country: France                                                        Performance
                                                                         Mach Number: 0.15 to 4.29 in 15 steps (contoured)
Location: Laboratoire de Recherches Balistiques et                       Reynolds Number: 12 x 106/m at Mach 4.29
  Aerodynamiques,    Vernon, France                                      Total Pressure: 1.I to 8 bars
                                                                         Dynamic Pressure: Not available
Owner(s):                                                               Total Temperature: 300 degrees Kelvin
  Laboratoire de Recherches Balistiques et Aerodynamiques                Run Time: Continuous
  Boite Postale 914                                                      Comments: Nozzle exit diameter is 0.4 x 0.4 m.
  F-27207 Vernon Cedex
  France                                                              Cost information
                                                                        Date Built: 1948
Operator(a): Laboratoire de Recherches Balistiques et                   Date Placed in Operation: 1951
  Aerodynamiques                                                        Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
                                                                       Construction Cost: Not available
international Cooperation: None                                         Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                       Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: M. Desgardin, Laboratoire de Recherches               Unit Cost to User: $4,000 per hour (1989)
  Balistiaues et Aerodvnamiaues.      Tel.: f331-(32)-21-43-24         Source(s) of Funding: French Ministry of Defense
Test Section Size: 0.4 x 0.4 m                                        Number and Type of Staff
                                                                       Engineers: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                             Scientists: Not available
                                                                       Technicians: Not available
Utilization  Rate: 10 -.---
I.--__--_____-_       tests per day                                    Others: Not available
                                                                       Administrative/Management:       Not available
                                                                       Total: 5 plus 2 engineers for results analysis


                                                    Description: The LRBA C4 SupersonicWind Tunnel is a trisonic wind tun-
                                                    nel with a closed,continuous-flow, and pressurized circuit. The C4 is
                                                    driven by two compressorspowered by 13.6-MW electric motors. The
                                                    tunnel is capable of conducting subsonic,transonic, and supersonic tests.
                                                    Testing Capabilities: The C4 is capable of conducting force balance,
                                                    schlieren visualization, and pressure scanning tests. The tunnel is
                                                    equipped with one subsonicnozzle (Mach 0.15 to 0.7), three subsonic-
                                                    transonic nozzles(Mach 0.4 to 0.976, 1.2, and 1.29), 11 dedicated sub-
                                                    sonic nozzles,and two adjustable nozzles(Mach 1.85 to 2.2 and 2.86 to
                                                    3.22) for force and pressure measurements.
                                                    Data Acquisition: The C4 has 18 analog channels of data and two scan-
                                                    nings of 48 channels each.
                                                    Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): These include four
                                                    pneumatic scanners(2 X 16 psi,1 X 30 psi,and 1 X 45 psi) of 32 channels
                                                    each, laser velocimetry, and hot gas continuous injection (3 kg/s at 900
                                                    degreesKelvin). Each of these improvements are planned for 1990.




                                                    Page 134                                   GAO/NSLAD-BO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Trisonic Wind Tunnel

ONERA R4.3 CascadeWind Tunnel



Country: France                                                      Performance
                                                                       Mach Number: 0.3 to 1.O and 1.45
Location: Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,     Reynolds Number: Not available
   Modane-Avrieux      Centre, Modane, France                          Total Pressure: Not available
                                                                       Dynamic Prerrure: 2.5 bars (maximum)
Owner(s):                                                             Total Temperature: Not available
   Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales             Run Time: More than 10 min
   29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc                                   Comments: None
   Boite Postale 72
   F-92322 Chatillon Cedex                                           Cost Information
   France                                                              Date Built: Not available
                                                                       Date Placed in Operation: 1977
Operator(s): Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches                 Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
  Aerospatiales,     Modane-Avrieux    Centre                          Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                       Replacement Cost: Not available
international Cooperation: Not available                               Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                       Unit Cost to User: Not available
Point of Contact: Jean Laverre, Office National d’Etudes et de         Source(s) of Funding: Not available
   Recherches Aeros atiales, Modane-Avrieux     Centre,
   Tel.: [33]-(79).20-2 B-00
-_.--.---.                                                           Number and Type of Staff
                                                                      Engineers: Not available
Test Section Size: 210 to 370 x 120 mm (transonic) and 600 x          Scientists: Not available
   120 mm (supersonic).-~                                             Technicians: Not available
                                                                      Others: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                            Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                      Total: Not available
Utilization
__I-_-          Rate:
           ......_____ Not available


                                                 Description: The ONERA R4.3 CascadeWind Tunnel is a long blowdown
                                                 (more than 10 min) trisonic wind tunnel. It has two test sections,each
                                                 120 mm wide. The R4.3 has one transonic test section, the height of
                                                 which can be varied from 210 to 370 mm, depending on the inclination of
                                                 the cascade,and one supersonictest section (600 mm high) with a Mach
                                                 1.46 nozzle.

                                                 Testing Capabilities: The R4.3 is equipped with a device for placing the
                                                 cascadeat a given angle, a device for applying a controllable suction to
                                                 the boundary layers, an automatic wake measurementrake, many
                                                 motorized flow-control elements (such as a diffuser and flap), and a
                                                 shadowgraph.
                                                 Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 32 basic channels of data that can be
                                                 expanded, if needed.Measurementdata are processedby a VAX 760
                                                 computer.
                                                 Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
                                                 Unique Characteristics: None


                                                 Page 136                                    GAO/NSLAD-90-71F’S Foreign Test Facilities
                                        Trtaonic Wind Tunnel
                                        ONERA Rd.3 Cascade Wind Tunnel




Figure V.32: Schematic Diagram of the
ONERA R4.3 Cascade Wind Tunnel
                                                   Safety valve
                                                                                    High flow flap
                                                                                              ,-hscede
                                                    \        ExDansion valve




                                                                       Boundary layer tra




                                        Source: ONERA




                                        Page 138                                     GAO/NSIAKMO-71FS Foreign Test Facilitlee
Trisonic Wind Tunnel
ONERA SZMA Wind Tunnel




degrees-of-freedomfor studying the trajectories of stores released.from
aircraft and external flow survey, and an instrument for measuring the
coefficients of dynamic stability by forced oscillations. The test devices,
stingholder sector, and wall mount are all connectableto the g-bar and
64-bar compressedair systems to simulate jets or to drive the turbine
power simulators as well as to the 150-bar system (16 kg/s maximum).
The SZMA is equipped with a shadowgraph device. Many visualization
techniques are used, such as acenaphtheneor infrared thermography
for transition, and surface visualizations by oil or colored fluids.
Data Acquisition: The measurement system includes 80 basic channels
that can be expanded if needed.Measurementdata are processedin real
time by a DEC 6320 computer reserved for the wind tunnel. Pressure
scanner systems (scanivalves and PSI) are commonly used.
Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Improvements in
automatization were planned for 1989.
Unique Characteristics: None

Applications/Current Programs: Current programs include the Mirage
2000, Mirage IV, Mirage F-l, Airbus, Rafale, Jaguar, Ariane 5, and the
air intakes of missiles (such as the Armat, AQM37, AS30L, AM39, and
ASMP Super Etendard).

General Comments:None
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, p. 166. ONERA.
Activities 1986: Large Testing Facilities. Chatillon, France: ONERA, 1987,
DB.21-23. ONERA. Resources,Facilities. Chatillon. France: ONERA. 1989.
pp. 58-59 and 65-67.        ’
Date of Information: September 1989




Page 140                                GAO/NSIAD-90-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
                                        Trlsonic Wind Tunnel
                                        ONERA S2MA Wind Tunnel




Figure V.34: Schematic Diagram of the
ONERA S2MA Wlnd Tunnel


                                                                        Test preparation
                                                                              area
                                                                             t-T                            Compressors
                                                                             m-l                  R         and vacuum




                                                        Client’s ’   Measurement     Edactor       hder         Thrbiner
                                                         room          system         (1999)




                                        Source: ONERA




                     4




                                        Page 142                                               GAO/NSIAD-9OBlFS Foreign Test Facilities


                                                                        J”
                                           Trlaonlc Wind Tunnel
                                           ONERA S2MA Wind Tunnel




Figure V.36: Half-Model of Alrbur With
Engine 8imulator Mounted on Wall Turret                         i‘,b’:,,,,,
and Balance In Tranronlc Teat Sectlon of   :             *,     I”,
the ONERA 82MA Wind Tunnel                                        8; 2“8d
                                                                 ,‘,:I,118
                                                           , ,‘Is<
                                                                 ^.&    ‘i’..::y.
                                                                       8,    @II’ ,:
                                                                       *iN,;j,,
                                                           :J.;y$##&:ld~#kll:*;, L”;
                                                        “/>i@6“
                                                   I’
                                                   I,“LI *,
                                                ,,, -
                                                     1




                                           Source: ONERA




                                           Page 144                                    GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                               Wind Tunnel
                                        Trlsonic
                                        0NER.A SZMA Wind Tunnel




Figure V.38: Store8 Trajectory Under
Jaguar Model Wlth Six-Degree-of-
Freedom Device In Tranronic Tort
Sectlon of the ONERA 82MA Wind
Tunnel




                                       Source: ONERA




                                       Page 146                   GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Trlsonlc Wind Tunnel
ONERA SSMA Wind Tunnel




variety of stings can be mounted on the stingholder including a motor-
ized variable-elbow device for tests at very high anglesof incidence of
up to 90 degrees.The tunnel is also equipped with a setup for wall-
mounted models with a motorized turret, wall balance and compressed
air passage,and boundary plate. It has a rain erosion test device (up to
Mach O-83),and a compressedair supply for simulating jets (using the
9-, 64-, and 160-bar compressedair systems).An optical test bench
installed on both sides of the test section is used for shadowgraph and
schlieren visualizations. The visualizations are recorded in the form of
high-speedvideo, photographs, or film. ONERA'S two-dimensional laser
Doppler anemometerstand can be used with the S3MA. Many visualiza-
tion techniques are used, such as acenaphthenetransition, surface oil,
and colored pigments.
Data Acauisition: The basic measurement svstem has 60 channels. The
measurementdata is processedin real time on a DEC 6320 computer.
Planned Imnrovements (Modifications/Utxrades): These include
improved regulation of (1) Mach number, (2) pressure stagnation,
(3) heater, and (4) the number of tests per day.
Uniaue Characteristics: None

Applications/Current Programs: Current programs include Ariane 6,
missiles, two-dimensional testing, and tests of rain erosion on radomes.
General Comments:None

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 216. Hoyt, Capt.
Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology. London: European Office
of Aerospace Researchand Development, 1986, p. 99 (EOARD Technical
Report). ONERA. Activities 1986: Large Testing Facilities. Chatillon,
France: ONERA, 1987. DD.23-24. ONERA. Resources,Facilities. Chatillon.
France: ONERA; 1989; pp. 68-69 and 68-70.        ’
Date of Information: September 1989




Page 148                               GAO/NSIAD-9OBlFS Foreign Test Facilities
                                        ‘lk&onlc Wind Tunnel
                                        ONEBA S8MA Wind Tunnel




Figure V.40: Schematic Drawing of the ONERA 83MA Wind Tunnel




                                                                                              COMPRESSED AIR



               ADJUSTABLE SECOND THROA                           HEATER




                                        Source: NASA




                                        Page 160                          GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                            Trlsonlc   Wind Tunnel
                                            ONERA SSMA Wind Tunnel




Figure V.43: Two-Dimensional Test
Sectlon of the ONERA S3MA Wind
Tunnel




                                            Source: ONERA

Figure V.44: Ariane Launch Vehicle on
Stingholder Sector in Test Section of the
ONERA 83MA Wind Tunnel




                                            Source: ONERA



                                            Page 152                 GAO/NSLAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Trisonic Wind Tunnel

Institut Aerotechnique de St. Cyr Sigma,4
Wind Tunnel


Country: France                                                            Performance
                                                                             Mach Number: 0.3 to 2.8
Location: lnstitut Aerotechnique     de St. Cyr, St. Cyr I’Ecole, France     Reynolds Number: Not available
                                                                            Total Pressure: 70 bars
Owner(s):                                                                    Dynamic Pressure: Not available
  lnstitut Aerotechnique de St. Cyr                                         Total Temperature: Ambient to 520 degrees Kelvin
  15, Rue Marat                                                              Run Time: About 60 s
  78210 St. Cyr I’Ecole Cedex                                                Comments: None
  France
                                                                           Cost Information
Operator(s): lnstitut Aerotechnique     de St. Cyr                           Date Built: 1960
                                                                             Date Placed in Operation: Not available
International Cooperation: Not available                                     Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
                                                                            Construction Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Mr. Menard, lnstitut Aerotechnique      de St. Cyr,        Replacement Cost: Not available
  Tel ,: f331-(3)-045-00-09                                                 Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                             Unit Cost to User: Not available
Test Section Size: 0.85 x 0.85 m                                            Source(s) of Funding: Not available

Operational Status: Active                                                 Number and Type of Staff
                                                                            Engineers: Not available
Utilization ..-Rate: 1 shift; 2,000 hours per year
--..--_.                                                                    Scientists: Not available
                                                                            Technicians: Not available
                                                                            Others: Not available
                                                                            Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                            Total: Not available


                                                     Description: The Institut Aerotechnique de St. Cyr Sigma 4 Wind Tunnel
                                                     is an induction-driven, open-circuit blowdown trisonic wind tunnel. It
                                                     uses a water steam generator.
                                                     Testing Capabilities: The Sigma 4 has a transonic perforated test section.
                                                     Variable supersonic Mach numbers are possible through sliding half-
                                                     bodies on lateral walls in the convergent section.
                                                     Data Acquisition: Data are processedon the Solar 16-40 local computer.
                                                     Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): These include a new
                                                     dryer.
                                                     Unique Characteristics: None
                                                     Applications/Current Programs: The tunnel is currently testing aircraft
                                                     and missile models for preliminary design studies by French manufac-
                                                     turers. The Sigma 4 is also being used to test BA’S Hermes spaceplane
                                                     for Avions Marcel Dassault-BreguetAviation.
                                                     General Comments:None


                                                     Page 154                                      GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Supersonic Wind Tunnel

Aerospatiaile-Aquitaine Arc Heater J.P. 200
Wind Tumiel


Country: France                                                          Performance
                                                                           Mach Number: Less than 2.4
Location: Aerospatiale-Aquitaine,     Saint Medard-en-Jalles,   France     Reynolds Number: Not available
                                                                           Total Pressure: 4 to 80 bars
Owner(s):                                                                  Dynamic Pressure: Not available
  Aerospatiale-Aquitaine                                                   Total Temperature: 5,000 degrees Kelvin
  Establishment d’Aquitaine                                                Run Time: 60 s at 24 MW; continuous below 2.5 MW
  F3,3,;:5 Saint Medard-en-Jalles     Cedex                                Comments; Nozzle exit diameter is 5 to 32 cm* in the throat area.

                                                                         Cost information
Operator(s): Aerospatiale-Aquitaine                                        Date Built: Not available
                                                                           Date Placed in Operation: Not available
international Cooperation: Not available                                   Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
                                                                           Construction Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: A. Allard, Establishment d’Aquitaine,                    Replacement Cost: Not available
  Tel.: [33]-(56).058405                                                   Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                           Unit Cost to User: Not available
Test Section Size:. 5.-___--
                       to 32 cm2 (throat area)                             Source(s) of Funding: Not available

Operational Status: Active                                               Number and Type of Staff
                                                                           Engineers: Not available
Utilization Rate: 1 test per day                                          Scientists: Not available
                                                                          Technicians: Not available
                                                                          Others: Not available
                                                                          $tatlin;k$rative/Management:     Not available




                                                    Description: The Aerospatiale-Aquitaine Arc Heater J.P. 200 Wind
                                                    Tunnel is a supersonic wind tunnel.

                                                    Testing Capabilities: The Arc Heater J.P. 200 is capable of conducting
                                                    force balance, pressure, temperature distribution, visualization, and
                                                    ablation rate tests.
                                                    Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 100 off-line channels of data.

                                                    Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
                                                    Unique Characteristics: None
                                                    Applications/Current Programs: Not available

                                                    General Comments:None
                                                    Photograph/Schematic Available: No




                                                    Page 166                                      GAO/NSIADSO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Supersonic Wind Tunnel

CEXT S.150 SuperkonicBlowdown
Wind Tunnel


Country: France                                                         Performance
                                                                          Mach Number: 2,3.5, and 4.3
Location: Centre d’Etudes Aerodynamiques       et Thermiques,             Reynolds Number: 20 x 106/m
  Poitiers, France                                                       Total Pressure: 10 to 30 bars
                                                                          Dynamic Pressure; Not available           ,
Owner(s):                                                                Total Temperature: Ambient
  Centre d’Etudes Aerodynamiques      et Thermiques                       Run Time: Less than 1 min
  43, Route de I’Aerodrome                                               Comments: None
  F-86000 Poitiers Cedex
  France                                                                Cost Information
                                                                          Date Built: Not available
Operator(s): Centre d’Etudes Aerodynamiques       et Thermiques           Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                          Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
international Cooperation: Not available                                  Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                          Replacement Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Professor T. Alziary de Roquefort, Centre              Annual Operating Cost: Not available
  d’Etudes -Aerodynamiques
             --._.---         et Thermiques, Tel.: [33]-(49).58-37-50     Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                         Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Test Section Size: 15 x 15 cm (nozzle exit diameter)
                                                                        Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Active at Mach 2                                     Engineers: Not available
                                                                         Scientists: Not available
Utilization Rate: 10 tests per day                                       Technicians: Not available
                                                                         Others: Not available
                                                                         Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                         Total: 1


                                                 Description: The CEAT S.150 SupersonicBlowdown Wind Tunnel is a
                                                 supersonic wind tunnel.

                                                 Testing Capabilities: The S.150 is capable of conducting pressure distri-
                                                 bution, hot-wire, and visualization tests.
                                                 Data Acquisition: Data are acquired on-line.

                                                 Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
                                                 Unique Characteristics: None
                                                 Applications/Current Programs: Not available
                                                 General Comments:None

                                                 Photograph/Schematic Available: No




                                                 Page 158                                       GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
SupersonicWind Tunnel

SSChTransonic and SupersonicWind Tunnel



Country: France                                                              Performance
                                                                               Mach Number: 0.8 to 1.15 (transonic) and 1.2 and 1.45 to 3.15
Location: Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,               (supersonic)
  ChalaisMeudon      Centre, Chalais-Meudon,      France                       Reynolds Number: Not available
                                                                               Total Pressure: Not available
Owner(a):                                                                      Dynamic Pressure: Not available
  Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales                      Total Temperature: Not available
  29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc                                            Run lime: Not available
  Boite Postale 72                                                             Comments: None
  F-92322 Chatillon Cedex
  France                                                                     Cost information
Operator(s): Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches                         Date Built: Not available
  Aerospatiales,   Chalais-Meudon      Centre
                                                                               Date Placed in Operation: 1953
                                                                               Date(s) Upgraded: 1970s
international Cooperation: Not Available                                      Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                               Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                              Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches                   Unit Cost to User: Not available
  Aerospatrales,
“___I, ._._^. . - - . Chalais-Meudon
                      ..- --..         Centre, Tel,: [331-(1)-46-57-l l-50    Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Test Sectlon Size: 0.3 x 0.3 m                                               Number and Type of Staff
                                                                               Engineers: Not available
Operational Status: Not available                                             Scientists: Not available
                                                                              Technicians: Not available
Utilization
-.. ._...   Rate:
            . ... Not available
                       ~..._ . .                                              Others: Not available
                                                                              Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                              Total: Not available


                                                      Description: The ONERA S5ChTransonic and SupersonicWind Tunnel is a
                                                      continuous-flow, closed-circuit wind tunnel. With several variable Mach
                                                      nozzles,the tunnel can now cover the transonic and supersonic domains.

                                                      Testing Capabilities: Not available
                                                      Data Acquisition: Not available

                                                      Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Not available
                                                      Unique Characteristics: None

                                                      Applications/Current Programs: The tunnel was initially used for study-
                                                      ing the aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft in transonic flow. The
                                                      precise Mach number adjustment was used for air intake tests, particu-
                                                      larly in studies of the recompressionramp fairings and inner diverter of
                                                      two-dimensional air intake. The S5Chwas used for afterbody tests of
                                                      the Concorde,which required the use of particularly high-performance
                                                      thrust measurementbalancesto optimize the external forms and the
                                                      geometry of the dual-flow exhaust nozzles.Beginning in the 197Os,with


                                                      Page 160                                       GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
  Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

j CEAT H.210 Blowdown Wind Tunnel



  Country: France                                                       Performance
                                                                          Mach Number: 7 and 8
  Location: Centre d’Etudes Aerodynamiques      et Thermiques,            Reynolds Number: 1.3 to 9.2 x 106/m at Mach 7 and 1.5 to 4.2 x
    Poitiers, France                                                        106/m at Mach 8
                                                                          Total Pressure: 22 to 100 bars
  Owner(s):                                                               Dynamic Presaure: Not available
    Centre d’Etudes Aerodynamiques     et Thermiques                      Total Temperature: 600 to 800 degrees Kelvin
    43, Route de I’Aerodrome                                              Run Time: Approximately 2 to 3 min
    F66000 Poitiers Cedex                                                 Comments: None
    France
                                                                        Cost Information
  Operator(s): Centre d’Etudes Aerodynamiques       et Thermiques         Date Built: Not available
                                                                          Date Placed in Operation: Not available
  International Cooperation: Not available                                Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
                                                                         Construction Cost: Not available
  Point of Contact: Professor T. Alziary de Ro uefort, Centre             Replacement Cost: Not available
    d’Etudes Aerodynamiques     et Thermiques, 1 et: [33]-(49)S-37-50     Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                          Unit Cost to User: Not available
  Test Section Size: 21 cm (nozzle exit diameter)                         SourceIsl of Fundina: Not available

  Operational Status: Active                                            Number and Type of Staff
                                                                          Engineers: Not available
  Utilization Rate: 6 tests per day                                       Scientists: Not available
                                                                         Technicians: Not available
                                                                         Others; Not available
                                                                         ;&ImTtrative/Management:        Not available



                                                    Description: The CEAT H.210 Blowdown Wind Tunnel is a hypersonic
                                                    wind tunnel.

                                                    Testing Capabilities: The H.210 is capable of conducting force balance,
                                                    heat transfer, pressure distribution, and schlieren visualization tests.

                                                    Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 20 on-line channels of data.
                                                    Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None

                                                    Unique Characteristics: None
                                                    Applications/Current Programs: The H.210 is being used to test ESA’s
                                                    Hermes spaceplanefor Avions Marcel Dassault-BreguetAviation.
                                                    General Comments:None

                                                    Photograph/Schematic Available: No




                                                    Page 162                                    GAO/NSIADz)O-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

CNRSSR.3 Wind T’unnel



Country: France                                                          Performance
                                                                           Mach Number: 2 to 30
Location: Laboratoire d’Aerothermi ue du Centre National de la             Reynolds Number: 2 x 103/m to 2 x 106/m
  Recherche Scientifique, Meudon, s1lance                                  Total Pressure: Up to 120 bars
                                                                           Dynamic Pressure: Not available
Owner@):                                                                  Total Temperature: Up to 1,500 degrees Kelvin
  Laboratoire d’Aerothermique     du Centre National de la                 Run Time: Continuous
     Recherche Scientifique                                                Comments: Test gas is air and nitrogen.
  4 ter Route des Gardes
  F-92190 Meudon Cedex                                                   Cost information
  France                                                                   Date Built: 1963
                                                                           Date Placed in Operation: 1965
Operator(s): Laboratoire d’Aerothermique      du Centre National de la     Date(s) Upgraded: 1986
  Recherche Scientifique                                                   Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                           Replacement Cost: $7 million (1989)
international Cooperation: ESA/ESTEC (The Netherlands) and                Annual Operating Cost: Not available
  Hughes Aircraft (the United States)                                      Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                          Source(s) of Funding: The CNRS SR.3 was built with financial
Polnt ol Contact: Dr. Jean Allegre, Laboratoire d’Aerothermique    du        support from CNES. Sources of funding also include contracts
  Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique,                              with aerospace agencies and industry.
  Tel.: [333-(1).45-34-75-50
                                                                         Number and Type of Staff
Te8t Section Size: 15 to 30 cm (nozzle exit diameter) to Mach 7            Engineers: 3
  and 36 cm (nozzle exit diameter) between Mach 15 and 30                  Scientists: 2
                                                                          Technicians: 2
Operational Status: Active (in regular use)                               Others: 0
                                                                          Administrative/Management:      0
Utilization Rate: Not available                                           Total: 7


                                                  Description: The CNRS SR.3Wind Tunnel is a continuous low-density
                                                  wind tunnel with an open-jet test section. An 80-kW graphite heater is
                                                  used to heat the nitrogen test gas to 1,500 degreesKelvin at a pressure
                                                  of up to 120 bars. The SR.3can cover an extensive range of conditions
                                                  from continuum to near free molecular flow at speedsof Mach 2 to 30.
                                                  Testing Capabilities: The SR.3is capable of conducting force balance and
                                                  heat transfer tests using thermocouples and an infrared system. It has
                                                  pressure transducers and an electron gun for local density measurement
                                                  and visualization.
                                                  Data Acquisition: The SR.3has 6 to 20 channels of data.
                                                  Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None

                                                  Uniaue Characteristics: None
                                                  Applications/Current Programs: Even though flows from continuum to
                                                  transitional regimes may be produced, high altitude aerodynamics (such


                                                  Page 164                                       GAO/NSIAD-SO-‘71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                       Hypersonlc Winu Tunnel
                                       CNRS SR,3 Wind Tunnel




Flgun V-II: CNRS SR.3 Wlnd Tunnel




                                     Source:   CNRS




                 Y




                                    Page 166                    GAO/NSlAD-SO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
)


    Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

    IMF’ Blowdown Tunnel SH



    Country: France                                                      Performance
                                                                           Mach Number: 2.3,4,5,6 and 7
    Location: lnstitut de Mecanique des Fluides, Marseille, France         Reynolds Number: 2 x id/m at Mach 7 and 16 x 106/m at Mach
    Owner(r):                                                              Total Pressure: 10 to 30 bars
      lnstitut de Mecanique des Fluides                                    Dynamic Pressure: Not available
      1, Rue Honnorat                                                      Total Temperature: 300 to 600 degrees Kelvin
      F-13003 Marseille Cedex                                              Run lime: 10 s
      France                                                               Comments: Nozzle exit diameter is 15 cm.
    Operator(r): lnstitut de Mecanique des Fluides                       Cost information
                                                                           Date Built: Not available
    international Cooperation: Not available                               Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                           Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
    Point of Contact: J. Marcillat, lnstitut de Mecanique des Fluides,     Construction Cost: Not available
      Tel.: [33]-(91)081690                                                Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                          Annual Operating Cost: Not available
    Test Ssctlon Size: 15 cm (nozzle exit diameter)                        Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                           Source(s) of Funding: Not available
    Operational Status: Mothballed
                                                                         Number and Type of Staff
    Utliitation   Rate: 10 to 20 tests per day (when tunnel was            En ineers: Not available
      operational)                                                         SCBentists: Not available
                                                                          Technicians: Not available
                                                                          Others: Not available
                                                                          Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                          Total: Not available


                                                      Description: The IMF Blowdown Tunnel SH is a hypersonic wind tunnel.
                                                      However, the tunnel has not been used since 1980.
                                                      Testing Capabilities: The tunnel had the capability to conduct heat
                                                      transfer, force balance, pressure, surface visualization, and laser
                                                      anemometry tests.
                                                      Data Acquisition: The tunnel currently has no channels of data.
                                                      Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
                                                      Unique Characteristics: None

                                                      Applications/Current Programs: Not available
                                                      General Comments:The tunnel has not been used since 1980.
                                                      Photograph/Schematic Available: No




                                                      Page 168                                   GAO/NSIALMO-71FS FOIW~JIJI
                                                                                                                         Teat Facilities
Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

ONERA R2Ch Blowdown Wind Tunnel



Country: France                                                              Performance
                                                                               Mach Number: 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 (contoured)
Location: Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,             Reynolds Number: 3 x 106/m at Mach 3 (maximum) and 3.5 x
  Chalais-Meudon      Centre, Chalais-Meudon,        France                      106/m at Mach 7
                                                                               Total Pressure: 0.4 to 80 bars
Owner(s):                                                                      Dynamic Pressure: Not available
  Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales                      Total Temperature: 300 to 650 degrees Kelvin
  29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc                                            Run Time: 35 s (10 s at Mach 10)
  Boite Postale 72                                                             Comments: Nozzle exit diameter useful core is 0.18 m to 0.30 m.
  F-92322 Chatillon Cedex                                                        Starting time is 3 ms and the sweep rate is 50 degrees/IO   s.
  France

Operator(e): Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches                       Cost Information
                                                                               Date Built: 1960
  Aerospatiales.    Chalais-Meudon      Centre                                 Date Placed in Operation: Not available
International Cooperation: Not available                                       Date(s) Upgraded: 1963
                                                                              Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                               Replacement Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: M.C. Capelier, Office National d’Etudes et de               Annual Operating Cost: Not available
   Recherches Aerospatiales, Chalais-Meudon            Centre,                 Unit Cost to User: Not available
   Tel.: [33]-(1)-46-57-l
.___
   ~...   . ..- ..-_.-.-- .--...l-60
                                  . -.-..--.                                  Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Test Section Size: 0.19 m (nozzle exit diameter) at Mach 3 and 4,            Number and Type of Staff
  and~” 0.33
  ..-.          m ---(nozzle .exit
         -. .^........._            diameter)
                                          ___- at Mach 5, 6, and 7.
                              .._.--..-.-..                                   Engineers: Not available
                                                                              Scientists: Not available
Operatlonal Status: Active                                                    Technicians: Not available
                                                                              Others: Not available
Utlilzation Rate: 4 tests per day                                             Administrative/Management:       Not available
                                                                              Total: 5


                                                         Description: The ONERA R2Ch Blowdown Wind Tunnel is a blowdown,
                                                         open-jet hypersonic wind tunnel. It shares somecommon high pressure
                                                         and vacuum equipment with ONEFLA'S R3Ch Blowdown Wind Tunnel. Air
                                                         is supplied to the R2Ch at 1,200 psiand heated to 1,100 degreesFahren-
                                                         heit in an electric accumulation heater. Run durations of under 35 s are
                                                         obtained with this system. It is equipped with three contoured nozzles.
                                                         Under hypersonic conditions, Reynolds Numbers of up to 3.6 X 106/m
                                                         are generated on models; this is sufficient to obtain turbulent boundary
                                                         layers. At lower Reynolds Numbers, fully laminar boundary layers are
                                                         obtained on simple configurations; however, complex flow fields involv-
                                                         ing flow separation transition may well be embeddedwithin the interac-
                                                         tion region.
                                                         Testing Capabilities: The R2Ch usesconventional and component sting-
                                                         mounted force balances.Temperature and pressure measurementsare
                                                         made with thermocouples and transducers mounted closeto the model.
                                                         It is used to measurepressure distributions, heat transfer, and local skin
                                                         friction. It is capable of schlieren visualization, testing wall streamliness,
                                                         and measuring the heat flux by thermosensitive paints. Wide-deflection


                                                         Page 170                                    GAO/NSIAD-QO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                        Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
                                        ONEBA R2Ch Blowdown Wind Tunnel




Figure V.49: Schematic Diagram of the ONERA R2Ch Blowdown Wind Tunnel




                                                                          1. Heater
                                                                          2. Plenum chamber
                                                                          3. Inversion valve
                                                                          4. Contoured nozzle (removable part)
                                                                          5. Contoured nozzle (stationary part)
                                                                          6.   Test chamber
                                                                          7.   Jet recovery
                                                                          6.   Adjusting stagnation pressure valve
                                                                          9.   Adjusting stagnation pressure valve

                                        Source:   U.S. Air Force EOARD




                                        Page 172                                    GAO/NSIAD-fbO-71FS Fore&n Test Fadllt.iea
Hyper~~nicWhd Tunnel
ONJDtAR3ChBlowdown Wind Tunnel




Data Acquisition: The R3Ch has 40 channels of data and usesa SOLAR
16-46 local computer with the R2Ch.

Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): These include
upgrading the data acquisition capability and systems in 1990 to 1991.
Unique Characteristics: None

Applications/Current Programs: The R3Ch is used to test boundary
layer transition with roughnesseffects, shock boundary layer interac-
tions on two- and three-dimensional shapes,and aerothermodynamic
testing on reentry configurations. The R3Ch is also used to study hyper-
sonic aircraft or missiles and stage separation. Since 1966, the R3Ch has
been equipped with a Joule effect heater and a rapid starting device. It
is particularly well-adapted to studying kinetic heating during atmos-
pheric reentry and hypersonic flights. Many heating maps have been
made on various rocket and launch vehicle models including ESA’S
Hermes spaceplanefor Avions Marcel Dassault-BreguetAviation. Fun-
damental studies are also conducted by the R3Ch such as the effect of
wall roughnessand effect of protuberances on Ariane with reference to
the thickness of the boundary layer. By the end of 1987, the R3Ch had
conducted more than 5,000 tests.

General Comments:None

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue: Wind Tunnels. Washington, DC.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 276. Hoyt, Capt.
Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology. London: European Office
of Aerospace Researchand Development, 1986, p. 98 (EOARD Technical
Report). Holden, Michael S. “A Review of the Current Capabilities in
Europe to Perform Experimental Researchin Hypersonic Flow.” In:
European Hypersonic Technology. London: European Office of Aero-
spaceResearchand Development, 1986, pp. 34-36 (EOARD Technical
Report). Wendt, John F. “European Hypersonic Wind Tunnels.” In:
Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles. Bristol, United Kingdom:
NAKI AGARD, 1987 (AGARD ConferenceProceedingsNo. 428). ONERA.
Resources,Facilities. Chatillon, France: ONERA, 1989, pp. 13-14.
Date of Information: September 1989



Page174                                GAO/NSIAD-BO-71FS Fore&n Test Facllitks
                                        Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
                                        ONERA BBCh Blowdown Wind Tunnel




Figure V.51: Measurement of Thermal
Flux Using Thermorensltlve Paint on a
Model of the Ariane 5 Launch Vehicle
and Hermes Spaceplane in the ONERA
R3Ch Blowdown Wind Tunnel




                                        Source: ONERA




                                        Page 176                          GAO/NSIAD9OB1FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

ONERA S4MA Wind Tunnel



Country: France                                                      Performance
                                                                       Mach Number: 6 and 10 to 12
Location: Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,     Reynolds Number: 3 to 27 x 106/m
  Modane-Avrieux    Centre, Modane, France                             Total Pressure: 40 bars at Mach 6 and 150 bars at Mach 10 to 12
                                                                       Dynamic Pressure: 7 to 67 kN/mz
Owner(s):                                                              Total Temperature: 493 to 1,843 degrees Kelvin
  Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales              Run lime: 30 to 100 s
  29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc                                    Comments: None
  Boite Postale 72
  F-92322 Chatillon Cedex                                            Cost Information
  France                                                               Date Built: 1967
                                                                       Date Placed in Operation: 1970
Operator: Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,     Date(s) Upgraded: 1987 to 1989
  Modane-Avneux     Centre                                             Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                       Replacement Cost: $33.5 million (1989)
International Cooperation: Not available                               Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                       Unit Cost to User: Not available
Point of Contact: Jean Laverre, Office National d’Etudes et de         Source(s) of Funding: Not available
  Recherches Aerospatiales,    Modane-Avrieux   Centre,
  Tel.: [33]-(79).20-20-00
                                                                     Number and Type of Staff
                                                                       Engineers: Not available
Test Section Size: 0.68 m diameter (Mach 6 nozzle) and 1 m            Scientists: Not available
  diameter (Mach
            _    10 to.-..12 nozzle)                                  Technicians: Not available
                                                                      Others: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                            ;~t;lin;;trative/Management:    Not available

Utilization Rate: 200 to 300 hours per year


                                                 Description: The ONERA S4MA Wind Tunnel is an intermittent, blowdown
                                                 hypersonic wind tunnel. The S4MA has an alumina pebble bed heater. It
                                                 has a Mach 6 nozzle with a 0.68-m diameter outlet and a Mach 10 to 12
                                                 nozzle with a l-m diameter outlet. The throat is water-cooled. The tun-
                                                 nel is fed from the Modane-Avrieux Centre’s store of compressedair
                                                 (29 II? at a pressure of 270 or 400 bars), which exhausts either into the
                                                 atmosphere or into vacuum spheres(3,000 or 4,000 tiJ). A propane-
                                                 heated pebble bed heater 2 m in diameter and 10 m high, containing 12
                                                 tons of alumina pebbles,can be raised to a maximum temperature of
                                                 about 1,850 degreesKelvin by propane combustion. The air from the
                                                 heater passesthrough a lo-micrometer filter upstream of the nozzle.
                                                 Testing Capabilities: The test chamber is cubic in shape (3 X 3 X 2.8 m)
                                                 and is equipped with an angle of incidence table and a sideslip table. A
                                                 rapid introduction device is used to protect the model from flow initia-
                                                 tion and de-initiation effects. The S4MA systems are also used as a hot
                                                 gas generator supplying ramjet air intakes.




                                                 Page 178                                     GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                               Wind Tunnel
                                      Hypersonic
                                      ONERA !34MA Wind Tunnel




Figure V.53: ONERA S4MA Wind Tunnel




                                      Source   ONERA




                                      Page 180                  GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                        Hypersonic Wlnd Tunnel
                                        ONERA S4MA Wind Tunnel




Figure V.56: Ramjet Teat In the ONERA
S4MA Wind Tunnel




                                        Source:   ONERA




                                        Page 182                 GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel

ISL Hypersonic Shock Tunnel



Country: France                                                    Performance
                                                                     Mach Number: 4 to 11 (conical)
Location: lnstitut de Saint-Louis, St. Louis, France                 Reynolds Number: Not available
                                                                     Total Pressure: 400 bars (maximum)
Owner(s):                                                            Dynamic Pressure: Not available
  lnstitut de Saint-Louis                                            Total Temperature: 7,000 degrees Kelvin (maximum)
  12 Rue de I’lndustrie                                              Run Time: Less than 1 ms
  Boite Postale No. 301                                              Comments: Test gas used is air.
  F-68301 St. Louis Cedex
  France                                                            Cost informatlon
                                                                      Date Built: Not available
Operator(s): lnstitut de Saint-Louis                                  Date Placed In Operation: Not available
                                                                      Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
International Cooperation: Not available                              Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                      Replacement Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: G. Smeets, lnstitut de Saint-Louis,                Annual Operatlng Cost: Not available
  Tel.: [33]-(89)69-50-00                                             Unlt Cost to User: Not available
                                                                      Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Test Section Size: 20 x 20 cm (nozzle exit diameter)
                                                                    Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Active                                            Engineers: Not available
                                                                      Scientists: Not available
Utilization Rate: 4 tests oer day                                    Technicians: Not available
                                                                     Others: Not available
                                                                     Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                     Total: Not available


                                                 Description: The ISL Hypersonic Shock Tunnel is a hypervelocity facility.

                                                 Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is capable of conducting interferometry
                                                 and heat transfer tests.
                                                 Data Acquisition: Not available

                                                 Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): The tunnel will be
                                                 transformed for aeroballistic studies, but the performance characteris-
                                                 tics indicated will be attainable, if desired.
                                                 Unique Characteristics: None
                                                 Applications/Current Programs: Not available
                                                 General Comments:None
                                                 Photograph/Schematic Available: No




                                                 Page 184                                   GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
 Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel

LRBA C, Reflected Shock Tunnel



Country: France                                                         Performance
                                                                          Mach Number: 8 to 16 (conical) and 16 (contoured)
Location: Laboratoire de Recherches Balistiques et                        Reynolds Number: 0.26 to 2.9 x 106/m
  Aerodynamiques,      Vernon, France                                     Total Pressure: 30 to 350 bars
                                                                          Dynamic Pressure: Not available
Owner(s):                                                                 Total Temperature: 1,500 to 2,000 degrees Kelvin
  Laboratorre de Recherches Balistiques et Aerodynamiques                 Run Time: 10 to 20 ms
  Boite Postale 914                                                      Comments: None
  F-27207 Vernon Cedex
  France                                                                Cost Information
                                                                          Date Built: 1961
Operator(s): Laboratoire de Recherches Balistiques et                     Date Placed in Operation: 1974 (at LRBA)
  Aerodynamiques                                                          Date(s) Upgraded: 1984
                                                                         Construction Cost: Not available
International Cooperation: None                                           Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                         Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: M. Desgardin, Laboratoire de Recherches                 Unit Cost to User: $2,500 per test (1989)
  Balrstiques et Aerodynamiques,       Tel.: [33]-(32)21-43-24           Source(s) of Funding: Ministry of Defense
Test Section Size: 1.2 m diameter                                       Number and Type of Staff
                                                                          Engineers: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                               Scientists: Not available
                                                                         Technicians: Not available
Utilization Rate: 3 to _4_ tests
                             .~.._.per day
                                 .-..-                                   Others: Not available
                                                                         Administrative/Management:     Not available
                                                                         Total: 3


                                                     Description: The LRBA C, Reflected Shock Tunnel is a reflected
                                                     blowdown shock tunnel. It can also be used with helium for very high
                                                     Mach numbers (up to Mach 30). The C, is normally operated with the
                                                     Mach 16 contoured nozzle.

                                                     Testing Capabilities: The C, is capable of conducting force balance, pres-
                                                     sure distribution, and schlieren visualization tests. The tunnel is also
                                                     capable of conducting heat flux measurements,
                                                     Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 40 analog channels of data at 300 kHz
                                                     per channel (block sampled data) that are recorded on a Hewlett Pack-
                                                     ard 1000 computer.
                                                     Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None

                                                     Unique Characteristics: None
                                                     Applications/Current Programs: The C, is used intensively to measure
                                                     aerodynamic coefficients of reentry shapesand force, pressure, and
                                                     temperature measurementson ballistic missiles, The tunnel is also used
                                                     to test models of ESA's Hermes spaceplane.


                                                     Page 186                                   GAO/NSLAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
  ypervelocity Wind Tunnel

bNERA ARC 2 Hotshot Wind Tunnel



Country: France                                                       Performance
                                                                        Mach Number: 15 to 20
Location: Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales,      Reynolds Number: 4.2 x 106/m at Mach 15
  Palaiseau Centre, Palaiseau, France                                   Total Pressure: 20 to 1,500 bars
                                                                        Dynamic Pressure: Not available
Owner(s):                                                               Total Temperature: 2,000 to 8,000 degrees Kelvin
  Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales               Run Time: 50 to 200 ms
  29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc                                     Comments: Useful core diameter was 0.25 m. Test gas used was
  Boite Postale 72                                                        nitrogen.
  F-92322 Chatillon Cedex
  France                                                              Cost Information
Operator(s): Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches                  Date Built: Not available
  Aerospatiales,   Palaiseau Centre
                                                                        Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                        Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
International Cooperation: Not available                               Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                        Replacement Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: C. Capelier, Office National d’Etudes et de          Annual Operating Cost: Not applicable
  Recherches Aerospatiales,    Palaiseau Centre,
                                                                        Unit Cost to User: Not applicable
  Tel.: [33]-(1)657-11-60
                                                                        Source(s) of Funding: Not available

                                                                      Number and Type of Staff
Test Section Size: 70 cm (nozzle exit diameter)                         Engineers: Not available
                                                                        Scientists: Not available
Operational Status: Dismantled (see General Comments)                  Technicians: Not available
                                                                       Others: Not available
Utilization Rate: 3 tests per day (when tunnel was operational)
----                                                                    Administrative/Management:     Not available
                                                                       Total: Not available


                                                   Description: The ONERA  ARC 2 Hotshot Wind Tunnel was a low-density
                                                   hypervelocity wind tunnel that has been dismantled. Elements of the
                                                   ONERA  ARC 2 Hotshot are being used in the construction of ONERA'S F4
                                                   Wind Tunnel. When it was operational, the ONERA ARC 2 Hotshot used a
                                                   lo-MJ, SO&Aheater powered by the French National Electrical Network.
                                                   It was equipped with contoured nozzlesto generate speedsfrom Mach
                                                   16 to 20. The exit plane of the nozzle was 24 in. The tunnel could accom-
                                                   modate models up to 18 in. long. Reservoir temperatures of up to 8,000
                                                   degreesKelvin were projected and pressuresof up to 20,000 psi were
                                                   predicted.
                                                   Testing Capabilities: The ONERA ARC 2 Hotshot was capable of testing
                                                   force balance, pressure distribution, heat transfer, and skin friction. An
                                                   electron beam, coupled with a spectrometer mounted on a three-direc-
                                                   tional traversing mechanism,was used to measure density and rota-
                                                   tional temperatures.
                                                   Data Acquisition: Not available
                                                   Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Not applicable


                                                   Page 188                                   GAO/NSIAD-90.7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
                                         Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel
                                         ONERA ARC 2 Hotshot Wind TUNN~




Figure V.59: Schematic Drawlng of the ONERA ARC 2 Hotshot Wind Tunnel




                                                    3       4       5



                                           Lfz?sY                              06
                                                                                t
                                                                                    I
                                                                                    I




                                       1. Arc chamber (2.5 dm3)
                                       2. Conical nozzle (half angle 4” 45’)
                                       3. Vertical observation axis
                                       4. Test chamber
                                       5. Jet recovery
                                       6. To vacuum pumping system
                                       7. Vacuum tank



                                         Source: U.S. Air Force EOARD




                 Y




                                         Page 190

                                ,
                                        Hypervelodty Wind Tunnel
                                        ONERA F4 Hotshot Wind Tunnel




                                        Applications/Current Programs: Planned programs include EM’S                        Hermes
                                        spaceplane.
                                        General Comments:A decision was made by ONERA in early 1988 to initi-
                                        ate the high-enthalpy F4 Hotshot Wind Tunnel project to conduct tests
                                        for ESA’S Hermes spaceplaneprogram. The F4 Hotshot will be a “short
                                        arc” type of facility like the wind tunnels ONERA used to have at
                                        Fontenay aux Rosesnear ONERA      headquarters in Chatillon. Elements of
                                        ONERA'S dismantled ARC 2 Hotshot Wind Tunnel are being used in the
                                        construction of the F4 Hotshot. The F4 Hotshot is scheduledto become
                                        operational in 1990.

                                        Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
                                        References:ONERA. Resources,Facilities. Chatillon, France: ONERA, 1989,
                                        p, 86,
                                        Date of Information: September 1989
Figure V.60: Schematic Diagrem of the
ONERA F4 Hotrhot Wind Tunnel
                                                   Merlon    Motor-alternator                 Arc            Wind tunnel




                                                   Flywhak               Excitationwand     Test
                                                                             rectifiers    section




                                        Source:   ONERA




                Y




                                        Page 192                                          GAO/NSLAD-9iMlFS     Foreign Test Facilitie
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell
CER Cl Altitude Engine Test Facility




References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Airbreathing Propulsion and Flight Simula-
tors. Washington, DC.: National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration,
1986, vol. 2, p. 89.

Date of Information: December1986




Page 194                               GAO/NSIAD-BO-7lPS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell

CEPr R-4 Altitude Engine Test Facility



Country: France                                                      Performance
                                                                       Mass Flow: 441 lb s
Lo;~;~;z: Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de Saclay, Orsay,            Altitude Range: 6ii ,600 ft
                                                                       Temperature Ran 8: -65 to 370 degrees Fahrenheit
                                                                       Pressure Range: s 0 psia
Owner(s):                                                              Speed Range: Mach 0 to 2.4
  Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de Saclay                            Comments: None
  F-91406 Orsay Cedex
  France                                                             Cost information
                                                                       Date Built: Not available
Operator(s): Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de Saclay                 Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                       Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
International Cooperation: Not available                               Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                       Replacement Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: M. Fayot, Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de         Annual Operating Cost: Not available
   Saclay, Tel.: [33]-(6)941-81-50
---_-.--                                                               Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                      Source(s) of Funding: Not available                                      -
Test   Cell Size: 11.5 ft diameter x 60 ft long
_-----.._
                                                                     Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Not available                                      Engineers: Not available
                                                                      Scientists: Not available
Utllizatfon Rate: Not available                                       Technicians: Not available
                                                                      Others: Not available
                                                                      Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                      Total: Not available


                                                  Description: The CEPr R-4 is an altitude engine test facility with both
                                                  free-jet and direct-connect testing capability. The thrust level is
                                                  46,000 lb/ft.

                                                  Testing Capabilities: Not available
                                                  Data Acquisition: Not available
                                                  Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Not available
                                                  Unique Characteristics: None
                                                  AanlicationsKurrent Programs: These include medium and small
                                                  turbojets.
                                                  General Comments:None

                                                  Photograph/Schematic Available: No




                                                  Page 196                                   GAO/NSIAD4MMlFS          Foreign Test Fadlitiea
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell

CEPr R-5 Altitude Engine Test Facility



Country: France                                                        Performance
                                                                         Mass Flow: 625 lb/s
Lo;~;~;;: Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de Saclay, Orsay,              Altitude Range: 65,600 ft
                                                                         Temperature Ran 8: 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit
                                                                         Pressure Range: B00 psia
Owner(s):                                                                Speed Range: Mach 0 to 4
  Centre d’Essars des Propulseurs de Saclay                              Comments: None
  F-91 406 Orsay Cedex
  France                                                               Cost Information
                                                                         Date Built: Not available
Operator(s): Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de Saclay                   Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                         Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
International Cooperation: Not available                                 Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                         Replacement Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: M. Fayot, Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de           Annual Operating Cost: Not available
  Saclay, Tel.: [33]-(6)941-81-50                                        Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                         Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Test
._   Cell Size:   18 ft-...--_.-
             .._._...~     diameter x 100 ft long
                                                                       Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Not available                                        Engineers: Not available
                                                                        Scientists: Not available
Utilization Rate: Not available                                         Technicians: Not available
                                                                        Others: Not available
                                                                        Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                        Total: Not available


                                                    Description: The CEPr R-5 is an altitude engine test facility with both
                                                    free-jet and direct-connect testing capability. The capacity of the
                                                    installed thrust stand is about 67,500 ib/ft.

                                                    Testing Capabilities: Not available
                                                    Data Acquisition: Not available
                                                    Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Not available

                                                    Unique Characteristics: None
                                                    Applications/Current Programs: Not available
                                                    General Comments:None
                                                    Photograph/Schematic Available: No




                                                    Page 198                                   GAO/NSIADSO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell

CEPr S-l Altitude Engine Test Facility



Countrv: France                                                  I Performance
                                                                     Mass Flow: 221 lb/s
Lo~~iaz;: Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de Saclay, Orsay,          Altitude Range: 62,000 ft
                                                                    Temperature Ran e: 661 degrees Fahrenheit
                                                                     Pressure Range: s 9 psia
Owner(s):                                                            Speed Range: Mach 2
  Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de Saclay                          Comments: None
  F-91406 Orsay Cedex
  France                                                          Cost Information
                                                                    Date Built: Not available
Operator(s): Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de Saclay              Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                    Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
International Cooperation: Not available                            Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                    Replacement Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: M. Fayot, Centre d’Essais des Propulseurs de      Annual Operating Cost: Not available
  Saclav. Tel.: 1331.(61-941-81-50
        s.     .   ..I
                                                                    Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                    Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Test Cell Site: 12 ft diameter x 51 ft long
                                                                  Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Not available                                   Engineers: Not available
                                                                   Scientists: Not available
Utilization Rate: Not available                                    Technicians: Not available
                                                                   Others: Not available
                                                                   Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                   Total: Not available

                                              Description: The CEPr S-l is an altitude engine test facility. The thrust
                                              level is 22,600 ib/ft.
                                              Testing Capabilities: Not available
                                              Data Acquisition: Not available
                                              Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Not available
                                              Unique Characteristics: None
                                              Applications/Current Programs: Not available
                                              General Comments:None
                                              Photograph/Schematic Available: No
                                              References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
                                              tical Facilities Catalogue:Airbreathing Propulsion and Flight Simula-
                                              tors. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration,
                                              1986, vol. 2, p. 90.
                                              Date of Information: December1986



                                              Page 200                                    GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
AhBreathing     Propulsion Test Cell
ONERA    ATD   Ramjet Cell# Nom. 8 and 9




Testing Capabilities: Test stand no. 1 is used for the full analysis of a
430 mm diameter operational ramjet. It is capable of continuous thrust
measurement,perfect flight simulation between Mach 1.8 and 4.6 at any
altitude below 30 km, and simulation of both the external kinetic heat-
ing and air supply asymmetries as a function of the missile attitude in
flight. Test stand no. 2 is less heavily equipped and is used for basic
research.The maximum simulated Mach number is only 3.6 for altitudes
below 16 km. Test stand no. 3 is specially equipped for supplying
ramjets fuelled by a semipropellant, usually called ramrockets. The test
stand characteristics are identical to those of test stand no. 1, except
that the combustor diameter is limited to 200 mm.The maximum weight
of semipropellant is limited to 20 kg.It has an 18 bar gaseouspropane
supply with a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s.Test stand no. 4 is used for
research on materials, particularly thermal protection, It can simulate
flight at Mach 1.8 to 4.5 at altitudes below 17 km and with engineshav-
ing diameters less than 100 mm.
Data Acquisition: The cells use a digital data acquisition system.

Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): These include
increasing air storage and improving safety and data acquisition.

Unique Characteristics: The cells can simulate all useful trajectories,
including simulation of external aerodynamic heating. Direct measure-
ment of the thrust can also be made.
Applications/Current Programs: Work is only devoted to missiles
through 6.1,6.2,6.3, and 6,4 studies.
General Comments:Sourcesof funding include General Delegatefor
Armament of the French Ministry of Defensethrough the Direction for
Engines.
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:ONERA. Missions, Tools. Chatillon, France: ONERA, 1988.
ONERA.Resources,Facilities. Chatillon, France: ONERA, 1989, pp. 30-31.
Date of Information: September 1989




Page 202                                   GAO/NSIAD-SO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                         AlcBreathing Propulsion Test Cell
                                         ONEBA ATD Ramjet Cella Noe. 8 and 9




Flgun V.63: Tort Wlth Simulation 01         *
External Klnetlc Heating In Teat Stand
No. 2 of the ONERA ATD Ramjet Cells
No@.8 and 9




                                                               ‘i


                                         Source: ONERA

Figure V.64: Teatr on 180-mm Caliber
Ramrocket In Test Stand No. 3 of the
ONERA ATD RamJet Cells Noa. 8 and 9




                                         Source: ONERA




                                         Page 204                              GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Appendix VI

Aerospace Test Facilities in Italy


Flgure VI,l: Map of Teat Facllltler In Italy




                                                                    Centro ltallano
                                                                    Ricerche Aerospaziali
                                                               /




           I@l
                  National capital

                  Facility installation
                                          I


             0 25 50 75 kllometero
              I’,“,         I
             0      25 50  75 miles

                        Y




                                               Source:   GAO




                                               Page 206        GAO/NSIAD-SO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                         Subaontc Wind Tunnel
                                         CIlZA Low-Speed Wind lbnnel




                                         General Comments:The Sl test section will be the samesize as the CIRA
                                         High Reynolds Transonic Wind Tunnel to allow the testing of the same
                                         aircraft models.

                                         Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
                                         References:None available
                                         Date of Information: August 1989
Figure W-2: Schematic Drawing of the CIRA Low-Speed Wind Tunnel




                                        Source: CIRA




                                        Page 208                               GAO/NSIADQO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Traosonlc   Wind Tunnel
ClRA H&h Reynolds Transonic Wind Tunnel




Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): CIRAconducted a
study to enhancethe maximum Mach number. The study recommended
using compressedair ejectors to increasethe pressure ratio acrossthe
test section to achieve a larger flow rate. The transonic extension will
require adding (1) several air ejector nozzlesin a section downstream of
the fan, (2) an exhaust line upstream of the test section to remove the
air supplied by the ejectors, (3) compressedair storage tanks, air supply
piping from the tanks to the ejector nozzles,and a compressedair sys-
tem to pump up the storage tanks, and (4) a secondthroat with adjust-
able wall to tune the Mach number before the test run. If these
modifications are made, the tunnel could be operated at speedsup to
Mach 1.4 with a useful run time of 45 S.
Unique Characteristics: The flow qualities required in the tunnel specifi-
cations will exceedNATO AGARD specifications. The tunnel is expected be
one of the largest pressurized wind tunnels in the western world.
Applications/Current Programs: Not available
General Comments:None

Photograph/Schematic Available: No
References:None available

Date of Information: August 1989




Page 210                                  GAO/NSLAD-90-71X3 Foreign Test Facilities
Hypemonlc Wind Tunnel
CIRA Pleama Wind Tunnel




General Comments:CIRAhas conducted a feasibility study in cooperation
with FluiDyne Engineering Corporation and Aerospatiale under the
“Scirocco Project” to define the requirements for the arc plasma wind
tunnel. The tunnel is presently scheduledto becomeoperational in the
first half of 1992.

Photograph/Schematic Available: No
References:CIRA. “Phase A2.” In: Final Report. Capua, Italy: cm, 1989.
(No. DLC/COP-HER-TN-O1     1) Mattei, A., and G. Russo.“Space activities
at CIRA.” In: Euromech Colloquium. Turin, Italy: CIRA, 1989 (No. 246).
Date of Information: August 1989




Page 212                              GAO/NSIAD-0.71FS   Foreign Test Facilities
SubsonicWind Tunnel

F’HI Low-Speed Wind Tunnel



Country: Japan                                                         Performance
                                                                         Mach Number: 0 to 0.176 or 0 to 197 ft/s
Locatlon: Fuji Heavy Industries, Utsunomiya, Tochigi Prefecture,         Reynolds Number: 0 to 1.5 x 106/ft
  Japan                                                                  Total Pressure: Atmospheric
                                                                         Dynamic Pressure: 0 to 46 Ib/ft*
Owner(r):                                                                Total Temperature: Ambient
  Fuji Heavy industries                                                  Run Time: Not available
  Aircraft Engineering Division                                          Comments: None
  l-1-1 1 Yonan
  Utsunomiya                                                           Cost Information
  Tochigi Prefecture 320                                                 Date Built: 1969
  Japan                                                                  Date Placed in Operation: 1969
                                                                         Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
Operator(s): Fuji Heavy Industries                                       Construction Cost: Not available
lnternatlonal Cooperation: None                                          Replacement Cost: $2 million (1985)
                                                                         Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Akitoshi Nagao, Fuji Heavy Industries,                 Unit Cost to User: Not available
  Tel.: [El]-(286)-58-l   111
                                                                         Source(s) of Funding: Not available
                                                                   -
lest Section Size: 6.56 x 6.56 x 9.5 ft                                Number and Type of Staff
                                                                         Engineers: Not available
                                                                        Scientists: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                              Technicians: Not available
                                                                        Others: Not available
Utilization Rate: Essentially 1 shift per day
--.                                                                     ;lmmytrative/Management:        Not available
                                                                              :


                                                Description: The FHILow-SpeedWind Tunnel is a continuous-flow,
                                                closed-circuit, single-return subsonicwind tunnel. The tunnel has an
                                                open throat.
                                                Testing Capabilities: The three-model support systems are equipped for
                                                static tests and tandem strut with a six-component balance, wire sus-
                                                pension with balance, and sting with internal balance. Auxiliary equip-
                                                ment consistsof 6-hp model motors for power supply to the models, a 30
                                                kg/cm2 10m3compressedair supply, and pressure measurements
                                                (scanivalves). The tunnel is available for static tests (force and pressure
                                                measurementtest), low-speed flutter tests, airfoil tests (with end-plate),
                                                and external store ejection tests. It can accommodatemodels with a span
                                                of 6.3 ft and a weight of 200 lb, Powering-up of the drive motor of the
                                                fan to achieve speedsof 80 m/s was completed in 1986.
                                                Data Acquisition: A Hewlett Packard 1000 series computer and front-
                                                end are used for data acquisition of up to 16-analoginput channels. On-
                                                line data acquisition/reduction programs provide almost instantaneous
                                                numerical and graphical results.
                                                Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None


                                                Page 214                                       GAO/NSIADQO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
SubsonicWind Tunnel
KHI 3.5 m Wind Tunnel



Country: Japan                                                       Performance
                                                                       Mach Number: No. 1: 0 to 0.1 (closed); No. 2: 0 to 0.19 (o en)
Location: Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Kakamigahara City, Gifu           Reynolds Number: No. 1: 0 to 0.71 x 106/ft (closed); No. 8 : 0 to
  Prefecture, Japan                                                       1.33 x 106/ft (open)
                                                                       Total Pressure: Atmospheric
Owner(s):                                                              Dynamic Pressure: No. 1: 0 to 15.7 Ib/ft2 (closed); No. 2: 0 to
  Kawasaki Heavy Industries                                               54 Ib/ft’ (open)
  Gifu Works                                                           Total Temperature: Ambient
  1, Kawasaki-cho                                                      Run lime: Not available
  Kakamigahara City                                                    Comments: Not available
  Gifu Prefecture 504
  Japan                                                              Cost Information
                                                                       Date Built: 1936
Operator(a): Kawasaki Heavy Industries                                 Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                       Date(s) Upgraded: 1967
lnternatlonal Cooperation: None                                        Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                       Replacement Cost: Not available
Polnt of Contact: Jun Okumura, Kawasaki Heavy Industries,              Annual Operating Cost: Not available
  Tel.: [81]-(583)82-5346                                              Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                       Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Teat Section Size: No. 1: 3.5 x 3.5 x 6.5 m (closed); No. 2: 2.5 x
- 3 m (open)    -_.                                                  Number and Type of Staff
                                                                      Engineers: Not available
Operatlonal Status: Active                                            Scientists: Not available
                                                                      Technicians: Not available
Utlllzatlon Rate: Not
--                 --- available                                      Others: Not available
                                                                      Administrative/Management:         Not available
                                                                      Total: Not available


                                                 Description: The KHI 3.6 m Wind Tunnel is a subsonic wind tunnel with
                                                 closed and open test sections.

                                                 Testing Capabilities: The tunnel’s open test section has an external six-
                                                 component balance with strut mount or internal six-component balance
                                                 with sting mount. The tunnel’s closedtest section has an external six-
                                                 component balance with strut mount. Compressedair is supplied at 4 lb/s
                                                 at 300 psi. The model propeller/helicopter blade driving systems are
                                                 powered by lo- and 100~hpmotors.
                                                 Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 40 on-line channels of data.

                                                 Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
                                                 Unique Characteristics: None
                                                 Applications/Current Programs: Current programs include low-speed
                                                 aerodynamic research, static stability control, and airplane, helicopter,
                                                 and missile development programs.



                                                 Page 216                                        GAO/NSIAIMO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                        Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                        KHI 3.3 m Wind Tunnel




Flgure VIM Test Section Configuration
of the KHI 3.5 m Wind Tunnel




                                        Source: KHI




                                        Page 218                GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Teat Fadllties
Subsonic Wind Tunnel
MHl2 m Low-Speed Wind Tunnel




Series 1 computer processesthe data on-line with output by plotter,
printer, graphic display, and character display. The IBM computer is
connectedto the host IBM 3090 computer for data storage and post
processing.
Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None

Unique Characteristics: None
Applications/Current Programs: The tunnel is used to conduct research
and development of aircraft, missiles, and helicopters.
General Comments:None
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 96.
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 220                              GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                                                          Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                                                          MHI 2 m Low-Speed Wind Tunnel




figure VII.!? Schematic Drawing of the MHI 2 m Low-Speed Wind Tunnel
                                                                                                                 Electric motor (450kW)




    ..------.

                       --
                Measured   signal




                                               2Jc?
                                                                                Motor control console        \
                                                                /’   -.
                                                           .-
                                                    / 4’
                                               .‘
                       Preamplifier       g/


                                                                                                                         /
                       Isolator     25   If:                               I                             /
                                                                                                                     “Inuser
                                                                                               Model attitude
                                                                                               control console




                                                            Character          &play     Y                   -
                                                                                       I
                                                                                    Operator   console



                                                                          Source:      MHI




                                                                           Page 222                                                       GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
SubsonicWind Tunnel

MHI Smoke Tunnel



Country: Japan                                                         Performance
                                                                         Mach Number: 0.11 or 40 m/s (pressure/force     tests) and 0.05 or
Locatlon: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Komaki-shi, Aichi Prefecture,       18 m/s (smoke visualization tests)
  Japan                                                                  Reynolds Number: Not available
                                                                         Total Pressure: Not available
Owner(s):                                                                Dynamic Pressure: Not available
  Mitsubishi Heavy Industries                                            Total Temperature: Not available
  Aircraft and Special Vehicles Headquarters                             Run lime: Not available
  Na oya Guidance and Propulsion Systems Works                           Comments: None
  1280, Higashi-tanaka
  Komaki-shi                                                           Cost Information
  A,:p;nPrefecture 485                                                   Date Built: Not available
                                                                         Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                         Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
Operator(s): Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Engine Engineering             Construction Cost: Not available
  Department                                                             Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                         Annual Operating Cost: Not available
International Cooperation: Not available                                 Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                        Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Polnt of Contact: Mikio Kajita, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries,
-_--Tel.: [81 J-(568)-79-21 11, ext. 4610                              Number and Type of Staff
                                                                         Engineers: Not available
Test Sectlon Size: 0.2 x 1.5 x 2.5 m                                     Scientists: Not available
                                                                        Technicians: Not available
Operational Status: Not available                                       Others: Not available
                                                                        Administrative/Management:       Not available
Utilization Rate: Not available
--                                                                      Total: Not available


                                                 Description: The MHI Smoke Tunnel is a specialized induction, open-cir-
                                                 cuit subsonic wind tunnel used for flow visualization tests by the smoke
                                                 technique. The tunnel’s inlet is 3 X 1.5 m and the tunnel is 3 1 m long. The
                                                 contraction ratio is 16 to 1. The test section has a window 1.2 X 2.2 m.
                                                 Smoke is provided by kerosenevapor in 69 lines. The tunnel has an
                                                 axial, single-stagefan 1.1 m in diameter powered by a 37-kW DCmotor.
                                                 Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is capable of conducting flow visualiza-
                                                 tion tests using the smoke technique. Three-dimensional flow observa-
                                                 tion is possible through side and rear windows.
                                                 Data Acquisition: Not available
                                                 Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Not available
                                                 Unique Characteristics: None
                                                 Applications/Current Programs: These include investigations of low-
                                                 speed aerodynamic problems, testing of automobile radiators, and dev-
                                                 elopment of a flow meter.


                                                 Page 224                                       GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Subsonic Wind Tunnel

NAL 6 m Lowspeed Wind Tunnel LS



Country: Japan                                                      Performance
                                                                      Mach Number: No. 1: 0.18 or 60 rnp; No. 2: 0.21 or 70 m/s
Location: National Aerospace Laboratory, Chofu-shi, Tokyo, Japan      Reynolds Number: No. 1: 1.2 x IO /m; No. 2: 1.4 x 106/m
                                                                      Total Pressure: Atmospheric
Owner(s):                                                             Dynamic Pressure: No. 1: 2.3 kPa; No. 2: 3.1 kPa
  National Aerospace Laboratory                                       Total Temperature: Ambient
  7-44-1 Jindaijihigashi-machi                                        Run Time: Not available
  Chofu-shi                                                           Comments: None
  Tokyo 182
  Japan                                                             Cost information
                                                                      Date Built: 1965
Operator(a): National Aerospace Laboratory                            Date Placed in Operation: 1965
                                                                      Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
international Cooperation: None                                       Construction Cost: $5.25 million (1965)
                                                                      Replacement Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Y. Ishida, National Aerospace Laboratory,          Annual Operating Cost: Not available
---~Tel.: [81]-(422)47-5911                                           Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                     Source(s) of Funding: Japanese government
Test Section Size: No. 1: 6.5 x 5.5 m (closed); No. 2: 5.6 x
  4.6 m looen\                                                      Number and Type of Staff
                                                                      En ineers: 0
Operational Status: Active                                            SCBentists: 7
                                                                     z;e;cfOBns: 0
Utiilration Rate:_---
                   1 shift per day
                                                                     Admini\trative/Management:      2
                                                                     Total: 9


                                                 Description: The NAL 6 m Low-SpeedWind Tunnel LS is a continuous
                                                 flow, closed-circuit, single-return subsonic wind tunnel. The tunnel has
                                                 both a semiclosedand open test section.
                                                 Testing Capabilities: The tunnel has struts for the six-component pyra-
                                                 mid-type external balance for model tests of V/S~L and conventional air-
                                                 planes. Auxiliary equipment for the powered model tests consists of a
                                                 292 Nm3/min (maximum) at 6-MPa compressed-airsupply. Propeller and
                                                 half-model testing are also possible. The tunnel can accommodatea
                                                 model with a wing span of up to 3 m and a weight of 500 kg. It is pow-
                                                 ered by a lo-bladed, 9-m diameter blower driven by a 3,000-kW electric
                                                 motor.
                                                 Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 38 channels of information that can be
                                                 recorded on the data acquisition system and reduced off-site.
                                                 Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
                                                 Unique Characteristics: None




                                                 Page226                                    GAO/NSIADSO-71FSForeignTestFadlities
SubsonicWind Tunnel

TRDI Convertible Wind Tunnel



Country: Japan                                                                  Performance
                                                                                  Mach Number: No.1: 0.04 to 0.17; No. 2: 0.03 to 0.05;
Location: Technical Research and Development Institute,                             No. 3: 0.04 to 0.1
   Tachikawa-shi, Tokyo, Japan                                                    Reynolds Number: 0 to 1.4 x 106/ft
                                                                                  Total Pressure: Atmospheric
Owner(a):                                                                         Dynamic Pressure: 0 to 60 Ib/ft2
  Technical Research and Development             Institute                        Total Temperature: Ambient
  The First Division                                                              Run Time: Continuous
  Third Research Center                                                           Comments: None
  l-2-1 0 Sakae-cho
  Tachikawa-shi                                                                 Cost information
  Tokyo 190                                                                       Date Built: 1971
  Japan                                                                           Date Placed in Operation: 1972
                                                                                  Date(s) Upgraded: None
Operator(s): Technical Research and Development Institute                         Construction Cost: $880,000 (1971)
international Cooperation: None                                                   Replacement Cost: $8.6 million (1989)
                                                                                  Annual Operating Cost: $40,000 (1989)
Point of Contact: Hideki Kuwano, Technical Research and                           Unit Cost to User: $190 per hour (1989)
  Development   Institute,
                                                                                  Source(s) of Funding: Japan Defense Agency
__--  ___
        -“_---        - .__.. Tel.:
               -.....__.      -     [81 J-(425)-24-241 1, ext._---..-
                                                                 130
                                                                                Number and Type of Staff
Teat Section Size: No. 1: 10.8 x 10.8 x 14.8 ft; No. 2: 19.7 x 19.7 x             Engineers: 3
  20.5 ft;._.-No.
____-.              3:-- 13.--.--
               .. ..__       (octagon) x 14 ft   ___--.-                ____.    Scientists: 0
                                                                                 Technicians: 3
Operational Status: Active                                                       Others: 0
                                                                                 Administrative/Management:      0
Utiilration
-.-         Rate: 130 days per year                                              Total: 6


                                                           Description: The THDI Convertible Wind Tunnel is both a continuous-
                                                           flow, single-return horizontal subsonicwind tunnel and a continuous-
                                                           flow, open-circuit vertical subsonicwind tunnel. The horizontal tunnel
                                                           has both an open- and closed-jettest chamber which can accommodate
                                                           models with a wingspan of up to 8 ft and weight of up to 1,000 lb. The
                                                           vertical tunnel has an open-jet test chamber.
                                                           Testing Capabilities: The horizontal tunnel has two horizontal test sec-
                                                           tions: one uses a strut-type balance for six-component force tests; the
                                                           other is used for large model tests. The vertical tunnel has a spin test
                                                           section with a rotary balance apparatus. The test section is used for
                                                           free-spin and aerodynamic tests. The tunnel is powered by a lo-bladed,
                                                           5.5-m diameter fan. The maximum power is 1,900 kW.


                                                           Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 10 channels of information that can be
                                                           recorded on the acquisition system and reduced on-site with a
                                                           minicomputer.
                                                           Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None



                                                           Page 228                                      GAO/NSIAD-SO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                           TRDI Convertible Wind Tunnel




Figure Vll.8: Schematic Diagram of the TRDI Convertible Wind Tunnel




                                                                                                             .ke



                  Horizontal nozzle




                                           Source:   TRDI




                                           Page 230                       GAO/NSIADBO-‘IIFS Foreign Test Facilities
SubsonicWind Tunnel

TRDI LowSpeed Wind Tunnel



Country: Japan                                                            Performance
                                                                            Mach Number: 0.04 to 0.17 or 50 to 190 ft/s
Location: Technical Research and Development Institute,                     Reynolds Number: 0 to 1.4 x 106/ft
  Tachikawa-shi, Tokyo, Japan                                               Total Pressure: Atmospheric
                                                                            Dynamic Pressure: 0 to 60 Ib/ft*
Owner(s):                                                                   Total Temperature: Ambient
  Technical Research and Development         Institute                      Run lime: Continuous
  The First Division                                                        Comments: None
  Third Research Center
  l-2-10 Sakae-cho                                                        Cost Information
  Tachikawa-shi                                                             Date Built: 1961
  Tokyo 190                                                                 Date Placed in Operation: 1962
  Japan                                                                     Date(s) Upgraded: None
                                                                            Construction Cost: $273,000 (1961)
Operator(s): Technical Research and Development Institute                   Replacement Cost: $35 million (1989)
                                                                            Annual Operating Cost: $26,000 (1989)
International Cooperation: None                                             Unit Cost to User: $105 per hour (1989)
                                                                            Source(s) of Funding: Japan Defense Agency
Point of Contact: Hideki Kuwano, Technical Research and
  Development    Institute, Tel.: [81]-(425)24-2411,     ext. 130
                                                                          Number and Type of Staff
                                                                           Engineers: 3
Test Section Size: 8.2 ft diameter x 11.5 ft long                          Scientists: 0
                                                                           ~e;t~iOans: 3
Operational Status: Active
                                                                            A$,in$trativejManagement:      0
Utilization Rate: 230 days per year                                              :


                                                       Description: The TRDI Low-SpeedWind Tunnel is a continuous-flow, sin-
                                                       gle-return subsonic wind tunnel. The tunnel has open- and closed-jet test
                                                       chambers that can accommodatemodels with a wingspan of up to 6 ft
                                                       and weight of up to 250 lb.
                                                       Testing Capabilities: The tunnel has two types of model-support sys-
                                                       tems: a sting support and a wire support. The sting-support system is
                                                       used for six-component force tests and high angle of attack tests up to
                                                       90 degrees.The wire-support system is generally used for external store
                                                       separation and flutter tests. The tunnel is powered by a lo-bladed, 3.6-m
                                                       diameter fan. The maximum power is 460 kw.

                                                       Data Acquisition: The tunnel has nine channels of information that can
                                                       be recorded on the data acquisition system and reduced on-site with a
                                                       Hewlett Packard 9826 computer.
                                                       Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
                                                       Unique Characteristics: None




                                                       Page 232                                   GAO/NSLAD!BO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                          Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                          TRDI Low-Speed Wind Tunnel




Figure Vll.10: Schematic Diagram of the TRDI Low-Speed Wind Tunnel



                        L                                   24000                                        -J




                                                                                                         I
                                                                           9200
                                                                       .                             c




                                         Source:   TRDI




                    Y




                                         Page 234                                 GAO/NSIAMO-71FS   Foreign Test Facilities
Subsonic Wind Tunnel
Unlverslty of Tsukuba Cryogenic
Wind Tunnel




General Comments:None

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 119. Adachi,
Tsutomu, Kazuo Matsuuchi, Satoshi Matsuda, and Tatsuo Kawai. “On
the Force and Vortex Shedding on a Circular Cylinder from Subcritical
up to Transcritical Reynolds Numbers.” In: Journal of the Japan Society
of Mechanical Engineers,vol. 51, no. 461 (1986-l), pp. 295-299 (in Japa-
nese).Adachi, Tsutomu, Kazuo Matsuuchi, and Hiroki Ono. “Character-
istics of Hot-Wire Anemometer in Low Temperature Flow (Effect of
Aspect Ratio).” In: Journal of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engi-
neers, vol. 64, no. 498 (1988-2), pp. 387-392 (in Japanese).Adachi,
Tsutomu, Hiroki Ono, Kazuo Matsuuchi, Tatsuo Kawai, and Tetsuo Cho.
“Flow Around a Circular Cylinder in the High Reynolds Number Range
(Effect of Surface Roughness).”In: Journal of the Japan Society of
Mechanical Engineers, vol. 55, no. 511 (1989-3), pp. 685-692 (in Japa-
nese).Adachi, Tsutomu, Hiroki Ono, Kazuo Matsuuchi, Tatsuo Kawai,
and Tetsuo Cho. “Drag and Vortex Shedding from Circular Cylinder in
the High Reynolds Number Range(Effect of Surface Roughness).”In:
Journal of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers,vol. 55, no. 517
(1989-g), pp. 2597-2601(in Japanese).Adachi, Tsutomu, Yoshimasa
Yoshizawa, Yasunori Kobayashi, Masahide Mura Kami, Kazuo
Matsuuchi, Tatsuo Kawai, Tetsuo Cho, YasunagaShimura, Masaya
Tanaka, and SohemonFuchigami. “Cryogenic Wind Tunnel and Its Per-
formance for High Reynolds Number Testing.” In: Proceedingsof the
International Conferenceon Fluid Dynamic Measurementand Its Appli-
cations, Beijing, People’sRepublic of China, 1989.
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 236                              GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                           University of Tsukuba Cryogenic
                                           Wind Tunnel




Figure Vll.12: Schematic Diagram of the University of Tsukuba Cryogenic Wind Tunnel

                                                                                                                                  1


                                                                   ,Cylinder
                                                                               1




                                          Source:   University   of Tsukuba




                                          Page 238                                    GAO/NSLAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
‘lhnsordc Wind Tunnel
ISAS Transonic Wind Tunnel




Applications/Current Programs: These include the EAS      HIMES   vehicle and
flutter characteristics of a rocket tail-wing.
General Comments:The total construction cost of the ISASTransonic and
SupersonicWind Tunnel system is $20 million (1988). In addition to the
transonic and supersonic wind tunnels, the system also includes the air
reservoir system and data acquisition system. However, the detailed
cost of each component is not precisely determined.
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:No referenceshave yet been published.
Date of Information: January 1990




Page 240                              GAO/NSIAD90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                          TransonlcWind Tunnel
                                          ISAS Tram~~nlc Wind ‘hnnel




Figure Vll.14: Schematic Diagram of the ISAS Transonic Wind Tunnel
I
                                Subsonic and transonic                              Honeycomb
                                test section
                                                                                     /




                                        Porous’wall                    + Screen aid porous plate

                                           Source:   ISAS




                                           Page 242                          GAO/NSIAD-QO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                             Transonic Wind Tunnel
                                             KHI 1 m Transonic Wind Tunnel




                                            Applications/Current Programs: Current applications include testing
                                            models of commercial airplanes, fighter aircraft, missiles, and
                                            spaceplanes.

                                            General Comments:None
                                            Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
                                            References:None available

                                            Date of Information: October 1989
Figure Vll.15: KHI 1 m Transonic Wind Tunnel
                  ..    ..-     ._...-      .._




                                           Source:   KHI




                                           Page 244                             GAO/NSLAD-90.7lFSForeign Test Facilities
                                       Transontc Wind Tunnel
                                       KHI 1 m Transonic Wind Tunnel




Figure Vll.18: Stlng Strut Model
Supporting Equlpment of the KHI 1 m
Transonlc Wind Tunnel




                                      Source:   KHI




                                      Page 246                         GAO/N&ID-SO-7lFS   Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Transontc Wind Tunnel
                                           KHI Two-Dimensional Wind Tunnel




                                           References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
                                           tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C: National
                                           Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, p. 144.
                                           Date of Information: October 1989
Figure Vll.19: Schematic Diagram of the KHI Two-Dimensional   Wind Tunnel




                            STORAGE
                                TAKK                                                         CONPREssoR




        n/            HANDVALVE



                                                                  SETTLING CHAMBER




                       ANTI-NRBULENCE
                                    NETS/

                                           Source,   KHI




                                           Page 248                                  GAO/NSL%D-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Transonic Wind Tunnel

NAL 2 m Transonic Wind Tunnel HS



Country: Japan                                                     Performance
                                                                     Mach Number: 0.1 to 1.4
Location: National Aerospace Laboratory, Chofu-shi, Tokyo, Japan     Reynolds Number: 1.6 to 6 x 106/m
                                                                    Total Pressure: 40 to 130 kPa
Owner(s):                                                            Dynamic Pressure: 1.9 to 42 kN/m2
  National Aerospace Laboratory                                      Total Temperature: 318 to 333 degrees Kelvin
  7-44.1 Jindaijihigashi-machi                                       Run Time: Continuous
  Chofu-shi                                                          Comments: None
  Tokyo 182
  Japan                                                            Cost information
                                                                     Date Built! 1960
Operator(s): National Aerospace Laboratory                           Date Placed in Operation: 1960
                                                                     Date(s) Upgraded: 1985 (on oing
International Cooperatlon: Not available                            Construction Cost: $8,335,08 0 (1$60)
                                                                    Replacement Cost: $200 million (1965)
Point of Contact: M. Ebihara, National Aerospace Laboratory,        Annual Operatin Cost: $3,638,000 to $7,275,000 for
  Tel.: f811-(422).475911                                              maintenance (1! 89)
                                                                     Unit Cost to User: $7,275 per hour (1989)
Test Section Size: 2 x 2 x 4.13 m                                    Source(s) of Funding: Japanese government

Operational Status: Active                                         Number and Type of Staff
                                                                     Engineers: 6
Utilization Rate: 1 shift per day                                   Scientists: 1
                                                                    ~;t9&c~ns: 7
                                                                    Admini&rative/Management:        2
                                                                    Total: 16


                                               Description: The NAL 2 m Transonic Wind Tunnel HS is a continuous-
                                               flow, closed-circuit, single-return transonic wind tunnel. It is driven by a
                                               22.5-MWthyrister motor, controllable to a Mach number accuracy of
                                               0.0006. It has a settling chamber-to-test section contraction ratio of 20 to
                                               achieve a turbulence level of 0.2 percent in the mass flow fluctuation.

                                               Testing Capabilities: The NAL 2 m is equipped with three test section
                                               carts. The first cart uses a sting-strut support for complete-modeltest-
                                               ing. This cart has four walls that are perforated at 20-percent open-area
                                               ratio with 12-mmdiameter normal holes. The secondcart is used for
                                               semispan-modeltesting and has the samewall configuration as the first
                                               cart. The third cart is used for complete-modeltesting, but it has
                                               60-degreeslant holes at 8 percent open-arearatio. For near-sonic and
                                               supersonic tests, an auxiliary suction system with a 1%MW power unit is
                                               used in combination with a flexible wall nozzle and secondthroat set-
                                               tings to establish desired Mach numbers.
                                              Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 96 A/D converter channels in 3 data
                                              acquisition speedranges: 16 channels for high-speed(200 kHz) acquisi-
                                              tion, 32 channels for medium-speed(50 knz) acquisition, and 48 channels


                                              Page 260                                       GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                         Transonic Wind Tunnel
                                         NAL 2 m Transonic Wind Tunnel HS




Figure V11.21:Schematic Diagram of the NAL 2 m Transonic Wind Tunnel HS
                                                                                                                            1




                                         air storaae units



                                                                            r
                       Cooling tower               rl             F


                                                                                                  cl
                                                                                            Operation
                     Cooling sfstem                             III                                        )m-




                                                                                   Main blower
                                                                                              /

                                                                                                           F
                                                                                                  1200(lkV\I
                                                                                                  AC moto r
                                                                                                       I


                                                                                                  Suction blalwel

                                                                                                  /
                                          Instrumentation




                                        Source: NAL




                                        Page 262                                GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Transonic Wind Tunnel
NAL ‘lkwDimensiona1 Transonic
Wind Tunnel




Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): The Hewlett Packard
2113B data acquisition and processingsystem computer was expected to
be replaced by a DG ECLIPSEMV/7800XP computer in Japan fiscal
year 1989.

Unique Characteristics: None
Applications/Current Programs: Development tests on a transonic wing
section are being conducted.
General Comments:The NAL Two-Dimensional Transonic Wind Tunnel
was formally known as the NAL RENO Wind Tunnel.
Photograph/Schematic Available: No

References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, p. 145. National
AerospaceLaboratory. NAL 1988. Chofu-shi, Tokyo: National Aerospace
Laboratory, 1988, p. 16.

Date of Information: October 1989




Page 254                             GAO/NSIAD-SO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Trisonic Wind Tunnel

‘F’HI 2 X 2 ft High-SpeedWind Tunnel



Country: Japan                                                     Performance
                                                                     Mach Number: 0.2 to 4
Location: Fuji Heavy Industries, Utsunomiya, Tochigi Prefecture,     Reynolds Number: 3.2 to 3.5 x 106/ft
  Japan                                                              Total Pressure: Atmospheric
                                                                     Dynamic Pressure: 140 to 800 Ib/ft*
Owner(s):                                                            Total Temperature: Atmospheric at stagnation
  Fuji Heavy Industries                                              Run Time: 10 to 30 s (10 s for supersonic)
  Aircraft Engineering Division                                      Comments: Intermittent run time is 20 min.
  l-1.1 1 Yonan
  Utsunomrya                                                       Cost Information
  Tochigi Prefecture 320                                             Date Built: 1981
  Japan                                                              Date Placed in Operation: 1981
                                                                     Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
Operator(s): Fuji Heavy Industries                                   Construction Cost: $2,267,000 (1981)
                                                                     Replacement Cost: $5.5 million (1985)
international Cooperation: None                                      Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                     Unit Cost to User: Not available
Point of Contact: Akitoshi Nagao, Fuji Heavy Industries,             Source(s) of Funding: Fuji Heavy Industries
  Tel.: 1811-(286)-58-l 111
                                                                   Number and Type of Staff
Test
.._._..Section
    “”..-        Sire:
          _ ..__._._     2 -._-_
                           x 2 ft
                   ._.. .._..                                        Engineers: 0
                                                                    Scientists: 0
Operational Status: Active                                          g;e;cfns:     2
Utilization Rate: 20 to 30 tests per day                             Admini\trativejManagement:     0
                                                                     Total: 2


                                                Description: The FHI 2 X 2 ft High-SpeedWind Tunnel is an intermittent,
                                                indraft, open-circuit, trisonic wind tunnel. It has a supersonic closedtest
                                                section and a six-percent perforated transonic test section.
                                                Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is equipped with both sting and sidewall
                                                model support systems. The sting support system has a six-component
                                                internal balance for full-model tests, and the sidewall support system
                                                has a three-component balance for half-model tests. Oil flow and schlie-
                                                ren techniques are available for flow visualization tests, and a 10 kg/cm2,
                                                2.6 m3 compressedair supply is equipped to simulate exhaust jet flow
                                                and pressure measurementequipment (scanivalves). When test Mach
                                                numbers are varied over the supersonic region, the fixed nozzle blocks
                                                can be changed.This takes about 1 hour. Three supersonic nozzle blocks
                                                (Mach 2,3 and 4) are available for supersonictests. Additional super-
                                                sonic nozzleshave been installed.
                                                Data Acquisition: A Hewlett Packard 1000 series computer and front-
                                                end are used for data acquisition of up to 17 analog channels. Two pro-
                                                grammable logic controllers are used for wind tunnel and model position
                                                control. On-line data acquisition/reduction programs provide almost
                                                instantaneous numerical and graphical results.


                                                Page 255                                    GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
‘I’dsonic Wind Tunnel
F’HI 2 X 2 ft High-Speed Wind Tunnel




Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None

Unique Characteristics: The tunnel’s vacuum system is unique becauseit
usesa large collapsible, rubberized storage bag for the air supply.

Applications/Current Programs: The tunnel is used to study transonic
and supersonic aerodynamics of military and transport aircraft and
rocket configurations.
General Comments:The Canadian firm Dilworth, Secord,Meagher Asso-
ciates, Ltd. designedthe tunnel and sold the wind tunnel technology to
FHI.

Photograph/Schematic Available: No

References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels, Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, pp. 186 and 221.
Date of Information: November 1988




Page 260                               GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Trisonic Wind Tunnel

MHI 60 cm Trisonic Wind Tunnel



Country: Japan                                                       Performance
                                                                       Mach Number: 0.4 to 4
Location: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture,       Reynolds Number: 15 to 65 x 106/m
  Japan                                                                Total Pressure: 11.77 bars (maximum3
                                                                       Dynamic Pressure: 29.4 to 156 kN/m
Owner(s):                                                              Total Temperature: Ambient
  Mitsubishi Heavy Industries                                          Run Time: 20 s at Mach 1 and 35 s at Mach 2.5
  Nagoya Aerospace Systems Works                                       Comments: None
  IO Oye-cho, Minato-ku
  Na oya                                                             Cost Information
  Aic%i Prefecture 455                                                 Date Built: 1968
  Japan                                                                Date Placed in Operation: 1968
                                                                       Date(s) Upgraded: 1979,1982,1987, and 1989
Operator(s): Mitsubishi Heavy Industries,                              Construction Cost: $3.6 million (1968)
  Nagoya Aerospace Systems Works                                       Replacement Cost: $13 million (1985)
                                                                      Annual Operating Cost: Not available
International Cooperation: Council for Scientific and Industrial       Unit Cost to User: Not available
  Research (South Africa)                                              Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Point of Contact: Haruhiko Arakawa, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries,
  Tel.: [81]-(52)61  l-801 1 .~ ---~--- --~-..-                      Number and Type of Staff
  .             . -..____                                              Engineers: Not available
                                                                       Scientists: Not available
Test Section Size:
              ~_.... 0.6 x 0.6 x 2.8 m                                Technicians: Not available
                                                                       Others: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                            Administrative/Management:     Not available
                                                                      Total: Not available
Utilization Rate: 10 hours
                  _........   per day
                          - _----~-..-.-


                                                  Description: The MHI 60 cm Trisonic Wind Tunnel is an intermittent
                                                  blowdown trisonic wind tunnel. The tunnel is capable of conducting
                                                  tests in the subsonic,transonic, and supersonic speedranges. The test
                                                  gas is exhausted to the atmosphere.

                                                  Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is used to conduct six-component force
                                                  tests; pressure distribution tests; half-model tests; flutter tests (half-
                                                  wing and empennage);static aeroelastic tests; air intake tests, including
                                                  unsteady pressure measurements;power effect tests; and flow visualiza-
                                                  tion tests. Angle of attack range is from -16 to 30 degreeswhen the
                                                  sting support system is used. An internal six-component balance is used
                                                  for force measurement of complete aircraft model tests, and a sidewall
                                                  five-component balance is used for half-model tests, The air storage
                                                  sphere is 8 m in diameter with air pressure up to 15 kg/cm2. Tunnel
                                                  upgrades in 1982 improved the flow uniformity and turbulence level as
                                                  well as precise control of Mach number. Upgrades in 1987 replaced tun-
                                                  nel control, data acquisition, and processingsystems with MX com-
                                                  puters. In 1989, a new air compressorwas added, which doubled the test
                                                  capability.



                                                  Page 267                                   GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                            Trlsonic Wind Tunnel
                                            Ml9 00 cm Trhonic Wind Tunnel




                                            Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 32 channelsof data that can record
                                            force and pressure data simultaneously. The Mitsubishi Electric MX
                                            2000/MX 3000 computers processdata on-line with output by plotter,
                                            printer, graphic display, and character display. These computers are
                                            connectedto the host IBM 3090 computer.
                                            Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None

                                            Unique Characteristics: None
                                            Applications/Current Programs: Current programs include research and
                                            development of aircraft, missiles, and rockets.

                                            General Comments:None
                                            Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

                                            References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
                                            tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
                                            Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, p. 184.
                                            Date of Information: October 1989
Figure Vll.22: MHI 60 cm Trisonic Wind Tunnel




                                           Source: MHI



                                           Page 260                               GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                          ‘l’risonic Wind Tunnel
                                          MHl 60 cm Trlsouic Wind Tunnel




Figure VII.23 Schematic Diagram of the MHI 60 cm Trisonlc Wind Tunnel




                                          Source: MHI




                                         Page 259                          GAO/NSIAIMO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Supersonic Wind Tunnel

ISAS Supersonic Wind Tunnel



Country: Japan                                                          Performance
                                                                          Mach Number: 1.5 to 4 (maximum)
Locatlon: Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,                   Reynolds Number: 1.08 x 106/m
  Sagamihara-shi,     Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan                          Total Pressure: 6 atm (maximum)
                                                                          Dynamic Pressure: 260 kN/mZ (maximum)
Owner(s):                                                                 Total Temperature: Atmospheric
  Institute of Space and Astronautical    Science                         Run Time: 30 s (minimum)
  3-l-l Yoshinodai                                                        Comments: None
  Sagamihara-shi
  Kanagawa Prefecture 229                                               Cost Information
  Japan                                                                   Date Built: 1988
                                                                          Date Placed in Operation: 1990
Operator(s): Institute of Space and Astronautical Science                 Date(s) Upgraded: Not applicable
                                                                          Construction Cost: $10 million (1988) (See General Comments)
International Cooperation: None                                           Replacement Cost: Not available
Polnt of Contact: Professor Keiichi Karashima, Institute of Space         Annual Operating Cost: $220,000 (1990)
  and Astronautical    Science, Tel.: [El]-(427)57-391   1, ext. 2812
                                                                          Unit Cost to User: $1,000 per hour (1990)
                                                                          Source(s) of Funding: Japanese government
Test Section Size: 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.8 m                                    Number and Type of Staff
                                                                          Engineers: 1
Operational Status: Under construction                                   Scientists: 0
                                                                         Technicians: 1
Utlllzatlon Rate: Not yet operational                                    Others: 0
                                                                         ;imhrFtrative/Management:      1
                                                                               :



                                                    Description: The ISM SupersonicWind Tunnel is a blowdown supersonic
                                                    wind tunnel. The tunnel covers Mach numbers 1.5 to 4 nearly continu-
                                                    ously by use of a supersonic nozzle with variable throat geometry. The
                                                    nozzle geometry is regulated before tunnel operation so that the Mach
                                                    number is fixed during the test.

                                                    Testing Capabilities: The tunnel has various testing capabilities includ-
                                                    ing six-component force tests, pressure measurement at 120 points, and
                                                    optical observation using schlieren and laser interferometry as well as a
                                                    high-speedvideo system. In addition, the tunnel has another testing
                                                    block designedfor general uses.These usesmay include simulation of
                                                    free flight, separation of boosters from the vehicle, and opening tests of
                                                    supersonic parachutes.
                                                    Data Acquisition: A high-speed and multi-channel data acquisition sys-
                                                    tem is available, which consistsof a computer and the associatedmea-
                                                    surement devices.Data acquisition is obtained automatically.
                                                    Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None




                                                    Page 260                                    GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Supersonic Wind Tunnel
ISAEl Supersonic Wind Tunnel




Unique Characteristics: The tunnel is designedparticularly for combus-
tion simulation tests,
Applications/Current Programs: These include the aerodynamic charac-
teristics of the ISASHIMES vehicle, simulation tests of the air-intake of air-
breathing propulsion systems, and opening characteristics of supersonic
parachutes.
General Comments:The total construction cost of the ISAS Transonic and
SupersonicWind Tunnel system is $20 million (1988). In addition to the
transonic and supersonic wind tunnels, the system also includes the air
reservoir system and data acquisition system. However, the detailed
cost of each component is not precisely determined.

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:No referenceshave yet been published.

Date of Information: January 1990




Page 261                                 GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                          Supersonic Wind Tunnel
                                          ISAS Supersonic Wind Tunnel




Flaure Vll.24: Schematic Drawing of the ISAS Supersonic Wind Tunnel

                                             Noise Suppressor           Air Tank
                                                  I




                                          Source: ISAS




                                           Page 262                        GAO/NSIAJJ-90-71FS Foreigu Test Facilities
                                          Supersoulc Wind Tunnel
                                          ISAS Supersonic Wind Tunnel




Figure Vll.25: Schematic Diagram of the ISAS Supersonic Wind Tunnel



                                                    Supersonic testing configuration


                        Supersonic test section




                                          Source: ISAS




                                         Page 263                                      GAO/NSIAD90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
SupersonicWind Tunnel

NAL 1 m Wind Tunnel



Country: Japan                                                              Performance
                                                                              Mach Number: 1.4 to 4
Location: National Aerospace Laboratory, Choufu-shi, Tokyo, Japan             Reynolds Number: 0.6 to 1.8 x 107/ft
                                                                              Total Pressure: 152 to 1,275 kPa
Owner(s):                                                                     Dynamic Pressure: 65 to 1.55 kPa
  National Aerospace Laboratory                                               Total Temperature: Ambient
  7-44-l Jindaijihigashi-machi                                                Run Time: 30 to 60 s with varying model incidence
  Chofu-shr                                                                   Comments: None
  Tokyo 182
  Japan                                                                     Cost Information
Operator(s): National Aerospace Laboratory                                    Date Built: 1961
                                                                              Date Placed in Operation: 1961
International Cooperation: None                                               Date(s) Upgraded: 1977, 1980, and 1988
                                                                              Construction Cost: $6.7 million (1961)
Point of Contact: S. Sakakibara, National Aerospace Laboratory,               Replacement Cost: $50 million (1989)
  Tel.: [81]-(422)47591   I~_.- -~~.._---
                                                                              Annual Operating Cost: $360,000 (1989)
                                                                       .-     Unit Cost to User: $1,800 per run (1989)
                                                                              Source(s) of Funding: None
lest Section Size: 1 x 1 m                                        --
                                                                            Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Active                                                    Engineers: 5
                                                                             Scientists: 0
Utilization Rate: 1 shift per day                                            Technicians: 1
                                                                             Others: 0
                                                                             $n,in~trative/Management:       0



                                               Description: The tunnel 1 m Wind Tunnel is an intermittent, blowdown
                                               supersonic wind tunnel.

                                               Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is capable of conducting (1) force mea-
                                               surements using six-component strain-gauge balances,(2) pressure mea-
                                               surements using scanivalves and electric scanning pressure transducers,
                                               (3) other measurementsusing dynamic stability parameters by the
                                               forced oscillation method and free-flight technique, and (4) flow visuali-
                                               zation using color schlieren, vapor screen,and oil streaks. Other equip-
                                               ment includes jet simulation with air up to 2 MPa.
                                               Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 32 A/D channels and 12 digital inputs
                                               that are recorded and reduced in an on-line operation using an
                                               ECLIPSE-S140 computer.
                                               Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None

                                               Unique Characteristics: The NAL 1 m Wind Tunnel is the largest super-
                                               sonic wind tunnel in Japan.




                                               Page 264                                              GAO/NSJAD-9OJlFS Foreign Test Facilities
                                         Supersonic Wind Tunnel
                                         NAL 1 m Wind Tunnel




                                         Applications/Current Programs: These include basic and projected
                                         research for airplanes, spacevehicles and other fundamental configura-
                                         tions. Measurementsof aerodynamic characteristics for NAL'S spaceplane
                                         and NASDA'S H-II Orbiting Plane (HOPE) are currently underway. The tun-
                                         nel is also used for investigations of aerodynamic components(such as
                                         engine intakes) at supersonic speedsbetween Mach 1.4 and 4.
                                         General Comments:None

                                         Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
                                         References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
                                         tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
                                         Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, p. 225. National
                                         Aerospace Laboratory. NAL 1988. Chofu-shi, Tokyo: National Aerospace
                                         Laboratory, 1988, p. 11.
                                         Date of Information: October 1989
Figure Vll.26: Test Section of the NAL
1 m Wind Tunnel




                                         Source:   NAL




                                         Page 266                              GAO/NSIADBO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                              Supersonic Wind Tunnel
                                              NALlmWind’hnnel




FiQure Vll.27: Test of a Scramjet Intake in
the NAL 1 m Wind Tunnel




                                              Source:   NAL




                                               Page     266            GACJ/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

NAL 50 an Hypersonic Wind Tunnel



Country: Japan                                                     Performance
                                                                     Mach Number: 5,7,9, and 11
Locatlon: National Aerospace Laboratory, Chofu-shi, Tokyo, Japan     Reynolds Number: 0.3 to 7,2 x 106/m
                                                                     Total Pressure: 1 to 10 MPa
Owner(s):                                                            Dynamic Pressure: 7.8 to 78 kPa
  National Aerospace Laboratory                                      Total Temperature: 600 to 1,500 degrees Kelvin
  7-44-l Jindaijihigashi-machi                                       Run Time: 120 s (maximum)
  Chofu-shi                                                          Comments: None
  Tokyo 182
  Japan                                                            Cost Information
Operator(s): National Aerospace Laboratory                           Date Built: 1965
                                                                     Date Placed in Operation: 1966
International Cooperation: None                                      Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
                                                                     Construction Cost: $2,766,000 (1965)
Point of Contact: K. Hozumi, National Aerospace Laboratory,          Replacement Cost: Not available
  Tel.: [al]-(422)47-591   1
                                                                    Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                     Unit Cost to User: $2,910 per run (1989)
                                                                     Source(s) of Funding: Japanese government
Test Section Size: 50 cm diameter (axisymmetric)
                                                                   Number and Type of Staff
Operatlonal Status: Active                                           Engineers: Not available
                                                                    Scientists: Not available
Utilltatlon   Rate: 3 runs per day                                  Technicians: Not available
                                                                    Others: Not available
                                                                    Administrative/Management:     Not available
                                                                    Total: 6


                                              Description: The NAL 60 cm Hypersonic Wind Tunnel is an intermittent
                                              blowdown hypersonic wind tunnel. The tunnel has four interchangeable
                                              axisymmetric contoured nozzlesand is equipped with an alumina
                                              pebble-bedheater.
                                              Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is capable of six-component force tests,
                                              pressure tests using a parallel operation of three scanivalves, and heat
                                              transfer tests using a Calorimeter and infrared ray methods. Schlieren,
                                              oil flow, and thermographic flow visualization techniques are available.
                                              Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 64 channels of data and 10,000 sam-
                                              ples per secondcan be acquired and reduced off-line on an ECLIPSE-S
                                              140 computer system.
                                              Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): These include con-
                                              struction of a new test section with a 1.2-mexit diameter Mach 10 nozzle
                                              parallel to the existing 50-cmtest section.
                                              Unique Characteristics: Currently, the NAL 60 cm Hypersonic Wind Tun-
                                              nel is the only hypersonic wind tunnel in Japan.



                                              Page 267                                     GAO/NSIAIMO-71FS Foreign Teat Faciliti~
Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
NAL 50 cm Hypersonic Wind Tunnel




Applications/Current Programs: Measurementsof aerodynamic charac-
teristics and heat transfer distributions for NAL'S spaceplaneand NASDA'S
HOPE are currently underway. The tunnel is also used to investigate the
aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic characteristics of hypersonic
transports.
General Comments:None

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:National AerospaceLaboratory. NAL 1988. Chofu-shi, Tokyo:
National AerospaceLaboratory, 1989, p. 11. National AerospaceLabora-
tory. Design and Construction of the 60 cm Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at
National AerospaceLaboratory. Chofu-shi, Tokyo: National Aerospace
Laboratory, 1969 (NAL Technical Report No. 116 (in Japanese).
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 268                               GAO/NSIAD-90BlFS   Foreign Test Facilities
                                          Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
                                          NAL 60 cm Hypersonic Wind Tunnel




Figure VII.28: NAL 50 cm Hypersonic Wind Tunnel




                                          Source:   GAO




                                          Page 269                           GAO/NSIAIbfJ&71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                          Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
                                          NAL 60 cm Hypersonic Wind Tunnel




Figure Vll.29: Schematic Drawing of the NAL 50 cm Hypersonic Wind Tunnel




                                          Source: NAL




                                         Page 270                            GAO/NSJAD-So-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
                                           NAL 50 cm Hypereonic Wind Tunnel




Figure Vll.30: Schematic Diagram of the NAL 50 cm Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
         Major modification: Test section enlarged to 4” feet


              -1                                     aHd/$J                          Ij*r storage vessel




                                                                                                                     i
                                                                                                                   a!!??
                                                                                                                     II
              ---
                                    Eiisting part - Enlarged part
                                                                              --pJ                                      /
                      1-I6m                El                 El                     I

                                           Source:   NAL




                                          Page 27 1                                       GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell

MHI Small Turbojet Development Test
cell (1007)


Country: Japan                                                            Performance
                                                                            Mass Flow: 12 lb s for sea level conditions
Location: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Komaki-shi, Aichi Prefecture,        Altitude Range: 4 ealevel to 20,000 ft
  Japan                                                                     Temperature Ran 8: -30 to 180 degrees Fahrenheit
                                                                            Pressure Range: d 3 psia
Owner(s):                                                                   Speed Range: Mach 0 to 1.2
  Mitsubishi Heavy Industries                                               Comments: None
  Aircraft and Special Vehicles Headquarters
  Na oya Guidance and Propulsion Systems Works                           Cost Information
  1280, Higashi-tanaka                                                     Date Built: 1980
  Komaki-shi                                                               Date Placed in Operation: 1980
  Aichi Prefecture 485
  Japan
                                                                           Date(s) Upgraded: 1983
                                                                           Construction Cost: $1 million (1980)
Operator(s): Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Engine Engineering               Replacement Cost: Not available
  Department                                                               Annual Operating Cost: $400,000 per year (1989)
                                                                           Unit Cost to User: Not available
International Cooperatlon: None                                           Source(s) of Funding: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries

Point of Contact: Mikio Kajita, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries,             Number and Type of Staff
   Tel.:l.”[81]-(568)-79-2111,
-. .I..     _ .._---.--.   .._. ext. 4610
                                                                           Engineers: 6
                                                                           Scientists: 0
Test    Cell
- _.......      Size: 8 in. diameter (direct connect); 18 x 18 x 40 ft
        .- ..-_.____.-                                                    Technicians: 12
                                                                           Others: 2
Operational Status: Active                                                Administrative/Management:     2
                                                                          Total: 22
Utilization Rate: IO to 20 tests per month


                                                      Description: The MHI Small Turbojet Development Test Cell (1007) is an
                                                      altitude engine test facility. It was originally set up as a sea level flight
                                                      condition simulator. For altitude simulation tests, air is used for the ejec-
                                                      tor. For inlet temperature tests, liquid nitrogen/liquid oxygen is used.
                                                      The capacity of the installed thrust stand is about 1,100 lb. The thrust
                                                      level is 600 lb.

                                                      Testing Capabilities: The test cell is used mainly for performance and
                                                      mission-simulated testing of small turbojets for missiles and target
                                                      drones. It also has the environmental test capabilities for high and low
                                                      temperature and water ingestion.
                                                      Data Acquisition: A minicomputer-controlled digital data acquisition
                                                      system (MEC MELCOMMX3000 X2) is available for high-speedgeneral-
                                                      purpose data acquisition (384 channels and 100 kHz). A personal com-
                                                      puter-controlled system is also available for lower speeddata acquisi-
                                                      tion (170 channels). Analog recording devicessuch as magnetic tape,
                                                      strip chart, and oscillograph are prepared.




                                                      Page 272                                   GAO/NSIAIMO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                     Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell
                                     MHI Small Turbojet Development Test
                                     cdl (1007)




                                    Planned Improvements’(Modifications/Upgrades): In 1989, the capacity
                                    of the air source compressorswere expected to be tripled. The compres-
                                    sors can be used as exhausters for altitude simulation up to 40,000 ft
                                    pressure altitude. An inlet air cooling system will also be added to real-
                                    ize full-altitude testing of 700~lbclassturbojet/fan or 1,600-hpclass
                                    turboshaft enginesup to 30,000 ft at Mach 1.
                                    Unique Characteristics: None
                                    Applications/Current Programs: Current applications include testing
                                    small- and medium-sizedturbojets.

                                    General Comments:Start simulation is only for altitude tests.

                                    Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

                                    References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
                                    tical Facilities Catalogue:Airbreathing Propulsion and Flight Simula-
                                    tors. Washington, DC.: National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration,
                                    1986, vol. 2, p. 92.

                                    Date of Information: October 1989
Figure Vll.31: MHI Small Turbojet
Develo,pment Test Cell (1007)




                                    Source:   MHI




                                    Page 273                               GAO/NSLAD90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities



                                                                                                           ‘,
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell

NAL Ram/Scramjet Engine Test Facility



Country: Japan                                                       Performance
                                                                       Mass Flow: 10.41 kg/s (case A) (See General Comments)
Location: National Aerospace Laboratory, Kakuda Branch,                Altitude Range: Up to 35,000 m (case A)
  Kimigaya, Kakuda, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan                           Temperature Range: 2,557 degrees Kelvin (case A)
                                                                       Pressure Range: 10.25 MPa (case A)
Owner(s):                                                              Speed Range: Mach 6.73 (case A)
  National Aerospace Laboratory                                        Comments: Heat source is an air storage heater and vitiation
  7-44.1 Jindaijihigashi-machi                                           heater, Air flow rate is 7.88 kg/s. See Description for flight
  Chofu-shi                                                              conditions to be simulated and General Comments for
  Tokyo 182                                                              additional performance characteristics.
  Japan
Operator(s): National Aerospace Laboratory,                          Cost Information
  Kakuda Branch
                                                                       Date Built: 1992
                                                                       Date Placed in Operation: 1992
International Cooperation: Not applicable                              Date(s) Upgraded: Not applicable
                                                                      Construction Co$t: Not available
Point of Contact: Hiroshi Miyajima, National Aerospace Laboratory,     Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                      Annual Operating Cost: Unknown
 . Kakuda
   - . . _..-.Branch, Tel.: _1811-(224).68-3111
                                _.                                     Unit Cost to User: Unknown
Test Cell Size: 510 x 510 mm (nozzle exit area)                       Source(s) of Funding: Not available

Operational Status: Planned                                          Number and Type of Staff
                                                                      Engineers: Not available
Utilization Rate: Unknown                                             Scientists: Not available
                                                                      Technicians: Not available
                                                                      Others: Not available
                                                                      Administrative/Management:         Not available
                                                                      Total: Not available


                                               Description: The NAL Ram/Scramjet Engine Test Facility will be an inter-
                                               mittent blowdown wind tunnel with steam ejectors. NAL has selected
                                               Kobe Steel Corporation for PhaseI construction of the test facility for
                                               ramjet and scramjet engines,which includes a hypersonic wind tunnel.
                                               Kobe Steel Corporation will construct the facility in cooperation with
                                               FluiDyne Engineering Corporation. The tunnel will have a 510 X 510 mm
                                               nozzle capable of speedsup to Mach 6.73. It will be able to simulate
                                               flight conditions at altitudes up to 36,000 m. The facility will simulate
                                               the following flight conditions.




                                               Page 274                                        GAO/NSIADdO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cdl
ML Ram/Sm~et        Engine Test Facility




Case                               A               0                  C
Altitude                           35,000 m        25,000 m           20,000 m
Free-stream conditions
-__I_
    Mach number                    8               6                  4
    Static temperature             23;z;yeea       2ygp39             213$-
-
- Static pressure                  575 Pa          2,549 Pa           5,528 Pa
Air inlet conditions
    Mach number                    6.73            5.3                3.41
    Static temperature             32;:;~s         27ggr-s            27g;y
..-__               --
    Static pressure                1.615 Pa        5,322 Pa           12,261 Pa


The heat source for caseA will be a combination of a storage heater and
a vitiation heater. CaseB will have either a storage heater or a vitiation
heater for its heat source.CaseC will only have a storage heater. The
facility will be built at NAL’S Kakuda Propulsion Test Center at Kakuda,
Miyagi Prefecture in northern Japan. The facility is scheduled for com-
pletion in 1992.

Testing Capabilities: Not available
Data Acquisition: Not available
PC                                                            Not applicable

Unique Characteristics: Not available

Applications/Current Programs: The facility will be able to test ramjets
and scramjets.
General Comments:The facility will have the following capabilities to
simulate flight conditions as indicated in casesA, B, and C above.




Page 276                                       GAO/NSUD-BO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell
NAL lbm/ScramJet Engine Test Facility




                                                               Case
Performance                   A                  B                B                C
Heat source                   Air storage        Air storage      Vitiation        Air storage
--~                              and vitiation
Mach number                   6.73               5.3              5.3              3.41
LCaximum flow rate            10.41 kg/s         30.85 kg/s       29.75 kg/s       45.88 kg/s
Air flow rate
--~___--___                   7.88 kg/s          30.85 kg/s       24.26 kg/s       45.88 kg/s
Total temperature             2,557 degrees      1,655            1,579            884
                                 Kelvin             degrees          dKe,B:leneS      peg=
                                                    Kelvin
Total pressure                10.25 MPa          4.78 MPa         5.27 MPa         0.85 MPa
Run time                      30 s               60 s             60 s             30 s


Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:None available
Date of Information: November 1989




Page 276                                             GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           AirBreathing Propulsion Test Cell
                                           NAL Ram/Scradet Engine Test Facility




Figure V11.32:Schematic Drawing of the NAL Ram/Scramjet Engine Test Facilitv




                                          Source:   NAL




                                         Page 277                                 GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell

IHI High-Pressure Turbine Facility



Country: Japan                                                             Performance
                                                                             Maximum Flow Rate: 40 lb/s
Location: Ishikawajima-Harima     Heavy Industries, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo,       Pressure Level: 3.5 atm (maximum)
  Japan                                                                      Inlet Temperature Range: 2,500 degrees Fahrenheit
                                                                             Speed Range: 15,000 rpm
Owner(s):                                                                    Power Level: 6,000 hp
  Ishikawajima.Harima Heav Industries                                        Comments: None
  Aero-Engines and Space CYperations
  Shin Ohtemachi Building, 2-chome                                         Cost information
  2-1 Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku                                                  Date Built: 1981
  Tokyo 100                                                                  Date Placed in Operation: Not available
  Japan                                                                      Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
Operator(s): Ishikawajima-Harima    Heavy Industries
                                                                             Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                             Replacement Cost: $2 million not including air supply system
                                                                               (1985)
International Cooperation: None                                              Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: S. Nagano, Ishikawajima-Harima       Heavy Industries,
                                                                             Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                             Source(s) of Funding: Not available
    Tel.: [81]-(425)56-7241
--...---
Test Cell Size: 28 in. diameter                                            Number and Type of Staff
                                                                             Engineers: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                                  Scientists: Not available
                                                                            Technicians: Not available
Utilization -______-
             Rate: 1 shift per day: 2 to 3 runs per month                   Others: Not available
                                                                            Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                            Total: Not available


                                                  Description: The IHI High-PressureTurbine Facility is a turbine compo-
                                                  nent research facility. Inlet pressure can be raised up to 10 atm when an
                                                  alternative air supply is used, reducing the airflow to 22 ibis.
                                                  Testing Capabilities: The facility has the capability of full-scale high-
                                                  pressure turbine testing at a maximum inlet pressure level of 3.6 atm and
                                                  an inlet temperature level of 2,500 degreesFahrenheit. A water dyna-
                                                  mometer is used for power absorption and speedcontrol.
                                                  Data Acquisition: The facility can automatically measure 100 tempera-
                                                  ture data points above 100 atm pressure.
                                                  Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): An increase in the air
                                                  supply system has been considered for the multistage turbine rig test. A
                                                  fully automated inlet air temperature control will be installed.

                                                  Unique Characteristics: None
                                                  Applications/Current Programs: High-loaded, high-efficiency single-
                                                  stage turbine (with blade cooling systems) rotating tests are currently
                                                  being conducted.


                                                  Page 279                                         GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell
IHI Hlgb-Pressure Turbine Facility




General Comments:None

Photograph/Schematic Available: No
References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds, Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Airbreathing Propulsion and Flight Simula-
tors. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration,
1986, vol. 2, p, 121.
Date of Information: November 1989




Page 279                             GAO/NSIA.D-BO-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell

NAL High-Temperature Turbine



Country: Japan                                                            Performance
                                                                            Maximum Flow Rate: 1.5 kg/s
Location: National Aerospace Laboratory, Chofu-shi                          Pressure Level: 900 kPa (maximum)
  Tokyo, Japan                                                              Inlet Temperature Rangi: 1,500 degrees Kelvin
                                                                            Speed Range: Not available
Owner(s):                                                                   Power Level: Not available
  National Aerospace Laboratory                                             Comments: None
  7-44-1 Jindaijihigashi-machi
  Chofu-shi                                                               Cost Information
  Tokyo 182                                                                 Date Built: 1979
  Japan                                                                     Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                            Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
Operator(s): National Aerospace Laboratory                                  Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                            Replacement Cost: $600,000 (1985)
International Cooperation: None                                             Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                            Unit Cost to User: Not available
Point of Contact: T. Yoshida, National Aerospace Laboratory,                Source(s) of Funding: Japanese government
  Tel.: [al]-(422).47~591 1, ext.
                              __-477
                                                                          Number and Type of Staff
Test Section Size: 20 x 10 x 10 m                                           Engineers: 5
                                                                           Scientists: 4
Operational Status: Active                                                 Technicians: 0
                                                                           Others: 0
Utilization
.___..__          Rate: 1 -----_--
       ..-- ._I...-----   shift per day; 3 runs per week                   Administrative/Management:     0
                                                                           Total: 9


                                                       Description: The NAL High-Temperature Turbine Cooling Facility is a
                                                       turbine component research facility. Heat exchanger tests and super-
                                                       sonic engine intake flow tests can also be performed by using modified
                                                       test sections.

                                                       Testing Capabilities: The facility has the capability of testing cooled tur-
                                                       bine airfoils. The coolant can be any kind of air bypassed from the
                                                       unheated mainstream, water from a reservoir, or steam from a boiler.
                                                       Electric heaters in a coolant air line can arrange a temperature ratio.
                                                       Facility operation and data acquisition can be handled by one specialist.
                                                       Data Acquisition: A PC-9800minicomputer system provides fully auto-
                                                       mated data acquisition, processing,and recording.
                                                       Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
                                                       Unique Characteristics: None

                                                       Applications/Current Programs: Current applications include cooling
                                                       performance tests of full-coverage film-cooled turbine vanes and blades,
                                                       heat transfer characteristic tests of thermal barrier coatings, and tests



                                                       Page 280                                   GAO/NSIAD-!Kb71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Teet Cell
NAL High-Temperature Turbine
Cooling Facility




of high temperature heat exchangers,Supersonicengine intake flow
tests are also performed.
General Comments:None

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Airbreathing Propulsion and Flight Simula-
tors. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration,
1986, vol. 2, p. 122.
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 281                              GAO/NSIAD-BO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                            Air-Breathing Propulsion Teet Cell
                                            NAL High-Temperature Turbine
                                            Cooling Facility




Figure Vli.33: Schematlc Drawing of the NAL High-Temperature Turbine Cooling Facility
r

                                                                                        COMPREsmn
                                                                                               rvrrrs
                                                                                         EXHAUIT 8llENCER




                                                                                                               COMPRESSOR
                                                                                                            OI8CllAROE VALVE




                                          Source:   NASA




                                         Page 282                                       GAO/NSLAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell

IHI Large&de Aero-Engine
Compressor Facility


Country: Japan                                                                Performance
                                                                                Maximum Flow Bate: 310 lb/s
LoTaatrnn: Ishikawajima-Harima      Heavy Industries, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo,        Pressure Level: 2 atm (maximum)
                                                                                Inlet Temperature Range: Ambient
                                                                                Speed Range: 13,000 rpm
Owner(s):                                                                       Power Level: 18,000 hp
  Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries                                          Comments: None
  Aero-Engine and Space Operations
  Shin Ohtemachi Building, 2-chome                                            Cost Information
  2-1 Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku                                                     Date Built: 1980
  Tokyo 100                                                                     Date Placed in Operation: Not available
  Japan                                                                         Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
                                                                               Construction Cost: Not available
Operator(s): Ishikawajima-Harima       Heavy Industries                         Replacement Cost: $3.5 million (1985)
                                                                               Annual Operating Cost: Not available
International Cooperation: None                                                 Unit Cost to User: Not available
Point of Contact: S. Nagano, Ishikawajima-Harima          Heavy Industries,
                                                                               Source(s) of Funding: Not available
   Tel.: [81 J-(425)-56-7241 --_-.-
----..---.---~                                                                Number and Type of Staff
Test Cell Size: 34 in. diameter x 40 in. long                                   Engineers: Not available
                                                                               Scientists: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                                     Technicians: Not available
                                                                               Others: Not available
Utilizatlon
--.-.         Rate:
                 --_-- 1 shift per day; 4 to 5 runs per month
          .- .-_....                                                           Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                               Total: Not available


                                                      Description: The IHI Large-ScaleAero-Engine CompressorFacility is a
                                                      compressorcomponent research facility.

                                                     Testing Capabilities: The facility has the capability of full-scale and
                                                     large bypass ratio fan rotating tests at a maximum pressure ratio of
                                                     3 atm. It is capable of testing compressorsup to 18,000 hp with a maxi-
                                                     mum speedof 13,000 r-pm.
                                                     Data Acquisition: The facility has 380 pressure measurement points and
                                                     120 temperature measurementpoints.

                                                     Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
                                                     Unique Characteristics: None
                                                     Applications/Current Programs: High-loaded, high-efficiency, single-
                                                     stage fan rotating tests are currently being conducted.

                                                     General Comments:None
                                                     Photograph/Schematic Available: No



                                                     Page 283                                         GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
k-Breathing   Prop&ion Test Cell
III1 Large&ale Aero-Engine
Compressor Facility




References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Airbreathing Propulsion and Flight Simula-
tors. Washington, DC.: National Aeronautical and SpaceAdministration,
1986, vol. 2, p. 148.
Date of Information: November 1989




Page 284                             GAO/NSlAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell

Nsul Fan/Compressor/Turbine Facility
1600-kW DC Electric Dynamometer


Country: Japan                                                     Performance
                                                                     Maximum Flow Rate: Not available
Location: National Aerospace Laboratory, Chofu-shi, Tokyo, Japan     Pressure Level: Ambient (maximum)
                                                                     Inlet Temperature Range: Ambient
Owner(s):                                                            Speed Range: 15,000 rpm
  National Aerospace Laboratory                                      Power Level: Not available
  7-44-1 Jindaijihigashi-machi                                      Comments: None
  Chofu-shr
  Tokyo 182                                                        Cost Information
  Japan                                                              Date Built: 1963
Operator(s): National Aerospace Laboratory                           Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                     Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
International Cooperation: None                                     Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                     Replacement Cost: $5 million (1988)
                                                                    Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Y. Saito, National Aerospace Laboratory,           Unit Cost to User: Not available
   Tel.: (811~(422)47-5911
-...-.........-
              -_--__----                                            Source(s) of Funding: Japanese government
Test Cell Size: 5-m shaft center from floor and 4.5 m length
                                                                   Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Active                                           Engineers: Not available
                                                                    Scientists: Not available
Utilization Rate: 10 runs per year                                  Technicians: Not available
                                                                    Others: Not available
                                                                    Administrative/Management:   Not available
                                                                    Total: Not available


                                                Description: The NAL Fan/Compressor/Turbine Facility 1600-kwDCElec-
                                                tric Dynamometer is a compressorcomponent research facility.

                                                Testing Capabilities: The facility has the capability of testing fans, com-
                                                pressors,and turbines at a maximum speedof 15,000 rpm and a maxi-
                                                mum absorbable/driving power of 1,800/l ,600 kw. No air supply system
                                                for turbine testings is currently available.
                                                Data Acquisition: No exclusive system is available.

                                                Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None
                                                Unique Characteristics: None
                                                Applications/Current Programs: The facility is used for testing a scaled
                                                ultrahigh bypass ratio engine fan.
                                                General Comments:None
                                                Photograph/Schematic Available: No




                                                Page 286                                 GAO/NSIAD-9OBlFS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell
NAL Fan/Compressor/Turbine     Facility
1600.kW DC Electric Dynamometer




References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds, Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Airbreathing Propulsion and Flight Simula-
tors. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration,
1986, vol. 2, p. 147.
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 286                                  GAO/NSIAD-90s71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell

IHI Medium-Pressure Combustor Facility



Country: Japan                                                                   Performance
                                                                                   Maximum Flow Rate: 24 lb/s
Location: Ishikawajima-Harima          Heavy Industries, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo,        Pressure Level: 7 atm (maximum)
   Japan                                                                           Inlet Temperature Range: 180 to 780 degrees Fahrenheit
                                                                                   Speed Ran 8: Not available
Owner(s):                                                                          Power Leves : Not available
  Ishikawajrma-Harima Heavy Industries                                            Comments: None
  Aero-Engines and Space Operations
  Shin Ohtemachr Burlding, 2-chome                                               Cost Information
  2-1 Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku                                                        Date Built: 1979
  Tokyo 100                                                                        Date Placed in Operation: Not available
  Japan                                                                            Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
Operator(s): Ishikawajima-Harima          Heavy Industries
                                                                                  Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                                   Replacement Cost: $3.5 million (1965)
                                                                                  Annual Operating Cost: Not available
International Cooperation: None                                                    Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                                  Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Point of Contact: S. Nagano, Ishikawajima-Harima             Heavy Industries,
   Tel.:- [81](425)-56-7241
               _ ..--..-~-~                                                      Number and Type of Staff
Test
  .._ Cell   Size:     18 in. diameter x 9 in. long
                __--_._..-.---__.-                                                 Engineers: Not available
                                                                                  Scientists: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                                        Technicians: Not available
                                                                                  Others: Not available
Utilization Rate: 1 shift per day; 300 hours per year                             Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                                  Total: Not available


                                                       Description: The IHI Medium-PressureCombustor Facility is a combustor
                                                       component research facility.

                                                       Testing Capabilities: The facility has the capability of full annular com-
                                                       bustor testing at a maximum pressure level of 7 atm, a flow rate of
                                                       24 lb/s, and an inlet air temperature range of 180 to 780 degrees
                                                       Fahrenheit.
                                                       Data Acquisition: The facility has a full annular exhaust rotating rake
                                                       system, 80 total channels of data, and fully automated data acquisition,
                                                       recording, and processing,
                                                       Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None

                                                       Unique Characteristics: None
                                                       Applications/Current Programs: Current applications include improve-
                                                       ment of combustion performance and durability and exit temperature
                                                       distribution of combustors.
                                                       General Comments:None



                                                       Page 287                                          GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell
IIU Medium?reesure Combustor Facility




Photograph/Schematic Available: No

References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Airbreathing Propulsion and Flight Simula-
tors. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration,
1986, vol. 2, p. 161.
Date of Information: November 1989




Page 288                                GAO/NSIAD-QO-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell

NAL High-Pressure Annular Combustor
Test Facility


Country: Japan                                                     Performance
                                                                     Maximum Flow Rate: 13.5 kg/s
Location: National Aerospace Laboratory, Chofu-shi, Tokyo, Japan     Pressure Level: 900 kPa (maximum)
                                                                     Inlet Temperature Range: 660 degrees Kelvin
Owner(s):                                                            Speed Range: Not available
  National Aerospace Laboratory                                      Power Level: Not available
  7-44-1 Jrndaijihigashi-machi                                       Comments: None
  Chofu-shi
  Tokyo 182                                                        Cost Information
  Japan                                                              Date Built: 1977
                                                                     Date Placed in Operation: 1977
Operator(a): National Aerospace Laboratory                           Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
international Cooperation: None                                     Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                     Replacement Cost: $4 million (1988)
                                                                    Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Takashi Tamaru, National Aerospace Laboratory,     Unit Cost to User: Not available
  Tel.: [81]-(422)47-5911,
             .._.-.          ext. 429                               Source(s) of Funding: Japanese government
Test Cell Size: 60_-.-.--.
                    cm diameter
                           -    x 2 m long
                                                                   Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Standby (not operational)                        Engineers: 1
                                                                    Scientists: 2
Utilization Rate: No tests are conducted                            Technicians: 0
                                                                    Others: 0
                                                                    Administrative/Management:    0
                                                                    Total: 3


                                                Description: The NAL High-PressureAnnular Combustor Test Facility is
                                                a combustor component research facility. However, the facility is not
                                                operational at this time.

                                                Testing Capabilities: The facility originally had the capacity for testing
                                                full annular combustors at a maximum pressure level of 1.5 MPa with
                                                an inlet temperature of 720 degreesKelvin and flow rate of 26 kg/s.The
                                                facility, when operational, is limited to the above values becauseof the
                                                decommissionof the first-stage compressor.
                                                Data Acquisition: Data processingwas performed by the PDP 1l/35
                                                Hewlett Packard 86 computer.
                                                Planned Imurovements CModificationslUunrades): None
                                                Unique Characteristics: None
                                                Applications/Current Programs: The facility is not currently
                                                operational.
                                                General Comments:The facility’s instrumentation and data acquisition
                                                systems are in a decommissionedoperational status.


                                                Page 289                                  GAO/NSIAD-QO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell
NAL High?ressure Annular Combustor
Test Facility




Photograph/Schematic Available: No
References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Airbreathing Propulsion and Flight Simula-
tors. Washington, D.C.:National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration,
1986, vol. 2, p. 162,
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 290                             GAO/NSIAD-90.7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell

NAL High-Pressure Combustor Test Facility



Country: Japan                                                     Performance
                                                                     Maximum Flow Rate: 4 kg/s
Location: National Aerospace Laboratory, Chofu-shi, Tokyo, Japan     Pressure Level: 5 MPa (maximum)
                                                                     Inlet Temperature Range: Ambient to 730 degrees Kelvin
Owner(s):                                                            Speed Range: Not available
  National Aerospace Laboratory                                      Power Level: Not available
  7-44-1 Jrndaijihigashi-machi                                       Comments: None
  Chofu-shi
  Tokyo 182                                                        Cost Information
  Japan                                                              Date Built: 1983
                                                                     Date Placed in Operation: 1983
Operator(s): National Aerospace Laboratory                           Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
                                                                    Construction Cost: $3.3 million (1983)
lnternatlonal Cooperation: None                                      Replacement Cost: $2 million (1988)
                                                                    Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Takashi Tamaru, National Aerospace Laboratory,     Unit Cost to User: Not available
  Tel: [81 J-(422)-47-591
             .__.-- ~     1,.--ext. 429                              Source(s) of Funding: Japanese aovernment
Test Cell Size: 23 cm diameter x 4 m long
                                                                   Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Active                                          Engineers: 2
                                                                    ScIentista: 2
Utilization Rate: 2 to 3 runs per month
                               -____
                                                                    Technicians: 0
                                                                    Others: 0
                                                                    Administrative/Management:    0
                                                                    Total: 4


                                              Description: The NAL High-PressureCombustor Test Facility is a com-
                                              bustor component research facility. The available fuels for the facility
                                              are natural gas and kerosene.Natural gas is provided by bundles of
                                              high-pressure bottles or truck-mounted large-capacity bottles.
                                              Testing Capabilities: The facility has the capability of testing can-type
                                              combustors with a 7- to 15-cm liner at a maximum pressure level of
                                              5 MP~. The inlet air temperature can be changedindependently by a heat
                                              exchanger prior to its entering the combustor.
                                              Data Acquisition: Data processingis performed by a Hewlett Packard 86
                                              computer.
                                              Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None

                                              Unique Characteristics: None

                                              Applications/Current Programs: Current applications include studies of
                                              the effect of pressure on combustor design features.
                                              General Comments:The facility is capable of continuous operation.



                                              Page 291                                    GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell
NAL High-Pressure Combustor Test Facility




Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Airbreathing Propulsion and Flight Simula-
tors. Washington, D.C.:National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration,
1986, vol. 2, p. 163.
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 292                                    GAO/NSIAD-99.71PS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           AirsBreathing Propulsion Test Cell
                                           NAL High-Pressure Combustor Test Facility




Figure Vll.34: Schematic Diagram of the NAL High-Pressure Combustor Test Facility


                                                                                                                       I
                                                                                                      TRANSFORMER
                                                                  AIR COMPRESSORS                     SUBSTATION'




                      I                                                                           AFTER COOLER
                   EXISTING
                   STORAGE




                                         CONTROL&
                                                               TEST SECTION
                                          MEAS. ROOM
                                                                                  \
                                                               EXHAUSTGAS          \




                              NOISE SUPPRESSOR
                                                                                                               4
                                                           ,                 4
                                                                                                                   I
                                                           0     5           IO   m



                                           Source:   NAL




                                           Page 293                                    GAO/NSMD-9%71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell
                                           NAL High-Pressure timbustor Test Facility




Figure Vll.35: Schemetlc Diagram of the NAL High-Pressure Combustor Test Facility




                                                                                                  NOISE SUPPRESSOR




                                                           I                           !



                                                                                       II
                                                           I
                                                                                            TEST SECTION
                     LL                                                                I    [
              I
                     YY                                                                I      CONTROLVALVES           'I II
                                 4I                                                    I                  \-
                                                                                                       ,
                            I   x
                                                                -f.

                                             AFTER COOLER




                                                                 ----




                                           Source:   NAL




                                            Page 294                                          GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                                       Air-Breathing Propulsion Teet Cell
                                                       NAL lilgh&wmwe     Chmbustor Test Facility




Figure Vll.36: Schematic Diagram of the NAL High-Pressure Combuetor Te#t Facility




                         1   3.7UW      compressor                            13   Exit      silencer
                         2   Linking       valve                              14   Inlet      silencer
                         3   Atmospheric           Inlet      valve           15   Fuel      storage        tank
                         4   1OMPa high’          press.    compressor        16   Fuel      feed      pump
                         5   Flow      control      valve                     17 Water        separator
                         6 Orif ice flow meter                                18   High     pressure            pump
                         7 FLOW stralghtner                                   19 Filter
                         8 Test section                                       20 Condenser
                         9 Cooling   spray                                    21   Adsorbing            separator
                        10   Exhaust        gas                               22   Drain      well
                        11   Release       valve                              23   Cooling          reservoir
                        12   Pressure        control        valve             24   Rupture          disc




                                                    Source:    NAL




                                                    Page 296                                                           GAO/NSlAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Air-Breahlng Propulsion Test Cell
                                           NAL High@reesure Combustor Test Facility




Figure Vll.37: Schematic Diagram of the Test Section of the NAL High-Pressure Combustor Test Facility                                -




                                                                                                                    -




                     0 Inlet flow control pegs                   @       Fuel nozzle          (16)

                     0 Inlet diffuser                            @       Combustion         liner

                     0 Outer bleed manifold                      @       Ceramic coated              duct

                     60 Casing strut                             0       Inner      bleed    tube

                     0 Inner casing                              0       Fuel manifold

                     0 Cooling water jacket                      0       Ignition      plug         (2)

                     0 Bleed tube fairing                        @       Thermocouple          rakes        (32)

                    II
                                           Source:   NAL




                                           Page 296                                             GAO/NSIALHOP1FS Foreign Test Facilities
Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell

NAL Propulsion Test Cell



Country: Japan                                                     Performance
                                                                     Maximum Flow Rate: Not available
Location: National Aerospace Laboratory, Chofu-shi, Tokyo, Japan     Pressure Level: Ambient
                                                                     inlet Temperature Range: Ambient
Owner(s):                                                            Speed Range: Not available
  National Aerospace Laboratory                                      Power Level: Not available
  7-44-l Jindaijihigashi-machi                                       Comments: None
  Chofu-shi
  Tokyo 182                                                        Cost Information
  Japan                                                              Date Built: 1975
Operator(s): National Aerospace Laboratory                           Date Placed in Operation: 1975
                                                                     Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
international Cooperation: None                                      Construction Cost: $2 million (1975)
                                                                     Replacement Cost: $8 million (1988)
Point of Contact: M. Sasaki, National Aerospace Laboratory,          Annual Operating Cost: Not available
  Tel.: 1811.(422).47-5911
                                                                     Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                     Source(s) of Funding: Japanese government
Test Ceil Size: Not available
                                                                   Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Active                                           Engineers: Not available
                                                                     Scientists: Not available
Utilization Rate: A few runs per year                               Technicians: Not available
                                                                     Others: Not available
                                                                    Administrative/Management:    Not available
                                                                    Total: Not available


                                               Description: The NAL Propulsion Test Cell is a sea level engine test
                                               facility. The thrust level is 100 kN (maximum).

                                               Testing Capabilities: The test cell has the capability of performance test-
                                               ing at sea level static conditions and inlet distortion testing of turbo fan
                                               engines.The test cell has no altitude simulation capability.
                                               Data Acquisition: Fully automated data acquisition, processing,and
                                               recording are available.
                                               Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None

                                               Uniaue Characteristics: None
                                               Applications/Current Programs: Current applications include tests of
                                               turbofan jet engines.
                                               General Comments:None

                                               Photograph/Schematic Available: No
                                               References:None available


                                               Page 297                                   GAO/NSIAD4%71F’S Foreign Test Facilities
    Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell
    NAL Propulsion Test Cell




    Date of Information: October 1989




Y




    Page 298                             GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
I

    SupersonicWind Tunnel

l/ARABedford Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT)



    Country: United Kingdom                                            Performance
                                                                         Mach Number: 1.4 to 3
    Location: Aircraft Research Association, Bedford, United Kingdom     Reynolds Number: 1 to 4.3 x 106/ft
                                                                         Total Pressure: 5.88 to 20.58 psia
Owner(s):                                                                Dynamic Pressure: 355 to 900 Ib/ft2
      Aircraft Research Association                                      Total Temperature: 580 degrees Rankine
      Manton Lane                                                        Run Time: Continuous
      Bedford, Bedfordshire MK41 7PF                                     Comments: None
      United Kingdom

Operator(s): Aircraft Research Association                             Cost Information
                                                                         Date Built: 1957 to 1959
                                                                         Date Placed in Operation: 1959
lnternatlonal Cooperation: Not available                                 Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
Point of Contact: Chief Executive, Aircraft Research Association,       Construction Cost: $1.4 million (1960)
   Tel.:
                                                                         Replacement Cost: Not available
     -- [44]-(234)50681
_-..-..  .___._.._....-..--.-.--..-.-.-.-.                              Annual Operating Cost: Not available
                                                                         Unit Cost to User: $16,500 per day (1989)
Test Section Size: 2.25 x 2.5 ft                                        Source(s) of Funding: Commercial contracts

Operational Status: Active                                             Number and Type of Staff
                                                                         Engineers: Not available
Uttllzation Rate: Low                                                   Scientists: Not available
                                                                        Technicians: Not available
                                                                        Others: Not available
                                                                        Administrative/Management:    Not available
                                                                        Total: Not available


                                                  Description: The ARA Bedford SupersonicWind Tunnel is a continuous-
                                                  flow, closed-circuit supersonic wind tunnel.

                                                  Testing Capabilities: The SWT is capable of conducting tests of complete
                                                  models of aircraft, missiles, and intakes. It also has schlieren and shad-
                                                  owgraph facilities.
                                                  Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 32 channels of data, including balance
                                                  components,transducers, thermocouples, and scanivalves.
                                                  Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): None

                                                  Unique Characteristics: The tunnel has on-line continuous-flow Mach
                                                  number variation.
                                                  Applications/Current Programs: Current programs include industry pro-
                                                  grams and research.
                                                  General Comments:The ARABedford SupersonicWind Tunnel has a
                                                  very high potential for productivity. A new brochure is expected to be
                                                  available in December 1989.


                                                  Page 381                                    GAO/NSIAIHO-71FS        Foreign Test Facilities
Supersonic Wind Tunnel
A&% Bedford Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT)




Photograph/Schematic Available: No
References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 230.
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 392                                   GAO/NSIAD-9041FS Foreign Test Facilities
 k-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell

 ML Ram/Scraqjet Combustnr Test Facility



:ountry: Japan                                                     Performance
                                                                     Maximum Flow Rate: Not available
.ocation: National Aerospace Laboratory, Kakuda Branch,              Pressure Level: 1.5 MPa (maximum)
 Kimigaya, Kakuda, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan                          Inlet Temperature Range: 800 to 2,500 degrees Kelvin
                                                                     Speed Range: Not available
)wner(s):                                                            Power Level: Not available
 National Aerospace Laboratory                                       Comments: None
 7-44-l Jindaijihigashi-machi
 Chofu-shi                                                         Cost Information
 Tokyo 182                                                           Date Built: 1977
 Japan                                                               Date Placed in Operation: 1977
                                                                     Date(s) Upgraded: 1983
)perator(s): National Aerospace Laboratory, Kakuda Branch           Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                     Replacement Cost: $335,000 (1989)
nternational Cooperation: None                                      Annual Operating Cost: $15,000 (1989)
                                                                     Unit Cost to User: Not available
‘oint of Contact: Nobuo Chinzei, National Aerospace Laboratory,     Source(s) of Funding: Japanese government
 Ramjet Performance Section, Kakuda Branch,
 Tel.: [al]-(224)68-31 11    __---                                 Number and Type of Staff
                                                                     Engineers: Not available
rest Section Size: 80 mm (diameter); Section No. 1: 147 x 32 mm;    Scientists: Not available
 Section No. 2: 50 x 90 mm                                          Technicians: Not available
                                                                    Others; Not available
)perational Status: Active                                          k&m~trative/Management:        Not available

Jtilization Rate: 1.000 runs per vear


                                              Description: The NAL Ram/Scramjet Combustor Test Facility is an inter-
                                              mittent, blowdown engine/propulsion component facility. The facility is
                                              uncooled and its exhaust is to atmosphere. The facility has a vitiated air
                                              heater. The facility is capable of testing ramjets and scrarqjetsup to
                                              speedsof Mach 2.5

                                              Testing Capabilities: The facility is capable of conducting direct-connect
                                              tests of ramjet and scramjet combustors with circular and rectangular
                                              cross sections. The facility is capable of achieving Reynolds Numbers
                                              from 3 to 30 X lo"/m and dynamic pressure of 0.4 MPa (maximum). The
                                              run time is 7 S.
                                              Data Acquisition: The facility has 32 channels of data with 12-bit reso-
                                              lution of the analog-to-digital convertor. The sampling rate is 200 to
                                              800 Hz. The facility uses a NEC PC-9801E processor.
                                              Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): These include the
                                              addition of a water-cooled air heater and nozzle in 1990 and Mach 1.7
                                              and 3.5 nozzles.




                                              Page 299                                     GAO/NSIAD-BO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                  Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell
                                  NAL Ram/Scraqiet Combustor Test Facility




                                  Uniaue Characteristics: None
                                  Applications/Current Programs: These include direct-connect ramjet
                                  and scramjet combustor testing.
                                  General Comments:The NAL Ram/Scramjet Combustor Test Facility is
                                  primarily a small research facility.
                                  Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
                                  References:National AerospaceLaboratory. NAL Technical Report
                                  No. 912. Chofu-shi, Tokyo: National AerospaceLaboratory, 1986.
                                  National AerospaceLaboratory. NAL Technical Memorandum No. 561.
                                  Chofu-shi, Tokyo: National Aerospace Laboratory, 1986. National Aero-
                                  spaceLaboratory. NAL 1988. Chofu-shi, Tokyo: National Aerospace Lab-
                                  oratory, 1988, pp. 23-25.
                                  Date of Information: January 1990
Figure Vll.38: NAL Ram/Sctamjet
Combustor Test Facility




                                  Source,   NAL




                                  Page 300                                   GAO/NSLAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Cell
                                           NAL hn/Scra~et      Combustor Test Facility




Figure Vll.39: Schematic Diagram of the Vitiated Heater/Nozzle of the NAL Ram/Scramjet Combustor lest Facility


                               Air + O2




                                                            Combustion   heater                             Nozzle




                                0
                               Air + 0,




                                           Source.   NAL




                                          Page 301                                       GA0/NSL4D-!&71FS    Foreign Test Facilitiee
  ppendix VIII

aerospace Test Facilities in The Netherkmds


Figure Vlll.1: Map of Teat Facilities in The Netherlands




               Duits-Nederlandse                    Wlndtunnel                  l   Noorc




                      Natlonaal Lucht+n
                 Ruimtevaartlaboratorium




                      Delft University              -d*                 Delfi
                       of Technology




                  l         Facility installation




                        Y                                    Source,   GAO




                                                             Page 302               GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
 SubsonicWind Tunnel

‘DNW Low-Speed Wind Tunnel



Country: The Netherlands                                                         Performance
                                                                                   Mach Number: 0.18, 0.34, and 0.45
Location: Duits-Nederlandse          Windtunnel, Noordoostpolder,                  Reynolds Number: 3.9 to 5.8 x 106/m
  Marknesse, The Netherlands                                                       Total Pressure: Atmospheric
                                                                                   Dynamic Pressure: 0 to 1.3 kN/m’
Owner(s):                                                                          Total Temperature: Ambient
  Nationaal Lucht-en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium                                       Run Time: Continuous
  Anthony Fokkerweg 2                                                              Comments: None
  1059 CM Amsterdam
  The Netherlands                                                                Cost information
  Deutsche Forschungsanstalt             fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt
                                                                                   Date Built: 1976 to 1979
  Linder Hoehe
                                                                                   Date Placed in Operation: 1980
                                                                                   Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
  D-5000 Koln 90                                                                  Construction Cost: $62,877,263 (1980)
  West Germany                                                                     Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                                  Annual Operating Cost: $4,668,900 (1988)
Operator(s): Nationaal Lucht-en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium               and          Unit Cost to User: Available upon request; hourly rate depends
  Deutsche Forschungsanstalt             fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt                    upon test program
                                                                                   Source(s) of Funding: NLR and DLR
international Cooperation: The Netherlands and West Germany
Point of Contact: J.C.A. van Ditshuizen, Duits-Nederlandse                       Number and Type of Staff
  Windtunnel, ._Tel.:                                                              Engineers: 20
                 ---- [31]-(5274).8562
                         ._.....__--.. -.--                                 .-     Scientists: 7
                                                                                  Technicians: 20
Te;ty;tion        Size: 9.5 x 9.5 m, 6 x 8 m (closed and open), and                Others: 1
   .._. _-_..-..-.----.-   _ ---__-.--        ...-                  ----          Administrative/Management:      4 to 5
                                                                                  Total: 50 to 55
Operational Status: Active
Utilization Rate:  2,000 hours per year
              .._--..-..__..


                                                         Description: The Duits-NederlandseWindtunnel/Deutsch Niederlandis-
                                                         cher Windkanal, or German-Dutch Wind Tunnel, is the largest low-speed
                                                         wind tunnel of its kind in Europe. Its construction, operation, and fur-
                                                         ther development are conducted on a parity basis by NLR and DLR. The
                                                         tunnel is an atmospheric closed-circuit wind tunnel, in which aerody-
                                                         namic and aeroacousticmeasurementscan be performed at reasonably
                                                         high Reynolds Numbers. Three interchangeable closed test sections with
                                                         slotted walls are available. In addition, a 6 X 8 m open-jet can be used.
                                                         Testing Capabilities: Forces and moments are measured with internal
                                                         strain-gauge balancesor an external six-component underfloor balance.
                                                         Pressureplotting measurementsare performed either through scanners
                                                         connectedto the pressure plotting holes and feeding one or more pres-
                                                         sure transducers, or through a number of pressure transducers directly.




                                                         Page 303                                         GAO/NSlAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Subsonic Wind Tunnel
DNW Low-Speed Wind Tunnel




Data Acquisition: The tunnel is equipped with a “distributed” computer
system for control, data acquisition, and on-line data reduction and pre-
sentation. An off-line system is available for test preparation and post-
processing.All computer systems are connectedby an Ethernet local
area network providing easy interface possibilities for client systems
including acoustic and dynamic data acquisition systems. The static data
acquisition system is capable of sampling three data points with 128
channels per second.These data can be presented fully corrected and
on-line on printers and plotters.
Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): These include a
Mach 0.28 open-jet nozzle.
Unique Characteristics: Special features of the tunnel include the possi-
bility of aeroacousticmeasurements,hot- and cold-jet simulation, pro-
peller engine simulation, real-engine testing, ground simulation, moving
belt ground plane, and a compressedair system.
Applications/Current Programs: These include general low-speed air-
craft aerodynamics and aeroacoustics,helicopters and V/STOL aerody-
namics, engine/airframe interference, rotor aerodynamics and
aeroacoustics,flutter and dynamic testing, optimization of full-scale
components,real and model engine testing, full-scale ground vehicle
aerodynamics, and industrial aerodynamics.

General Comments:None
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue: Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, pp. 51-53. Seidel,
M., ed. Construction 1976-1980:Design,Manufacturing, and Calibration
of the German-Dutch Windtunnel (DNW). Emmeloord, The Netherlands:
DNW, 1982. DNW. Annual Report 1988. Emmelrood, The Netherlands:
DNW, 1988.

Date of Information: March 1990




Page 304                               GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                    Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                    DNW Low-Speed Wind Tunnel




Figure V111.2:DNW Low-Speed Wind
Tunnel




                                   Source:   DNW




                                   Page 305                     GAO/NSLAD-90-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
                                         Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                         DNW Low-Speed Wind Tunnel




Figure Vlll.3: Schematic Diagram of the DNW Low-Speed Wind Tunnel




                                         Source:   DNW




                                         Page 306                    GAO/NSIAD-9OH)BlFS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                           DNW LowSpeed Wind Tunnel




Figure Viii.4: Schematic Diagram of the Airflow Circuit of the DNW Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

                                                                                                                                   1
           WANINO
            VANLS   -




                                                            lN1EACNANOEABl.E               AIR EXCNANQE




                                                              TRAIOHTENER




                                          Source: DNW




                                          Page 307                                     GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
SubsonicWind Tunnel

NLR Low-Speed Wind Tunnel


                                                                                                                                     -
Country: The Netherlands                                               Performance
                                                                         Mach Number: 0.25 or 85 m/s
Location: Nationaal Lucht-en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium,     Amsterdam,     Reynolds Number: 0 to6 x 106/m
  The Netherlands                                                        Total Pressure: Atmospheric
                                                                         Dynamic Pressure: 0 to 4 m/s
Owner(s):                                                                Total Temperature: Ambient
  Nationaal Lucht-en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium                             Run Time: Continuous
  Anthony Fokkerweg 2                                                    Comments: None
  1059 CM Amsterdam
  The Netherlands                                                      Cost information
                                                                         Date Built: 1982
Operator(s): Nationaal Lucht-en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium                  Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                         Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
International Cooperation: Not available                                 Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                         Replacement Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: F. Jaarsma, Nationaal Lucht-en                         Annual Operating Coat: Not available
  Ruimtevaartlaboratorium,   Tel.: [31]-(5274).2828                      Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                         Source(s) of Funding: Dutch government and research
Test Section Size: 3 x 2.25 x 8.75 m                                       contracts

Operational Status: Active                                             Number and Type of Staff
                                                                         Engineers: Not available
Utliiration Rate: 1 shift per day                                       Scientists: Not available
                                                                        Technicians: Not available
                                                                        Others: Not available
                                                                        Administrative/Management:    Not available
                                                                        Total: Not available


                                                  Description: The NLR Low-SpeedWind Tunnel is an atmospheric closed-
                                                  circuit wind tunnel. The test section consistsof two parts: the forward
                                                  part, measuring 5.75 m in length, which is used for aeronautical testing,
                                                  and the aft part, measuring 3 m in length, which is specifically used for
                                                  industrial aerodynamic testing. The forward part is used to generate the
                                                  simulated atmospheric boundary layer for the aft part. Two different
                                                  forward parts are available: one is used only for two-dimensional test-
                                                  ing, and the other is equipped for full-model testing and has an external
                                                  six-component balance mounted on top of the test section. A thyris-
                                                  torized synchronous Too-kW motor powers the fan. The single-stage
                                                  axial-type compressorconsists of eight fixed rotor blades and seven
                                                  fixed stator vanes. Wind speedis controlled through variation of the
                                                  angular speedof the fan between 0 to 480 t-pm.
                                                  Testing Capabilities: When a model is mounted on the six-component
                                                  balance, forces and moments can be measured.Strain-gaugebalances
                                                  can be used in casesin which a separate portion of the model is to be
                                                  tested, whether mounted on the six-component balance or in the two-
                                                  dimensional test section. Forcesand moments can also be measured on
                                                  rudders, flaps, and ailerons, and operated by remote control, if desired.


                                                  Page 308                                    GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Subsonic Wind Tunnel
NJ.Jl Low-Speed Wind Tunnel




For pressure measurements,the model is equipped with a number of
pressure leads connecting each pressure hole with a pressure trans-
ducer. Other types of measurementsinclude direction sensing,mass
flow, and temperature measurements.Flow visualization techniques
include the tufts and oil methods, as well as the laser screen.
Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 64 channels of data including up to 10
scanivalves for steady measurementsand special-purposesystem
records with phase and amplitude for up to 100 analog and 100 digital
channels for unsteady measurements.Data processingis performed by a
Hewlett Packard 1000/46 dedicated computer.
Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Not available

Unique Characteristics: The tunnel has cold- and hot-jet simulation,
ground simulation, and a traversing mechanism so probes can be
adjusted inside the test section.
Applications/Current Programs: These include low-speed aircraft aero-
dynamics, high-lift devices and V/S~L aerodynamics, engine/airframe
interference, wind climate around civil structures, wind climate on
board of ships (heli-decks and smoke), aerodynamics of off-shore instal-
lations, boundary layer investigations, and automotive six-component
force measurements.
General Comments:None

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.:National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, p. 102. National
Aerospace Laboratory. High SpeedWind Tunnel. Amsterdam: National
AerospaceLaboratory, 1988.
Date of Information: November 1988




Page 309                               GAO/NSIADdO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
-
                                         Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                         NLR Low-Speed Wind Tunnel




Figure   VIII.5 NLR Low-Speed Wind
Tunnel




                                         Source: NLR

Figure VIII.& Schematic Diagram of the
NLR Low-Speed Wind Tunnel




                                         Source. NLR




                                         Page 310                    GAO/NSLAL%90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Transonic Wind Tunnel

NLEt High-SpeedWind Tunnel



Country: The Netherlands                                                   Performance
                                                                             Mach Number: 1.25
Location: Nationaal Lucht.en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium,         Amsterdam,     Reynolds Number: 10 to 15 x 106/m at Mach 1.25 and 31 x 106/m
  The Netherlands                                                              at Mach 0.7
                                                                             Total Pressure: 12 to 390 kPa
Owner(s):                                                                    Dynamic Pressure: Not available
  Natronaal Lucht-en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium                                 Total Temperature: 300 to 310 degrees Kelvin
  Anthony Fokkerweg 2                                                        Run Time: Continuous
  1059 CM Amsterdam                                                          Comments: None
  The Netherlands
                                                                           Cost Information
Operator(s): Nationaal Lucht-en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium                      Date Built: 1958
                                                                             Date Placed in Operation: Not available
International Cooperation: ESA                                               Date(s) Upgraded: 1980
                                                                             Construction Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: H.A. Dambrink, Nationaal Lucht-en                          Replacement Cost: Not available
._ Ruimtevaartlaboratorium,
               ___-------.-. -.-- Tel.: [31]-(20)5-113-113
    .__..I____..-.                                                           Annual Operating Coat: Not available
                                                                             Unit Cost to User: Not available
Test Section Size: 1.6 x 2 x 2.7 m                                           Source(s) of Funding: Dutch government and research
                                                                               contracts
Operational Status: Active
                                                                           Number and Type of Staff
Utilization
 ._         Rate: 1_shift per
                          _^I.--day
                                 .“--.--
                                                                             Engineers: Not available
                                                                            Scientists: Not available
                                                                            Technicians: Not available
                                                                            Others: Not available
                                                                            Administrative/Management:     Not available
                                                                            Total: Not available


                                                       Description: The NLR High-SpeedWind Tunnel is a variable-density, con-
                                                       tinuous-flow, closed-circuit transonic wind tunnel with slotted top and
                                                       bottom test section walls.

                                                       Testing Capabilities: Becausethe tunnel’s pressure can be varied consid-
                                                       erably, a large range of Reynolds Numbers can be achieved. The tunnel
                                                       has excellent flow quality over its entire velocity range, Forces and
                                                       moments are measured with a six-component internal strain-gauge bal-
                                                       ance. Pressuredistribution measurementsare performed through one or
                                                       more scannersconnectedto the pressure plotting holes and feeding one
                                                       or more pressure transducers. The subsonic model support, the main
                                                       part of which is situated under the test section floor, is used to test
                                                       models on a vertical sting at subsonic speeds.The transonic model sup-
                                                       port is used to test models on a conventional sting at subsonic and tran-
                                                       sonic speeds.For the transonic model support system, various sting
                                                       support booms for different testing possibilities are available. The side-
                                                       wall model support is used to test half-span models and model parts.
                                                       The two-dimensional model support is used to test clean or multi-ele-
                                                       ment airfoils at high Reynolds Numbers. Other types of measurements
                                                       include direction sensing,mass flow, and temperature measurements.


                                                       Page 311                                    GAO/NSIAD-90-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
Transonic Wind Tunnel
NLR High-Speed Wind Tunnel




Flow visualization techniques include the tufts, oil, and acenaphtene
methods and the schlieren and shadow optical systems.
Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 48 channels of data. Data processingis
performed by a Hewlett Packard 1000/46 dedicated computer system.
Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Improvements to the
test section and model supports are planned. Integrated automation of
the tunnel controls and test equipment are also planned.
Unique Characteristics: An important feature is the possibility of
exchanging the samemodel between the NLR High-SpeedWind Tunnel
and the NLR SupersonicWind Tunnel. In special cases,it is also possible
to test the NLR High-SpeedWind Tunnel and NLR SupersonicWind Tun-
nel models in the NLR Low-SpeedWind Tunnel. This capability enables
the user to test one model in different velocity regimes. Other special
features include hot- and cold-jet simulation and ground simulation.

Applications/Current Programs: These include force and moment mea-
surements; pressure measurement distribution; direction, wake, and
mass flow visualization; schlieren and shadow techniques; unstationary
measurements;and flutter tests. Tests of launchers and shuttles are
being conducted for ESA. The NLR High-SpeedWind Tunnel is also being
used to test ESA'S Hermes spaceplanefor Avions Marcel Dassault-
Breguet Aviation.
General Comments:The data acquisition system was recently updated.
Also, an electronic pressure scan system is available.

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, DC.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. I, p. 163. National
Aerospace Laboratory. High-SpeedWind Tunnel. Amsterdam: National
AerospaceLaboratory, 1988.
Date of Information: November 1988




Page 312                              GAO/NSIAD-9041FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                          Transonic Wind Tunnel
                                          NLR High-Speed Wind Tunnel




Flaw   VIII.7: Schematic Diagram of the NLR High-Speed Wind Tunnel,




                                          Source   NLR




                                          Page 313                     GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                      Transonic Wind Tunnel
                                      NLR High-Speed Wind Tunnel




Figure VIII.& Model of Fokker 100
Aircraft In the NLR High-Speed Wind
Tunnel




                                          Source: NLR




                                      Page 314                     GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Trisonic Wind Tunnel

Delft University of Technology Blowdown
Tunnel B (TST 27)


Country: The Netherlands                                           Performance
                                                                     Mach Number: Less than 4.2 (variable)
Location: Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands     ReynOld8 Number: 37 to 130 x l@/m
                                                                     Total Pressure: 30 bars (maximum)
Owner(s):                                                            Dynamic Pressure: 88 to 204 kN/mz
  Delft University of Technology                                     Total Temperature: 300 degrees Kelvin
  Faculty of Aerospace Engineering                                   Run Time: 6 min
  Kluyverweg 1                                                       Comments: Nozzle exit height times width is 27 X 28 cm.
  2629 HS Delft
  The Netherlands                                                  Cost Information
                                                                     Date Built: 1971
Operator(s): Delft University of Technology                          Date Placed in Operation: 1972
                                                                     Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
lnternatlonal Cooperation: None                                      Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                     Replacement Cost: $1.4 million (1989)
Polnt of Contact: W.J. Bannink, Delft University of Technology,      Annual Operating Cost: Not available
  Tel.: 131l-(15)-784500                                             Unit Cost to User: Typically $1,000 per day (1989)
                                                                     Source(s) of Funding: Delft University of Technology
Teat   Section Size:
--._ --_-l_-.- ..-.--- 27-______
                          x 28 x 40 to 90 cm
                                                                   Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Active                                           Engineer8:   2 (part-time)
                                                                     Sclent.ists: 4 (part-time)
Utilization
________      Rate:
         I__ _..._~   5 tests per.-_--.._--.
                  -.--.~           day                               $;e;cTns:       2 (part-trme)
                                                                     Admini&rative/Management:            1 (part-time)
                                                                     Total: 9 (part-time)


                                                Description: The Delft University of Technology Blowdown Tunnel B
                                                (TST 27) is a supersonic and transonic wind tunnel. It has a test section
                                                280 mmwide with a height varying from 250 to 270 mmdepending on the
                                                Mach number. Mach numbers range from 0.6 to 4.2. SupersonicMach
                                                numbers are set by a continuously variable throat and flexible upper
                                                and lower nozzle walls. The Mach number may be varied during a run.
                                                Subsonic and transonic Mach numbers are controlled using a variable
                                                choke section in the outer diffuser. Small deviations of the Mach number
                                                during a run are corrected by automatic fine adjustment of the choke.
                                                Downstream of the nozzle and supersonic test section, the tunnel con-
                                                sists of a number of separate nozzles,supported on wheels and con-
                                                nected by quick-lock couplings. This allows use of the tunnel in several
                                                configurations. For transonic tests, a transonic test section with either
                                                slotted or perforated walls may be inserted downstream of the closed-
                                                wall test section. Either of two different model carts may be used. One
                                                cart is equipped with an angle of incidence mechanism for sting-
                                                mounted models. The other cart is equipped with a mechanism for trav-
                                                ersing probes in three directions through the flow field. The compara-
                                                tively long run time (up to 300 S) allows exploration in detail of the flow
                                                field over the model. The tunnel is designed for operation at high



                                                 Page 315                                         GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Trisonic Wind Tunnel
Delft University of Technology Blowdown
Tunnel B (TST 27)




stagnation pressures;the maximum unit Reynolds Number varies from
37 X lO”/m in the transonic range to 130 X 10s/mat Mach 4. The TST 27 is
driven by dry, oil-free air delivered by a 6,000-kw compressorplant and
stored at a pressure of 40 bars in a 300-m3storage vessel.
Testing Capabilities: The TST 27 has computer-controlled five-hole direc-
tional pressure probes and is capable of conducting pressure distribu-
tion, surface and schlieren visualization, and interferometry tests.
Data Acquisition: The TST 27 has 26 on-line channels of data. Data are
collected, stored, and processedin the central data acquisition system
DRSof the Laboratory. For extensive numerical calculation, a terminal
provides accessto the IBM 3083 mainframe and Convex minisupercom-
puter at the University Computer Center.
Planned Improvements (Modifications/IJpgrades): None

Uniaue Characteristics: None

Applications/Current Programs: These include three-dimensional flow
separation and vertical flow over delta wings.

General Comments:The quoted unit cost to user increasesif more than
6 min total running time per day is required.
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Hoyt, Capt. Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology.
London: European Office of AerospaceResearchand Development,
1986, p. 88 (EOARD Technical Report). Delft University of Technology.
The Laboratory of High SpeedAerodynamics. Delft, The Netherlands:
Delft University of Technology, 1989, pp. l-4.
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 316                                  GAO/NC&ID-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                            Trlsonic Wind Tunnel
                                            Delft University of Technology Blowdom
                                            Tunnel B (IST 27)




Figure Vlll.10: Schematic Diagram of the Transonlc Test Section of the Delft University of Technology Blowdown
Wind Tunnel B (TST 27)

                                                                                         ?   VARIABLE THROAT AND FLEXIBLE   WALLS
                                                                                         2   TRANSONIC INSERT
                                                                                         3   MODEL CART
                                                                                         6   VARIABLE CHOKE




       I                 h




                                            Source:   Delft University   of Technology




                     Y




                                            Page 318                                                      GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Trleonlc Wind Tunnel
Delft University of Technology GLT 20
Boundary Layer Tunnel




Testing Capabilities: The tunnel will have computer-controlled five-hole
directional pressure probes and hot-wire probes. It will also be capable
of conducting pressure distribution, surface and schlieren visualization,
and interferometry tests.
Data Acquisition: Data will be collected, stored, and processedin the
central data acquisition system DRSof the Laboratory. For extensive
numerical calculations, a terminal will provide accessto the IBM 3083
mainframe and Convex minisupercomputer at the University Computer
Center.
Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Not applicable

Unique Characteristics: None

Applications/Current Programs: Planned applications include boundary
layer research.
General Comments:None

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Delft University of Technology. The Laboratory of High
SpeedAerodynamics. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Tech-
nology, 1989, pp. 1 and 3-4.
Date of Information: October 1989




Page 320                                GAO/NSJAD-90.7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
Supersonic Wind Tunnel

Delft University of Technology Blowdown
Tunnel A (ST 15)


Country: The Netherlands                                            Performance
                                                                      Mach Number: Less than 3 (nozzle blocks)
Location: Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands      Reynolds Number: 20 x 106/m at Mach 3
                                                                      Total Pressure: 15 bars (maximum)
Owner(s):                                                             Dynamic Pressure: 90 to 250 kN/m2 at Mach 3
  Delft University of Technology                                      Total Temperature: 300 degrees Kelvin
  Faculty of Aerospace Engineering                                    Run lime: 20 min (maximum)
  Kluyverweg 1                                                        Comments: Nozzle exit height times width is 15 x 15 cm.
  2629 HS Delft
  The Netherlands                                                  Cost Information
                                                                     Date Built: 1959
Operator(s): Delft University of Technology                          Date Placed in Operation: 1960
                                                                     Date(s) Upgraded: 1972
International Cooperation: None                                      Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                     Replacement Cost: $600,000 (1989)
Point of Contact: W.J. Bannink, Delft University of Technology,      Annual Operating Cost: Not available
  Tel.: [31 J-(15)-784500                                            Unit Cost to User: Typically $600 per day (1989)
                                                                     Source(s) of Funding: Delft University of Technology
Test Section Size: 15 x 15 x 25 cm
                                                                   Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Active                                           Engineers: 2 (part-time)
                                                                     Scient.ists: 4 (part-time)
Utilization Rate: - 10 tests   per day
                        ..-- -__--                                  g;;;crns:        2 (part-time)

                                                                      Admini&rative/Management:        0
                                                                      Total: 8 (part-time)


                                                Description: The Delft University of Technology Blowdown Tunnel A
                                                (ST15) is a supersonic wind tunnel. Built in 1969, the ST 15 was the first
                                                supersonic wind tunnel to be operated by the Faculty of Aerospace
                                                Engineering. The tunnel is not equipped with a flexible-wall nozzle;
                                                rather, interchangeable sets of liners are used to obtain Mach numbers
                                                of either 1.5, 2, 2.6, or 3 in a 15 X 15 cm test section, Becauseof its long
                                                running time-20 min before recharging the pressure vesselis
                                                required-the tunnel is still in demand for tests involving flow visuali-
                                                zation or detailed exploration of the flow field. The possibility of using
                                                specially adapted liners has proved to be an advantage for particular
                                                tests. The ST 15 is driven by dry, oil-free air delivered by a 6,000-kw
                                                compressorplant and stored at a pressure of 40 bars in a 300-m”storage
                                                vessel.
                                                Testing Capabilities: The ST 15 has computer-controlled five-hole direc-
                                                tional pressure probes and is capable of conducting pressure distribu-
                                                tion, surface and schlieren visualization, and interferometry tests.
                                                Comparatively large windows (250 mmin diameter) provide a large field
                                                of view for nonintrusive optical measurements.




                                                Page 322                                       GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
-.
                                            Supersonic Wind Tunnel
                                            Delft University of Technology Blowdown
                                            Tunnel A (ST 15)




Figure V111.12:Schematic Diagram of the Delft University of Technology Blowdown Wind Tunnel A (ST 15)



       1   Safety valve
       2   Screens
       3   Probe XYi! lrrvsrsh~ mechanism
       4   AdJurtrble dlffurr




                                            Source:   Delft University   of Technology




                    Y




                                            Page 324                                     GAO/NSIAD-BO-7lFS Foreign Test Facilities
                                Supersonic Wind Tunnel
                                NLR Continuoue Supersonic Wind Tunnel




                                General Comments:None

                                Photorrraph/SchematicAvailable: Yes
                                References:Hoyt, Capt. Anthony R. European Hypersonic Technology.
                                London: European Office of AerospaceResearchand Development,
                                1986, p. 97 (EOARD Technical Report). Wendt, John F. “European Hyper-
                                sonic Wind Tunnels.” In: Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Lifting Vehicles.
                                Bristol, United Kingdom: NATO AGARD, 1987 (AGARD ConferenceProceed-
                                ings No. 428). National Aerospace Laboratory. Continuous Supersonic
                                Wind Tunnel. Amsterdam: National AerospaceLaboratory, 1988.
                                Date of Information: November 1988
Figure VIII.13 NLR Continuous
Supersonic Wind Tunnel




                                Source:   NLR




                                Page 326                                GAO/NSIAD-BO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
 SupersonicWind Tunnel

 NIX Supersonic Wind Tunnel



Country: The Netherlands                                                     Performance
                                                                               Mach Number: 1.2 to 4
Location: Nationaal Lucht-en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium,           Amsterdam,     Reynolds Number: 75 x 106/m at Mach 3.9
   The Netherlands                                                             Total Pressure: 15 bars (maximum)
                                                                               Dynamic Pressure: 75.65 to 117 kN/m2
Owner(s):                                                                     Total Temperature: 290 degrees Kelvin (maximum)
   Nationaal Lucht-en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium                                  Run Time: 10 to 40 s (maximum)
   Anthony Fokkerweg 2                                                         Comments: None
   1059 CM Amsterdam
   The Netherlands                                                           Cost information
                                                                               Date Built: 1960
Operator(s): Nationaal Lucht-en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium                        Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                              Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
International Cooperation: ESA                                                Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                              Replacement Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: HA Dambrink, Nationaal Lucht-en                             Annual Operating Cost: Not available
   Ruimtevaartlaboratorium,        Tel.: [311-(20)-5-l 13-113                 Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                              Source(s) of Funding: Dutch government and research
Test    Section
_ _-.- ..__        Size:
          -.. .. -.._-      1.2 x 1.2 m
                       ._. .-.-                                                  contracts

Operational Status: Active                                                   Number and Type of Staff
                                                                               Engineers: Not available
Utilization Rate: 1 shift per day; approximately         IO blowdown runs     Scientists: Not available
  per day                                                                     Technicians: Not available
                                                                              Others: Not available
                                                                              Administrative/Management:    Not available
                                                                              Total: Not available


                                                        Description: The NLR Supersonic Wind Tunnel is a blowdown facility fed
                                                        by an air storage vesselcontaining 600 m3 of dry air at a maximum pres-
                                                        sure of about 4,000 kPa.
                                                        Testing Capabilities: Forces and moments are measured with a six-com-
                                                        ponent internal strain-gauge balance. More balancescan be used in cases
                                                        in which a separate portion of the model (e.g., aftbody) is to be tested
                                                        simultaneously. Forcesand moments can also be measured on rudders,
                                                        flaps, and ailerons, and operated by remote control, if desired. For pres-
                                                        sure measurements,the model is equipped with a number of pressure
                                                        leads connecting each pressure plotting hole on the model with a pres-
                                                        sure transducer. Other types of measurementsinclude flow direction
                                                        sensing,mass flow, and temperature measurements.The tunnel also has
                                                        the ability to simulate propulsive jets with pressurized air and hydrogen
                                                        peroxide.
                                                        Data Acquisition: The tunnel has 24 channels of data. Data processingis
                                                        performed by a Hewlett Packard 1000/45 dedicated computer system.
                                                        Flow visualization techniques include the oil and naphthalene methods
                                                        and the schlieren and shadow optical systems.


                                                        Page 328                                   GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                           Supersonic Wind Tunuel
                                           NLR Supersouic Wind Tunnel




Figure Vlll.15: NLR Supersonic Wind
Tunnel




                                          Source:   NLR


Figure Vlll.16: Schematic Diagram of the NLR Supersonic Wind Tunnel




                          I   Air Storage Tank            5   MeshSbeens         9 VariableDiffitsor
                          2   Heat Regenerators           6   Stilling Chamber IO Fixed Dlffusor
                          3   Main Value                  7   Nozzle           I1 Silencerand Exhaust
                          4   PressureRegubtor Valve      8   TestSection

                    Y




                                          Source.   NLR




                                          Page 330                                        GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
  Ppe
~~~~pace Test Facilities in the United Kingdom


Figure 1X.1: Map of Test Facllltles in the United Kingdom




           Brltlsh Aerospace
           British Aerospace




                                                                             Rolls-Royce
                                                                             Cranfield Institute of
                                                                             Technology




                                  University                                 British Aerospace

                         British Aerospace
                                Rolls-Royce




                                               Source:   GAO




                                               Page 332        GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Subsonic Wind Tunnel
ARA Bedford Two-Dimensional Wind Tunnel




Unique Characteristics: Fencesare fitted to airfoil models to minimize
tunnel sidewall boundary layer interference with the upper surface
supercritical flow development.

Applications/Current Programs: Current programs include industry
projects and research.
General Comments:The ARA Bedford Two-Dimensional Wind Tunnel is a
highly productive facility with a utilization rate of over 2,000 runs per
year. A new brochure is expected to be available in December1989.
Photograph/Schematic Available: No

References:None available.

Date of Information: October 1989




Page 334                                  GAO/NSl.ADBO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Subsonic Wind Tunnel
BAe Brough 7 X 5 ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel




Applications/Current Programs: Wind tunnel activities included two-
dimensional boundary layer research, aircraft development, and occa-
sional non-aerospacetesting.
General Comments:The BAe Brough 7 X 5 ft Low-SpeedWind Tunnel
was decommissionedand is no longer owned and operated by British
Aerospace,Military Aircraft, Ltd. The tunnel was sold to a non-aeronau-
tical company in 1989 and removed from the British Aerospacesite at
Brough. The tunnel, however, has been reactivated by its new owner for
non-aeronautical applications.

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, p. 94.
Date of Information: January 1990




Page 336                                    GAO/NSIAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
SubsonicWind Tunnel

BAe FIlton 12 X 10 ft Wind Tunnel



Country: United Kingdom                                                 Performance
                                                                          Mach Number: 0 to 0.25 or 5 to 280 ft/s
Location: British Aerospace, Filton, United Kingdom                       Reynolds Number: 0 to 1.8 x 106/ft
                                                                          Total Pressure: Atmospheric
Owner(s):                                                                 Dynamic Pressure: 0 to 43 Ib/ft2
  British Aerospace                                                       Total Temperature: Ambient
  Commercial Aircraft, Ltd.                                               Run Time: Not available
  Airbus Division                                                         Comments: None
  P.O. Box 77
  Filton House                                                          Cost Information
  Filton, Bristol, Avon ES99 7AR                                          Date Built: 1954
  United Kingdom                                                          Date Placed In Operation: Not available
Opemtor(s): British Aerospace, Commercial Aircraft, Ltd.                  Date(s) Upgraded: 1955
                                                                          Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                          Replacement Cost: Not available
lnternatlonal Cooperation: Group for Aeronautical Research and            Annual Operating Cost: Not available
  Technology in Europe (GARTEUR) (France)                                 Unlt Cost to User: Not available
                                                                          Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Point of Contact: Mike Marsden, British Aeros ace, Commercial
  Aircraft, Ltd., Tel.: [44]-(272)69-38-31,   ext. 2B09
                                                                        Number and Type of Staff
                                                                          Engineers: Not available
Test
----. Section Size: 10 x 12 x 25 ft                                       Scientists: Not available
                                                                         Technicians: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                               Others: Not available
                                                                         Administrative/Management:      Not available
Utlllzatlon
-           Rate: 1 shift per day                                        Total: Not available


                                                     Description: The BAe Filton 12 X 10 ft Wind Tunnel is a continuous-flow,
                                                     closed-circuit subsonic wind tunnel.

                                                     Testing Capabilities: The model is supported by one- or two-shielded
                                                     struts from a six-component, electromechanical, overhead, virtual-
                                                     center mechanical balance, The facility is powered by a single, 7-bladed,
                                                     22-ft diameter fan driven by 2,000-hp electric motors. An alternative
                                                     30 ft wide X 26 ft high working section is available in the return circuit
                                                     for speedsup to 30 mph. The tunnel is suitable for large floor-mounted
                                                     models with a span up to 10 ft. Auxiliary equipment consists of a 280-psi
                                                     compressed-airsystem capable of continuous running at 1 lb/sor, for
                                                     example, 2 lb/s for 26 minat 200 psi.
                                                     Data Acquisition: The tunnel has a computerized on-line data acquisition
                                                     system for the six-component balance. In addition, up to 30 channels of
                                                     steady-state or dynamic data can be acquired. The pressure measure-
                                                     ment system incorporates 10 scanivalves and can record and analyze
                                                     data up to 400 pressure tappings. For dynamic analysis, a complete Fast
                                                     Fourier Transform computer system is available.
                                                     Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Not available


                                                     Page 339                                    GAO/NSLAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
SubsonicWind Tunnel

BAe Hatfield 9 X 7 ft Wind Tunnel



Country: United Kingdom                                                 Performance
                                                                          Mach Number: 0 to 0.22 or 0 to 250 ft/s
Location: British Aerospace, Hatfield, United Kingdom                     Reynolds Number: 0 to 1.6 x 106/ft
                                                                          Total Pressure: Atmospheric plus dynamic pressure
Owner(s):                                                                 Dynamic Pressure: 0 to 74 Ib/ft2
  British Aerospace                                                       Total Temperature: Ambient plus (water spray-cooled)
  Commercial Aircraft, Ltd.                                               Run Time: Continuous
  Airlines Division                                                       Comments: Normal operating speed is Mach 0.18 or 200 ft/s.
  Wind Tunnel Department
  Manor Road                                                            Cost Information
  Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL10 9TL                                        Date Built: 1954
  United Kingdom                                                          Date Placed in Operation: 1954
Operator(s): British Aerospace, Commercial Aircraft, Ltd.                 Date(s) Upgraded: None
                                                                          Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                          Replacement Cost: $6.4 million (1990)
International Cooperation: Not available                                  Annual Operating Cost: $480,000 (1990)
Point of Contact: Robin G.B. Webb, British Aerospace, Commercial          Unit Cost to User: About $1,600 per day (1990)
   Aircraft, Ltd., Tel.: [44]-(7072)62345,   ext. 52185
                                                                          Source(s) of Funding: None
 ..--.~
                                                                        Number and Type of Staff
Test   Section Size: 6.7 x 8.7 x 18.5 ft
“-_--.-.-.._-                                                             Engineers: 4
                                                                         Scientists: 0
Operatlonal Status: Active                                               Technicians: 2
                                                                         Others: The support team is shared with the BAe Hatfield
Utlllzation Rate: 1 shift per day                                           15 ft Wind Tunnel.
                                                                          Administrative/Management:     1
                                                                          Total: At least 7


                                                     Description: The BAe Hatfield 9 X 7 ft Wind Tunnel is a continuous-flow,
                                                     closed-circuit, closed-throat subsonicwind tunnel.

                                                     Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is powered by a boo-hp electric motor
                                                     driving a 12-ft diameter fan. Models are mounted by a three-strut system
                                                     onto an underfloor mechanical balance. The tunnel uses a six-component
                                                     mechanical balance. Compressedair supplies up to 10 lb/sat 100 psig, and
                                                     suction of 2,500 ft3/min at 25 in. mercury are available. A variable height
                                                     ground board and a reflection plane for half-models are also available.
                                                     Data Acquisition: Digital signals from the mechanical balance and ana-
                                                     log signals from various devices(such as pressure transducers and
                                                     strain gauges)are processedand fed to the Wind Tunnel Department’s
                                                     own computer for on-line computation and presentation.
                                                     Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): These include replac-
                                                     ing the weighbeams of the balance with displacement transducers and
                                                     installing on-line computer graphics.

                                                     Unique Characteristics: None


                                                     Page 340                                    GAO/NSlAD-9O-71FS Foreign Test Facilities



                                                                                          ,.                                   ’
                                            Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                            BAe Hatfield 9 X 7 ft Wind Tunnel




Figure 1X.4: Schematic Diagram of the BAe Hatfield 9 x 7 ft Wind Tunnel




             B




                       A-    FAN MOTOR                                 G -      5:l CONTRACTION
                       B -   MOTOR ROOM                                Ii -     WORKING SECTION
                       c-    FAN SECTION                               I -      FIRST DIFFUSER
                       D -   THlFtD DlFFUSER                           J -      SECOND DIFFUSER
                       E -   FOURTH DIFFUSER                           K-       HEATING PLANT
                       F -   SCREEN SECTION                            L -      CONTROL BLOCK



                                            Source:   BAe HatfIeld




                                            Page 342                                       GAO/NSIAD-gO-71FS Foreign Test Facilitlee
Subaouic Wind Tunnel
BAe Hatfhld  16 ft Wind Tunnel




Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): These include replac-
ing the front inlet screento improve the flow, increasing the speedto
Mach 0,18 or 200 ft/s, replacing the weighbeamson the balance with
displacement transducers, and installing an on-line computer graphic
display. A compressedair system to 700 psi is currently being installed.
Unique Characteristics: The open-circuit configuration of the tunnel is
ideal for wake producing powered models. The large square test section
is also configured for V/SIDL work.
Applications/Current Programs: These include support for current and
future British Aerospace,Commercial Aircraft, Ltd. projects. Current
programs include engine simulation (rotors) using air motors.

General Comments:None
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, DC.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 69.
Date of Information: January 1990




Page 344                              GAO/NSIAIMO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
SubsonicWind Tunnel

BAe Warton 2.7 X 2.1 m Low-Speed
Wind Tunnel


Country: United Kingdom                                                  Performance
                                                                           Mach Number: 0.003 to 0.197 or 1 to 67 m/s
Location: British Aerospace, Preston, United Kingdom                       Reynolds Number: 0.1 to 5 x 106/m
                                                                           Total Pressure: Atmos heric lus dynamic pressure
Owner(s):                                                                  Dynamic Pressure: 3.C?kN/mg
  British Aerospace                                                        Total Temperature: Ambient
  Military Aircraft, Ltd.                                                  Run Time: Not available
  Warton Aerodrome                                                         Comments: None
  Preston, Lancashire PR4 1AX
  United Kingdom                                                         Cost Information
                                                                           Date Built: 1948
Operator(s): British Aerospace, Military Aircraft, Ltd.                    Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                           Date(s) Upgraded: 1960,1975, and 1981
International Cooperation: Not available                                   Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                           Replacement Cost: $4.8 million (1990)
Polnt of Contact: Alan N. Dewar, British Aerospace, Military              Annual Operating Cost: Not available
   Aircraft,
- -_._._ ---~ Ltd., Tel.: [44]-(772)633333,   ext. 52856                   Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                          Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Teat
.----- Section Size: 2.1 x 2.7 m
                                                                        Number and Type of Staff
Operatlonal Status: Active                                                Engineers: Not available
                                                                         Scientists: Not available
Utilization _-_.
---...---.- Rate: -._--
                  Not available                                          Technicians: Not available
                                                                         Others: Not available
                                                                         Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                         Total: Not available


                                                      Description: The BAe Warton 2.7 X 2.1 m Low-SpeedWind Tunnel is a
                                                      continuous-flow, closed-circuit, single-return subsonicwind tunnel.

                                                      Testing Capabilities: The tunnel is powered by a 380~kwDC motor from
                                                      an AC/DC generator using a 5-bladed fan. It has a &degree diffuser, a
                                                      contraction ratio of 5, and 1 screen.The speedis uniform to about 13
                                                      percent; the upwash and sidewash is within 0.43 degrees.Turbulence
                                                      level is 0.26 percent. The tunnel has a platform-type mechanical bal-
                                                      ance, 5.1~kNnormal force, 3 struts, and 6 weighbeamswith load cells.
                                                      The tunnel has two sting mounting systems:one for large models with
                                                      an incidence of -3 degreesto 30 degreesand sideslip of -6 degreesto 17
                                                      degrees,and one for small models with an incidence of -5 degreesto 95
                                                      degreesand sideslip of -15 degreesto 40 degrees.The tunnel also has
                                                      several internal strain-gauge balances,6 components,and a maximum
                                                      normal force of 3.3 kN. Air is supplied at 1 kg/s at 7 bars and stored at
                                                      23 m3 at 30 bars.

                                                      Data Acquisition: The tunnel has a dedicated minicomputer (DEC PDP
                                                      1l/24) with on-line reduction and plotting as well as computer storage
                                                      of 15-year output with a fully indexed retrieval system.



                                                      Page 346                                  GAO/NSLAD-SO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
_______- --~-      --~ _ -~~_-
                                             Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                             Me Warton 2.7 X 2.1 m Low-Speed
                                             Wind Tunnel




rgUr,   IX): Suhomatlc Drawing of the BAe Warton 2.7 x 2.1 m Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

               FINC OAULC 8CRCEN TO SMOOTH
               WT EDDIE8IN THE



                                                              ti   r-   REMOVABLE ROOF SECTION

                                                                         -   1 TON HOIST
                                                                                  AIR STRAIOHTENLRI TO RCMOVP
                                                                                                 IV TlfE FAN

                                                                                           bBLADLtJ FAN DRlVltN @V A
                                                                                           600.hF MOTOR PRWl.8 TH@
                                                                                           TUNNEL AT 8FEflOS UC TD B7 ndr




           YODEL LIFT TABLE
        tLmYLL WORKlUQ SECTION -


        BnuY   OAUQE BALANCE CONTROL DE8K
                    8TATOS 33 PLOTTER -
               NWSlo OATA ACQUISITION CDMPUTER
                                                                                  ,-             i TURNINQ VANE8 To I#M)oIH
                                                                                                   AIRFLW AROUNb TM OORNlR8




                                             Source:   NASA




                                             Page 343
Subeonic Wind Tunnel
BAe Warton 18 ft V/S’lOL Wind Tunnel




Data Acquisition: A dedicated minicomputer (DEC PDP 8) is linked to
the site’s central processingunit for reduction and storage. Computer
storage of l&year output and fully indexed retrieval are available.
Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): The dedicated mini-
computer is to be replaced in 1990 with a DEC PDP 11 for on-line reduc-
tion and plotting. Other improvements include an additional intake
screen and maintenance and replacement of lifted items for long-term
active operation.
Unique Characteristics: Not available
Applications/Current Programs: The tunnel is used for aircraft design
and development, flight test support, new project assessment,and aero-
dynamic research by a major manufacturer of combat aircraft. It is fully
active on a flexible program, allowing quick reaction to new demands. It
is also fully staffed for design and manufacture of models, rigs, and
strain-gauge balances,as well as for calibration, testing, and analysis.
Low-speed aerodynamic tests of HUIOL are also being conducted in the
tunnel.

General Comments:The tunnel has a shielded intake and exit and solid
walls. The working secondfloor and roof are constructed of concrete
and the walls are brick. The contraction and split vane diffuser are sup-
ported by steel frames. The tunnel is clad in plywood.

Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Penaranda. Frank E,. and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, p. 67.
Date of Information: January 1990




Page 360                                GAO/NSLUMO-71FS Foreign Test Facilith
                                            Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                            BAe Warton 18 ft V/SlrDL Wind Tunnel




Figure 1X.8: Low-Speed Aerodynamic
Charscterletlcr of b l/20 Scale Model of
HOTOL in the 0Ae Warton 18 ft V/STOL
Wind Tunnel




                                           Source: BAe Warton




                                           Page 352                                GAO/NSLhD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Subsonic Wind Tunnel
BAe Weybridge 3 X 2 ft High-Speed
Wind Tunnel




Applications/Current Programs: Not applicable
General Comments:The BAe Weybridge 3 X 2 ft High-SpeedWind Tunnel
was decommissionedin 1989 and has been dismantled. Moreover, the
British Aerospacesite at Weybridge has been closed and torn down.
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
References:Penaranda. Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda. eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue: Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.6.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 98.
Date of Information: January 1990




Page 354                              GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilitiee
Subsonic Wind Tunnel

BAe W-n                                     13 X 9 ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel



Country: United Kingdom                                                Performance
                                                                         Mach Number: 0.18 to 0.27 or 200 to 300 ft/s
Location: British Aerospace, Preston, United Kingdom                     Reynolds Number: 0 to 2.2 x 106/ft
                                                                         Total Pressure: Atmospheric
Owner s):                                                                Dynamic Pressure: 0 to 145 Ib/ft2
  Britis b Aerospace                                                     Total Temperature: Ambient
  Military Aircraft, Ltd.                                                Run Time: Not available
  Warton Aerodrome                                                       Comments: None
  Preston, Lancashire PR4 1AX
  United Kingdom                                                       Cost Information
                                                                         Date Built: 1950
Operator(s): British Aerospace, Military Aircraft, Ltd.                  Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                         Date(s) Upgraded: 1970,1980, and 1990
lnternatlonal Cooperation: Not available                                 Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                         Replacement Cost: Not available
Polnt of Contact: Alan N. Dewar, British Aerospace, Military             Annual Operating Cost: Not available
  Aircraft, Ltd., Tel.: [44]-(772)633333,   ext. 52856                   Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                        Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Te8t Section Size: 9 x 13 ft
                                                                       Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Decommissioned          but being relocated and      Engineers: Not available
  reactivated   (see General Comments)                                   Scientists: Not available
                                                                        Technicians: Not available
Utillratlon Rate: Full double day shift (when operational)               Others: Not available
                                                                        Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                        Total: Not available


                                                    Description: The BAe War-ton13 X 9 ft Low-SpeedWind Tunnel is a con-
                                                    tinuous-flow, closed-circuit, single-return subsonicwind tunnel. The tun-
                                                    nel has a closedtest section and can accommodatea model with a 9-ft
                                                    wing span. The tunnel also has an underfloor electromechanical balance
                                                    and an underfloor strain-gauge balance.
                                                    Testing Capabilities: The tunnel has a single-stage,7-bladed, 24-ft (7.3 m)
                                                    diameter fan driven through a bevel reduction gear-box by electric
                                                    motors developing 2,200 hp. The test section is a 13 X 9 ft (4 X 2.7 m)
                                                    rectangular with large corner fillets. Turntables of 7 ft (2.13 m) in diame-
                                                    ter are installed in both the roof and floor, their rotational axes being on
                                                    the centerline of the balance. The main balances are an underfloor six-
                                                    component virtual-center balance and an underfloor five-component
                                                    half-model balance.
                                                    Data Acquisition: The tunnel has a dedicated PDP 1l/60 on-line data
                                                    acquisition system, multitasking with graph plotting, and background
                                                    computation roles. Data recording is achieved by 16 digital and/or 16
                                                    analog inputs.




                                                    Page 366                                   GAO/NSIAIMO-71FS Foreign Test Fadlitiee
                                          Subonlc Wind Tunnel
                                          BAe Wartm 13 X 9 ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel




Figure 1X.10: Schematic Diagram of the BAe Warton 13 X 9 ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel


                              I 17’4”
                            llwvF  0
                              1
                              i
                 i
                 5
               E’,
                     I   lllll




                                          Source:   NASA




                                         Page 368                                     GAO/NSIAD-BO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
               -
Subsonlc Wind Tunnel
BAe Woodford 9 X 7 ft Low-Speed
Wind Tunnel




been removed to Manchester University where it has been reactivated.
The new point of contact is Dr. D.J. Smith, Manchester University,
Tel.: [44]-(61)-275-2000.
Photograph/Schematic Available: No
References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol: 1, p. 72.
Date of Information: January 1990




Page 360                             GAO/NSIAD@O-71FS Foreign Teat Facilities
Subsonic Wind Tunnel
BAJ3 Bedford 13 x 9 It Low-Speed
Wind Tunnel




Unique Characteristics: None
Applications/Current Programs: The tunnel is used to study the low-
speedaerodynamics of generalized research models and flight vehicle
configurations, including dynamic stability measurements.
General Comments:None
Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes

References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, DC.: National
Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, p. 66.
Date of Information: November 1989




Page 362                              GAO/NSlAD-90-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
SubsonicWind Tunnel

RAE Farnbrough 5 m Lowspeed Wind Tunnel



Country: United Kingdom                                             Performance
                                                                      Mach Number: 0 to 0.33 or 0 to 133 m/s
Location: Royal Aerospace Establishment Farnborough,                  Reynolds Number: Up to 18 x 106/m
  Farnborough, United Kingdom                                         Total Pressure: 1 to 3 bars
                                                                      Dynamic Pressure: Up to 16 kN/m2
Owner@ :                                                              Total Temperature: Ambient to 313 degrees Kelvin
  Royal a erospace Establishment Farnborough                          Run Time: 15 min
  AE2 Division                                                        Comments: None
  Aerodynamics Department
  Farnborough, Hampshire GU14 6TD                                   Cost Information
  United Kingdom                                                      Date Built: 1978
                                                                      Date Placed in Operation: Not available
Operator(a): Royal Aerospace Establishment     Farnborough            Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
International Cooperation: Not available                              Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                      Replacement Cost: Not available
                                                                     Annual Operating Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Superintendent,   AE2 Division, Royal Aerospace     Unit Cost to User: Not available
  Establishment   Farnborough, Tel.: [44]-(252)24461, ext. 5377       Sourcelsl of Fundina: Not available
Test Section Size: 4.2 x 5 m                                        Number and Type of Staff
                                                                      Enaineers: Not available
Operational Status: Active                                            Sckntists: Not available
                                                                     Technicians: Not available
Utilization Rate: Not available                                      Others: Not available
                                                                      Administrative/Management:     Not available
                                                                     Total: Not available


                                                Description: The RAE Farnborough 6 m Low-SpeedWind Tunnel is a con-
                                                tinuous-flow, return-circuit subsonic wind tunnel.

                                                Testing Capabilities: Models are supported on interchangeable mobile
                                                carts that becomethe test-section floor. The carts include (1) the sting
                                                support cart with a range of 38 degreesobtained using a circular arc
                                                quadrant and with an unturned strain-gauge balance, (2) a mechanical
                                                balance cart that has a six-component virtual-center mechanical balance
                                                under the floor, and (3) a general-purposecart for miscellaneoustests
                                                including tunnel calibration, Model carts are interchangeable in about
                                                60 min. The test section can be isolated from the pressurized circuit or
                                                repressurized in about 60 min.Special rigs can be used for high-incidence
                                                tests, measurement of full-scale store drag, and a low-drag support for
                                                accurate drag measurements.Auxiliary air can be supplied to models at
                                                22 atm and 7.9 kg/s. Suction at 4.2 m3/s is also available.
                                                Data Acquisition: A modular system basedon multiple minicomputers
                                                arranged in a two-tier network is used. Independent front-end packages
                                                are dedicated to particular wind tunnel tasks.




                                                Page 364                                    GAO/NSIAINW71F3          Foreign Teet Facilities
                                                                  Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                                                  RAE Farnborough 6 m Low-Speed
                                                                  Wind Tunnel




Figure 1X.12: Schematic Diagram of the RAE Farnborough 5 m Low-Speed Wind Tunnel



                                     slR*IoN1aNan     VANES

                                     meaowotd       VANLS-----,       \




                                                                                                                                             CORNER




        MAIN     mlve

        FAN -
        Id   CORNER
        wonnIY0         sl!clIoN


               WONNINO U!CllON S.Om NMIZONTAL                         m
                       I I.tm VLRllCAL                                                                                      RAPID DIFCUSCR




                                                                                                           \      SCREENS
               NOOt!l      ACCISS    tlllt   DOOR

                                                                                                           ’      CONlRACllON
               WOCL        CART---

               I*1   OAV IC1111RA110111                                                                    ‘Nol        ON     lRlOOlNO~

                                                                                                           c      f,LLtTRIC OVLWLAO IRAVLUINO CRANE
                                                                                                                  SO tON CRAO. CM CONIWMD
                                                                                                                  ID tCU CRAB. MNDANl  CCNtROULD

               t”RNt AM-
                                                                                                           -No3        OAV lRlOOlNOi
               MAIN CNtRANCC -
                                                                                     OrClCLS
                                                                                                                  .ENtRANCES COR
                                                                                                                   MODELS AN0 EOUlPYCNt




                                                                  Source:   RAE Farnborough




                                                                  Page 366                               GAO/NSIAD-BO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities



                                                                                                  ’ ‘.
                                                         Subouic Wind Tunnel
                                                         RAE Farnborough 11.6 X 8.5 fi Wind Tunnel




                                                        References:Penaranda,Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
                                                        tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels, Washington, D.C.: National
                                                        Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1985, vol. 1, p. 64.

                                                         Date of Information: November 1989
Figure 1X.13: Schematic Diagram of the RAE Farnborough 11.5 x 8.5 ft Wind Tunnel
r



                                      77”““lV.,A”INO”   ‘”            r
                      .“I)11 COOLtO
                                                                  u       ”   ”      ”




L
                                                        Source:   NASA




                                                        Page 368                                     GAO/NSIAD-BO-71FS Foreign Test Facilities
                                                              Subsonic Wind Tunnel
                                                              RAE Farnborough 24 ft Anecholc Low-Speed
                                                              Wind Tunnel




                                                              General Comments:None
                                                              Photograph/Schematic Available: Yes
                                                              References:Penaranda, Frank E., and M. Shannon Freda, eds. Aeronau-
                                                              tical Facilities Catalogue:Wind Tunnels. Washington, D.C.: National
                                                              Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, 1986, vol. 1, p. 115.
                                                              Date of Information: November 1989
Figure 1X.14: Schematic Diagram of the RAE Farnborough 24 ft Anechoic Low-Speed Wind Tunnel



                                                          SQUARE                                                                                        RECTANGULAR
                                                           0.1 In                                                                                        12.2 Ill x 9.1 In

                             *\\.\\               \\\\\       \....     .\\    ..\.\\\\\\.\~\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\.~.,,,~,,,
                                ..                                                                                                                                                                          I   ’
                              ‘. ‘. \,
                                 8. \\
                                   ‘\
                                      ‘\ ‘1.                                                       FLOW                                          Pdc2Pdnc
                            f            \\ -\                                                                                                   ----IL       -.ns \,bUCC
                                                                                                                                                                    ..TI.LY                I’         /.
                                                                                                RETURN                                                                                                          \
                                          8.     ?,                                                                                                          \                        .’         ,’             \
                                                                                                                                                                               #3/’                             \
                                                                                                                                                                                                                \
                                                                                                                                                                              /’                                \
                                                                                                                                                                                                                \
                                                                                                                                                                                                                \
                                                                                                                                                                               RECTANGULAR                      \
                                                                                                                                                                               lilmx10.7m                       ’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                \




                      STRAIGHTENERS                                                                                                                         -T-+-T
                                                                                                                                                                                                HONEYCOMB
                                                                                                                                         t                     &ARE
                                                                                                         ACOLkIC                                                12.2 m
           0                                                                                                                        ClRCilLAR
           4                                                                                            TREATMENT                    7.3 m OIA
                METERS




                                                              Source:   NASA




                  *




                                                             Page 370                                                                            GAO/NSIAD-90.71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Supersonic Wind Tunnel

BAe Woodford 30 X 27 in. Supersonic
Wind Tunnel


Country: United Kingdom                                              Performance
                                                                       Mach Number: 1.6 to 3.5
Location: British Aerospace, Woodford, United Kingdom                  Reynolds Number: 56 x 106/m at Mach 1.6 and 30 x 106/m
                                                                         at Mach 3.5
Owner (8):                                                             Total Pressure: 1.5 bars at Mach 1.6 and 5 bars at Mach 3.5
  British Aerospace                                                    Dynamic Pressure: Not available
  Commercial Aircraft, Ltd.                                            Total Temperature: Ambient
  Airlines Division                                                    Run Time: Not available
  Chester Road                                                         Comments: None
  Woodford, Eiramhall
  Stockport, Cheshire SK7 10R
  United Kingdom
                                                                     Cost information
                                                                       Date Built: 1955
Operator(s): British Aerospace, Commercial Aircraft, Ltd.              Date Placed in Operation: Not available
                                                                       Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
International Cooperation: Not applicable                              Construction Cost: Not available
                                                                       Replacement Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Robin G.B. Webb, British Aerospace, Commercial      Annual Operating Cost: Not available
  Aircraft. Ltd.. Tel.: 1441-(70721-62345. ext. 52185
                                                                       Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                       Source(s) of Funding: Not available
Test Section Size: 0.76 x 0.69 m                                     Number and Type of Staff
                                                                       Engineers: Not available
Operational Status: Decommissioned        (see General Comments)      Screntists: Not available
                                                                      Technicians: Not available
Utilization     Rate: Not operational
._-.-~.-.._--..-----                                                  Others: Not available
                                                                      Administrative/Management:      Not available
                                                                      Total: Not available


                                                   Description: The BAe Woodford 30 X 27 in. SupersonicWind Tunnel was
                                                   an intermittent supersonic wind tunnel. The tunnel was decommissioned
                                                   and has been scrapped. It had a closed working section and was also
                                                   used as an open-jet tunnel.
                                                   Testing Capabilities: The tunnel was capable of conducting conventional
                                                   testing of sting-mounted models. The diffuser of the tunnel provided a
                                                   3-n diameter open-jet at speedsup to Mach 1, which was used for ad hoc
                                                   testing, primarily of full-scale components.
                                                   Data Acquisition: Not available
                                                   Planned Improvements (Modifications/Upgrades): Not applicable
                                                   Unique Characteristics: Not available
                                                   Applications/Current Programs: Not available

                                                   General Comments:The BAe Woodford 30 X 27 in.Supersonic Wind Tun-
                                                   nel has been decommissionedand scrapped.


                                                   Page 383                                  GAO/NSIAD-!%71FS Foreign Test Facilities
Supersonic Wind Tunnel

Cambridge University SupersonicWind Tunnels



Country: United Kingdom                                           Performance
                                                                    Mach Number: 3.5 (maximum)
Location: Cambridge University, Cambridge, United Kingdom           Reynolds Number: 8 x 106/ft
                                                                    Total Pressure: 1 bar
Owner(s):                                                           Dynamic Pressure: Not available
  Cambridge University                                              Total Temperature: 300 degrees Kelvin
  Department of Engineering                                         Run Time: 60 s
  Trumpington Street                                                Comments: None
  Cambridge, Cambridgeshire    CB2 IPZ
  United Kingdom                                                  Cost Information
                                                                    Date Built: 1960
Operator(#): Cambridge University                                   Date Placed in Operation: 1962
International Cooperation: None                                     Date(s) Upgraded: Not available
                                                                    Construction Coat: Not available
                                                                    Replacement Cost: Not available
Point of Contact: Dr. L.C. Squire, Cambridge University,           Annual Operating Cost: Not available
  Tel.: [44]-(223)332634                                            Unit Cost to User: Not available
                                                                   Source(s) of Fundina: Not available
Test Section Size: 18 x 11.4 cm (nozzle exit diameter)
                                                                  Number and Type of Staff
Operational Status: Active                                         Engineers: 0
                                                                   Scientists: 0
Utilization Rate: 20 tests per day                                 Technicians: 0
                                                                   Others: 5 research assistants, 2 research students, and 1 staff
                                                                      member
                                                                    Administrative/Management:       0
                                                                    Total: 8 (2 oersons are reauired to run the facilitv)


                                                Description: The Cambridge University SupersonicWind Tunnels consist
                                                of two identical supersonic tunnels.
                                                Testing Capabilities: The tunnels are capable of conducting pressure