United States General Accounting Office l GAO Report to the Honorable Barbara Boxer, House of Representatives March 1990 ARMY PROCUREMENT FMC’s Quality Controls and Pricing . Practices on the Bradley Fighting Vehicle National Security and International Affairs Division 11-222372 March 7,199O The Honorable Barbara Boxer House of Represcntativcs Dear Ms. I3oxcr: This report responds to your request that we examine the validity of the allegations raised by former FMC employees concerning FMC’s quality controls and pricing practices on the IWdley Fighting Vehicle. FVe are sending copies of the report to the Chairmen of the House and Senate Committees on Armed Services and on Appropriat,ions; t,hc Director, Office of Management and Budget; and the Secretaries of Defense and the Army. We will also make copies available to others upon rcqucst Please contact me on (202) 2754141 if you or your staff have any questions. Other major contributors to this report are listed in appendix I. Sincerely yours, Richard Davis Director. Army Issues While Ikadlcys with problem parts have been delivered to the govern- ment, G,\O found no clvitlcnce that FMC had delivered snch vehicles dclibt%ltely. I%~~government and F[lIC have control systems in place to identify problems with quahI> [lowever. after reviewing FMC’s system for com trolling non~onforiii~ng material (material that does not meet contract specifications) in Allgust 1989, the Defense Contract .4dministration S(~rvict~s found it to ix> madequate. As a result, the Defense Contract .Idminist rat ion SW\ kc’s requested that FMC review its entire system for c,ontrolling nollc,onf’c)rriling material. As of lkembcr 1989. FMC had (3~niplt~tcri this rcviclw and the results were being studied by the I kft~iisr~ (:orit ix? :I( Inlmist ration Services. Principal Findings ~~~~-__~ Spare Parts Prices Based Sinc,c 19)80. tllcl Army has bought, about $107 million of spare parts from 1’!IlC‘ ~mdtr 205 sc~~~uxtt~c,ontracts. (;ho reviewed documentation for 28 on Negotiations-Not FM(r or t11c cxmtrxts, wit11 :I v;11ue of $20 million, and determined that the Estimates ~I%TS ~hargcd 1110;Irniy were based on negotiations between the gov- c~rnmcW and FW. FIlC’s proposed prkcs had been evaluated by the I~~~~‘cwsc~(‘ontraci .\dllrinistratic,n Services or the Defense Contract Audit, .Gq$YlW. c;.\o also rt~vic~\vr~clI INSrcc,ords of negotiations brtwcen the government ;rt~tl I%( for 20 of 11~528 contracts. Records of negotiation were not ;~\~ailablc for thcx (11Irc,~eight contracts. In taach cxx. it was apparent, that I IN, govc~rnmt’nt 11;1tiI 101merely accept,ed the proposed prices but had tl~~~~lopctl its nc~go~LII ion position based on t~v;rhlatc~d c*ost or pricing (h(& :\cc.otding to FM(‘ ol’li~ials. in the early stages of the Bradley program, 111an~.of tlrc price-, (~ntertkd into the Army Master Data File were based ()n tsstimatcxs. pa~‘t ~c~rlarly t’or parts that had not been previously pro- tluc~c~i.Once the 1r;1r1pric,es arc negotiated between the government and I~‘RIC‘.thtx ncgotiilt <)(I I)ricxl is ent,ered into the Army Master Dat,a File and rt~lki~cs the est iirl;ll~~d I~ric~c. I’ag‘. :i GAO/NSLAI)-SO-XII Army Procurement of the Bradley these instances, FMC issued instructions that employees were not to remove parts from vehicles that had been logged in for government inspection and acceptance and that exceptions would be allowed only if the government granted prior approval. Representatives of the Defense Contract Administration Services told GAOthat they were unaware of any other instances of unauthorized parts removal. They said that their inspection process before shipment and at the receiving point, should identify further incidents of unautho- rized parts removal. C.W found that the vehicle shipping documents did list the parts that were missing and contained notations that supplemen- tal payment documents would be processed when the missing parts were received. Internal Controls to As part of its Bradley rontract, FMC is required to establish and main- t ain quality assurance systems. To ensure that FMC complies with these Monitor Product Quality systems and to evalunte its performance, the government performs vari- ous independent tests. inspections, and monitoring functions. G.W reviewed the govc~rnmcnt’s oversight of the contractor’s quality assurance systems and conc.luded that the in-place systems provided rcxasonablc assurance that problems with product quality were identi- fied and that the systems enabled the government and the contractor to work toward the resolution of identified problems. This report providc,s specific information on the allegations made by the Recommendations t’ormcr FMC cmploytlcs; it does not attempt to assess the overall man- agement of tht> lira(II(~~ contract. For that, reason, GUI is not making I‘c~ommendations. As requested. G.&Odid not ask the Department of Defense to comment Agency Comments officially on a draft 01‘ this report,. However. G,W did discuss the issues in the report with rcbsl)onsible officials of the Army and the Office of t,he S(lc,ret ary of Dt~t’ensc~and 1~1sincorporated their comments where apl~ropriatc Page J GAO,‘NSIAD-90-86 Army Procurement of the Bradley Contents Abbreviations AMDF Army Master Data File HFV Bradley Fighting Vehicle DC4A Defense Contract Audit Agency DCAS Defense Contract Administration Services GAO General Accounting Office MMBF mean miles between failure TACOM Tank-Automotive Command page 7 GAO/NSIAD-SO-86 Army Procurement of the Bradley 6. FMC employees were instructed to charge hours to t,he HFVprogram even though they were working on other programs. Also, FMC charged a computer to the IN program that was used on &her programs. 7. FMC hired an cxcc,ssive number of personnel for the Bradley pro- gram, as evidenced by the, fact that about 1,000 personnel were laid off in 19% when the, HI’\’ cant rnct was converted from a cost to a fixed-price c,ontract. As agreed with the requester, our objective was to address allegations 1 Objective, Scope, and through 4, concerning spare parts pricing. and FMC’s use of defective Methodology parts in the WV production process. In addition, the requester asked us to identify the in-plact‘ internal control systems to ensure that if quality problems occurred. thcb problems would be brought to the contractor’s and the government’s attention. The requester also asked us to detcr- mine whetht‘r the Army. in obligat,ing funds, had overestimated the amount it would ntcd to fund spare parts contracts with FMC and, if so, what use had bftc,n made of the funds when the contracts were dcfinit ized. As part of our review, we met with the former FMC employees and one of their attorneys to discuss the allegations and to obtain any documen- tation they had to support their allegations. To address the spare parts pricing issue, we reviewed FMC’s pricing practices and discussed the pricing process with FMC and government contracting officials. U’c also selected a sample of spare parts contracts and reviewed the cant ract files at the Defense Contract Administration Serviccas (IKXS). FM(‘ I)ric,c’ proposals, DCAS and Defense Contract Audit Agency (LKXA) reports on t hc, proposals, govcrnmcnt obligation docu- ments, and pricrt nrlgotiution memorandums. WC did not perform a rcvittw of thr rCasoIi;lt)IC’rI~,ss of the prices charged the government on t lrc spare parts ~mt r;lcts. To assrss the use madcs of de-obligated funds, we selected a sample of unpriced spare parts (~rtlcrs issued by t,hc Tank-Automotive Command (PLYN) in 1982. 1984. ;mti 1986. We determined the amount of funds that had btlcn initially c~bligatcd, the amount of t hc definitized contracts, and ho\v th<, dc-obli~:;lt c*d f’lmds had been used. LVe discussed I’MC”s qllality assurance systems with contractor officials and obtiiincd tlc~~ril it i\ (’ (io~um~~ntwtion on these systcrns from FMC and Page !I GAO/h’SIAD90-86 Army Procurement of the Bradley Chapter 2 Spare Parts Pricing Issues Nany of the spare parts prices that were entered into the AMDF were based on estimates developed by FMC. However, the Army did not pay these prices when it ordered the spare parts. Instead, the Army and E’MC negotiated contract prices on the basis of evaluated cost and pric- ing data submitted by FMC as part of its contract proposal. Wc also found that. in some cases, the Army had over-obligated funds for spare parts contracts. However, the Department of Defense took actions in 1986 to limit the amount of obligated funds that could be expended before unpriced orders are definitized. As a result, the number and dollar value of unpriced orders at FMC have been reduced. The former FMC employees alleged that FMC had inflated the prices it Allegation That FMC charged the Army for IIE?;spare parts by arbitrarily establishing the Inflated Spare Parts parts prices that were entered into the AMDF. According to the former Prices FRIC cmployces. thcsc prices then became the prices the Army paid n-hen it contracted for the parts. According to one of I~MC’s former employees, the price entered into the .WrW Ihad no relationship to what the part cost to make or buy. For ~uample. when a IWV part number was to be entered into the AMDF. mployew were allcgrdly instructed to go to certain individuals to get cstimatcd prices. If t Irosc individuals were not available, the employees \vcrc instructed to tn;rk~~ up a price and enter it into the system. For tipdating the UIIW, the former employee alleged that instructions had been given to increase the price by 32. 47, or 60 percent or some other arbit,rary figure. The percentage of increase varied from time to t imc based on who \I as giving instructions. The former employee also allcgcd that t hesc arbitrary and inflated prices became the prices that F’hlC’ charged t hc government. The .UI~Y is a listing of the individual parts and prices that make up the total system and is a part of the Logistics Support Analysis Review sys- tcm, which forms t hc basis for an analysis of each item that enters the Army inventory. The purpose of the analysis is to support Army deci- sions on where the items will be stocked. the level of stockage that will bc authorizrd. and \vhcre and by whom the item will be maintained. According to ‘1’~ OY and FMC officials, a price must be shown for each part in the .-UWW.or that automated portion of the Logistics Support Analysis Kcvic\t System will not operate. FMC officials also told us that, Pa@. I1 GAO/NSIADYO-86 Army Procurrment of the Bradley (:haptcr 2 Spare Parts Pricing Issues options. The production contracts included some of the same parts as those in the spare parts contracts and, like the spare parts contracts. had been evaluated by IK;\S or DCAA. In the early years of thtb IIFV program, most of the contracts for spare parts were unpriced orders. In other words, the firm contract price was not determined, or dc,finitized, until after the contractor was authorized to begin work and incaur c,osts. In some cases, the contracts were not dcfinit,ized for several years after award. At the time of contract award. the Army obligates funds for the contract Over-Obligation of based on its ostirnatcl of what the contract amount will bc. When the Funds for Unpriced contract price is negotiated, if it is less than the obligated amount. the Orders difference is dc-obligattld and potentially available for Ic-obligation bq t IIC~govcrnmt,nt. WC reviewed 14 unprictbd spare parts contracts issued by TACOM to FMC dluing fiscal years 1980. 1982, and 1984. The amount of funds obligated by thtt Army for the 14 contracts totaled about 57 million. WC eliminated five, contracts, amounting to about $2.4 million, from our review bccausc the amounts of the dcfinitizcd contracts equaled or exceeded the amounts obligated. For thr remaining nine contracts. $3.6 million had bcacn dcl-obligated. ‘l’hc~disposition of the dc-obligated funds was as follows: For scvcn cont.rac’t,s. b:I:32.~54:3was dc-obligated. The funds were rcxtluncxd to the trac.kcsd and wheeled vehicles account. WC could not determine what spc,c,il’ic, IISC’had been made of these funds. For one contract. $2.%i.X3 was dc-obligat,ed. The appropriation for thc,sr‘ funds cxpirtd. and i he funds were rcturncd to the Treasury. One contract for $S,O:K.922 was terminated, and the dc-obligated funds wcr~ rc~programmt~rl 1o the‘ next IIIY product ion contract. In l!X?Xi. we issued ;I report on Impriced orders.’ The report pointed out that the scrviccts hat1 gc~nt~rally over-obligated funds at the time unprictsd orders LVCY’C issued. and as a result, funds had been tied up unncccssarily for tsxt c>ndtltl ptbriods of time, sometimes for sctvcral years. Pa@. 13 GAO/NSIAD90-86 Army Procurement of the Bradley Cl1apJer 3 BF’V Quality Assurance Issues - FMC experienced problems with certain Bradley parts, particularly in the early phases of the Bradley program. For the most part. the prob- lems have been or arc being resolved. To compensate for the early parts shortages, FMC might have, used nonconforming parts (parts that do not conform to manufacturing specifications) to keep t,he production line moving. FMC told us that, in such cases, it would have notified the gov- ernment of the use of nonconforming parts. IIowever, due to the lack 01 documentation, we could not determine the extent, to which nonconform- ing parts had btben nstad in t,he production process. The government acctbpts Bradleys with missing parts. However. in such cases, the missing parts are to be identified on the shipping documents. and payments to the contractor are to be adjusted In a few instances, FMC had removed good parts. without government aut,horization, from Hradlcys that had been submitted to the govern- ment for final inspc>ction and acceptance and had not notified the gov- ernment. Ilowcvcr. after government inspectors identified these cases and brought them to PMC’s attention, FM<: instructed its employees to discontinue swh practices. Former FMC employtbcs alleged that FMC had not rejected or disposed of Allegation That FMC nonc*onforming parts in accordance with nonconforming material procc- Used Nonconforming dures and that FMC’ had routinely used problem parts on the production and Problem Parts in line to increase sparc~ parts orders from the government. They alleged that t,hc high failure rates of the lower fuel cell. the personnel heater, BFV Production Ore halon fire supprtXssion system, the vehicle distribution box, and the bilge pumps were c1vidcnc.e of FMC’s use of defective parts. I)fi\s officials said that contractors sometimes temporarily install non- conforming parts or parts from previously inspected vehicles in order to avoid product,ion lint, stoppages. In such cases, the contractor is required to documthnt the parts involved so that they can be replaced when good parts btlcomc available. FMC officials said that. because of parts shortages early in the BFV pro- gram, they might have used nonconforming parts or parts from com- pleted wvs on tht, production line in order to keep the line moving. They went on to say that in such cases, the government representatives would have, been notifird atld that the parts would have been exchanged when Page LB GAO/NSIAD-90-M Army Procurement of the Bradley Chapter 3 BFV Quality Assurance Issues strong but susceptible to water absorption and warping. FMC’s suppliers have had difficulty in fabricating the cells to specifications because they warp, have a peculiar shape, and are difficult to measure. Problems with the cell’s peculiar dimensions and with warping caused several fuel cells to interfere with the turret or with surrounding hard- ware such as the electrical cables. FMC changed the dimensions, relo- cated hardware. and developed a fixture that allows more accurate measurement of the fuel cell’s clearances and tolerances. The fixture was expected to be provided to suppliers late in 1989. Information we obtained from various Army data sources showed the following: l Between 19% and 1988, eight fuel cell failures were reported. In six of these cases, warping was identified as the cause, and in the remaining two cases, hot exhaust air from the heater had damaged the cells. l As a result of problem fuel cells. 13 were replaced from 1984 through 1988. . ‘I’wo engineering changes were issued between 1983 and 1989. The net cost, to the govcrnmc,nt for these changes was $51,901. -.-__ Personnel Heater In December 1987. w(’ testified before the Subcommittee on Procurement and Military Kuclcar Systems, House Committee on Armed Services, that Army units were experiencing problems with the 13Fv’S personnel heaters.2 In response to the hearing, a joint Army-contractor investiga- tion team conducted further investigations in early 1988 and concluded the following: l Improper training of maintenance personnel and operators had resulted in improper operation, repair, and installation of the heater. For exam- ple, heater ducts had not always been properly reconnected after repair or replacement, and as a result, heater components had been damaged. Also, fuel filters were clogged or missing, causing damage to the heaters. . Some heaters wc’rc inoperable because of defective igniters and the poor quality of repair [>ilrtS. Corrective actions were recommended to enlarge the fuel filter and rede- sign the intake/exhaust system. According to FMC officials. the most Pag.r 17 GAO/NSIADOO-86 Army Pmcurcment of the Bradley Chapter 3 IlFV Quality Assurance Issws Halon Fire Suppression The former FMC employees alleged that the halon fire suppression sys- tern was so unreliable that Army personnel would shut off the automatit System/Release Valves triggering feature of the system for fear that it would inadvertently dis- charge. However, FX and Army officials said that the halon system works as intended and that there have been only a few instances of acci- dental discharge. Army officials said that, in some cases, the system had accidentally dis- charged when the manual release cable was accident,ally pulled by deb- ris that caught on the rotating turret and snagged the manual release cxblo. In another instance, the system discharged when the automatic schnsing system remained on while repairmen performed vehicle mainte- nance, such as spot welding. In other cases, repairmen broke the sensing (.ircGts by disconnrxcting electrical connectors, causing the system to tlischrgc. FMC and the Army said that the poor location of the manual release cable might have caused the inadvertent discharges. The manual release cable was repositioned in the WV A2 configuration. Army data for the halon system showed the following: - From 1983 through 1987. 11 failures occurred. Six of the failures were tlur~ to the system’s not being properly pressurized. and accidental dis- chargc~ was suspectcsd or verified in three cases. - l‘\vo engineering changes were made in 1984 at a net cost to the govern- mt>nt of $30,731, Bilge Pumps The former FMC employees alleged that the bilge pumps were frr- qucntly malfunctioning as a result of a defective design. Each WV has f’o~w pumps installed in the floor, and each pump is designed to pump 60 gallons of water a minute. According to Army officials, the vehicle can continue t,o operate with two pumps at either end and still float. The officials said that the pumps were malfunctioning because troops had not been properly removing debris that accumulated around pump open- ings. causing them to c,log. Army data showed the following: - From 1983 through 1989, 100 of the 113 maintenance actions reported wore for cleaning. Page 1Y GAO/NSIAE-YO-86 Army Procurement of the Bradley Chapter 3 RFV Quality Assuranrr Issues acceptance testing and inspection. Any exception to t.his policy was to be approved in advance by DCAS. As an added measure against unauthorized parts removal or the substi- tution of defective parts for good parts, the vehicles are inspected and tested at the receiving point. The inspections and testing should identify any missing or nonfunctioning parts. According to the DCY.S Quality Assurance Chief, DC&S identification of the 1983 incidents ilhlstrates that the government was effectively over- seeing FMC’s operation The DC~Sofficial also said that there have been no other instances of unallt horized parts removal. A former FMC employee alleged that wvs had been delivered to the Allegation That FMC Army with parts missing because of shortages of and unexpectedly high Delivered BFVs to the f ‘1 al ure rates of the parts. Also, he alleged that, because FMC did not Army With Parts adequately account for parts, it did not always know which parts were missing and were to bo supplied at a later date. Missing The government ac’cc1)t.sIWVSwith parts missing as long as the missing parts are ident,ificd. In such cases, payment to the contractor is adjusted. We reviewed I)G\S Material Inspection and Receiving Reports for .June 1988 throw@ August 1989 and identified 13 instances in which the government had accepted HF~Sfrom FMC with missing parts. The 13 instances account4 for 253 parts valued at, $322,770. Not included in this total \vas 1%; missing parts, which were government-furnished material. In each of ttrr> 13 instances, the report. contained a notation that payment to thca c,ontractor would be adjust,ed. In addition to being inspected at the contractor’s plant before shipment, IWVSare inspected at the receiving point before being turned over to the units. This additional inspection provides added assurance that any missing parts are itk~ntifit~d. Certain WV part,s have experienced problems with quality. However, we Conclusions found no evidence to substantiate allegations that FMC had knowingly used problem parts in the production process to increase the Army’s spare parts orders. Furthermore. the Army and the contractor have taken actions to rc‘solvc the problems or are working on solutions. Page 21 GAO/NSlAD-SO-86 Army Procurement of th? Bradley Chapter 4 Internal Control Processesto Monitor Quality Government specification MIL-Q-9858A requires the contractor to develop and maintain a quality assurance system that specifies respon- sibilities, functions, and control methods to ensure adherence to quality standards and practices. A separate specification covers the disposition of nonconforming material (MIL-STD-152OC). This specification is incor- porated into the contract between the government and FMC. The government also has the responsibility for ensuring product quality. In carrying out its responsibility, the government performs and monitors various vehicle tests, inspections, and actions to correct identified defi- ciencies The government’s monitoring mechanisms include l initial and comparison production tests, . physical inspections, l a deficiency reporting program, . a sample data collection program, l quarterly review meet,ings. and 9 quality system reviews. Initial production tests are conducted to establish performance limits Initial and Comparison under actual mission conditions and to make needed production modifi- Production Tests cations or design changes. Four of the first 10 vehicles produced under any new Bradley configuration are driven 6,000 miles over a G- to g-month period. Then, each quarter, one vehicle is randomly selected for a 1,500.mile comparison production test to evaluate reliability and production qual- ity over the production period, and the data is provided to the contrac- tor for trend analyses. The introduction of new Bradley models (the AO, the A 1, and the A2) initially resulted in higher-than-normal deficiencies due to new systems, new components, or new production processes. Overall, however, test results and trend data have shown that mean miles between failure (MMBF) for the HFVS have exceeded the target of 225 MMBF for production vehicles. Table 4.1 shows the MMBF trends for the three Bradley models. Page 23 GAO/NSIAD-90-86 Army Procurement of the Bradley -. ___~ Chaptrr 4 Internal Control PnKwsrs to Monitor Quality Figure 4.1: Historical BFV De-Processing Trend Data Comparing Vehicle 20 Average Number of Defects Configurations 15 10 5 - A0 Vehw3es 111 Al(-) Vehicles - Al Vehicles --- A2 Vehicles Source TACOM -_____- - ~ During the oversight ~IWC’SS,noncritical problems with quality are Deficiency Reporting recorded in the vehicle logbook maintained for each I3FV. Critical quality Program defects are recorded on a quality deficiency report, which requires the contractor to take corrective act ion within 30 days. From 1986 through Deccmbcr 1989. IXXS inspectors issued I,265 quality deficiency reports to FMC for a variety of quality dcficicncies. Army personnel who operato and maintain the IIFVS in the field also issue quality deficiency reports to TAC’OM documenting defects found during field operation:, or maintenance. Ttzc’okl, in turn. screens the reports lo identify rrlpct it ivc%problems before referring them to FMC or to any of the other primc~ contrac’tors for the IN’. The number of defi- ciency reports issrrcd to F’XK from 1984 to 1989 arc shown in table 4.2. Page 2.5 GAO,‘NSIAD90-X6 Army Prwuremcnt of the Bradley Chapter 4 Internal Control Processes to Monitor Quality ,4 recent quality system review was conducted at FMC by DCAS person- nel in August 1989. The review identified 35 quality deficiencies and 3 Method C violations. A Slethod C violation denotes a serious quality problem and requires high-level review and immediate contractor action. Including the three from the most recent review, six Method Cs have been issued to FMC over the past 2 years. The dates they were issued and the problems that were identified with the BFV are shown in table 4.3. Table 4.3: Method C Violations Issued to FMC Date of violation Description of problem Sept 14 1989 Failure to submit a Quality Program Plan for englneerlng and technlcal support Sept I,1989 Lack of quality controls and corrective actlons for nonconformlng materials received from subcontractors Aug 18. 1989 Calibrated gauges that were out of tolerance and computer software that was not in compliance with software engineenng standards Nov 9, 1987 Inadequate quality controls over subcontract purchases act 19,1987 No follow-up on a supplier-p&!ded part to ensure that effective corrective actlons had been taken June 15, 1987 lnsufflclent control over automated test equipment software The Army has established internal control mechanisms to oversee FMC’s Conclusions quality assurance program for the HFV. While these mechanisms will not, in and of themselves, prevent quality control problems from arising, the systems enable the cant ra(‘tor and the government to work toward the resolution of idcntific,d Iwbkms. Page 27 GAO/NSIAD90-86 Army Procurement of the Bradley Appendix 1 Major Contributors to This Report Robert J. Lane, Assistant Director National Security and International Affairs Division, Washington, D.C. John N. Zugar, Evaluator-in-Charge San Francisco Donald Y. Yamada, Site Senior Regional Office Page 28 GAO/NSIAD-SO-R6 Army Procurement of the Bradley Chapter 4 Internal Control Processes to Monitor Quality Table 4.2: Deficiency Reports Issued by TACOM to FMC Deficiency reports Year issued 1984 110 1985 187 1986 120 1987 56 1988 47 1989 15’ ‘Through December 1989 Another measure of quality control is the Army’s sample data collection Sample Data program. Under this program. the Army uses unscheduled maintenance Collection Program actions per vehicle per month as a measure of the WV’S quality. Opera tional, maintenance, and repair information is collected and analyzed for about 250 BFVS each month. From 1984 through 1988, the number of unscheduled maintenance actions for the A0 WV decreased from five to three a month, and the Al BFV averaged about four such actions during 1988, the first year data was available for that configrtration, Data is not. yet available for the .42 configuration. Government and contractor officials meet on a quarterly basis to assess Quarterly Review the reliability and quality of the IWVS,using data collected and analyzed Meetings through quality control proccsscs. ilt t,hcsc meetings. corrcct,ive action plans are developed. and previously initiated cotrt~ctivc actions arc reviewed. Army officials may request that 1x4s perform a quality system review, Quality System which is an indepcndcnt rcvicw and evaluation of the contractor’s qual- Reviews ity assurance program. Quality assurance personnel from a n0.s regional office assess the adequacy of the cornractor’s documentation, its compli- ance with contract specification rcquiremcnts, and the effectiveness of its systems or controls in ensuring product quality. These reviews afford added assurance that the contractor is complying with contract quality and technical rcquiremcnts, that the product being delivered is of acceptable qualit,y. and that the contractor’s quality assurance program is adcquat,c. Paye 26 GAO, NSIAI)-90-86 Ann> Prorurrmnlt of the Bradley Chapter 4 Internal Control Processrs to Monitor Quality Table 4.1: MMBF Trend Data for Three Bradley Models Mean miles between failures Bradlev model Initial Most current Time oeriod A0 225 580 1979through 1985 Al 474 841 1985through 1987 A2" 857 780 1987 A2' 650 580 1989 'BFVwllh500horsepowereng,"e "BFV with 600.horsepowerenqire DC&S representatives perform various inspections and functional tests at Physical Inspection the FMC plant throughout the production cycle. The inspectors identify and report missing hardware or components, workmanship defects, and any nonworking or inoperative systems. A final inspection is done at the time the government accepts the vehicles and again before the vehicles are shipped to the Army’s receiving units at Viiseck, West Germany, and Ft. IIood, Texas. Before the government accepts the vehicles and after FMC conducts a 40.mile road test, D('-\S representatives conduct a lo-mile road test for each HFv. Before the BF~S are turned over to Army field units, Army receiving teams at Vilseck and Ft. Hood subject each vehicle to a “de-processing” inspection. The purpose of this inspection is to ensure that, an accepted vehicle has not been adversely affected during shipment. The de- processing team follows a detailed checklist for visual inspection and functional testing. I )c-l jrocessing data and summaries are reported to thcl IIF~ project manager and to FMC. Figure 4.1 shows de-processing trend data by vehic,lo model since 1984. Page 24 GAO,‘NSIAD-SO-% Army Procurement of the Bradley Chapter 3 BFV Quality Assurance Issues Bradleys are accepted by the government with parts missing. However, the missing parts are to be identified on the shipping documents, and payments to the contractor are to be adjusted accordingly. However, in 1983, FMC employees removed good parts, without govern- ment authorization, from Bradleys that had been submitted to the gov- ernment for final inspection and acceptance. Ko additional instances have been identified by DPASsince FMC issued instructions to its person- nel that were intended to prevent such actions. Page 22 GAO/NSIAD-90-86 Army Procurement of the Bradley * Over the history of thr, program, mean miles between maintenance action have averaged 1,258 miles. - A value engineering change was issued for the bilge pump in 1986. The change resulted in a nc? cost reduction to the government of $588,933. A former FMC cmployc~e alleged that FMC had routinely removed good Allegation That FMC parts from IWVSthat had been accepted by the government and used the Removed Good Parts removed parts on tllci production line. From BFVs Submitted On the basis of doc,um<Wation provided by DCM, we found four to the Government for instances, in 1983. in which FMC employees had removed parts from Final Acceptance vehicles that had bc,cbnsubmitted to the government for final testing and acwpt ancc. In one case. the government, had inspected and accepted a Bradley on February 13, 1983. On February 24, 1983, government personnel noticed that the commander’s intercom box had been removed. The vehicle was turned back to the contractor to have the box replaced. When t,he vehicle was ret urned to the government for reinspection on February 26, 1983. government personnel noticed that the gunner’s intercom floor switch was inoperative, that the right rear squad com- partment intercom box had been disconnected, and that an extra inter- com box was lying on 1he floor. In another case, as a result of a DCAS vehicle inspection on March 24, 1983, FMC installed two fire sensors. On March 25, 1983, the inspectors notict~tl that the two sclnsors were missing. In the third case, on March 28, 1983, a government inspector observed an FMC employer removing the squad seat footrest on a vehicle that was being inspcctcd In the fourth case. a vehicle was returned to the government on April 14. 1983. for a reinspection of previous deficiencies found during the initial inspection on April 7, 1983. During reinspection, the inspector noticr~d that tht, left side ctxt.erior ammunition rack, the rear squad seat, and thr, front squad scsat footrest had been removed. As a result of these, four cases of unauthorized parts removal, FMC issued a policy stat emcnt to all production personnel saying that no parts \vcrc to b<l rcmovcd f’rom any vehicle that had been logged in for Page 20 GAO/NSIAD-SO-86 Army Procurement of the Bradley Chapter 3 RFV Quality Assurance Issues significant finding of the heater study was that the Bradley’s heater and heater system appear to function well when they are properly main- tained and serviced. Army officials agreed that the problems with the heater stemmed not from the design of the heater but from poor integra- tion of the heater into the Bradley vehicle. Army data for the personnel heater showed the following: - Five instances of heater problems were reported from 1983 through 1986. - The mean miles bet\vclen maintenance actions averaged 3.554 from 1983 through 1989. l Four engineering changes were issued from 1985 through 1989 at a net cost to the government of $.532,670. Vehicle Distribution Box In our December 1987 testimony before the Subcommittee on Procurement and Military Nuclear Systems, House Committee on Armed Services, we also discussed the operational testing of the Bradley’s vehi- cle distribution box. As a result of test failures, FMC changed the speci- fication and modified the hardware design. FYIC also began to subject all boxes to a 1Wpercent Environmental Stress Screening to idcnt ify defective boxes before they were installed on the vehicles. According to Army officials, the new screening includes ( 1) a visual inspection of the internal circuit boards to disclose improper or weak solder conncc? ions, discolorations, and other indicators of poor lvorkmanship: (~2) a tllcrmaljheat test that sub,jects the box to extremely high and cxtremcly low temperatures and humidity; and (3) a vibration test that sub,jccts t hc>boxes to the kinds of vibrations that it will undergo. According to Army officials at the project manager’s office, there have not bet,n as many problems wit,h t,he distribution boxes since the tests were impkmt~nted. Army data for th(, distribution boxes showed the following: - From 1983 through 1989. three boxes failed because of loose electrical cables: and two boxes \ver‘r damaged during shipment. - During post-production testing from 1983 through 1989, the mean miles between maintenanc,t> actions averaged 20,308. - Three engineering changtas were made from 1984 through 1987 at a net total cost to the go\.~~rnment of $86,999. Page 18 GAO/NSIAD-90-M Amy Procurement of the Rradlry Chapter 3 RFV Quality Assurance Issurs FMC received additional parts. Due to the lack of documentation, how- ever, we could not identify the specific items involved or the extent to which FMC had used nonconforming parts. As part of its contractural requirement, FMC instituted an automated system in 1985 to track the disposit,ion of nonconforming parts. At vari- ous locations on the production and inspection lines, FMC has identified “lay down points.” Whtbn a nonconforming part is identified. it is taken to one of these arcas. where information on the part, is entered int,o the automat4 system. I’criodically, members of the material review board’ inspect the parts at t htb lay down points and determine whether t,hr part should be ( 1) reworked. ( 2) used as is, or (3) discarded. These det,ermi- nations arc entered into the automat.cd system and sc’rvc) as checks on t hc disposition of parts. IKLW reviewed FMC’s tracking system in August 1989, as part of an overall quality systctm review, and found deficiencies in the controls OVCYand the follow-up of actions taken to reduce the incidence of non- conforming matt,rials’ being rrccivcd from subcontractors. In its review. IK‘:IS txamincd two parts critical to the WV’S operations and identified problems with FM(“s c,ontrol over nonconforming material. The, WAS (‘hief OPQuality ~~SSIIIXIIW reques&d that FMC review its nonconform- ing material tracking system to identify systemic problems. As of Dcctimber 1989. FMC 11adsubmitted t hcl results of its review to IKXS for rcvivw- and approval. Government rcprcsent at ivcks also inspect the vehicles at various stages in tht> production pro(~s. prior t,o final acceptance. and at field rccciv- ing locations. These inspections serve to identify any nonconforming parts that havr bcc>n missc,d during previous inspcc*tions. Wt, determined that the‘ parts identified by the former FMC employees as problems wc~rc. in I’ac,t, problems-particularly in the early stages of the IW program. (;t~mLrally. these problems have been resolved as a rcslllt ot’ (~ontractol :LII~ lItmy efforts, as disc,ussed below. Pagr 16 GAO/NSIADYO-86 Army Procurement of the Bradley (:haptrr 2 Spare Parts Prickg lasurs Since 1986, the number of unpriced orders issued by the services has declined significantly as a result of emphasis by the Depart,ment of Defense on (1) issuing priced contracts and (2) limiting the amount of obligated funds that (‘iln br expcndcd before the unpriced orders arc drfinitized. As a result of these actions? t,hc number and dollar value of unpriced orders have been reduced significantly. .~. ~~~~ The prices charged t trc govcrnmcnt for spare parts wcw not the prices Conclusions in the I~~~~~~. The govt,rnmcnt and FMC negotiated spare parts prices. ~)(xi and I)(‘,.LYevaluattd t hc prices proposed by FMC and challenged them when supporting tloc~ilmcnt,ation was inadequate. Regardless of the rclvit>w process that is in place, we are not offering an opinion on the reasonabkness of the spare parts prices charged the gov- crnment. Our prior rc~\~icw of FMC Bradley production contracts, which included some of t 111%samr‘ parts as those in spare parts c.ontracts, showed that FMC had overpriced the cant rack bccxusc it had not dis- clos~l actual subcon I.iici awards, lower prkr quotations. or lowc~ option prices. The occurrence of t bra over-obligation of funds by the Army and of its failure to definitizc Impriccd orders for long periods has been reduced as a result of actions t akcn by the Department of Defense to curb the numbc~r of unpric~c~clordc>rs, limit the amount of funds that can be c~xpcndcd. imd rctl~~c~~tlrcs time a1lowt.d for dc,finit izing these types of c~l~d(~rs. Page 14 GAO/NSIADOO-OR Amy Procurrmrnt of the BradIe) Chapter 2 SpareParts Pricing Issues because they did not have a price history on many of the BFV parts at the time the Logistics Support Analysis Review System was being pre- pared, the prices entered into the AMDF were often estimates. According to TACOM officials, after the government and FMC negotiate the parts prices, the negotiated prices are entered into the AMDF and replace the estimated prices. When the Army orders spare parts from the contractor, the contractor Spare Parts Prices responds with a price proposal. At this point, government representa- Based on Negotiations tives (from DCAS or ~(:\.4) evaluate the reasonableness of the proposed prices by tracing them to supporting documentation such as purchase orders, vendor quotes, or contractor estimates. Since l%O, the Army has procured about $107 million of BFV spare parts on 205 spare parts contracts. We selected 29 of the contracts, val- ued at $26 million, and reviewed the IKXS/~K~A audit report,s for 28 con- tracts, with a value of about $20 mil1ion.l In all cases, DC% or NXA had traced the large-doll~rr-valllc parts, which accounted for a vast majority of the material prices. to supporting documentation. We also reviewed the contracting officers’ price negotiation memoran- dums for 20 of the 28 contracts reviewed. Price negotiation memoran- dums were not available for the other eight contracts. The memorandums provide t,hr essence of the negotiations between the Army and FMC. In all cases, the memorandums indicated that the gov- ernment had not accepted the prices proposed by FMC but had based its negotiations on cost or pricing dat,a submitted by FMC and evaluated by DCAS Ol- DCAA. Although we did not perform a review of the reasonableness of the prices charged the government on the spare parts contracts, we have made such reviews of FMC Bradley production contracts. In March 1987, we reported that FMC had overstated, by $10.3 million, the pro- posed prices provided to the Army’s contracting officer for 8 of 24 sub- contracted items rflviowed as part, of the 1982 and 1984 production contracts.’ The ovc%rpricing occurred because FMC had not disclosed actual subcontract alyards, lower price quotations, or lower price Page 12 (;AO/NSIAD-90-W Army Procurrment of the Rradlry (‘haptrr 1 Introduction rus to determine wh~1 her the systrms could identify the types of prob- lems identified by the former FMC employees. We also selected five IN parts identified by t hc former employees as problem parts and devel- oped a chronology OFactions t akcn by t,ho contractor and the Army to correct the problems. As II part of this c+fort. we analyzed frequency of failure data dcvc~lop4 by FM(: and IK.\S at San .Jose, California, and the Bradley program ol’t’ic~c~am1 ‘l:‘r(‘(~ at Warren, Michigan, to determine the t’rctqnency of the ~)r~~bIc~l!~s. \Ve did not assess J%(“s ovrrall performance on the Bradley program 01 determine whcth(lr I hr~rc~overdoissucls, other than those alleged, that call FMC’s performancx~ into qllcstion. WV performed our r(~ic~\v from .lam~ary to October 1989 in accordame with generally ;ICU~~I(~1 govt,rnmcnt allditing standards. Page 10 Introduction The Army awarded FMC a full-scale development contract for the Bradley Fighting Vehicle (WV) in 1972, and FMC began producing the vehicle in 1980. The current production contract for fiscal year 1989 calls for FMC to produce 641 HFVS.Through the fiscal year 1989 pro- curement, the Army has bought a total of 5,524 HF~Sand plans to buy 8.524 by 1994. There are two models of the WV: the infantry fighting vehicle and the cavalry fighting vehicle. The infantry vehicle’s mission is to support tanks by suppressing enemy infantry and lightly armored vehicles, while the cavalry lehiclc’s mission is to serve as a reconnaissance scout vehicle for armored cavalry units. Each vehicle has a 25millimeter automatic cannon and a KW-2 missile system. On October 20 and December 1, 1988, a major news network aired pro- grams in which former FiLK employees alleged that FMC had partici- pated in fraudulent pra(‘t ices concerning (1) the prices charged to the go\,ernment for I3radlcy spare parts and (2) the use of defective parts in the production of HE‘L’S.In response to these programs. Representative f1arbara Uoscr reqiic~stc~dthat we meet with the former FMC employees to determine the validity of their allegations. Before meeting with them, we received a letter from one of their attorneys, outlining allegations that FMC had cngagc~l in fraudulent practices during the design, manu- facture. and deliver\ of thtl WV. More specifically, the allegations were as follo\vs: 1. PMC’ defrauded the government by arbitrarily inflating spare parts prices. FMC entered fraudulent parts prices into the Army Master Data File (A~ILW). and thescl llrices becxmc the pric,es the government paid when ordering the I)arts. 2. I’MC used defecti\ v parts on the production line. 3. FMC knowingly d(%\-cred WC’Swith rejected, defective, and nonfunc- tioning parts in order to justify engineering change proposals and increase the spalc parts biisiness. 4. FMC removed good parts from IW~Sthat had been accepted or pur- chased by the govcrnm~nt and replaced them with defective parts. 5. FMC’s inventory controls on IWV parts were inadequate and, at times, nonexistent. Pagr R GAO/ NSIAD-90-86 Army Prwurrment of the Bradley Contents Executive Summary 2 Chapter 1 8 Introduction Objective, Scope, and Methodology 9 -. - Chapter 2 11 Spare Parts Pricing Allegation That FMC Inflated Spare Parts Prices Spare Parts Prices Based on Negotiations 11 12 Issues Over-Obligation of Funds for Unpriced Orders 13 Conclusions 14 Chapter 3 16 BFV Quality Allegation That FMC I!sed Nonconforming and Problem Parts in BFV Production 16 Assurance Issues Allegation That FMC Removed Good Parts From BFVs 20 Submitted to the Government for Final Acceptance Allegation That FMC Delivered RFVs to the Army With 21 Parts Missing Conclusions 21 Chapter 4 23 Internal Control Initial and Comparison Production Tests 23 24 Physical Inspection Processes to Monitor Deficiency Reporting Program 2,5 Quality Sample Data Collection Program 26 Quarterly Review Meetings 26 Quality System Revielvs 26 Conclusions 27 Appendix Appendix I: Major Contributors to This Report 28 - -___ Tables Table 4.1: MMBF Trend Data for Three Bradley Models 24 Table 4.2: Deficiency Reports Issued by TACOM to FMC 26 Table 4.3: Method C Violations Issued to FMC 27 .~- Figure Figure 4.1: Historical HFV De-Processing Trend Data 25 Comparing Vehicle Configurations Page 6 GAO/NSIAB90-86 Army Procurement of the Bradley made such reviews of FMC Bradley production contracts. For example, in a March 1987 report, GAO determined that FMC had overstated, by $10.3 million, the proposed prices provided to the Army’s contracting officer for 8 of 24 subcontracted items reviewed as part of the 1982 and 1984 production contracts. The production contracts included some of the same parts as those in the spare parts contracts and, like the spare parts contract,s, had been evaluated by the Defense Contract Administration Services or the Defense Contract Audit Agency, Use of Nonconformj .ng and To avoid production line stoppages, contractors sometimes install non- Problem Parts in conforming parts on vehicles as they proceed through production. In such instances, the c,ontractor is required to keep track of the noncon- Production forming parts and replace them when good parts become available. FMC officials said ihal in the early stages of the Bradley program, they might have used some nonconforming part,s on the production line b~ause of parts short ages. Due to the lack of available documentation, howc~vcrz GAOwas not able to determine t,he extent to which FMC had used nonconforming material in the production process. In 1985. FMC implcmc>ntcd an automated system to track the disposition of nonconforming material. IIowever, after reviewing the system in Allgust 1989. the Dcf(lnsc, Contract Administration Services concluded that it did not providct adequate controls or follow-up to reduce the inci- dcn~ of nonconforming materials’ being received from subcontractors. At the request of the Defense Contract Administration Services, FMC initiated a review of the system to identify and resolve the systemic problems. The rc,srllt s of the review are being studied by the Defense Contract Administ rat ion Services. GAOvc,rificd that t h<i problem parts identified by the former FMC employees as cxpc~rlc~ncing high failure rates were, in fact, problem parts. Ilowtvc>r, G xo I’olmd no evidence that FMC had knowingly used probltm parts in t hc production process. ~ -..-___ Unauthorized Removal of Ihadleys may b(x ac,c.c,ptcdby the government with missing parts. Such Parts From Bradleys xctqkmcc is permissible as long as the missing parts are identified and payment is adjus(c>tl accordingly. However, in 1983, government inspec- tors found that in I’OIN instances FMC employees had removed parts, without govt~rnmt~nt authorization, from vehicles that had been submit- ted to t hc govt~~runc~n~for final inspection and acceptance. As a result of Page 4 GAO/NSIAD90-86 Army Procurement of the Bradley Executive Summary Former employees of FMC Corporation, the builder of the Bradley Purpose Fighting Vehicle, have alleged that FMC inflated the prices of spare parts and knowingly designed and produced a faulty vehicle. After these allegations were aired by a major news network in October and December 1988, Representative Barbara Boxer requested GAO to deter- mine whether (1) FMC had inflat,ed spare parts prices that were entered into the Army Master Data File, which lists the individual parts that make up the Bradley; (2) the Army had paid the spare parts prices in the Army Master Data File; and (3) FMC had knowingly delivered Bradleys to the Army with defective parts. Representative Boxer also asked GAOto determine whet her there were government and contractor internal controls t,o identify problems with t,he quality of the vehicles. - In 1Q7& the Army awarded a frill-scale development contract to FMC for Background t,he lsradlcy Fighting \Tchiclc. FMC began to produce the vehicle in 1980. and through fiscal year 1RRQ.the Army has procured 6.624 Hradleys. By 1934, the Army, l~l;ms to buy 8524 vehicles. There are two models of the Hradley: the infantry fighting vehicle and the cavalry fighting \zchicle. The infantry vehicle’s mission is to support tanks by suppressing enemy infamry and lightly armored vehicles, and the cavalry vehicle‘s mission is to serve as a reconnaissance scout vehi- cle for armored (‘a\ airy ritrits. The spare parts prices dcvelopcd by FMC and entered into the Army’s Results in Brief Master Data File vvet‘(’ often estimates that, had little relationship to the actual cost of t,hr sl)ai’(’ parts. However, the Army did not use the prices in the Master Data Fik, as a basis for negotiating the spare parts prices with FMC. Rather, t Ire ;Zrmy negotiated the prices wit,h FMC based on I~iVC’s cost or pricing (Iota. ‘I’hc proposed prices were evaluated by the I~cfense Contract Admini\trat ion Services or the Defense Contrac*t Atidit -4gcncy. (XO did not perform 1,ricinp reviews of t,he spare parts contracts. 1101~. ever. KW has performed such reviews on Hradley production contracts and has identified sigiiificant overpricing. t\s with the spare parts con- tracts. the DefcnscS C’ontracl Administration Services or the Defense Contract Atidit A#w,y had evaluated the proposed prices in the produc- tion contracts, w1nc.h Inc~liitled some of the same parts as those incliidrd in the spare parts (YII~IIX~IS, Page 2 GAO, NSIAD-SO-86 Army Pnwuremrnt of the Bradley
Army Procurement: FMC's Quality Controls and Pricing Practices on the Bradley Fighting Vehicle
Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1990-03-07.
Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)