oversight

Women in the Military: Attrition and Retention

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1990-07-26.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

-                                          __-                    ___---
.July 1990
                           WOMEN IN THE
                           MILITARY
                           Attrition and
                           Retention




                          REsTBIcrED--      Not to be released outside the
                          General Accounting OfYlce unless speclfkally
                          approved by the Offlce of Congressional
                          Relationa

                                      5*050
    GAO,, NSIAD-90-87BR
    United States
    General Accounting Offke
    Washington, D.C. 20548

    National Security and
    International Affairs Division

    B-230552
    July 26, 1990
    The Honorable Beverly B. Byron
    Chairman, Subcommitteeon Military
      Personnel and Compensation
    Committee on Armed Services
    House of Representatives
    Dear Madam Chairman:
    This report respondsto your request that we examine the comparability
    of attrition and retention rates for men and women in the four military
    services.Becauseof your Subcommittee’sinterest in issuesconcerning
    women in the military, you asked us to
. compare attrition rates for men and women in officer and enlisted
  grades,
l identify the primary separation categories for enlisted men and women
  during their first enlistment term, and
l compare retention rates for men and women in officer and enlisted
  grades.
    In this report, we use “attrition” to refer to the voluntary and involun-
    tary loss of military personnel prior to completion of the first term of
    enlistment or obligated duty. “Retention” refers to the voluntary contin-
    uation in military service after completing the initial obligation.
    Our review covered fiscal years 1980 through 1988 and included active
    duty personnel only. For enlisted attrition, we focused on the major
    enlistment terms in each service: the 3- and 4-year terms in the Army,
    and the Pyear term in the Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps.
    Since the inception of the All Volunteer Force in 1973, the number of
    women in the military has increased from 2.5 percent of total forces in
    1973 to 10.4 percent in 1988. Table 1 shows this growth by service.




    Page 1                                GAO/NSIADW7BB    Attrition   and Retention
Tablo 1: Number and Portent of Women
in the Sewices (Fiscal Years 1973 and
1988)                                                                  Fiscal year 1973                  Fiscal year 1999
                                                                      Number Peoyy:;:t                  Number Pey;tt
                                        Service                     of women                          of women ----
                                        Air Force                       19,750          29               73.800             129
                                        Navy                            12.628          2.3              54696               94
                                        Marine Corns                     22883
                                                                         -,---          12                9612               49
                                        Army                             20.736         2.6       -      83.261             109
                                        TOtrl                          I                2.5             221,649            10.4
                                                                       55.402


                                        As more women entered the military, officials expresseda concern
                                        about higher separation rates for women than men.

                                        Several govenunent and nongovernment studies have addressedattri-
                                        tion and retention issues,and somehave focused on women. These
                                        studies generally examined one aspect of attrition or retention, and fre-
                                        quently focused on one service. The studies also generally worked with
                                        data from the 1970s and early 1980s.

                                        For example, a 1984 study sponsoredby the U.S. Army examined the
                                        impact of occupational specialties and gender on first-tour enlisted attri-
                                        tion in the Army. The study sample group entered the Army in fiscal
                                        year 1976. A recent cross-servicestudy by the RAND Corporation issued
                                        in August 1988 examined attrition among high quality enlisted
                                        personnel.


Resultsin Brief

Enlisted Attrition                      Women generally leave the service at higher rates than men. The overall
                                        attrition loss for enlisted women was 48.6 percent, or 4.5 percentage
                                        points higher than the 44.1 percent rate for men. However, the basic
                                        pattern of attrition lossesfor both men and women was similar. That is,
                                        most first term lossesfor both men and women occurred in the first 3
                                        months when recruits generally have basic training, and in the last 3 to
                                        6 months when people may leave the service early for reasonssuch as
                                        school attendance.
                                        In the intervening periods of the enlistment term, measured in 3-month
                                        intervals, both men and women left the servicesat relatively steady
                                        rates, ranging primarily from 1 to 4 percent of the total group that


                                        Pqp2                                      GAO/NSIADWWBB   Attrition      and Retention
--
                      B220552




                      entered the service in a given fiscal year. Women’srates tended to be
                      slightly higher than men’s


Enlisted Separation   Before completing their enlistment contract, enlistees may leave the ser-
                      vice at their own request or they can be involuntarily separated from
Categories            the service. Attrition lossesduring the first 6 months, for both men and
                      women, were primarily for [inadequate] entry level performance. During
                      the last 6 months, separations for both men and women were primarily
                      for successfulcompletion of the enlistment term, although many separa-
                      tions were early releases.
                      For each 6-month period in between, men were primarily separated
                      involuntarily for misconduct, unsatisfactory performance, and/or drugs
                      or alcohol abuse,while women left primarily at their own request
                      becauseof pregnancy. When we removed women’s voluntary separa-
                      tions for pregnancy from the data, men’s attrition was generally higher
                      than women’s, although the differences were slight.


Officer Attrition     To review officer attrition, we looked at separations occurring during
                      the first 3 years of service. Officer lossesfor each service in that period
                      seldom exceeded12 percent for men or women. For the four services
                      together, women officer loss rates were less than 2 percentagepoints
                      higher than men’s. For each service separately, the differences in rates
                      were greater. Except in the Navy, women’s loss rates generally exceeded
                      men’s.


Enlhted Retention     Although enlisted retention is voluntary, the services determine
                      whether a person will be allowed to reenlist basedon such factors as
                      professional growth and physical fitness. Except for the Army, men
                      tended to have higher eligibility rates than women after the first term,
                      while women had higher eligibility rates after the third enlistment.
                      Retention of eligible women after the secondterm, and after third or
                      subsequentterms (career), was generally lower than for men. The
                      greatest differences in eligibility and retention rates occurred after the
                      third enlistment.


Officer Retention     After completing their initial obligation, officers may remain in the ser-
                      vice until they resign or fail to get promoted after being considereda
                      secondtime. The greatest differences in retention rates for men and


                      P8ge 3                                 GAO/NSlADMJHBB    &t&ion   and Retention
                  5220552




                  women officers appeared after 3,4, and 20 years of service. For the
                  services combined, men’s retention rates after 3 years ranged from 7.9
                  to 9.9 percentagepoints higher than women’s. After 4 years they were
                  from 3.9 to 4.4 percentagepoints higher. After 20 years of service, how-
                  ever, women’s retention was higher by 3 to 9 percentagepoints.

                  The attrition and retention rate differences between men and women
Observationson    can be characterized in ways that could potentially exaggeratetheir sig-
Attrition and     nificance, For example, in fiscal year 1986,5.4 percent of the 46,784
Retention Rates   men and 8.0 percent of the 10,994 women who enlisted in the Air Force
                  left the military in the first 2 months of service. While the actual differ-
                  encein attrition rates was 2.6 percentagepoints, representing about 884
                  women, women’s attrition could be characterized as being 48 percent
                  higher than men’s.

                  Presenting the rate differences in this way, however, tends to be mis-
                  leading becauseit doesnot provide sufficient information for assessing
                  the importance of the rate difference. To effectively assessrate differ-
                  ences,it is important to know the actual percentagepoint spread, the
                  number of people affected, and the issue concerned.

                  Appendixes I and II present a detailed discussion of the results of our
                  review of attrition and retention rates. Appendixes III and IV contain
                  the full set of attrition and retention rates and tables for each service,
                  including data on the number of people involved in the statistical com-
                  putations, except for officer retention data becauseof their complexity
                  and volume. This data will enable analysis of the significance of attri-
                  tion and retention of men and women in the context of specific issues.
                  The Department of Defensereviewed a draft of this report and fully
                  concurred with it.
                  As arranged with your office, unless you publicly announceits contents
                  earlier, we plan no further distribution of this report until 7 days from
                  its issue date. At that time, we wlll send copies to the Chairmen, Senate
                  Committee on Armed Services,House and SenateCommittees on Appro-
                  priations, HouseCommittee on Government Operations, and Senate
                  Committee on Governmental Affairs; the Director, Office of Manage
                  ment and Budget; and the Secretariesof Defense,the Air Force, Army,
                  and Navy; and other interested parties. We will also make copies avail-
                  able to others upon request.


                  Pye   4                                GAO-              Attrition   and Retention
If you or your staff have any questions, pleasecall me on (202) 275
3990. Major contributors are listed in appendix VI.

Sincerely yours,




Paul L. Jones
Director, DefenseForce ManagementIssues




Page.6                                GAO-            AwLtkr   uul Retention
Contents


Letter                  1

Appendix1              14
Comparisonof
AttritionRatesofMen
andwomeninthe
Military
Appendix II            41
Comparisonof
RetentionRatesof
MenandWomenin
the Military
Appendix III           63
Attrition Data
AppendixIV             86
Retention Data
AppendixV              142
Objectives,Scope,and
Methodology
AppendixVI             144
CommentsFromthe
Department of
Defense
AppendixVII            145
MajorContributorsto
ThisReport
      -’

               Contents




      Tables   Table 1: Kumber and Percent of Women in the Services                           2
                   (Fiscal Years 1973 and 1988)
               Table 1.1:PercentagePoint Differences in Attrition Rates                     21
                   of Enlisted Men and Women (Fiscal Year 1984
                   Enlistees--$-Year Enlistment)
               Table 1.2:Differences in Men’s and Women’sAttrition                          22
                   During First 3 Months of Service
               Table 1.3:Differences in Term Attrition Ratesof Enlisted                     34
                   Men and Women (Fiscal Year Enlistees)
               Table 1.4:Differences in Attrition Ratesof Enlisted Men                      35
                   and Women for Enlistment Term Minus the Last 6
                   Months (Fiscal Year Enlistees)
               Table 1.5:Primary Categoriesof Separation During First 6                     36
                   Months of Service for All Services(Enlistees for
                   Fiscal Year 1984)
               Table 1.6:Misconduct as a Percentageof Total Men’s                            37
                   Separations During 6-Month Intervals of Enlistment
                   Term (Fiscal Year 1984 EnIistees4-Year
                   Enlistment)
               Table 1.7:Unsatisfactory Performance and Drugs or                             38
                   Alcoholism as a Percentageof Total Men’s
                   Separations in the Army During 6-Month Intervals of
                   the Enlistment Term
               Table 1.8:Pregnancy as a Percentageof Total Women’s                           38
                   Separations During &Month Intervals of Enlistment
                   Term (Fiscal Year 1984 Enlistees)
               Table 1.9:Differences in Men’s and Women’sAttrition                           39
                   Rates Without Pregnancy Separations for Women
                   (Fiscal Year 1984 EnIistees4-Year Enlistment)
               Table 1.10:Officer Separations for First 3 Years of Service                   40
                    (Fiscal Years 1981 Through 1985).
               Table III. 1: Number of Men and Women Enlisting in the                        64
                    Services(Fiscal Years 1980 Through 1985-4-Year
                    Enlistment)
               Table 111.2:Attrition Rates for the ServicesCombined at                       65
                    3-Month Intervals for Q-YearEnlistment Term (Fiscal
                    Years 1980 Through 1984)
               Table 111.3:Air Force Attrition Rates at 3-Month Intervals                    67
                    for 4-Year Enlistment Term (Fiscal Years 1980
                    Through 1984)




                Page 7                               GAO/NSUDMWRR     Attrition   and Retention




--.
Contents




Table 111.4:Navy Attrition Ratesat 3-Month Intervals for                     69
    $-Year Enlistment Term (Fiscal Years 1980 Through
    1984)
Table 111.5:Marine Corps Attrition Rates at S-Month                          71
    Intervals for 4-Year Enlistment Term (Fiscal Years
    1980 Through 1984)
Table 111.6:Army Attrition Ratesat 3-Month Intervals for                     73
    4-Year Enlistment Term (Fiscal Years 1980 Through
    1984)
Table 111.7:Army Attrition Rates at 3-Month Intervals for                    7.7
    3-Year Enlistment Term (Fiscal Years 1980 Through
    1985)
Table 111.8:Enlisted Attrition Rates for Enlistment Term                     77
    (Fiscal Years 1980 Through 1985)
Table 111.9:Enlisted Attrition Rates for Enlistment Term                     78
    Minus the Last 6 Months (Fiscal Years 1980 Through
    1986)
Table III. 10: Misconduct as a Percentageof Total Men’s                      79
    Separations During 6-Month Intervals (Fiscal Years
    1982 Through 1984-4-Year Enlistment)
Table III. 11: Unsatisfactory Performance, and Drugs and                     80
    Alcoholism as a Percentageof Total Enlisted Men’s
    Separations From the Army During 6-Month
    Intervals (Fiscal Years 1982 Through 1985)
Table 111.12:Pregnancy as a Percentageof Total Enlisted                      81
    Women’sSeparations During 6-Month Intervals
    (Fiscal Years 1982 Through 1984)
Table 111.13:Differences in Enlisted Attrition Rates for                     82
    Men and Women During 6-Month IntervaIs,
    Excluding Women’sSeparations for Pregnancy
    (Fiscal Years 1982 Through 1984-4-Year
    Enlistment)
Table 111.14:Number of Officers Entering the Services                        83
    (Fiscal Years 1981 Through 1985)
Table 111.15:Categorization of DefenseManpower Data                          84
    Center Interservice Separation Codes
Table IV. 1: Enlisted Retention for the ServicesCombined                     87
    (Fiscal Years 1984 Through 1988)
Table IV.2: Air Force Enlisted Retention (Fiscal Years                       89
     1984 Through 1988)
Table IV.3: Navy Enlisted Retention (Fiscal Years 1984                       91
    Through 1988)



Page 8                               GAO/NSLUMlWBB    Attrition   and Retention
          Contents




          Table IV.4: Marine Corps Enlisted Retention (Fiscal Years                      93
              1984 Through 1988)
          Table IV.5: Army Enlisted Retention (Fiscal Years 1984                         95
              Through 1988)
          Table IV.6: Officer Retention Rates for the Services                         134
              Combined (Fiscal Years 1984 Through 1988)
          Table IV.7: Air Force Officer Retention Rates(Fiscal                         136
              Years 1984 Through 1988)
          Table IV.8: Navy Officer Retention Rates(Fiscal Years                        138
              1984 Through 1988)
          Table IV.9: Army Officer Retention Rates(Fiscal Years                        140
              1984 Through 1988)

Figures   Figure I. 1: Enlisted Attrition for the ServicesCombined at                    15
              3-Month Intervals (Fiscal Year 1984 Enlistees-
              Q-YearEnlistment)
          Figure 1.2:Air Force Enlisted Attrition at 3-Month                             16
              Intervals (Fiscal Year 1984 Enlistees-4-Year
              Enlistment)
          Figure 1.3:Navy Enlisted Attrition at 3-Month Intervals                        17
              (Fiscal Year 1984 Enlistees-4-Year Enlistment)
          Figure 1.4:Marine Corps Enlisted Attrition at 3-Month                          18
              Intervals (Fiscal Year 1984 Enlistees-4-Year
              Enlistment)
          Figure 1.5:Army Enlisted Attrition at 3-Month Intervals                        19
              (Fiscal Year 1984 Enlistees-4-Year Enlistment)
          Figure 1.6:Army Enlisted Attrition at 3-Month Intervals                        20
              (Fiscal Year 1984 Enlistees-3-Year Enlistment)
          Figure 1.7:Army Enlisted Attrition at 3-Month Intervals                        21
              (Fiscal Year 1985 Enlistees-3-Year Enlistment)
          Figure 1.8:Enlisted Attrition for the ServicesCombined                         23
              (Enlistees for Fiscal Years 1980 Through 1984-
              4-Year Enlistment)
          Figure 1.9:Air Force Enlisted Attrition (Enlistees for                         24
              Fiscal Years 1980 Through 1984-4-Year Enlistment)
          Figure I. 10: Navy Enlisted Attrition (Enlistees for Fiscal                    25
              Years 1980 Through 19844-Year Enlistment)
          Figure I. 11: Marine Corps Enlisted Attrition (EnIistees for                   26
              Fiscal Years 1980 Through 1984~4-Year Enlistment)
          Figure 1.12:Army Enlisted Attrition (Enlistees for Fiscal                      27
              Years 1980 Through 1984-4-Year Enlistment)



          Page 9                                 GAO/NSIADWWBR    Attrition   and Retention
                                                                              -
Contents




Figure I. 13: Army Enlisted Attrition (Enlistees for Fiscal                   28
    Years 1980 Through 1985-3-Year Enlistment)
Figure I. 14: Enlisted Attrition for the ServicesCombined                     29
    for 4-Year Terms Minus the Last 6 Months (Enlistees
    for Fiscal Years 1980 Through 1984)
Figure 1.15:Air Force Enlisted Attrition for the 4-Year                       30
    Term Minus the Last 6 Months (Enlistees for Fiscal
    Years 1980 Through 1984)
Figure I. 16: Navy Enlisted Attrition for the 4-Year Term                     31
    Minus the Last 6 Months (Enlistees for Fiscal Years
    1980 Through 1984)
Figure I. 17: Marine Corps Enlisted Attrition for the 4                       32
    Year Term Minus the Last 6 Months (Enlistees for
    Fiscal Years 1980 Through 1984)
Figure I. 18: Army Enlisted Attrition for the 4-Year Term                     33
    Minus the Last 6 Months (Enlistees for Fiscal Years
    1980 Through 1984)
Figure I. 19: Army EnIisted Attrition for the 3-Year Term                     34
    Minus the Last 6 Months (Enlistees for Fiscal Years
    1980 Through 1985)
Figure II. 1: Eligibility for Reenlistment for the Services                   44
    Combined - First Term
Figure 11.2:Reenlistment of Eligible Personsfor the                           45
    ServicesCombined - First Term
Figure 11.3:Reenlistments as a Percentageof Total                             46
    Separations for the ServicesCombined - First Term
Figure 11.4:Eligibility for Reenlistment for the Services                     47
    Combined - SecondTerm
Figure 11.5:Reenlistment of Eligible Personsfor the                           48
    ServicesCombined - SecondTerm
Figure 11.6:Reenlistments as a Percentageof Total                             49
    Separations for the ServicesCombined - SecondTerm
Figure 11.7:Eligibility for Reenlistment for the Services                     50
    Combined - Career
Figure 11.8:Reenlistment of Eligible Personsfor the                           51
    ServicesCombined - Career
Figure 11.9:Reenlistments as a Percentageof Total                             52
    Separations for the ServicesCombined - Career
Figure 11.10:Officer Retention for the ServicesCombined                       54
    (at the Epd of 3 Years of Service)
Figure II. 11: Officer Retention for the ServicesCombined                     55
    (at the End of 20 Years of Service)



P8ge 10                               GAO/NSIAMOWBR    Attrition   and Retention
Figure 11.12:Air Force Officer Retention (at the End of 3                       56
    Years of Service)
Figure 11.13:Air Force Officer Retention (at the End of 4                       57
    Years of Service)
Figure II. 14: Air Force Officer Retention (at the End of 20                    58
    Years of Service)
Figure 11.15:Navy Officer Retention (at the End of 3                            59
    Years of Service)
Figure 11.16:Navy Officer Retention (at the End of 20                           60
    Years of Service)
Figure II. 17: Army Officer Retention (at the End of 3                          61
    Years of Service)
Figure 11.18:Army Officer Retention (at the End of 20                           62
    Years of Service)
Figure IV-l: Air Force Eligibility for Reenlistment - First                     98
    Term
Figure IV.2: Air Force Reenlistment of Eligible Persons-                        99
    First Term
Figure IV.3: Air Force Reenlistments as a Percentageof                         100
    Total Separations - First Term
Figure IV.4: Air Force Eligibility for Reenlistment -                          101
    SecondTerm
Figure IV.5: Air Force Reenlistment of Eligible Persons-                       102
    SecondTerm
Figure IV.6: Air Force Reenlistments as a Percentageof                         103
    Total Separations - SecondTerm
Figure IV.7: Air Force Eligibility for Reenlistment - Career                   104
Figure IV.8: Air Force Reenlistment of Eligible Persons-                       105
    Career
Figure IV.9: Air Force Reenlistments as a Percentageof                         106
    Total Separations - Career
Figure IV. 10: Navy Eligibility for Reenlistment -First                        107
    Term
Figure IV. 11: Navy Reenlistment of Eligible Persons-                          108
    First Term
Figure IV. 12: Navy Reenlistments as a Percentageof Total                      109
    Separations - First Term
Figure IV.13: Navy Eligibility for Reenlistment - Second                       110
    Term
Figure IV. 14: Navy Reenlistment of Eligible Persons-                          111
    SecondTerm
Figure IV.15: Navy Reenlistments as a Percentageof Total                       112
    Separations - SecondTerm


Page 11                                GAO/NSuDSO.87RP   Attrition   and Retention
Chntentr




Figure IV. 16: Navy Eligibility for Reenlistment - Career                  113
Figure IV. 17: Navy Reenlistment of Eligible Persons-                      114
    Career
Figure IV. 18: Navy Reenlistments as a Percentageof Total                  115
    Separations - Career
Figure IV. 19: Marine Corps Eligibility for Reenlistment -                 116
    First Term
Figure IV.20: Marine Corps Reenlistment of Eligible                        117
    Persons- First Term
Figure IV.21 : Marine Corps Reenlistments as a Percentage                  118
    of Total Separations - First Term
Figure IV.22: Marine Corps Eligibility for Reenlistment -                  119
    SecondTerm
Figure IV.23: Marine Corps Reenlistment of Eligible                        120
    Persons- SecondTerm
Figure IV.24: Marine Corps Reenlistments as a Percentage                   121
    of Total Separations - SecondTerm
Figure IV.25 Marine Corps Eligibility for Reenlistment -                    122
    Career
Figure IV.26: Marine Corps Reenlistment of Eligible                         123
    Persons- Career
Figure IV.27: Marine Corps Reenlistments as a Percentage                    124
    of Total Separations - Career
Figure IV.28: Army Eligibility for Reenlistment - First                     125
    Term
Figure IV.29: Army Reenlistment of Eligible Persons-                        126
    First Term
Figure IV.30: Army Reenlistments as a Percentageof                          127
    Total Separations - First Term
Figure IV.31: Army Eligibility for Reenlistment - Second                    128
    Term
Figure IV.32: Army Reenlistment of Eligible Persons-                        129
    SecondTerm
Figure IV.33: Army Reenhtments as a Percentageof                            130
    Total Separations - SecondTerm
Figure IV.34: Army Eligibility for Reenlistment - Career                    131
Figure IV.36: Army Reenlistment of Eligible Persons-                        132
    Career
Figure IV.36: Army ReenIistmentsas a Percentageof                           133
    Total Separations - Career




P8ge 12                              GAO/-R           Attrition   and Retention
Page 13   GAO/NSLUWOWRR   Attrition   and Retention
Comparisonof Attrition Ratesof Men and
Womenin the Militaq

                             Women generally left the service at higher rates than men. Enlisted
                             women’s total attrition exceededmen’s, but the pattern of separation
                             from the service during the enlistment term was similar for men and
                             women. The primary difference in enlisted attrition throughout the
                             enlistment term appears during the first 3 months of service, when most
                             separations for basic training occur.
                             After the first 6 months of service, men were separated primarily invol-
                             untarily for misconduct, unsatisfactory performance, and drugs or
                             alcohol abuse,while women left primarily for pregnancy at their own
                             request. Voluntary separations for pregnancy were a major contributor
                             to higher female attrition between the first and last 6 months of service.
                             Women officers generally separated at higher rates than men.

                             We reviewed attrition rates for enlisted men and women (1) at regularly
Enlisted Attrition           spacedintervals of 3 months during the entire enlistment term to
                             observe attrition patterns through an entire enlistment period and (2)
                             for total enlistment terms and terms minus the last 6 months to deter-
                             mine overall attrition. We reviewed this data for enlistees entering the
                             service during fiscal years 1980 through 1984 for 4-year enlistments
                             and through 1985 for the Army’s 3-year enlistments.


Attrition Patterns Similar   Attrition patterns for men and women were similar throughout the
                             duration of their first enlistment. Most attrition for both men and
                             women occurred (1) in the first 3 months of service, when basic training
                             occurs, and (2) in the last 3 to 6 months of service, during which enlis-
                             tees may leave the service early and still successfully complete their
                             enlistment.
                             From the fourth month of service until 42 months of service, there was a
                             steady loss of both men and women at similar rates ranging generally
                             from 1 to 3 percent of the entering group each 3-month period. For
                             Army 3-year enlistments, that steady loss rate was slightly higher, gen-
                             erally ranging from 1.3 to 4 percent. This pattern was consistent for all
                             fiscal years reviewed.
                             The primary difference in attrition rates for men and women during the
                             enlistment term appears in the first 3 months of service. Differences in
                             the last 3 to 6 months of an enlistment appear attributable to separa-
                             tions for successfulcompletion of enlistment rather than to attrition.



                             P8ge 14                               GAO/NSlAD4047RR   Attrition   and Retention
                                                    Con~puhn   of Attrition   States of Men and
                                                    Women tn the Mllhry




                                                    Figures I. 1 through I.7 show the 3-month pattern of men’s and women’s
                                                    attrition for enlistees entering the military in fiscal year 1984, and fiscal
                                                    year 1985 for the Army’s 3 year enlistment. Table I.1 presents the per-
                                                    centagepoint differences in men’s and women’s attrition during the 3-
                                                    month intervals. Tables on attrition rates for each service for fiscal
                                                    years 1980 through 1984 (through 1985 for the Army 3-year enlistment
                                                    only) appear in appendix III in tables III.2 through 111.7.Table I.2 shows
                                                    how the percentagedifferences in attrition for men and women during
                                                    the first 3 months of an enlistment varied by service.


Fig-   1.1: fnliatod   Attrition   for the Wrvkoa   Cwobhod      8t 3-Month   Intwwla   (Fiscal   Year 1984 Enlistaas-4-Year   Enlistment)




                                                     P8ge 15                                              GAO/NSlAD@O47BR      Attrition     and Retention
                                                              Appendix I
                                                              ComparIaon of Attrltion   Rates of Men and
                                                              Women in the MUItuy




Figure 1.2: Air Force Enlirtod          AttrMn        at Mhnth      Intofv~ls (Fiscal Year 1984 Enlistees-4-Year      Enlistment)

22kant

20

18

16

14

12




                                                                                                                                                                     9l .rm9,




0                                ,..,      ,r ,I .I,,, ~,*...m,.-                                                     -_.,- . . .-, ,.,_.--, ,,.. ,,

     2      6         9          12              16           12       ?I        31        27        20        26         20             26               u          46         40




                                                              Pa@ 16                                                GAO/NSlADM47Rl?                    Attrition   and Retention
                                                    Compubon of Attrklon      Rates of Men and
                                                    Women in the Military




Figun 1.3: Nwy   hnliatod Attrition   at 3--Month   Intwvrls   (Fiscal Year 1984 Enlistees-4-Year   Enlistment)

22Pwow

20

12

16

14

12




                                                    P8ge 17                                            GAO/NSlAD@OWBR   Attrition   and Retention
                                                                                                                                                                                      .-
                                                                    Appendix I
                                                                    Comparison of Attrition        Rates of Men and
                                                                    Women in the Military




Figure 1.4:Marino Corpr EnliMed Attrition at 3-MonthIntwvrlr                                 (fiscal   Year 1984 Enlistees--4.Year            Enlistment)

22pmwrt

20

18

16 ;
         8
14       ;
             8




                         ._.,   -_        -,,....   ,.   ,,-                                                                          -,_-..-,,               I,.--,-




     2           6   S               12                        1s   18        ?I        II             il        so        as        n                 so               42     4s          40




                                                                    Page 18                                                     GAO/NSIAD-B047Rl?           Attrition        and Retention
                                             CompuI8on   of Attrition   I&as   of Men and
                                             Womenin theMilitary




Figun I.5 Army Enliatod Attrition at ~-MOM   Int@wala (Fiscal Year 1984 Enlistees--GYear    Enlistment)

ahrant

20

10

16

14
     l
12 x
         l
             8
10           l,
a                 l.l
I

4

2

0




                                             Page 19                                         GAO/-R       Attrition   and Retention
                                          Appendix I
                                          Compuiwn   of Attrition   Ratea of Men and
                                          Women in the Ml.Utur




Figun 1.6:Army Enlisted Attrition at 3-
Month Intonmlr (Fiscal Year 1984
Enlistees--3sYear   Enlistment)           22mald
                                                                                                                                  .
                                          20

                                          18

                                          10

                                          14

                                          12 ;
                                                 8
                                                  8
                                          10       l,
                                           0

                                           0

                                           4

                                           2

                                           0




                                           PIge 20                                     GAO/NSIAD-B047BR   Attrition   and Retention
                                             Appendix I
                                             CompuLon    of Attrition     Ratea of Men and
                                             Women in the MiLttvy




Flqum 1.t: Army Enlistad Attrition at 3-
Momth Intwvda (Fiscal Year 1985
Enlistees-3-Year   Enlistment)               22pracl(

                                             20




                                             14

                                             12

                                             10




                                                 0 -_.--                                 -          -.-, -.,          ,,,.-,       .-*-.         . ,.-._ ,.,.,.


                                                  2          6        s    12      18           u        2l                    s           27            20             a      26


                                                      -MM
                                                      .I--       wun#fl

Tab40 1.1: Pommago Point Diffefoncu
lnAttflEmn8tudEnllatedManarbd                                                              Air
Wmon     (Fiscal Year 1964 Enlistees4-Year   Modlr                                      Fore.             Navy                                            AmY                Total
Enlistment)                                  3                                               2.7                 1.3                       5.0                    6.3           3.0
                                             6                                           -0.4                   0.1                        0.4                    2.7          0.8
                                             9                                               0.5                0.2                        0.1                    1.6           0.8
                                             12                                              0.6                 0.1                       1.4                    1.3           0.8
                                             15                                              0.4                0.3                        1.9                    0.5           0.8
                                             18                                              0.2                 0.3                       1.6                    1.1           0.7
                                             21                                              0.3                 0.1                       0.7                    0.4           0.2
                                             24                                              0.2                 0.4                       0.9                    0.2           0.4
                                             27                                              0.5                0.2                        0.2                -0.1              0.1
                                             30                                              0.4                 0.2                       0.5                    0.1           0.3
                                             33                                              0.5                 0.1                 -0.2                         0.0           0.2
                                             36                                              0.3                 0.5                       1.1                    0.5           0.4
                                             39                                              0.4                 0.1                       0.8                    0.6           0.4
                                             42                                              0.6                 0.0                       0.4                    0.1           0.3
                                             45                                          -1.0                    0.2                       0.2                -0.3              0.3
                                             48                                          -1.5                  -2.0                  -5.9                     -9.0            -4.7

                                             Note: Men’s rates were subtracted from women’s rates. Therefore, a positive difference indtcates a
                                             higher women’s rate, while a negative difference indicates a higher men’s rate.




                                             P8ge 21                                                   GAO/NSmR                                   Attrition          md Betentlon
                                          Compuison   of Attrition Rites of Men and
                                          Women in the MiIituy




Table 1.2: Diffwoncer in Mon’a and
Women’s Attrition During First 3 Months   Figures        In percent
of Swvlco                                                                                                   Fircal war
                                          Swvice                                       1980      1981       1982     1963          1984    1988’
                                          (CYear enlistment term)
                                          Air Force                                      3.4        2.2       1.7       14          2.7
                                          Navy                                           2.2        1.0       1.4       2.3         13
                                          Marine         Corps                           3.5      -1.5       -.8          .2        5.0
                                          AMY                                            5.5        6.1       3.5       4.2         6.3
                                          TOtOl                                          3.1        1.9       1.4       1.8         3.0

                                          (3-Year enlirtmont term)

                                          Army                                            3.9       6.2       4.6       4.0         4.7       2.9
                                          aFiscal year 1985 applies only to the Army’s 3-year enlistment.
                                          Note: Men’s rates were subtracted from women’s rates. Therefore, a positive number indicates a higher
                                          women’s rate, whale a negative number indicates a higher men’s rate.


Army and Marine Corps                     Total loss rates for the first enlistment term generally were noticeably
Have Greatest Differences                 higher for women than men. The greatest differences in men’s and
                                          women’s rates overall occurred in the Marine Corps and in the 4-year
                                          enlistment term in the Army. Figures I.8 through I.13 show men’s and
                                          women’s separation rates 1 week short of the full calendar length of the
                                          enlistment term for each service, to show losseswhich occurred in less
                                          calendar time than the full 3- or 4 year commitment (see appendix III,
                                          table 111.8,for actual rates). Table I.3 presents the differences in those
                                          rates. Data on separation categoriesindicate that separations occurring
                                          during the last 6 months of an enlistment were primarily for successful
                                          completion of the term. For example, an Air Force enlistee may be
                                          releasedup to 96 calendar days early to enter or return to school, or the
                                          enlistee may be releasedas much as a month early if the original release
                                          date occurs near Christmas.




                                          Pye       22                                          GAO/-B                 Attrltlon   and Retention
                                          Con~puison       of Attrition   Rates of   Men and
                                          Womenin the Military




Figure 1.8: Enlisted Attrition for the
gervicer Combined (Enlrstees for Fiscal
Years 1980 Through   1964--4.Year         6sPuant
Enlistment)                               60
                                          55
                                          so
                                          46
                                          40           I




                                          Page 23                                              GAO/NSuDgo-87RR   Attrition   and Retention
                                             Appendix I
                                             Cknnpuison of Attrition   Rate8 of Men and
                                             Women in the MUuy




Figun     1.9:Air Forco Enlirtod Attrition
(Enlistees for Fiscal Years 1980 Through
1984-4-Year      Enlistment)                 ss-




                                             Page 24                                      GAO/NSIAB@3-g7BR   Attrition   and Retention
-
                                          Comparison of Attrition   tites   of Men and
                                          Women tn the MlUtuy




Figure 1.10: Navy Enlisted   Attrition
(ErGstees for Fiscal Years 1980 Through
1984-4-Year   Enlistment)                 w-
                                          So
                                          56
                                          So




                                          Page 25                                        GAO/NSLUMO-87I3R   Attrition   and Retention
                                                                                                                              -

                                          -p&son     of Attrition   F&tea of Men and
                                          Women in the MlUtuy




F/awe 1.11: Marine Corps Enlisted
At&ion (Enlistees for Fiscal Years 1980
Through   1984--4.Year   Enlistment)      w-
                                          88




                                          Page 20                                      GAO/NSIADMbWBR   Attrition   and Retentiw
                                           Appendlx I
                                           Canparlaon  of Attaition   Ratea of Men and
                                           Women in the IUIlbry




Figwo 1.12: Army Enlirtod Attrition
(Enlistees for Fiscal Years 1980 Through
19&I-4-Year    Enlistment)                 w-
                                           88
                                           88
                                           88
                                           48
                                           48
                                           38




                                                                      1




                                           Pw   27                                       GAO/NEUAMO47RR   Attrition   and Retention
                                           Compuimon of Amition   I&tea of Men and
                                           Women in the Milituy




Figun 1.13: Army Enlisted Attrition
(Ekstees   for Fiscal Years 1980 Through
1985~3Year     Enlistment)                 68
                                           88
                                           88
                                           w
                                           48
                                           40
                                           38
                                           38
                                           28
                                           28
                                           11




                                                I
                                           10
                                            s
                                            0




                                           To minimize the impact of early releaseson attrition rates, we examined
                                           attrition rates without the last 6 months of an enlistment. The result
                                           was a general increase in the extent to which women’s attrition
                                           exceededmen’s, except for the Army’s I-year term. Figures I. 14 through
                                           I.19 show men’s and women’s attrition minus the last 6 months of the
                                           term. Table I.4 presents the percentagepoint differences in the rates for
                                           men and women (see appendix III, table 111.9,for actual rates).




                                           Page 28                                   GAO/N&UD&OMRBAttrItion   and Retaaion
                                            Appendix I
                                            compul#HI  of Attrition   Bates of Men and
                                            Women in the MUItuy




Figure 1.14: Enliatod Attrition for the
6ervicoo Cofnblned    for 4-Yorr Term8
Mimm tb Lml6        Months (Enlistees for   WPuanl
Fiscal Years 1960 Through   1984)           88
                                            88
                                            80
                                            48
                                            40
                                            28
                                            10
                                            28
                                            20
                                            15




                                                  1SW
                                                  PlswlYw
                                                                      1Ul                lam              l##S
                                                                                                                             1101




                                            Page 29                                            GAO/NS~R          Attrition   and Retention
                                               Appendix I
                                               Cmnpuison  of Attrition   Rates of Men and
                                               Women in the Military




Figun 1.16:Air Force Enliatod Attrition
for the bYoar Term Minw the Last 6
                                               whanl
Months    (Enlistees   for Fiscal Years 1980
Through    1984)                               88
                                               88
                                               88
                                               48




                                                P8ge go                                     GAO/NSIADSOWBR   Attrition   and Retention
                                              Appendix I
                                              comparison  of Attrition   Rates of Men and
                                              Women in the MlUtuy




Fbure 1.16: Navy Enlisted Attrition for the
4-Year Ten Minus the Last 6 Months
(Enlistees   for Fiscal Years 1980 Through    WPUOUU
1984)                                         88
                                              88
                                              88
                                              48
                                              48
                                              38
                                              so
                                              21
                                              20
                                              16
                                              10
                                               8
                                               0
                                                   ~~




                                              Page 3 1                                      GAO/NSIAD%M7BB   Attrition   and Retention
                                          Comparison of Attrition   Ebea of Men and
                                          Women in the Milituy




Figure 1.17: Marine Corps Enlisted
Attrition for the 4-Year Term Minus the
Last 6 Months (Enktees for Fiscal Years   65   -
1980 Through   1984)                      60
                                          58
                                          so
                                          4s
                                          40
                                          35
                                          30
                                          2u
                                          20
                                          12
                                          10
                                           8
                                           0

                                                   l#W
                                                   MYW
                                                                    1Ul               l#
                                                                                                    3 lW2                 l#U




                                          Page 32                                          GAO/NSIADBO&7BR   Attrition   and Xetentt
                                             lhnpahon   of Attrition   I&tea of Men   and
                                             Womenin the Milkmy




Figure 1.16: Army Enlisted AItrition for
the 4-Year Term MinUS the Last 6 Months
(Enlistees   for Fiscal Years 1980 Through   65    -
1984)                                        w
                                             56
                                             So
                                             4s
                                             40
                                             25
                                             30
                                             25
                                             20
                                             111
                                             10
                                              s
                                              0




                                              Page 33                                       GAO/NSIAtbW7BR   Attrition   and Retention
                                            Caaparlaon  of Attrition Rates of Men    and
                                            Women in the MIlStuy




Figure I.1 0: Army Eniistod Attrition for
th8 WOW Tom MIntIS the LW 6 Month8          w          -
(Enlistees for Fiscal Years 1980 Through
1985)                                       00
                                            w
                                            w
                                            I
                                            40
                                            s
                                            30
                                            20
                                            P
                                            1S
                                            10
                                             I
                                             0




Tab& 1.3: Diffamncor      in Twm   AtMUon
MtaaoftnliotodMonmdMmon(Fiscal                                                                      I-vb8r   mm                               &Year Wrm
Year Enlistees)                                                                      Air                Mrlno
                                            Fbo8l war                            Fore.       Navy       c0rpS       Amy          Total                Army




                                            1963                                     4.9       2.2           9.5     15.1           6.9                  0.2
                                                1964                                 4.7       2.1           9.1     14.8           5.6                  2.6
                                            1965                                         a          a           a         a               I              2.3


                                            Note: Men’s rates were subtracted from women’s rates. Therefore, a positive number lndlcates a higher
                                            women’s rate, while a negative number indioates a higher men’s rate. Also, rates are for separations
                                            occurring up to 1 week short of the enlistment term.




                                            Pye            34                                       GAO/NSIAIbBM7BR           Attrltion       and Retention
                                              Csmpmhn    of Attrition     l&tee of Men and
                                              Women in the M.Utuy




Table 1.4: Diffennces in Attrition Ratos of
Enlisted Men and Women for Enlistment                                                           CYewtoml                                    3-Year term
Term Minus the Last 6 Months (Fiscal Year                                 Air                              Marine
Enlistees)                                    Fiscal year               Force          Navy                 Corps     Army       Total              Armv
                                              1980                        8.0             6.8                 13.2     14.6          9.6               73
                                              1981                        5.6             0.1                13.6      14.5          6.7              12.2
                                              1982                        4.0             0.6                12.7      12.4          5.0               81
                                              1983                        6.1             3.5                13.2      14.7          7.3               77
                                              1984                        7.2             3.9                 14.8     15.3          8.6               79
                                              1985                           a               a                    a        a            I              66

                                              aNot applicable
                                              Note: Men’s rates were subtracted from women’s rates. Therefore, a posltlve number lndlcates a higher
                                              women’s rate, while a negative number indicates a higher men’s rate.


Categories of Enlisted                        Enlisted personnel can be separated from the military prior to comple-
Separations                                   tion of the full enlistment term. Enlistees may voluntarily request to
                                              leave for reasonssuch as pregnancy, sole surviving son or daughter,
                                              accepting public office, and conscientiousobjection. Enlistees may be
                                              separated involuntarily for reasonssuch as defective or fraudulent
                                              enlistment, entry level performance, unsatisfactory performance, mis-
                                              conduct, and drug or alcohol abuse.
                                              During the first 6 months of service, men and women enlistees separated
                                              primarily for inadequate entry level performance. During the last 6
                                              months of a term, men and women separated primarily for successful
                                              completions of the enlistment term. Between the first and last 6 months,
                                              men were separated primarily involuntarily for misconduct, unsatisfac-
                                              tory performance, and/or drugs or alcohol abuse,while women left pri-
                                              marily for pregnancy at their own request. Removing pregnancy
                                              departures from separation data causesmen generally to have a slightly
                                              higher separation rate than women between the first and last 6 months
                                              of an enlistment.

Men’sSeparations
              primarily for                   We reviewed enlisted separations through the standardized categoriza-
Misconduct,Women’sfor                         tion of interservice separation codesused by the DefenseManpower
pm3-J-w                                       Data Center.’ We reviewed separations of enlistees who entered in the
                                              same fiscal year (for fiscal years 1982,1983, and 1984) at 6-month
                                              intervals during the enlistment. A detailed listing of the categories used
                                              for analysis appears in appendix III, table 111.15.

                                              ‘The Defense Manpower Data Center maintains various military personnel databases. It collates .ser-
                                              vice separation infomwion      into StandprdiEed categories called interservice separation codes The
                                              codes reflect the conditions authorized by service regulations which @vem voluntary and mvolun-
                                              tary sqarations   from military service.




                                              Page 38                                                GAO/NSlADWWB~             Attrition    and Retention
                                               Cknnpuhon   of Attrition       Ratea of Men and
                                               women in the Muituy




                                               For the servicescombined, attrition lossesduring the first 6 months of
                                               service for both men and women were primarily for inadequate entry
                                               level performance. In addition, major separation categoriesfor both men
                                               and women included disability, fraudulent entry, erroneousenlistment,
                                               and prior medical conditions. Table I.5 shows the primary separation
                                               categories for fiscal year 1984. The pattern was similar for fiscal years
                                               1982 and 1983.
                                               Each service’s major separation categoriesfor the first 6 months were
                                               similar to these for each fiscal year, except for fiscal year 1982entrants
                                               in the Navy. The Navy’s separations for fiscal year 1982 entrants were
                                               primarily for unsatisfactory performance, erroneous enlistment, and
                                               personality or behavior problems for men; for women, the categories
                                               were personality or behavior problems, disability, and erroneous enlist-
                                               ment. The negligible portion of those Navy separations for entry level
                                               performance may reflect a different application of separation
                                               categories.
T8bl8I.& PdmmycM8god88of
Sq~mthDwingPlret6Monthrof                      CmPY~m-                                                          PwcwMg8         of uprmtion8
Smvlw    for A8 6wvk8a      (Enlistees   for
Fiscal Year 1964)
                                               Entry level performance                                                                    42.97
                                               Disability                                                                                 12.67
                                               Fraudulent      entrv                                                                      10.42
                                               Erroneous    enlistment                                                                    10.42
                                               Prior medical     condition                                                                 6.66
                                               Totd                                                                                      83.18



                                               Entry level performance                                                                    51.02
                                               Disability                                                                                 1734
                                               Erroneous    enlistment                                                                     7.69
                                               Prior medical      condition                                                                5.15
                                               Fraudulent      entry                                                                       4.64
                                               Tot8l                                                                                     86.84



                                               For each 6-month period during the remainder of the enlistment term,
                                               except the last one, men primarily separated involuntarily for miscon-
                                               duct and drugs or alcoholism, while women left primarily at their own
                                               request due to pregnancy. This pattern held for the 4-year enlistment
                                               term in the Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps. For both the 3- and 4-



                                               Page 86                                           GAO/N&OWRBlt       Attrition    and Retention
                                     t311~      of Attrit&~~    Ratea of Men and
                                     Women in the Milltuy




                                     year enlistment terms in the Army, the primary separation categories
                                     for men were unsatisfactory performance and drugs or alcohol abuse.
                                     Misconduct as used in this analysis included involuntary separation for
                                     commission of a serious offense, pattern of minor disciplinary infrac-
                                     tions, shirking, civilian or military discreditable incidents, absent
                                     without leave or desertion, and misconduct for reason unknown. Separa-
                                     tions involving legal actions, which somemay consider misconduct, were
                                     a separate group in this analysis; that group included civil court convic-
                                     tions, court martials, and separations for the good of the service in lieu
                                     of a court martial.

                                     Tables I.6 and I.7 show the proportion of separations for misconduct in
                                     the Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps, and the proportion of separa-
                                     tions for unsatisfactory performance and drugs or alcohol in the Army,
                                     during g-month periods for enlistees entering the service in fiscal year
                                     1984. The pattern was similar for entrants during fiscal years 1982 and
                                     1983 (see appendix III, tables 111.10and III.1 1, for all fiial years).
T8fwI.6zMl8wndu888~of
                                                                                            M8rill8
                                                                         FOE        NW       -rpr                   TOW
1984 Enlistees4-Year   Enlistment)   O-6                                   0.3        0.5         0.1                  0.3
                                     7-12                                 36.6       18.0        9.9                  18.2
                                     13-18                                31.7       27.9       15.8                  21.5
                                     19-24                                32.8       29.9       16.7                  23.1
                                     25-30                                31.4       30.7       19.4                  24.1
                                     31-36                                30.7       31.8       19.9                  23.9
                                     3742                                 13.2       25.6       19.5                  18.9
                                     4348                                  1.4        1.7         0.8                  1.1
                                     TOtd                                  8.6       10.0        4.6                   7.1

                                     %xludes   Army 4-year enlistment.




                                     Page 87                                       GAO~R        Attrition   end Retention
                                                      Compulaon  of Attrition       Ratea of Men and
                                                      Women in the IbUUtuy




T8bte 1.7: Unrrtidrctory          Pm&rm8nce   8nd bug8         or Alcoholkm      88 8 P8rCOntrg8        of Tot81 M8n’r gep8rrtionr          in th8 Army During
6-Month      hlt8fV8k   of the Efdi8tnWlt form
                                                   bY88r t8rfll                                                        3-Yerr term
                                                      1s64                                            1984                                     1985
                                                                                                                                    Un88ti8f8CtOrY
Monthr                                                            ‘A?:h:                                       %!:hs                Pefformmc8                  ‘Ay!:hti
O-6                                                  0.5                   0.1                       0.4               0.2                        0.5                  02
7-12-                                               30.3                   6.5                   31.8                  6.9                      21 5                   92
13-18                                               20.8               20.1                      26.4                 17.9                       190                  193
19.24                                               15.5               25.5                      18.4                 26.6                       15.5                 195
25-30                                               13.8               25.4                      15.2                 22.1                       14.3                 la4
31.36                                                9.6                18.6                         0.8               1.3                        0.9                  16
37.42                                                a.3                17.7                            a                 a                          a                       3
4348                                                 0.5                   0.9                          a                a                              a                    3
TO&+                                                 6.7                   6.7

                                                      Wet applicable
                                                      ‘ITotal available for 4-year enlistment only


                                                      If a woman is pregnant when she enters the service, she can be involun-
                                                      tarily discharged. Subsequentseparations for pregnancy are voluntary
                                                      and can occur during the entire enlistment term.

                                                       Table I.8 shows the proportion of separations for pregnancy during the
                                                       6-month intervals reviewed for enlistees entering the service during
                                                       fiial year 1984. The pattern was similar for fiscal years 1982 and 1983
                                                       (see appendix III, table III. 12, for all fiscal years).
t8bk      1.b: PtWgfb8IbCy 88 8   Pw          Of
Tot8l-'8    -@DwinOb                                                                                          4-Ye8rtefm                                    3-Yerr term
MOMlWfV*OfE~T~                                                                                 Ah
(Fiscal Year 1984 Enlistees)                           Month8                                FM              NW       Ygi           AmY        Tot81                AmY
                                                       O-6                                       6.5          2.8             2.0     1.7         3.5                      1.2
                                                       7-12                                     42.8         45.7            52.2    38.3       41.3                  38.0
                                                       13-18                                    35.5         57.0            51.2    43.5       46.6                  46.8
                                                       19-24                                    36.2         51.9            48.9    41.7       43.5                  41.9
                                                       25-30                                    33.5         45.2            47.4    36.3       38.7                  42.1
                                                       31-36                                    37.2         51.4            37.1    34.7       40.3                   2.e
                                                       37-42                                    19.3         47.4            41.7    29.0       26.9
                                                       4346                                      2.7          3.8             2.6     2.1         2.9
                                                       TOtA                                     15.6         21.1            16.7    16.1        17.6                        a

                                                       %ot applicable




                                                       Page38                                                       GAO/N8uDoo87Bo          Attrition       and Retention
                                    Cmwubon     of Attdtion   Ratea of Men and
                                    Women in the Military




                                    The proportion of women’s separations due to pregnancy is greatest
                                    after the first 6 months and before the last 6 months of the initial term.
                                    The low proportion of separations due to pregnancy during the first 6
                                    months of enlistment may be accounted for by the extent of higher
                                    lossesof both men and women during basic training or the first 3
                                    months of service. The low proportion of pregnancy separations during
                                    the last 6 months may reflect the impact of early releasesand end of
                                    term separations on the separation categories.This pattern was similar
                                    for fiscal years 1982 and 1983.
                                    Women’svoluntary separation for pregnancy is a major contributor to
                                    the difference in attrition for men and women between the first and last
                                    6 months of the initial term. Separation categories for men were domi-
                                    nated by involuntary causes.When women’s voluntary separations for
                                    pregnancy are removed from the data, men generally separated at
                                    higher rates than women, though the differences were nominal. The
                                    impact of voluntary dischargesfor pregnancy on the difference in attri-
                                    tion rates for men and women entering the service for 4 years in fiscal
                                    year 1984 appears in table I.9 (seeappendix III, table X11.13,
                                                                                                 for all fiscal
                                    yea.@.
T8bl8 I.& Differenc88 in Mm’8 8nd
w’8       &tdth    R8t.8 WtthOUt                                              Air                     M8rine
                  mUon for Wom8n    bllth8                                  FOtW           NW          cm                Army             Tot81
~!?l~Enlistees--4.Year                                                          1.7           1.2           4.8               9.8           3.8
Enlistment)                         O-6
                                    7-12                                      -0.3          -1.1         -0.4                 0.2         -0.5
                                    13-18                                     -0.7          -2.0            0.2           -0.9            -1.0
                                    19-24                                     -0.8          -1.5          -1.0            -1 7            -1.2
                                    25-30                                     -0.5          -1.1          -1.1            -1.2            -0.9
                                    31-36                                     -0.4          -1.0          -0.4            -0.7            -0.7
                                    37-42                                     -0.5          -1.0          -0.7            -0.5            -0.5
                                    43-48                                     -5.6          -4.8        -15.3            -15.2           -10.2
                                    O-42                                      -1.4          -6.5            1.3               5.0         -1.3
                                    048                                       -7.0         -11.3        -13.9            -10.3           -11.4

                                    Note: Men’s rates were subtracted from women’s rates. Therefore, a positive number Indicates a higher
                                    women’s rate while a negative number indicates a higher men’s rate.



                                    Officers served an initial tour of obligated duty lasting 3,4,5 or 6 years
Officer Attrition                   during the 1980s.Generally, academy graduates were obligated for 5
                                    years, pilots and navigators for 6 years, while ReserveOfficer Training
                                    Corps graduates and officer candidate school graduates were obligated
                                    for either 3 or 4 years.


                                    P8ge 38                                              GAO/N8IAD8047RR          Attrttion      and Retention
                                          Compubon   of AttMioa    Rates of Men and
                                          Women in the MIIltuy




Women Officers Generally                  We reviewed DefenseManpower Data Center data on the separation
Separated at Higher Rates                 rates of men and women who becameofficers during fiscal years 1981
                                          through 1985. We looked at personsseparating with up to 3 years of
                                          service. Someseparations during this time frame, however, may be for
                                          completion of a successfultour of duty.
                                          Loss rates for officers entering in fiscal years 1981 through 1985 for the
                                          first 3 years of service generally declined. Men and women entering
                                          officer ranks in fiscal years 1983 through 1985 separated at less than 10
                                          percent, except for Army and Marine Corps women entering in fiscal
                                          year 1983.
                                          Except for the Navy, women generally had higher loss rates, though the
                                          differences in separation rates for men and women were lessthan 2 per-
                                          centagepoints for the servicescombined, and lessthan 5 percentage
                                          points for each service except the Marine Corps. Loss rates for men and
                                          women and the differences are shown in table 1.10.
Tale 1.10: offku sopomtlon Maa for
First 2 nWn oi Swvka (Fiscal Years 1961                                                                            FlaW YOM
Through1965)                              Ak Fore.                                              1981      1982        1933  1984            1985
                                          Men                                                      9.1       9.6        7.5         5.3       5.5
                                          Women                                                    9.4     10.1         7.5         7.3       87
                                          Differencea                                              0.3       0.5             0      2.0       3.2
                                          NW
                                          Men                                                    11.5      10.3         9.0         7.2       5.9
                                          Women                                                    8.2       6.9        6.3         6.2       6.4
                                          Difference'                                            -3.3      -3.4       -2.7        -10         0.5
                                          Marine       corps
                                          Men                                                      4.8       6.1        4.4         3.7        3.7
                                          Women                                                    7.9     14.0       16.0          13         9.2
                                          Difference'                                              3.1       7.9      11.6        -2.4        5.5
                                          AmY
                                          Men                                                    11.3        8.6        8.8         4.0        23
                                          Women                                                  12.3      12.8       11.8          5.5        2.9
                                          Difference                                               1.0       4.2        3.0         1.5        06
                                          Tot81
                                          Men                                                    10.3        9.1        8.1         5.1        42
                                          Women                                                  10.2       10.5        9.0         6.3        6
                                          Differencea                                            -0.1        1.4        0.9         1.2        17

                                          Wen’s rates w&e subtracted from women’s rates. Therefore, a positive number lndlcates a higher
                                          women’s rate, while a negative number indicates a higher men’s rate.




                                          P8gt 40                                             GAO/NSIMMO-WBlt         Attrition   and Retentiooll
Appendix II

Comparisonof RetentionRatesof Men and
Womenin the Military

                             Retention is the voluntary continuation of service by enlisted personnel
                             and officers who successfully complete their initial obligation. Enlisted
                             personnel sign contracts for a specified period each time they reenlist.
                             Officers have an initial service obligation ranging generally from 3 to 6
                             years. Officers who continue in service after that may serve until the
                             secondtime they are considered for, but do not receive, promotion. Mili-
                             tary personnel may retire after 20 years of service.
                             All personnel who successfully complete their contractual obligation
                             may not be allowed to remain in the military. The servicesevaluate
                             enlisted personnel for their eligibility to remain, and only those eligible
                             may stay. For officers, evaluation for promotion generally serves as the
                             screeningprocessfor eligibility to remain in the service.

                             Retention rates basedon how many eligible persons reenlist are only
Enlisted Retention           part of retention. First, the servicesscreenthe men and women com-
                             pleting an enlistment to determine how many are eligible to reenlist,
                             There are differences in eligibility rates for men and women as well as
                             differences in the reenlistment rates of eligible persons.


Eligibility Is Part of       The services use similar criteria to evaluate the eligibility of enlisted
Retention                    personnel for retention, though there are someservice-specificrequire-
                             ments. Generally, individuals must
                         . meet professional growth standards requiring progression through the
                           pay grades; for example, a person with more than 8 years of service but
                           below the grade of E-4 would not be eligible to reenlist;
                         l meet medical and physical fitness standards, including ones for weight
                           and appearance;and
                         . meet standards relating to criminal convictions and incarceration; for
                           example, enlistees with court martial convictions are not eligible to
                           reenlist.

                             However, the services may waive somerestrictions. Differences in ser-
                             vice policies and procedures for identifying eligibility could also affect
                             the eligibility rates of men and women. For example, consideration of
                             vacancy needsin selectedjob categoriescould affect the number of men
                             and women who are determined eligible. For example, major shortages
                             in combat rather than support assignmentscan provide a greater need
                             for men than women, becausewomen are prohibited from combat
                             assignments.


                             Page 41                                GAO/NSuDBOU7RR    Attrition   and Retention
                             Appcndlx II
                             Compujson   of Retention   Ratea of Men and
                             Women in the Milituy




                             For fiscal years 1984 through 1988, we reviewed (1) the rates at which
                             men and women were eligible to reenlist, (2) reenlistments as a per-
                             centageof those eligible to reenlist, and (3) reenlistments as a per-
                             centageof the total number of personsseparating with successfulterm
                             completions. We reviewed the eligibility and retention data for three
                             groups: persons completing the first enlistment, personscompleting a
                             secondenlistment, and personscompleting three or more (career)
                             enlistments.
                             We determined the rates using data on end of term of service separa-
                             tions, those eligible to reenlist, and those personswho did reenlist. We
                             obtained this data from the servicesthrough a special request from the
                             Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defensefor Force Managementand
                             Personnel.

                             We did not review service programs or policies which might contribute
                             to differences in retainability and retention in the services.


Few Cross-Service            The data showed somesimilarities acrossthe services.First, men com-
                             pleting their first term generally had higher eligibility rates after fiscal
Patterns                     year 1984, except in the Army where women had consistently higher
                             eligibility. For the services combined, first term eligibility rates were
                             higher for women in 1984 and 1985, but subsequently were higher for
                             men. Second,reenlistment of women completing a secondterm was gen-
                             erally lower than for men, as a percentageof both eligible persons and
                             total separations.

                             Third, while career eligibility rates and reenlistment as a percentage of
                             total separations were generally higher for women than men, the reen-
                             listment rate of eligible personswas consistently lower for women,
                             except in the Marine Corps. Also, the greatest magnitude of differences
                             in rates for men and women usually occurred at the career level.


Differences Vary for First   After 1984 (1985 for the servicescombined) men generally had higher
                             eligibility rates than women, except in the Army, where women consist-
Term                         ently had higher eligibility rates. Men’s eligibility rates were greater by
                             a range of 1.6 percentagepoints in the Navy to 16.9 points in the Air
                             Force.




                             P&ge 42                                       GAO/NSIAD4O47BFt   Attrition   and Retention
                          Comparison of Retention   htea   of Men and
                          Women in the Milituy




                          Women had consistently higher retention rates in the servicescombined,
                          the Army, and the Marine Corps as a percentageof eligible persons reen-
                          listing and of total separations. The rates for women were higher by
                          .6 to 6.9 percentagepoints for the servicescombined, 5.7 to 11.8 points
                          for the Army, and 1.5 to 16.4 points for the Marine Corps. The one
                          exception was in fiscal year 1986, for the servicescombined, when the
                          retention of men as a percentageof total separations was higher by 1.4
                          points.
                          Navy women had lower retention, with one exception, and with differ-
                          encesranging from 3 percentagepoints to 6.2 points less.In the Air
                          Force, women had higher rates someyears and men others.


Lower Retention of        Differences in eligibility rates for men and women completing their
                          secondterm frequently reversed over the years. However, women gener-
Women for SecondTerm      ally had lower retention than men as a percentageof both eligible people
                          reenlisting and of total separations. The exception was the Marine
                          Corps, where differences in men’s and women’s rates were less than in
                          the other services and reversed during the years reviewed. The gap in
                          rates was generally closing toward 1988, except in the Navy and Marine
                          corps.


Greatest Differences in   Among those completing three or more enlistments, women’s eligibility
                          for reenlistment was higher than men’s by more than 10 percentage
Career Level Rates        points, except in the Marine Corps and in fiscal year 1986 in the Air
                          Force. Retention of women as a proportion of those eligible to reenlist,
                          however, was generally lower than men’s, often by as much as 5 to 10
                          percentagepoints in the Air Force, Army, and the servicescombined.
                          Women’s reenlistment rates as a percentageof total separations gener-
                          ally exceededmen’s by 8 to 19 percentagepoints. Exceptions were (1)
                          the Marine Corps, where men’s rates exceededwomen’s in 2 years and
                          the higher women’s rate in 1988 was 4.2 percentagepoints greater, and
                          (2) the first 3 years for the Air Force, when women’s rates ranged from
                          1.6 to 7.7 percentagepoints higher.
                           Figures II.1 through II.9 present eligibility and reenlistment rates for
                           first term, secondterm and career reenlistments for the servicescom-
                           bined. Figures IV.1 through IV.36, in appendix IV, present similar
                           graphs for the four services.Tables IV.1 through IV.5 in appendix IV
                           present the number and percentagesof first, second,and career term


                           P8ge 43                                      GAO/Nt%AMlU37RR   Attrition and Retention
                                              (I4nwuhn of Retention B&UJ of Men and
                                              Women in the Mitituy




                                              eligibility and retention, and the percentage point differences in rates
                                              for men and women.


Flgum 11.1:Eligibility for Reenlistment for
the Swvku ComW             - First Tom
                                              loo hmml
                                               w
                                               90
                                               85
                                               30



                                              (0
                                              w
                                              w
                                              43
                                              40
                                              w
                                              w
                                              33                                      _,__,
                                                                                         _

                                                                                                     lU7                     l#N




                                              Pye   44                                   GAO/lURmR     Attrition   and Retention
                                       Comparison of l&tendon       Rata     of Men and
                                       Women in the Mllltuy




Figure 11.2:Roenllstment of Eligible
Pwaono for the gewlcos Combined -
First Twm                              loo hanI
                                        Y
                                        90
                                        w
                                        30
                                        7s
                                        70
                                        66
                                        w
                                        53 ----.....,                                                                       . . ...--1*
                                                            --........................---------*                                           1
                                        so




                                         19M                                                                        1337
                                         MYW

                                               -MW
                                               ....     wormn




                                       Page 45                                                     GAO/N8 lADBOJ37BR Attrkion    and Retention
                                          Compulmon of Betention               Rata   of Men and
                                          WomenintbeMUituy




Figun 11.3:RaedlStmWS a18a
Pefcontago of Total Soprrrtions for the
Sorvic~s Combined - First form            la0        momI
                                           w
                                           w
                                           w
                                           (10
                                           7s
                                           70
                                           0
                                           w
                                           36
                                           30
                                           I
                                           40 -....
                                           33               --9..   ---.....                                            ---1..          . . . . . ..-9-i

                                           W
                                           33

                                               l#U                         1r                      1Y                     13%                              l#W
                                               MYW

                                                     -MUI
                                                     9.9.      m




                                                                                                        GAO/NEUD-!W8~            Attrition   and Retention
                                               Compui8on  of Retention          Rates of Men and
                                               Women In the Mllituy




Figure Il.4 Ellglbility for Roonlistmont for
the Sewicu Combilnd - Second Term
                                               loo      hmau
                                                W
                                                90
                                                w -...,
                                                                  -----....,-           -r............------               m
                                                W
                                                73
                                                10
                                                W
                                                W
                                                W
                                                W
                                                43
                                                40
                                                %
                                                30
                                                II

                                                     1m                         1m                             13%             l(11
                                                     RwdYw

                                                        -Wl
                                                        . . . .      womn




                                                Page 47                                                          GAO/N-R              Attaition   and Retention
                                                                                                                                  -
                                      Cornpubon   of Retention    I&tea of Men and
                                      Women in the Military




Figun 11.5:Reenlistment of Ellglblo
Pwsonr for the Services Combinod -
Second Term                           1w      knorn(
                                       W
                                       W
                                       W
                                       10



                                       (10
                                       W
                                       W
                                       43
                                       40
                                       W
                                       50
                                       33

                                        19U                      l#BB                la33                lW7
                                        fbdYw




                                      P8ge 48                                           GAO/NSUD-W¶7RR     Attrition   and Retention
                                                Cotnpuimon of Retention              Ratea of Men and
                                                Women in the Milituy




      Figun Il.& Roonliwnantr aa a
      Percontago ot Total Soparationr for the
      Swvlces Combined - Second Term            loo    hmmd
                                                 W
                                                 W
                                                 W
                                                 W
                                                 7s
                                                 70
                                                 W
                                                                                                                                           -...--       1.1.-
                                                 w-                                                                       . . ..---
                                                    ---9.                                                     m...-----
                                                 W            -----5.................-
                                                 W
                                                 46
                                                 40
                                                 36
                                                 30
                                                 %

                                                                                                        1Ug                     1II




                                                P8ge 49                                                   GAO/NNAM@WRR                Attrition     and Retention




---
                                                      Compulwn     of Retention   Rates of Men and
                                                      WomenintheMllltuy




     Figure II.?: Eligibility for Rnnliotmont   for
     the Sorvicu combined - Caroor


                                                            --.......-     .....--------
                                                      1w    -
                                                       W
                                                       W
                                                                --..................---
                                                                                     ‘L
                                                       w
                                                       W
                                                       75
                                                       m
                                                       W
                                                              -
                                                      (0
                                                      I
                                                      W
                                                      48
                                                      10
                                                      %
                                                      W
                                                      1

                                                                                                     n%                                          lwo




                                                      Pqe   60                                            GAO/NSUD-BOMRR   Attrition   and Retention



--
                                       Appendix ll
                                       Campuison   of Retention     Rates of Men   and
                                       Women in the Military




Figure 11.8:Reenlistment of Eligible
Persons for the Services Combined -
CHOW                                   loo   krom(
                                        96
                                        90 ----99.91ggg11g1gg*19-----*                   ---9191111.ggggg.*9---                  .99----

 C                                      85
                                        10
                                        7s
                                        70
                                        65
                                        so
                                        56
                                        so
                                        4%
                                        40
                                        I
                                        30
                                        a

                                                                  1Y                     1US                      lm?                      1888




                                       P8ge 51                                             GAO/NSIAKhWS7BB          Attrition   and Retention
                                            Appendix tI
                                            Compuimm of Retention   Rates of Men and
                                            Women in the Mllltuy




Figun 11.9:Reenlistments as a
P8rcent8g8 of Totrl soprr8tions   for the
                                            loo   meal4
!3ervicw Combined - Cmoer
                                             96
                                             So




                                            Officers first commissionedin the 1980swere generally obligated to
Officer Retention                           serve 3,4,5, or 6 years. After completing the initial obligation, officers
                                            could serve until they resigned or were not promoted after being consid-
                                            ered a secondtime.
                                            We reviewed officer retention for the servicescombined and separately,
                                            except for the Marine Corps. We did not review retention among Marine
                                            Corps officers separately becausethe number of women officers was too
                                            small to provide meaningful information. However, data for the services
                                            combined include data for Marine Corps officers.

                                            To determine retention rates, we obtained information from the Defense
                                            Manpower Data Center on (1) the number of men and women officers as
                                            of the end of the fiscal year and (2) the number of men and women who
                                            left the service since October 1 of the fiscal year. We assumedthat the
                                            total number of officers who had completed the samenumber of years
                                            of service as of September,plus the number lost during the fiscal year
                                            with the same number of years of service when they left, would have



                                            Page 52                                    GAO/NSlADW-SYB~   Attrition   and Retention
                                   Comparbon  of Retention   Rates of Men and
                                   Women in the Military




                                   been the total number of officers for the fiscal year and years in service
                                   reviewed.
                                   We determined retention rates for lengths of service in l-year intervals.
                                   For example, for fiscal year 1988, we reviewed how many officers with
                                   from 3 to 21 or more years of service remained in the military for that
                                   fiscal year. Becauseof the varying lengths of initial obligated service,
                                   someof the retention among officers with 3 to 6 years of service
                                   includes officers who remained to complete their initial commitment.
                                   Retention rates for those with 20 years or more of service include retire-
                                   ment losses.


       Greatest Differences in     Retention for both men and women generally increasedthe longer they
       Rates Appear After 3 and    remained in the military, until the 19th and 20th years in service. The
                                   greatest differences in retention of men and women generally occurred
       After 20 Years of Service   among those who had been in the military for 3 years and for 20 years.
                                   A secondary point of noticeable rate differences occurred after 4 years,
                                   For the services combined, men had higher retention after 3 years, by
                                   7.9 to 9.9 percentagepoints, and after 4 years by 3.9 to 4.4 percentage
                                   points. Women, however, had higher retention after 20 years, by a range
                                   of 3 to 9 percentagepoints. This aggregation, however, masks within-
                                   service patterns.
                                   In the Air Force, men had higher retention after 3,4 and 20 years of
                                   service. Differences ranged from 11 to 13.2 percentagepoints after 3
                                   years, 4.2 to 9 percentagepoints after 4 years, and 11.8 to 27.6 per-
                                   centagepoints after 20 years.
                                   In the Navy, men had higher retention after 3 and 20 years, but not
                                   consistently after 4 years. After 3 years, men’s retention was 4.5 to 11.2
                                   percentagepoints higher then women’s, and after 20 years it was 7.1 to
                                   19.4 percentagepoints higher. Unlike the other two services,Navy
                                   women tended to have higher retention between years 5 and 19 more
                                   often than men, though the differences were generally nominal.
                                   In the Army, the greatest differences in retention rates occurred after 3
                                   years when men’s retention was higher than women’s by 5.5 to 9.4 per-
                                   centagepoints. After 4 years of service, men’s rates were higher, but the
                                   difference generally decreasedfrom a high of 4.7 in 1984 to a low of .7
                                   in 1988. After 20 years, men had higher retention for 4 of the 5 fiscal



                                   P8ge 53                                      GAO/NSIAD3047BR   Attrition   and Retention



.-.-
                                                  Appendix II
                                                  Compuleon   of Retention   Rate8 of Men and
                                                  Women in the Militmy




                                                  years reviewed, with differences ranging from a high of 7.9 in 1986 to 1
                                                  and 1.65 percentagepoints in fiscal years 1987 and 1988, respectively.

                                                  For officers with 5 to 19 years of service, higher retention varied
                                                  between men and women in each of the services.The differences in rates
                                                  were generally less than 2 percentagepoints, however, with over half
                                                  less than 1.
                                                  Figures II. 10 through II. 18 show a comparison of officer retention for
                                                  fiscal years 1984 through 1988. The figures show retention after 3 years
                                                  of service and after 20 years of service, when the greatest differences
                                                  occurred in rates for men and women. Figure 11.13also shows retention
                                                  after 4 years in the Air Force, where the greatest differences occurred
                                                  for that length of service. Tables IV.6 through IV.9 in appendix IV pro-
                                                  vide the retention rates for men and women and the differences in those
                                                  rates at l-year intervals, for 3 through 21 or more years of service, for
                                                  fiscal years 1984 through 1988.


Sorvkoa     Combhwd   (atthe   End of 3   Years
of Service)




                                                  Page 64                                       GAO/-R   Attrition   and Retention
                                           Compubon   of Retention   &tes   of Men and
                                           Women in the Military




Figure 11.11:Officer Retention for the
Swvices Combined (at the End of 20 Years
of Serwce)                                 loo   -

                                            80




                                           P8ge 55                                       GAO/NSlAD-WMBR Attrition   and Retention
                                               Compuimon of Betention   Ratee of Men and
                                               Women in the Military




Figun   II. 12: Air Force Officer  Retention
(at the End of 3 Years of Service)

                                               180

                                                a0

                                                a

                                                m

                                                w

                                                5s

                                                40

                                                30

                                                3s

                                                10




                                               Page 56                                     GAO/NSBR   Attrition   and Retention
                                          APPC*        II
                                          Cawrison   of Retention   Rates of Men and
                                          Women in the Millray




Figun 11.13:Air Force Officer Retention
(atthe   End of 4 Years of Service)
                                          100

                                          90
                                           a0
                                          70
                                          00
                                          50
                                          40
                                          so
                                          30
                                          10

                                           0




                                          Pap     57                                   GAO/NSIADHJWRR   Attrition   and Retention
                                              Appendix tl
                                              Compubon of Retention Rateoof Men and
                                              Womenin the Muituy




Fiqure Ii.1 4: Air Force Off icor Retention
(atthe   End of 20 Years of Service)
                                              loo   -

                                               so

                                               w

                                               70

                                               00

                                               w

                                               4s

                                               so

                                               3s

                                               10
                                                0




                                              Page &3                                 GAO/NSUDg087BR   Attrition   and Retention
                                         CWWUhfh    of Retention   IZates of Men and
                                         Women in the Mllituy




Figure 11.15:Navy Officer Rdontion (at
the End of 3 Years of Service)
                                         100
                                          90

                                         a

                                          m

                                         00

                                         so

                                         40

                                         so

                                         30

                                         10




                                         Page 59                                       GAO/NSUWO47RR Attrition md Retention
                                       Appcndir   II
                                       Contpulnnt    of Betention   Rdea of Men and
                                       Women In the Miiituy




Figun 11.16:Navy Of&or Retention (at
the End of 20 Years of Service)
                                       100

                                        00

                                        a

                                        70

                                        00

                                        m

                                        4s

                                        so

                                        30

                                        10




                                       Pye    60                                      GAO-   Attxitlon   and Retentior
                                        Compdum    of pctcntion   Rates of Men and
                                        Women in the lbfilituy




Fimwa 11.11:Army Officu Rotontion (at
the End of 3 Years-of   Servtce)
                                        loo       -
                                         so
                                              ,
                                         00

                                         7s

                                         a

                                        so

                                        40

                                        so

                                        3s

                                         10




                                        Page 61                                      GAO/NSLUbWMRE   Attrition   and Retention
                                          Appendix II
                                          Comparbon   of Retention   ~t.ea   of Men and
                                          WomenintbeMlUtuy




Figure 11.18:Army Officer Rotontion (at
the End of 20 Years of Servlce)
                                          loo   -




                                           P8ge 02                                        GAO/NSIADWWBB   Attrition   and Retenticb
Appendix III contains data on attrition for each service and the services
combined. Tables III.2 through III.9 present the attrition rates and their
differences for (1) the 3-month interval analysis of attrition patterns
and (2) attrition rates for the enlistment term minus 1 week and minus
the last 6 months. Tables III. 1 and III. 14 present the number of non-
prior service enlistees and officers to enable calculation of the numerical
impact of attrition rates or rate differences.
Tables III. 10 through III. 13 present the separation category data for
each of the 3 years analyzed, for the categoriesdiscussedin appendix I.
Table III. 16 lists the groupings used in the anaIysis appearing in
appendix I of the DefenseManpower Data Center’s interservice separa-
tion codes.




P4e   68                               GAO-R            Attrltton   and Retention
                                           Appendix III
                                           Attrition DMA




labh 111.1:Numbor of Men and Women
Enliatlngin the Swvicoa(FiscalYears 1980   Fircal     yeamb   mite                                Mm                Women                              Total
Through   1985-4-Year   EnlistmeW)
                                           Air   Force
                                           1980                                                 51,861                13,321                         65,162
                                           1981                                                 59.072                 9.935                         69.007
                                           1982                                                 52,389                 7,984                         60,372
                                           1983                                                 45.097                 7,982                         53,075
                                           1984                                                 46,595                 8,132                         54,72T
                                           TOM                                                2S5.014                47,364                         302.36f

                                           Maw
                                           19G                                                  59,881                 9,919                         69,60(
                                           1981                                                 64,587                 9,296                         73,68:
                                           1982                                                 51,643                 7.586                         59.22
                                           1983                                                 52,427                 7,819                         60,24
                                                                                                                                                      -_-
                                           1984                                                 56,589                 7,275                         63,W
                                           Total                                              281,127                41,695                         327,02



                                           i980                                                 24,931                 1,234                         26,16
                                           1981                                                 26,331                 1,347                         27,67
                                           1982                                                 23,981                 1,509                         25,49
                                           1983                                                 26,504                 1.588                         26.09
                                           1984                                                 32,306                 1,853                         34,15
                                           TOM                                                l%gB3                    7,531                        1419

                                           Arrny(6Wenliatment)
                                           1960                                                 39,328                 8,549                         47,67
                                           1981                                                 35,078                 5,641                         40.71
                                           1982                                                 39,412                 4,696                         44,lC
                                           1983                                                 40,439                 5.311                         45,7E
                                           1984                                                 39,212                 5,941                         45,lC
                                           Tot81                                              lg3.469                30,136                         223,6C


                                                    - .
                                           1980                                                 93,189                13,326                        106,5-
                                            _-
                                           1961                                                 60.075                12.048                         72.1:
                                           1982                                                 571248                 91748                         6619:
                                           1983                                                 66,489                10.838                         77,3:
                                           1964                                                 65,825                10,593                         76,4
                                           1985a                                                57,800                 8,430                         66,2
                                           Totd                                               400.626                64.663               -~        465,6

                                           “Fiscal year 1985 applies only to the Army, and only for the 3.year enlistment




                                           P8ge 64                                                 GAO/NSLUbW87BR             Attrition        and Retenc
Table 111.2:Attrition Ratos ior the
sowice comblnod at 3-Month Intwvals       Figuresin   percent
for 4-Year Enlistment Tom (Fiscal Years                                          Fiscal year
1980Through1984)
                                          Months                1990   1991          1992          1983                 1994
                                          Mon
                                          3                      6.6    7.4            8.0            78                 81
                                          6                      3.2    3.2            3.3            3.1                28
                                          9                      1.8    1.6            1.5             12                12
                                          12                     1.8    1.8            1.3             12                1.4
                                          15                     2.0    1.9            1.7             15                16
                                          18                     2.0    1.9            2.0             1.7               18
                                          21                     2.2    2.0            1.9             1.7               19
                                          24                     2.2    1.9            2.0             1.7               1.7
                                          27                     2.0    2.1            1.8             1.8               1.8
                                          30                     1.9    2.0            1.8             1.7               1.6
                                          33                     1.7    2.0            1.6             1.4               1.4
                                          36                     1.8    1.9            1.6             1.5               14
                                          39                     2.0    2.3            2.4             1.6               1.4
                                          42                     2.0    2.0            2.0             14                12
                                          45                     2.0    2.3            2.4            2.2                36
                                          48                     4.4    4.4           11.1           11.9               125

                                          woman
                                          3                      9.7    9.3            9.4            9.4               11 1
                                          6                      4.8    3.6            3.3            3.4                3.6
                                          9                      2.8    2.5            2.0             19                18
                                          12                     3.0    2.7            2.2             1.8               2.0
                                          15                     3.2    2.8            2.1            2.3                2.2
                                          18                     3.2    2.6            2.2            2.3                25
                                          21                     2.9    2.4            2.2             22                2.1
                                          24                     2.5    2.2            2.2             2.2               2.1
                                          27                     2.2    2.0            2.0             2.2               1.9
                                          30                     2.1    1.8            2.0             1.8               1.9
                                          33                     1.8    1.7            2.1             1.8               16
                                          36                     1.6    1.7            1.8             1.7               18
                                          39                     1.5    2.4            2.4             19                18
                                          42                     1.5    2.0            2.0             17                1.5
                                          45                     1.5    2.4            2.5             2.6               3.9
                                          48                     2.5    4.1            7.2             8.2      --___    78
                                                                                                               (ccntmued)




                                          P4eM                                GAO/NsLADBQs?BB   Attrition    and Retention
Appendix III
Attrition D8ta




                                                          Fiscal year
Month8                      1990             1991             1992            1993                1994
Women minus men’
3                             3.1              1.9              14                16               30
6                             1.6              0.4                0               0.3              08
9                             1.0              0.9              0.5               0.7              06
12                            1.2              0.9              0.9               0.6              06
15                            1.2              0.9              0.4               08               06
18                            1.2              0.7              0.2               06               07
21                            0.7              0.4              0.3               0.5              02
24                            0.3              0.3              0.2               0.5              04
27                            0.2            -0.1               0.2               04               01
30                            0.2            -0.2               0.2               0.1              03
33                            0.1            -0.3               0.5               0.4              02
36                          -0.2             -0.2               0.2               0.2              04
39                          -0.5               0.1                0               0.3              04
42                          -0.5                    0             0               0.3              03
45                          -0.5               0.1              0.1               0.4              03
48                          -1.9             -0.3             -3.9             -37                -4 7

%&n’s rates were subtracted from women’s rates. Therefore, a positive number lndlcates a higher
women’s rate, while a negative number indicates a higher men’s rate.




P*ge 60                                                 GAO/NSUDWWBR        Attrition   and Retention
                                              km*               m
                                              Attrition         Data




Tabie 111.3:Air Force Attrition Rates at 3-
Month Intervala for 4-Year Enliotment         Figures          in percent
lefm(FiscalYears   1960Through   1964)
                                                                                               Fircrl year
                                              Month.                        1980    1981           1982          1983               1984
                                              Men
                                              3                              5.2     6.1             6.4            5.3                71
                                              6                              5.2     5.1             5.3            5.3               43
                                              9                              2.0     1.9             1.5            12                 10
                                              12                             1.9     1.5             1.2            :.0               09
                                              15                             1.9     1.6             1.3            1.2                11
                                              16                             1.9     1.7             1.5            1.5                1.6
                                              21                             2.1     1.7             1.6            1.4                1.6
                                              24                             2.0     1.7             1.7            1.5                14
                                              27                             1.6     1.7             1.7            1.6                15
                                              30                             1.6     1.6             1.5            1.6                1.4
                                              33                             1.6     1.6             1.4            1.4                1.2
                                              36                             1.4     1.7             1.5            1.5                1.4
                                              39                             1.6     2.5             3.2            1.5                1.3
                                              42                             2.4     2.7             2.7            1.6                13
                                              45                             2.6     2.7             3.9            4.7                76
                                              46                             2.6     3.1             7.1           10.6                77



                                              3                              6.6     6.3             6.1            6.7                9.6
                                              6                              7.4     4.6             4.1            3.4                3.9
                                              9                              2.6     2.7             1.9            1.7                1.5
                                              12                             2.3     2.1             1.7            1.5                15
                                              15                             2.5     2.2             1.4            1.6                15
                                              16                             2.6     2.1             1.9            2.4                2.0
                                              21                             2.1     2.1             1.7            1.9                19
                                              24                             2.2     1.7             1.7            2.4                16


                                              io
                                              27


                                              xi
                                                                             2.0
                                                                             1.6
                                                                              1.7
                                                                                     2.0
                                                                                      1.6
                                                                                      1.7
                                                                                                     1.6
                                                                                                     1.9
                                                                                                     2.5
                                                                                                                    2.1
                                                                                                                    2.0
                                                                                                                     1.6
                                                                                                                                       2.0
                                                                                                                                       16
                                                                                                                                       17
                                              36                              1.5     1.7            1.6             1.6               17
                                              39                              1.4    3.0             3.1            2.4                17
                                              42                             2.1     2.9             3.1            2.0                19
                                              45                             2.2     3.4             4.0            4.6                G
                                              46                             2.0     3.7             6.3            9.7                6.2
                                                                                                                             (continued)




                                              Pye         67                                GAO/NSUD40437BB   Attrition    and Retention
Appendix Ill
Attrition Data




                                                           Fiscal year
Months                      1980             1981              1982           1983                1964
Women minus men*
3                             3.4              2.2               1.7             14                27
6                             2.2            -0.3              -1.2            -19                -04
9                             0.6              0.6               0.4             0.5               05
12                            0.4              0.6               0.5             0.5               0.6
15                            0.6              0.6               0.1             0.6               04
16                            0.7              0.4               0.4             0.9               02
21                                 0           0.4               0.1             0.5               03
24                            0.2                   0                 0          0.9               02
27                            0.2              0.3               0.1             0.5               0.5
30                            0.2                   0            0.4             0.4               04
33                            0.1            -0.1                1.1             0.2                0.5
36                            0.1                   0            0.1             0.3                0.3
39                          -0.4               0.5             -0.1              0.9                0.4
42                          -0.3               0.2               0.4             0.4                0.6
45                          -0.4               0.7               0.1           -0.1               -10
46                          -0.6               0.6             -0.6            -1.1               -15

%en’s rates were subtracted from women’s rates. Therefore, a positive number indicates a higher
women’s rate, while a negative number indicates a higher men’s rate.




P8ge 68                                                 GAO/NSUDW37BR       AttrIdon   and Retention
                                          AppendixIll
                                          Attrition    Data




Table 111.4:Navy Attrition Rater rt 3-
Month lntewalr for 4-bar Enhtment         Figures     In percent
l'own(FiscalYears   196OThrough   1964)
                                                                              Fiscal Year
                                          Months              1980    1981        lsa2      1963               1904
                                          Men
                                          3                    7.6     7.4          7.6      7.0                  76
                                          6                     1.6    1.7          1.4      1.6                  14
                                          9                     1.4    1.7          1.4      1.0                  12
                                          12                    1.5    1.9          1.5      1.2                  14
                                          15                    1.9    2.3          1.9      1.7                  19
                                          16                    2.0    2.2          2.1      1.6                  1.9
                                          21                   2.4     2.1          2.0      1.6                  1.9
                                          24                   2.3     2.2          2.2      1.6                  1.7
                                          27                    2.0    2.2          2.0      2.0                  1.6
                                          30                    1.6    2.2          2.1      1.6                  1.7
                                          33                    1.9    2.1          1.9      1.5                  13
                                          36                    1.6    2.1          1.9      1.5                  1.3
                                          39                    1.6    2.0          1.9      1.5                  1.3
                                          42                    1.9    1.6          1.7      1.2                  11
                                          45                    1.7    1.7          1.5      1.1                  2.9
                                          46                    5.4    4.9          6.0      6.7                 106

                                          Wmen
                                          3                    10.0    6.4          9.2      9.3                  9.1
                                          6                     1.3    1.2          1.0      1.4                  1.5
                                          9                     2.1    1.9          1.5      1.3                  14
                                          12                    2.6    2.7          1.6      1.7                  15
                                          15                    3.1    2.6          2.2      2.0                  2.2
                                          16                    3.7    2.7          2.2       1.6                 2.2
                                          21                    3.2    2.2          2.2       1.9                 2.0
                                          24                    2.6    2.3          1.9       1.6                 21
                                          27                    2.4     1.6         2.0       1.9                 2.0
                                          30                    2.2     1.5         1.6       1.5                 19
                                          33                    1.6     1.7         1.9       1.7                  14
                                          36                    1.5     1.6         1.6       1.5                 18
                                          39                    1.3     1.7         1.6       1.5                 1.4
                                          42                    1.1     1.5         1.3       1.6                 1.1
                                          45                    1.0     1.5          1.3      1.5                 31
                                          46                    3.7     4.5         5.4       5.0                 6.6
                                                                                                         (contmued)




                                                                                GAO-        Attrldon   and Retention
Appendix In
AttrWon Data




                                                  Fiscal Year
Months    1980                     1901                1982                 1983                   1984
Women minus men’
3                2.2                 1.0                  1.4                 2.3                    13
6              -0.3                -0.5                 -0.4                -0.2                    0.1
9                0.7                 0.2                  0.1                 0.3                   02
12               1.1                 0.6                  0.3                 0.5                   01
15               1.2                 0.3                  0.3                 0.3                   03
16               1.7                 0.5                  0.1                 0.2                   03
21               0.6                 0.1                  0.2                 0.1                   01
24               0.3                 0.1                -0.3                -0.2                    0.4
27               0.4               -0.4                        0            -0.1                     0.2
30               0.4               -0.7                 -0.3                -0.3                     02
33             -0.1                -0.4                        0              0.2                    01
36             -0.3                -0.5                 -0.3                       0                 0.5
39             -0.5                -0.3                 -0.1                       0                 0.1
42             -0.6                -0.1                 -0.4                  0.4                         0
45             -0.7                -0.2                 -0.2                  0.4                    0.2
46             -1.7                -0.4                 -0.6                -1.7                   -2.0

aMan’s rates were subtracted from woman’s rater. therefore. a positive number indicates a higher
women’s rate, white a negative number indicates a higher men’s rate.




Page 70                                              GAO-E                   Attridon   and Retention
                                          Appendix III
                                          Attrition Data




T8bk 111.5:Marine Corpr Attrition fhtes
rt 3-Month Intervrlr for 4-Year           Figuresin   percent
Enlirtment Term (Fiscal Years 1960                                         Flacal Year
Through   1964)
                                          Months           1980     1981       1962           1983                    1984
                                          Men
                                          3                 9.1     11.4        13.2          12.6                     11.6
                                          6                 2.6      2.7         2.2           1.5        -----i-i
                                          9                 0.9      0.6         0.5           0.9                       1.1
                                          12                1.2      1.2         0.9           1.2                       1.3
                                          15                1.7      1.6         1.4           1.4                      14
                                          16                1.7      1.5         1.7           1.5                       15
                                          21                1.9      1.6         1.9           1.4                       1.6
                                          24                2.0      1.6         1.6           1.6                       1.7
                                          27                2.1      2.2         1.7            1.6                      16
                                          30                1.7      2.3         1.7           1.7                       1.5
                                          33                1.6      2.2         1.6           1.4                       1.5
                                          36                2.3      2.1         1.5           1.6                       1.6
                                          39                2.4      3.0         2.3            1.6                      1.5
                                          42                2.1      2.2         1.6            1.4                      1.3
                                          45                1.6      1.9         1.4            1.2                      1.2
                                          46                6.1      5.1        21.4           9.0                     16.3



                                          3                12.6      9.9        12.4          12.6                     16.6
                                          6                 1.7      2.7         3.2           3.1                       2.2
                                          9                 2.3      2.7         0.7            1.2                      1.2
                                          12                4.7      3.3         2.6            1.9                      2.7
                                          15                4.7      3.7         3.7           2.1                       3.3
                                          16                3.6      4.0         2.6           2.5                       3.1
                                          21                3.0      3.3         3.6           3.7                       2.3
                                          24                3.0      3.5         2.9            3.6                      2.6
                                          27                2.4      2.5         2.5            1.9                      20
                                          30                2.3      2.3         2.4            2.5                      2.0
                                          33                2.0      2.0         2.1            2.5                      1.3
                                          36                 1.3     2.3         2.2            2.0                      2.7
                                          39                 1.7     4.3         3.4            3.0                      2.3
                                          42                 1.2-    3.7         2.2            2.0                      17
                                          45                 1.4     2.0         1.3            1.2                      1.4
                                          46                2.1      3.0        14.6            5.2                     10.4
                                                                                                               (continued)




                                          Page 71                            GAO/NSiAD4OMBB   Attrition   and Retention
Appendix Ill
Attddon  Data




                                                  Fiscal year
MOMS      1880                     1981                1982                 1983                   1984
Women minur men’
3                 3.5              -1.5                 -0.6                  0.2                    5c
6               -0.9                      0               1.0                  1.6                   04
9                 1.4                1.9                  0.2                 0.3                    01
12                3.5                2.1                  1.9                  0.7                   14
15                3.0                2.1                  2.3                  0.7                   19
16                2.1                2.5                  0.9                  1 .o                  16
21                1.1                1.7                  1.7                  2.3                   07
24                1.0                1.7                  1.1                  2.0                   00
27                0.3                0.3                  0.6                  0.3                   02
30                0.6                     0               0.7                  0.6                   05
33                0.2              -0.2                   0.5                  1.1                 -0.2
36              -1.0                 0.2                  0.7                  0.4                   1.1
39              -0.7                 1.3                  1.1                  1.2                   0.6
42              -0.9                 1.5                  0.6                  0.6                   0.4
45              -0.4                 0.1                -0.1                       0                 0.2
46              -4.0               -2.1                 -6.6                -3.6                   -5.9

%len's rates weresubtracted   from women's rate&Therefore,  a positive number Indicates a higher
women’s rate, while a negative number indicates a higher men’s rate.




Page 72                                              GAO-it                  Attrition   and Retention
                                         A~pe*         m
                                         Attrition    Data




Table 111.6:Army Attrition Rates at 3-
Month Intervela for I-Veer Enllmnent     Figures     in percent
Tom~(FiscalYears   1960Through   1984)                                       Fircal year
                                         MOM8                1980    1991         1992      1993                 1984
                                         Men
                                         3                    5.0     6.4          74        6.6                   7.0
                                         6                    3.2     3.1          3.6       3.6                   37
                                         9                    2.7     1.9          1.9        14                   16
                                         12                   2.7     2.2          1.9        1.5                  17
                                         15                   2.6     2.2          2.2        1.9                  2.2
                                         16                   2.2     2.2          2.4       2.1                   2.2
                                         21                   2.3     2.1          2.4        1.9                  2.1
                                         24                   2.4     2.2          2.0       2.0                   2.4
                                         27                   2.3     2.2          2.0        1.6                  1.9
                                         30                   2.2     2.0          1.7        1.6                  1.7
                                         33                   2.0     1.6          1.6        1.4                  17
                                         36                   1.9     1.7          1.5        1.6                  1.5
                                         39                   2.0     1.9          1.9        1.7                  1.5
                                         42                   1.6     1.6          1.6        1.3                  1.3
                                         45                   1.6     2.9          2.4        1.6                  2.0
                                         46                   3.6     5.3         16.5      21.5                  17.3

                                         Women
                                         3                   10.5    12.5         10.9      12.6                  13.3
                                         6                    5.1     5.6          5.6        6.0                  6.4
                                         9                    4.3     3.0          3.5        3.3                  3.2
                                         12                   4.2     3.6          3.4        2.6                  3.0
                                         15                   4.1     3.9          2.6        3.2                  2.7
                                         16                   3.7     2.7          2.4        2.9                  3.3
                                         21                   3.6     3.1          2.9        2.7                  25
                                         24                   2.9     2.6          3.0        2.6                  2.6
                                         27                   2.5     2.3          2.4        2.4                   1.8
                                         30                   2.2     2.0          2.2        2.0                   16
                                         33                   2.0      1.7          1.9       1.9                   17
                                         36                   1.6      1.6         2.2        1.9                  2.0
                                         39                   2.2     2.0           1.6       1.5                  21
                                         42                    1.0     1.0          1.5       1.1                   1.4
                                         45                    1.1    2.2          2.2        1.7                   1.7
                                         46                    1.6    4.5          6.9       11.6                  6.3
                                                                                                          (contmued)




                                         Page 73                               GAO/NSW7RR   Attrltlo~   and Retention
                                                                                                    -
Appendix ill
Amition  Data




                                                 Fiscal year
Month8    1900                    1981                1982                 1983                   1984
Women minus men’
3                 5.5                6.1                 3.5                  4.2         __-       63
6                 1.9                2.5                 2.0                  2.4                   27
9                 1.6                1.1                 1.6                  19                    16
12                1.5                1.6                 1.5                  1.3                   13
15                1.5                1.7                 0.6                  13                    05
16                1.5                0.5                      0               0.6                   11
21                1.3                1.0                 0.5                  0.6                   0.4
24                0.5                0.6                 1.0                  0.6                   0.2
27                0.2                0.1                 0.4                  0.6                 -0.1
30                     0                  0              0.5                  0.4                   01
33                     0           -0.1                  0.3                  0.5                        0
36              -0.3               -0.1                  0.7                  0.3                   05
39                0.2                0.1               -0.1                 -0.2                    0.6
42              -0.6               -0.6                -0.1                -0.2                     0.1
45              -0.5               -0.7                -0.2                   0.1                 -0.3
46              -2.0               -0.6                -7.6                 -9.7                  -9.0

%len’s rates were subtracted from women’s rates. Therefore, a poative number indicates a htgher
women’s rate, while a negative number indiites a higher men’s rate.




Page 74                                              GAO/IWADWS7BB          Attrition   and Retention
                                         Appendix     lU
                                         Attrition    Data




Tsbie 111.7:Army Attrition Rates at 3-
Month Intervslr for 3-Yesr Enlistment    Figures     in percent
Term (Fiscal Years 1960 Through 1965)                                      Fiscal year
                                         Months        1980       1961   1902          1983          1984             1985
                                         MOft
                                         3                7.6      7.6    6.1             9.7          6.0              5.4
                                         6                5.3      4.4    5.6             4.7          44               43
                                         9                3.5      2.3    2.7             2.1          1.9              2.3
                                         12               3.5      2.4    1.9             1.5          1.7              2.1
                                         15               3.5      2.6    2.5             2.3          2.2              2.6
                                         16               3.1      2.6    2.5             2.4          2.4              2.9
                                         21               3.0      2.7    2.6             2.2          2.2              -2.4
                                         24               2.9      2.5    2.1             2.1          2.2              2.4
                                         27               2.6      2.0    2.0             2.2          1.9              2.0
                                         30               2.5      2.1     1.6            1.6          1.8               19
                                         33               2.7      3.5    2.6             2.6          2.3              2.6
                                         36               4.6      7.0    5.6            16.2         20.6             163



                                         3              11.5        14   12.7            13.7         12.7             8.3
                                         6                6.2      6.4    7.1             7.0          5.5              5.6
                                         9                4.7      3.6    3.6             2.7          2.6              26
                                         12               3.9      3.7    2.7             1.9          2.4              2.3
                                         15               4.0      3.6    2.7             2.6          2.3              2.6
                                         16               3.7      3.1    2.6             2.7          2.5              3.3
                                         21               3.5      3.3    2.6             2.3          2.6              2.7
                                         24               3.4      2.4    2.3             2.1          2.5              2.7
                                         27               2.2      1.9    2.0             2.0          2.0              2.5
                                         30               1.9      1.6     1.6            1.3          1.5               1.9
                                         33               1.7      2.6    2.1             2.3          2.1              2.3
                                         36               3.1      6.0    5.3            11.0         15.4             12.3
                                                                                                               (contmued)




                                         Page 76                                 GAO/NtQMMO-67BRAttrition    and Retention
                                                 Fhcrl year
Months lS80                 19111            1982                1983           lM4                1985
Women minur man*
3            3.9               6.2              4.6                4.0             4.7               29
6            0.9               2.0              1 .5               2.3             11                15
9             1 .2             1.3              0.9                0.6             0.7               05
12           0.4               1.3              0.6                0.4             0.7               02
15           0.5               1.0              0.2                0.5             0.1                 n
16           0.6               0.3              0.1                0.3             0.1               04
21           0.5               0.6                   0             0.1             0.4               03
24           0.5             -0.1               0.2                     0          0.3               03
27         -0.6              -0.1                    0           -0.2              0.1               0.5
30         -0.6              -0.3             -0.2               -0.3            -0.3                     0
33         -1.0              -0.9             -0.5               -0.3            -0.1              -0.3
36         -1.7              -1.0             -0.5               -7.2            -5.2              -40

‘Men’s rates were subtracted from women’s rater. Therefore, a positive numbef indicates a higher
women’s rate, while a negative number indicates a higher men’s rate.




Page 76                                                  GAO-E               Attrition   and Retention
                                           APW*        II-I
                                           Am&ion     Data




Teble 111.0:Enlisted Attrition Rates for
Enlistment Term (Fiscal Years 1960         Figures   tn percent
Through   1985)
                                                                                                                 Fiscal year
                                           Service                                        1980       1981        1982     1983         1984      198s
                                           Total
                                           Men                                             37.5       36 5       41.1      36.9        40 5
                                           Women                                           45.2       441        445       43.7        46 2
                                           Women minus met-P                                7.7        5.6         3.4      6.9         5.6        -

                                           Air Force
                                           Men                                             38.2       39.3       43.5      43.1        42.6
                                           Women                                           45.0       46.2       46.6      46.0        47 3
                                           Women mmus men                                   6.6        6.9         3.3      4.9         4.7


                                           NW
                                           Men                                             39.2       40.3       39.3      35.0        41.4
                                           Women                                           43.6       39.6       39.1      37.2        43.5
                                           Women minus men                                  4.4      -0.5        -0.2       2.2         2.1

                                           Marine Corps
                                           Men                                             41.4       43.6       56.6      41.7        467
                                           Women                                           50.2       55.2       62.6      51.2        57.6
                                           Women     minus men                              6.6       11.6         6.0      9.5         9.1

                                           Army (4-Yew enllatment)
                                           Men                                             31.5       30.0       30.6      29.4        29.7
                                           Women                                           46.7       45.0       43.2      445         44 3
                                           Women minus men                                 15.2       15.0        12.6     15.1        14.6

                                           Army (3-Yew emtletment)
                                           Men                                             45.2       42.3       39.9      51.6        51 5       47.4
                                           Women                                           49.6       52.6       47.0      51.6        54 1       49.7
                                           Women minus men                                  4.6       10.3         7.1       0.2        2.6        2.3

                                           aFiscal year 1985 applies only to the Army’s 3-year enlistment term

                                           bDifferences may not appear exact due to rounding.
                                           Note: The enlistment term used here is 1 week short of the full 3- or 4-year term In calendar weeks




                                           P8ge 71                                                GAO/NSlAD40437BR         Attrition   and Retention
Tab40 111.9:Cnlirted Attrition Rator for
EnHstmont Tom Minus thm L8at 6             Figures    in percent
Months (Fiscal Years 1980 Through 1985)                                                                             Fiscal year
                                           SWViCO                                           1960       1961         1962     1963    1984         1965’
                                           lot8l
                                           Men                                               33.2       34.0        32.9     29.3    29.3
                                           Women                                             42.8       39.7        37.9     36.6    37.9
                                           Women minus men                                    9.6        5.7         5.0      73      A6

                                           Air Porco
                                           Men                                               32.8       33.5        32.5     27.6    27.3
                                           Women                                             40.8       39.1
                                                                                                        .s,s        36.5
                                                                                                                    -;,.     33.7
                                                                                                                             -sll    .34
                                                                                                                                     - ..-5
                                           Women minus men                                     8.0                                     7.2

                                           N8W
                                           Men                                               32.1       33.7        31.8     27.2    27.7
                                           Women                                             38.9       33.8        32.4     30.7    31.6
                                           Women minus men                                     6.8       0.1          0.6      3.5     3.9

                                           Marino Corps
                                           Men                                               33.5       36.6        34.0     31.6    31.2
                                           Women                                             46.7       50.2        46.7     44.8    46.0
                                           Women minus men                                    13.2      13.6         12.7     13.2    14.8

                                           Army      (44m    otwstmm)
                                           Men                                               35.3       33.5        34.1     32.4    32.5
                                           Women                                             49.9       a.0         46.5     47.1    47.8
                                           Women minus men                                    14.6      14.5         12.4     14.7    15.3

                                           Army @-War albtmmt)
                                           Men                                               37.7       31.8        31 .a    30.8    20.7           28 5
                                           WInen                                             45.0       44.0        39.9     38.5    36.6           35.1
                                           Women minus men                                     7.3      12.2          8.1      7.7     79            6.6

                                           SFisd year 1985 appks        only to tha Army’s Syear enlistment term.




                                           Pqc 18                                                    GAO/NsuDgo87BBAttrition and              Retention
T&la 111.10:Misconduct 8s a Percontago
of Total Men’s Saprations During S-           Figures    in percent
MO&     Intwvrls (Fiscal Years 1982 Through                                         Air              Mwino           Sorvices
1984-4-Year   Enlistment)                     Months                              Force              COQS          combineda
                                                                                           NW
                                              19112
                                              O-6                                   0.2      0.7        6.0                   14
                                              7-12                                 21.9     14.5        9.7                  12.3
                                              1318
                                              .- .-                                43.1     26.1       22.7                 23.5
                                              19-24                                48.0     36.0       28.0                 292
                                              25-30                                38.9     35.6       26.2                 282
                                              31-36                                30.4     31.3       22.0                 24.6
                                              _. .-
                                              37-42                                14.9     31.5       19.6                  19.1
                                              43-46                                 2.0       3.3       0.9                   1.7
                                              Tot81                                12.7     13.5        7.3                   9.2

                                              1983
                                              O-6                                   0.3       1.1       0.1                   0.4
                                              7-12                                 30.1      15.9      12.5                  14.5
                                              13-18                                35.8      26.3      20.8                  21.5
                                              19-24                                33.8      31.7      22.0                  23.6
                                              25-a
                                              -- --                                33.3      31.8      20.6                  24.7
                                              31-36                                27.6      30.2       17.5                 22.4
                                              37-42                                22.2      28.9      20.5                  21.2
                                              43-48                                  1.5      2.2        1.0                   1.4
                                              Tetd                                 10.7      10.9       5.1                   7.4


                                              1984
                                              O-8                                    0.3      0.5        0.1                   03
                                              7-12                                 36.6      18.0        9.9                  16.2
                                              13-18                                31.7      27.9       15.8                 21.5
                                              19-24                                32.8      29.9       16.7                 23.1
                                              25-30                                31.4      30.7       19.4                 24 1
                                              31-36                                30.7      31.8       19.9                 23.9
                                              37-42                                 13.2     25.6       19.5                  16.9
                                              43-48                                  1.4       1.7       0.8                   1.1
                                              Tot81                                  9.8     10.0        4.6                   7.1

                                              alnclucks Army 4-year enlistment.




                                               Pye      79                                 GAO/N-B      Anrition   ud   Retention
    Table III.1 1: Unsatisfactory Porfornwncr, and Drugs and Akohollsm IS s Porcontago of Total EnliMed MOWSSoporations From
    thoArmy    Ourlnp &Month InteMls (Fiscal Years 1982Throuoh  1985')
    Fiaures   in oercent




    I-Yorr enlistment
    O-6                         1.2        0.1                    0.4            0.2                  0.5           0.1
    7-12                       45.1        8.2                   43.1            6.4                30.3            6.5
    13-18                      40.2       20.2                   36.2          13.3                 20.8           20.1
    19-24                      38.2       19.7                   27.3          18.2                  15.5         25.5
    25-30                      29.5       18.4                   18.0          22.9                  13.8         25.4
    31-36                      22.1       16.1                   12.5          22.3                   9.6          18.6
    37-42                      17.0       26.0                    9.7          22.6                   8.3          17.7
    43-48                       0.8        1.9                    0.4            1.3                  0.5           0.9
    Total                      11.7        7.0                    7.5           s.0                  5.7            6.7

    3-Mu mlktnwnt
    O-6                         1.2        0.1                    0.5           0.2                   0.4           0.2                   0.5           0.2
    7-12                       47.2        6.0                   41.7           8.1                 31.8            6.9                  21.5           9.2
    13-18                      42.6       19.9                   36.9          15.0                 26.4           17.9                  19.0         19.3
    19-24                      43.1       18.4                   29.5          18.2                 18.4          26.6                   15.5         19.5
    25-30                      36.8       15.7                   21.3          21.6                 15.2          22.1                   14.3         184
    31-36                       2.3        1.4                     1.0           1.8                  0.8           1.3                   0.9           16

                                                 ‘Fiscal year 1985 applies only to the Army for the Byear enlistment term.




                                                 P8ge 80                                                GAO/lW3UD-W-U7BB     Attrition      and Retention




_
                                         Appendix III
                                         Attrition Data




Table 111.12:Pregnarky a8 a Porcontage
of Total EnWed Wmen’s 6eparationr        Figures   rn percent
Dti     6-Month Intwvalr (Fiscal Years                                          )-Year term                         3-Year tarm
1982 "p hrough1984)
                                                                  Air                 Marine
                                         Months                 Force   Navy          Corps    AMY     Total                  Army
                                         1962
                                         O-6                      7.7     2.2            1.3     2.3     4.1          __-__     13
                                         7.12                    37.0   36.9            55.8    36.0   36.0                    338
                                         13-18                   36.4   53.7            58.8    52.4   46.5                    473
                                         19-24                   41.9   41.9            59.3    45.5   44.6                    440
                                         25-30                   38.5   48.0            53.9    35.8   42.0                    42.0
                                         31-36                   33.0   43.4            43.8    30.6   36.4                     3.0
                                         37-42                   22.9   44.1            43.9    36.9   32.3
                                         43-46                    3.5     4.4            1.9     2.5     3.4
                                         Total                   17.3   29.9            23.6    16.4   19.3

                                         1963
                                         O-6                      7.6     7.9            0.4     2.2     5.2                    0.5
                                         7-12                    36.2   43.8            41.6    35.8   38.9                    395
                                         13-18                   45.4    50.8           59.7    43.5   47.3                    53.6
                                         19-24                   30.9   46.1            54.4    46.3   44.4                    42.5
                                         25-30                   37.1    51.4           49.4    37.1   42.1                    41
                                         31-36                   37.2    45.7           50.6    30.1   39.2                     27
                                         37-42                   30.1   52.4            37.5    37.7   30.7
                                         43-40                    3.0     4.7            1.8     1.9     3.2
                                         Totrl                   16.9   22.7            21.3    16.5    19.6

                                         1964
                                         O-6                      6.5     2.8            2.0     1.7     3.5                    12
                                         7-12                    42.6    45.7           52.2    36.3   41.3                    38.0
                                         13-18                   35.5    57.0           51.2    43.5    45.6                   468
                                         19-24                   36.2    51.9           48.9    41.7    43.5                   41 9
                                         25-30                   33.5    45.2           47.4    36.3    38.7                   42.1
                                         31-36                   37.2    51.4           37.1    34.7    40.3                    28
                                         37-42                   19.3    47.4           41.7    29.0    26.9
                                         4348                     2.7     3.8            2.6     2.1     2.9
                                         Tow                     16.6   21.1            16.7    16.1    17.6




                                         P8gt 81                                       GAO/NSLUbWWBR    Attrition   and Retention
                                            APpcndir     JD
                                            Attrition   Data




TabI0 Ill.13Dlffwences In Enlisted
AttrRlon Mea for Men and Women              Figure in percent
Dwlng I-Month Intwvrlr, Lxcludhg                                                          Air                       Marine
Women9 Separatlmr for Pregnancy             Monthr                                     Force          Navy           Corps           Army       Total
(Fiscal Years 1982 Through   19&l--4.Year
Enlistment)                                 1962
                                            O-6                                         -0.42          0.85           -010             5.93      1.08
                                            7-12                                        -0.36        -0.88              0.32           0.50    -0.26
                                            13-18                                       -0.80        -1.96            -054           -2.24     -1.51
                                            19.24                                       -1.47        -1.68            -1.02          -0 93     -1.40
                                            25-30                                       -0.67        -1.77            -1 35          -0.53     -1.07
                                            31-36                                       -0.61        -1.73            -0.65          -0.58     -0.96
                                            37-42                                       -1.23        -1.76            -0.95          -1.17     -1.25
                                            43-46                                       -2.61        -3.47           -15.44         -12.05     -7.36
                                            O-42                                        -5.56        -8.93            -4.29            0.98    -5.39
                                            O-48                                        -8.17       -12.04           -19.73         -11.07    -12.75

                                            1963
                                            O-8                                         -1.15           1.27             1.35          6.72      1.32
                                            7-12                                        -0.09        -0.35            -0.10            0.96      0.04
                                            13-18                                       -0.61        -1.58            -0.63          -0.54     -0.92
                                            19-24                                       -0.28        -1.53            -0.19          -1.25     -0.94
                                            25-30                                       -0.67        -1.77            -0.71          -0.54     -1.01
                                            31-36                                       -0.71        -1.21            -0.94          -0.52     -0.65
                                            37-42                                       -0.10        -0.97            -0.67          -1.16     -0.67
                                            4348                                        -4.47        -6.07           -17.29         -14.21     -9.69
                                            O-42                                        -3.59        -6.14            -1.89            3.67    -3.07
                                            O-48                                        -8.08       -12.21           -19.18         -1054     -12.99

                                            l@M
                                            O-6                                           1.65          1.24            4.78           977       3.63
                                            7-12                                        -0.26        -1.12             -0.44           0.19    -0.47
                                            13-18                                       -0.88        -1.99              0.22         -0 94     -1.03
                                            19-24                                       -0.77         -1.49            -0.98         -1 65     -1.24
                                            25-30                                       -0.47        -1.14            -1.12          -1.21     -0.93
                                            31-36                                       -0.39        -1.02            -0.44          -0.71     -0.71
                                            37-42                                       -0.50         -0.95           -0.69          -0.50     -0.50
                                            43-48                                       -5.56         -4.79          -15.27         -15.24   -10.16
                                            o-42                                        -1.42         -6.47              1.33           4.95   -1.25
                                            O-48                                         -7.0       -11.26           -13.94         -10.29   -11.43
                                            Note: Men’s rates were subtractad from women’s rates. Therefore, a posltlve number lndlcates a higher
                                            women’s rate, while a negative number indicates a higher men’s rate.




                                                                                                 GAO/NSIAIMINBP         Attrition      end Retention
                                            Appendix III
                                            Attrition Data




Table 111.14:Number of Officers Entering
z58nricee    (Fiscal   Years 1981 Through   6ervICO           1961     1962    1963          1964            1965
                                                                                                                -
                                            Air Force
                                            Men               6.956    7,343   7.685         7,681           7.523
                                            Women             1,304    1,481   1,423         1,573           1.626
                                            Total            6,260    6,624    9,199        9,254           9,149

                                            Navy
                                            Men               6,527   6,050    6,341         5.185           6,682
                                            Women              828       756     936              747          843
                                            Total            7,399    6,606    7,277        5,932            7,525

                                            M8rine Corps
                                            Men               1,667    1,965   2,107         1,768           1.587
                                            Women                89       88     106               76           65
                                            Total             1,756   2,061    2,213        1,644            1,652

                                            AMY
                                            Men               9,093    8,069   8,556         8,971           8.310
                                            Women             1,452    1,315   1,332         1,603           1,528
                                            Total            10,646   9,394    9,666       10,574            9,639




                                             P8ge 88                  GAO-R            Attrldon      and Retention
                                           Appendix III
                                           Attrition Data




Table 111.15:Cetegorization of Oefenee Menpewer Oete Center Intereervico Seperation Ceder
Label                                      Intereervice eeperation code number and description
End of term of servrce                     01 expiration       of term of servrce
Early release                              02 early release,           insuffictent        retainability
                                           03 early release           to attend        school
                                           04 early release           for police duty
                                           05 early release           In the national          interest
                                           06 early release           for seasonal          employment
                                           07 early release           to teach
                                           08 early release           for other reasons             including     reductron    in force
Prior service    medrcal                   10 conditrons        existing        prior to service
Disability                                 11 disability,      severance           pay
                                           12 permanent          disability,       retired
                                           13 temporary         disability,       retired
                                           14 disability,      not existing            prior to service,        no severance     pay
                                           15 disability,      Title 10 retirement
                                           16 unqualified        for active        duty, other
Dependency/        hardship                22 dependency              or hardship
Death                                      30 death,     battle casualty
                                           31 death,     non-battle         disease
                                           32 death,     non-battle,           other
                                           33 death,     cause not specified
Enter officer    programs                  46 offiier    commissioning                 program
                                           41 warrant       officer     program
                                           42 service       academy
Retirement      (nonmedical)               50 20 to 30 years of service
                                           51 over 30 years of service
                                           52 other categories
Personality/     behavior                  60 character        or behavior         disorder
                                           61 motivational        problems
                                           62 enuresis
                                           70 unsanitary        habits
Misconduct                                 65 discreditable           incidents,         civilian   or military
                                           66 shirking
                                           75 absent        without      leave, desertion
                                           80 misconduct,             reason     unknown
                                           83 pattern       of minor disciplinary               infractions
                                           84 commission          of a serious            offense
Misconduct      (legal action)             71 civil court conviction                                                                                  -
                                           73 court martial
                                           78 good of the service,               in lieu of court martial
                                                                                                                                                          (continued)




                                           Page 84                                                                    GAO/NSlAJMM7RR      Attrition   md Retention
Lab.1                                       Intorsarvke beparation coda number and description
Drugs/alcoholism                            64 alcoholism
                                            67 drugs
                                                                                                                                                           -
Financial    irresponsibility               68 financial      rrresponsibrlity
Inaptitude                                  63 inaptitude
                                                                                                                                                    ----
Fraudulent       entry                      74 fraudulent       entry
Unfit/unsuitable,        reason   unknown   81 unfitness,       reason unknown
                                            82 unsuitability,      reason        unknown
Not retainable                              85 failure to meet minimum                 qualifications   for retention
Unsatisfactory       performance            86 expeditrous        discharge/unsatisfactory              performance
Entry level performance                     87 trainee     discharge,        entry level performance         and conduct
Other 6 through          9                  69 lack of dependent             support
                                            72 security
                                            76 homosexuality
                                            77 sexual perversion
                                            79 juvenile      offender
Erroneous     enlistment                    91 erroneous        enlistment         or induction
Marriage                                    93 marriage
Pregnancy                                   94 pregnancy                                                                                       --
Parenthood                                  97 parenthood
Other 9                                     90 secretarial      authority
                                            92 sole surviving        family member
                                            96 minority
                                            96 conscientious            objector
                                            98 breach      of contract
                                            99 other




                                            P8gelw                                                              GAO/NSIAD-WHBR   Attrition   and Retention
Appendix IV

RetentionData


                Appendix IV contains retention data for enlisted and officer grades.
                Tables IV. 1 through IV.5 provide enlisted eligibility and retention data
                for each service and the servicescombined for the 5 fiscal years
                reviewed. The tables also include the number of separations and reen-
                listments used in determining the eligibility and reenlistment rates.
                Figures IV.1 through IV.36 present the graphical analysis of enlisted
                retention for each of the services(appendix II presented the graphs only
                for the servicescombined).
                Tables IV.6 through IV.9 contain the annual officer retention rates for
                the services combined, and each service except the Marine Corps, for the
                5 fiscal years reviewed.




                                                       GAG/NSLUHM7BR     Attrition   and Retention
                                                 Appendix    IV
                                                 Retention    Data




Table IV.l: Enlisted Retention for the Services Combined (Fiscal Years 1984 Through             1988)
                                                                                Eligible as                             Reenlbtmentr as
                                                              Number                               Eligible who     Percentage of Precenta e
Fiscal year                         Total ETS’                eligible       percen~%i                   reenlist         eliaible      ofE P S

Fint term retention

Men                                    234,216                 149,971                   64.0              75,805              50.5                  32 4
Women                                   34,148                   24,652                  72.2              13,425              54.5                  39 3
Women minus merP                                                                          8.2                                   3.9                   69

1955
Men                                    235,254                 160,389                   68.2              76,319              47.6                  32 4
Women                                   32,125                   21,984                  68.4              11,241              51.1                  35.0
Women minus menb                                                                          0.3                                   3.5                   2.6

lW6
Men                                    235,628                 165,262                   70.1              80,951              49.0                  34.4
Women                                   33386                    21,599                  64.7              10.990              50.9                  32 9
Women minus menb                                                                      -5.4                                       1.9                 -14

lg67
Men                                    233,307                 167,895                   72.0              81,539              48.6                  34 9
Women                                   30,279                   20,613                  68.1              10,772              52.3                  35 6
Women minus mena                                                                      -3.9                                      3.7                   06



Men                                    241,218                 170,013                   70.5              82,054              48.3                  34 0
Women                                   32,005                   21,856                  68.3              11,880              54.4                  37 1
Women minus met-P                                                                     -2.2                                      6.1                   31

Second term retention


Men                                     83,614                   65,969                  78.9              49,623              75 2                  59 3
Women                                    8,136                       6,892               84.7               4,684              68.0       __-        57 6
Women minus menb                                                                          5.8                                 -7.3                   -1 8

MS6                                                                                                                                             -~
Men                                     82,874                   65,670                  79.2              48,617              74.0                  58 7
Women                                    9,447                       7,603               80.5               5,048              66.4                  53 4
Women minus men”                                                                          1.2                                 -76                    -5 2
                                                                                                                                         (continued)




                                                 Page 87                                                GAO/NSUlbBOMBR    Attrition    and Retention
                                  Appmdix     IV
                                  Retention   Da8




                                                                Eli@ble   aa                            Reenliatmenta a8
                                               Number        w-nww;;               EIi#ble;$        Percenta9e of Precen
Fiscal year          Total ETS’                NW                                                         eligible       Of 2 :
1996
Men                      87,308                 72,744                 83.3              53,524                73.6             61 3
Women                    11,280                      8,971              79.5                6,126              68.3              54.3
Women minus menb                                                       -3.8                                   -5.3              -70

1997
Men                      80,572                 66,102                 82.0              49,606                75.0             61 6
Women                    11,486                      9,338             81.3                 WOO                72.8             59.2
V&men   minus menb                                                     -0.7                                   -2.2              -2.4

1999
Men                      94,607                 79,553                 84.1              60,941                76.6             644
Women                    14,306                     11,929             82.9                 9,024              75.6             62.7
Women minus me+                                                        -1.2                                   -1.0              -17

careorretentlon

lW4
Men                     104,265                 75,272                 72.2              71,897                95.5             69.0
Women                     3,039                      2,879             88.2                 2.387              89.1             78.5
Women minus menb                                                       16.0                                   -6.4                is

1999
Men                     100,696                 69,927                 69.4              66,596               95.2              66.1
Women                     3,686                     3,141              85.2                 2,771             88.2              75.2
Women minus menb                                                       15.8                                   -7.0                9.0




*men    minus menb                                                     14.9                                   -51                 OR


1997
Men                     101,786                 72,642                 71.4              69456                95.6              68.2
Women                     4,972                     4,378              86.1                 3,924             89.6              78.9
Women minus menb                                                       16.7                                   -6.0              10.7

19M
Men                     118,317                 84,389                 71.3              80,875               95.8              68.4
Women                     7,ooo                     8,049              85.4                 5,604             92.6              80.1
Women minus menb                                                       15.1                                   -3.2              11.7

                              YTS refers to end of term of service separations.

                              bDifferences may not appear exact due to rounding.




                                                                                     GAO-                 Attaitlon   and Retention
                                                   &PC*        iv
                                                   Retention   D8ta




Table    IV.2:   Air Form Enlisted Retention (Fiscal Years 1984 Through        1988)
                                                                                                                        Reenlistments as
                                                                Number                             EIigibIe who     Percentrge of Prec$;       ;
Fircrl year                               TOW EW                eltgibk                                  reenlist         eligible            P

First term retention
19b4
Men                                           54,767                32,372              59.1              20,240             62.5           370
Women                                         11,472                  7,617             66.4               4,513             592            39.3
Women minus me+                                                                           7.3                               -3.3              2.4

198s
Men                                           67,891                40,976              60.4              22,265             54.3           32.6
Women                                         11,707                  6,681              57.1              3,449             51.6           29.5
Women minus menb                                                                        -3.3                                -2.7            -3.3

1gM
Men                                           53,874                34,975               64.9             20,414             58.4            37.9
Warnen                                        11.718                  5.624              48.0              3.058             54.4            26.1
Women minus menb                                                                       -16.9                                -4.0           -11.8

1987
Men                                           53,364                34,592               64.8             22,411             64.8            42.0
Women                                          9,766                  5,253              53.8              3,289             62.6            33.7
Women minus menb                                                                       -11 .o                               -2.2            -6.3

lM8
Men                                           62,336                42,193               67.7             22,956             544             36.0
Women                                         10,937                  6,373              58.3              3,622             56.0            33.1
Women minus menb                                                                        -9.4                                  2.4           -37

Second term retention

1W
Men                                           15,163                11,864               78.2              9,799             82.6            64.6
Women                                          2,952                   2,409             81.6               1,565            65.0            53.0
Women minus menb                                                                          3.4                              -17.6           -11 6

1WS
Men                                           18,664                  13,742             73.6             11,122             80.9            59.6
Women                                          3,689                   2,715             73.6               1,730            63.7            46.9
Women minus menb                                                                               0                           -172            -12.7
                                                                                                                                    (continued)




                                                   P4e    89
                                                              Eligible 80                           Reenliatmeitt8 as
                                            Number                              EIigib&lopt     Percentege of Precenta f
Fiscal year        Total ETS                ellglbh       wrcenugE!                                   eligible       ofE PS
1999
Men                    19,531                16,219                   83.0             12,926               79.7              662
Women                   4,638                  3299                   71.1              2,186               66.3              47 *
Women minus menb                                                    -11.9                                -13.4              -19.

191)7
Men                    20,706                17,091                   82.5             13,687               80.1              66.
Women                   4,690                  3,846                  82.0              2,773               72.1              59 .
Women minus menb                                                     -0.5                                  -0.0              -7

1999
Men                    28,311                23,963                   84.6             19,125               79.8              67 C
Women                   5,679                 4,667                   82.2              3,466               74.3              61 ,:
Women minus menb                                                      -2.5                                 -5.5              -6:

calwrretentiofl

1984
Men                    30,459                26,936                   70.0             25,059               96.0              67 2
Women                   1,116                   963                   86.3                813               84.4              72E
Women minus menb                                                      16.3                               -11.6                    5E

1996
Men                    36,066                23,207                   62.9             22,419               96.6              6oE
Women                   1.400                  1,202                  80.8              1,019               04.0              68.5
Women mmus menb                                                       17.8                               -11.6                    7-

19M
Men                    34,410                23,321                   67.8             22,565               96.0              65        t
Women                   1.874                  1,427                  76.1              1,258               88.2              67
Women minus menb                                                        8.4                                -8.6                    li

1997
Men                    35,08cl               24,064                   68.6             23,462               97.5              66:
Women                   1,976                  1,692                  85.6              1,552               91.7              78E
Women minus menb                                                      17.0                                 -5.8               11 ;

19g9
MWl                    40,740                27,554                   67.6             26.050               97.5              65
Women                   2,765                  2,306                  83.4              2,144               93.0              77
Women minus menb                                                       15.8                                   4.5             11

                             YTS refers tosnd of term of service separations.

                             bDifferences   may not appear exact due to rounding.




                                Pye   90                                            GAO/NSUD-@O-E7Bit   Attrition   and Retentio
                                              APPC*     N
                                              Eet4mtion D8t8




Table   IV.3: Navy EnWed Retention (Fiscal Years 1964 Through 1966)
                                                                          EiQibIe a8                           Reenlistments as
                                                         Number        m-nty$           Eliglb&;pt         Percentaged     Prece$            J
Fiscal year                         Total ETS.           eligible                                                dbm                     P
Firrt term retention

1994
Men                                      64.220            40,040               62.3          23,365                 56.4              36.4
Women                                     8,016             5,664               66.7           3,246                 55.2              36.0
Women minus menb                                                                 4.4                                -3.2                0.4

1995
Men                                      60,695            40,935               67.4           22,507                55.0              37.1
Women                                     0,796                5,653            64.3            2,930                52.0              33.4
Women minus menb                                                                -3.2                                -3.0              -3.7

1999
Men                                      60,933            39,300                64.5          23,154                50.9               30.0
Women                                     9,330                5,724             61.3           3,014                52.7               32.3
Women minus menb                                                                -3.2                                -6.2               -5.7

1907
Men                                      60,746            39,530               65.1           22,001                55.7               36.2
Women                                     0,472                5,375            63.4            2,766                51.9               ?2.9
Women minus menb                                                                -1.6                                -3.8               -3.3

1999
Men                                      66,269            42,915               64.0           23,499                54.8              35.5
Women                                     8,516                5,273             61.9           2,596                49.3               30.5
Women minus menb                                                                -2.0                                -5.5               -5.0

Second term retention

1994
Men                                      23,303            18,939               81.3           12,239                64.6              52.5
Women                                     1,135                  913            60.4                 545             59.7              40.0
Women minus menb                                                                -0.8                                -4.9               -4.5

1989
Men                                      23,471            19,176               81.7           12,344                64.4              52.6
Women                                     1,358                1,076            79.2                 592             55.0              43.6
Women minus menb                                                                -2.5                                -9.4               -9.0
                                                                                                                               (continued)




                                              P4eSl                                        GAO/N-                Attrition   and Retention
                            Appendix       N
                            Retention      Dat8




                                                               EligibIe aa                              Reenlistments as
                                            Number                                 Eliglb&lett      Percontogo of Precy;      ;
~scgl   year       Total ETS’               eligible      --gili                                          eligible           P

Men                    25,559                 21,329                  83.5                13,739             64.4          53.6
Women                   1.799                     1,431               79.5                   642             58.6          46.6
Women minus menb                                                     -3.9                                   -5.6           -70

1987
Men                    25,950                 22,156                  05.4                13,657             61.6          52.6
Women                   2,075                     1,703               82.1                   957             56.2          46.1
Women minus menb                                                     -3.3                                   -54            -6.5

1988
Men                    27,609                 23,366                  64.6                14,447             61.8          52.3
Women                   2,692                     2,209               82.1                 1,175             53.2          43.6
Women minus menb                                                     -2.6                                   -0.6           -6.7

Career retention

lgg4
Men                    27,566                 20,143                  73.1                19,126             95.0          69 4
Women                   1,015                      909                69.6                   053             93.0          040
Women minus menb                                                      16.5                                  -1.1           14.7

1985
Men                    27,366                 20,160                  73.6                18,653             93.5          60.0
Women                   1,125                      995                68.4                   903             90.8          80.3
Women minus menb                                                      14.8                                  -2.8            11.4

1986
Men                    20,503                 20,561                  71.9                19,255             93.6          67 4
Women                   1,372                     1,281               93.4                  1,160            92.1          06.0
Women minus men”                                                      21.4                                  -1.5            10.6

1967
Men                    29,164                 21,453                  73.6                19,653             92.5          66.1
Women                   1,660                     1,533               92.3                  1,392            90.8          83.9
Women minus menb                                                      18.8                                  -1.7            15.8

lg8S
Men                    30,764                 22,026                  71.6                20,307             92.2          66.0
Women                   2,067                     1,651               68.7                  1,651            89.2          79.?
Women minus menb                                                      17.1                                  -3.0            13 .

                            aETS refers to end of term of service separations.
                            bDifferences    may not appear exact due to rounding




                            Page 92
                                             Appendix    N
                                             Retention   D8ta




Tsbk Iv.1: Merlne Corps EnHsted Retention (Fiscal Years 1984 fhrowh       1988)
                                                                            Eligible OS                        Reenlistmen as
                                                          Number        percentego&        EligibhB;g      Percent8.g~ of Prece$; g
Fiscal yeor                        Totol ETS’             eligible                                               ehglble      ~- Q
First term retention

19M
Men                                    42,705               20,742                 48.6           6,010              38.6              188
Women                                   2.558                1.205                 50.2             700              545               27
                                                                                                                                       - 4
Women minus menb                                                                     1.7                              15.9              8.6

191)s
Men                                    37,006               19,975                 54.0           7,065              35.5              19.1
Women                                    2,266                  1,093              46.2             556              50.9              24.5
Women minus menb                                                                   -5.7                               15.4              5.4

1gM
Men                                    39,514               10,094                 45.8           8,197              45.3              207
Women                                    2,569                  1,082              42.1             632              58.4              246
Women minus menb                                                                   -3.7                               13.1              3.9

1907
Men                                     34,334              18,815                  54.8          6,376              33.9              186
Women                                    2.053                   931               45.3             468              50.3              22.8
Women minus menb                                                                   -9.5                               16.4              4.2



Men
Women                                    2,150                   890               41.4             344               36.7             16.0
Women minus menb                                                                  -15.0                               12.9               15

!%ecmfl term retention

1964
Men                                     11,751                  7,281               62.0          5,602               76.9             47.7
Women                                      456                    321               70.1             238              74.1             52.0
Women minus menb                                                                     8.1                             -2.0               4.3

lW5
MWl                                      8,663                  5,069               67.7           4,403              75.0             508
Women                                      509                    367               72.1             274              74.7             53.8
Wmen    minus menb                                                                   4.4                             -0.4               3.0
                                                                                                                               (conbnued)




                                             Page 93                                          GAO/NSUBW37RR      Attrition   and Retention
                                                             Eligible OS                                Reenlistments 08
                                           Number                                Eligibk;tt         Percentege of Precen
Fiscal yeor        Total ETS’              eligfbk       percenTit                                        eligible      ofET S
1988
Men                    10,066                 6,910                   66.5                4,815               69.7                47 7
Women                     732                   499                   68.2                    376             75 4                51 4
Women minus men”                                                     -0.3                                         5.7                 36

1987
Men                     8,515                 6,132                   72.0                4,207               68.6                49 4
Women                     674                   461                   71.4                    335             69.6                49 7
Women minus menb                                                     -0.6                                         1.0                 02

1988
Men                     9,411                 6,027                   72.5                4,400               64.4                46 E
Women                     745                   509                   66.3                    337             66.2                45 i
Women minus menb                                                     -4.2                                         1.8            -1 5

Coreer retention

1984
Men                     6,464                 4,556                   70.5                4,396               96.5                68.0
Women                      66                    56                   04.0                     54             96.4                81 8
Women minus menb                                                      14.3                                   -0.1                 13.8

198s
Men                     6,247                 4.436                   71 .o               4,169               94.4                67 1
Women                      81                    60                   74.1                     50             83.3                61.7
Women minus menb                                                       3.1                                  -11.1                -5.3

1988
Men                     7,413                 5,105                   60.9                4.631               94.6                652
Women                     125                    97                   77.6                     93             95 9                74.4
Women minus menb                                                       8.7                                        12                  9.2

1987
Men                     7,750                 5,603                   72.3                5,196               92.8                67 1
Women                     166                   129                   76.0                     22             17 1                13 1
Women minus menb                                                       4.5                                  -75     7           -54.C

1988
Men                     7,972                 5,616                   70.4                5,111               91 0                64’
Women                     200                   156                   76.0                    142             89 9                68:
Women minus menb                                                       5.5                                   -1      1                4‘

                            BETS refers to end of term of service separations.

                            bDifferences   may not appear exact due to rounding.




                            P8ge 94                                                 GAO/NS~lt             Attrition      and &tenth        I
                                                   bpe*         N
                                                    Retention   Data




T&IO    IV&   Army   Enlisted   Retention (Fiscal Years 1964 Throuqh       1986)

                                                                                      Eligible OS                         Reenllstmentr OS
                                                                 Number                               EIigib$;g       Percentage of Precenta
Fiscal yeor                               Total ETS              eligibk           percen~lt                                eligible     ofE !@
                                                                                                                                              S

First term retention
1964
Men                                           72,524                56,817                     70.3         24,170             42.5           33.3
Women                                         11,302                   9,066                   07.3           4,966            50.3           43.9
Women minus menb                                                                                9.0                             7.8            10.6

1965
Men                                           69,662                58,503                     84.0         24,462             41.8           35.1
Women                                          9,356                   8,557                   91.5           4,296            50.2           45.9
Women minus men”                                                                                7.5                             8.4            10.8

1g-M
Men                                           81,307                72,865                     89.6         29,166             40.0           35.9
                                               9,761                   9,169
Women minus menb                                                                                4.3                             6.7             8.0

1987
Men                                           64,661                74,950                     86.3         30,751             41.0           36.2
Women                                          9,900                   9,054                   90.6           4,227            46.7           423
Women minus met+                                                                                2.3                             5.7             6.1

1gM
Men                                           77,763                65,246                     03.9         30,541             46.8           39.3
Women                                         10.402                   9,320                   69.6           5,316            57.0           51.1
Women minus menb                                                                                5.7                            10.2            11.8




lgg4
Men                                           33,397                27,665                     83.5         21,963             78.8           65.8
Women                                          3,591                   3,249                   90.5           2336             71.9           65.1
Women minus menb                                                                                7.0                           -6.9            -0.8

MS
Men                                           32,076                26,863                     83.0          20,746            77.2           64.7
Women                                          3,891                   3,445                   66.5           2,452            71.2           63.0
Women minus menb                                                                                4.7                           -6.0            -17
                                                                                                                                      (continued)




                                                   Page 95
                                                 Eligible as                        Reenlirtmentr as
                                 Number                         Eligible who    Percentage of Precenta E
Fiscal year        Total ETS’    eligible    -nugi+i                  feenlid         eligible      ofE oc_
1986
Men                    32,132      28,286               88.0          22,042              77 9               6ac
Women                   4,111       3,742               91 .o          2,722               72.7              66 -
Women minus menD                                         3.0                              -5.2              -2 :

1967
Men                    25,401      20,721               81.6           18,055             87 1               71
Women                   4,047       3,308               81.7            2,735              82.7              6.
Women minus menb                                         0.2                              -45               -j


1966
Men                    29,276      25,397               86.8          22.989               90.4              78
Women                   5,270       4,544               86.2            4,046              89.0              76
Women minus menb                                       -0.5                               -1.4              -1

Career retention

1994
Men                    31,774      23,635               74.4           22,514              95.3              70 ’
Women                     842         751               89.2              667              88.8              79 :
Women minus menb                                        14.8                              -6.4                    a.*

1966
Men                         -.
                       30,197      22,124               73.3           21,135              95.5              70
Women                      I92
                          9--         884               89.1              799              904               Fm
                                                                                                             --
Women minus menb                                        15.8                              -5.1                10

1996
Men                    29,957      21,638               72.2           20,628              95.3              66
Women                   1,109       1,015               91.5              912              89.9              82
Women minus menb                                        19.3                              -5.5                13

1967
Men                    29,792      21,522               72.2           20,943              97.3               70
Women                    1,168       1,024              87.7              968              93.6              82
Women minus menb                                        15.4                               -3.8               11
                                                                                                     (continuec




                                                                   GAO/N6UD-9O47BR     Attrition   and Retentif
                                                                                                         Reenllrtments as
                                          NUIItbW                                  Eligfbiewho       Porcomge of Precen
Flsd   yeer         Total Insa                                                           menlist           ellgwe          z?@
                                                                                                                         OfS
lN8
Men                     38,821              29,191                    75.2                28,599               98.0              73.7
Vhmen                    1,940                1,734                   89.4                   1,667             96.1              85.9
VWrh3n minus menb                                                     14.2                                    -1.8               12.3

                             ‘ETS refers to end of term of service separations.
                             %Mbmces      may not appm    exact due to rounding.




                                                                                      GAO-                 Attrition   and Retention
Figun IV.l: Air Force Ellglbility for
Fbonlimt      - Ant Tom
                                        loo hmau
                                         a
                                         a
                                         a
                                         80
                                         7s
                                         70




                                                   GAO-   Attrition   and Retention
m       IV.2: Air Force Remllotment of
Ellglble Persons - First Term
                                         lab   hEma
                                          a6
                                          m
                                          a
                                          10
                                          7s
                                          m




                                                                                    lU8




                                                      GAO-   Attrition   ad   Retention
Fig&w@IV.% Air Foru Romflatnwnt,   8a a
PeKmmgeofTot8lsywr8tlona-Fh8f
TOilPI                                    loo      -
                                           111
                                           a0
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                                           66
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                                           w
                                           Y




                                               m                      law   lwa          lff                         lam
                                               UYW

                                                     -MUl
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                                          rage 100                                GAO-         Atttttlon   and Retention
Flguro IV.4: Air Force EllgWHty for
Roonlbtmont - Socond Term
                                      loo    WmalI
                                       a
                                       90
                                       a                                                                                . . ..*-1
                                                                             I”
                                       10
                                                               /’                              **-- *--
                                       n                                                  **
                                                           . ...*......**-          *d-
                                       70
                                       a
                                       60
                                       a
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                                       46
                                       40
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                                       130
                                       II
                                                     lw8                                              lU7




                                      P8#e 101                                    GAO/N8uD8087BB            Attrition   end Retention
                                        AppandixIV
                                        Retention      Data




Figure 1V.S:Air Force Reenlistment of
Eiiglble Persons - Second Term




                                                                  “I-     . ..   ,,   .   ,,    I,,    ..,   ,,,   ,,   ,,-.   -..,-     -    .-,.-




                                          l#U                           law           lam                                              19.7                     1m
                                          naadYw

                                                -ti
                                                mm..          m




                                        Page 102                                               GAO/N6lADNWRR Attrition                                and Retention
Flgum IV& Air Force ReenlIstmenta 88 a
Percentage of Total Sepamtions -
Second Term                              loo   hmaN
                                          a
                                          so
                                          a
                                          m
                                          7s
                                          70




                                                                               ._
                                                      HI                 lW7




                                          Page loa         GAODMUBWWRR Attrition and Retention
                                         APpc*         N
                                         Retention     Data




Figure IV.7: Air Force Eligibility for
Reonllstment - Career
                                         loo   maIll
                                          a6
                                          So
                                             --mm. --mm.
                                          3a ~...***----- --mm. ---mm                              **--
                                           w                          --mm.



                                          a0
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                                          w
                                          10
                                          1
                                          so
                                          a8                  -    .,    - ..,   .,._

                                           1m                     1011                  l#N
                                           WYW




                                         Page 104                                         GAO/NRUDW-S7RR   Attrition   and Retentior
F&we IV.): Air Force Reeniimnent   of
Ellglble Pemons - Camr
                                        loo        -
                                         -_
                                         a
                                         80                                          . . ..**.*.***m**.......
                                         a ....**...mmmmm******   ***m*- ******--
                                         a
                                         '111
                                         m
                                         a
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                                         48
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                                         m
                                         30
                                         II
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                                              la              m           m
                                             WYW

                                                   -MNl
                                                   .*.m   m




                                        Pt#t105                               GAO/N8uD9087B1       Attrition    and Retention
                                           &PC*         N
                                           Uetention      D8ta




Flgum iV.0: Air Force Reenllrtmants aa a
Percentaga of Total Sepamtlonr - Career
                                           loo    wmull
                                            a
                                            so
                                            a
                                            10                                          *.........m...
                                            75
                                            70                                                                      'L
                                            a6
                                            so




                                                                         I,
                                                                 lam                   lU7                         1oI




                                           Ptgt   106                  GAO/NSUD-WMBR         Attrition   and Retention
                                    AQpCndiXN
                                    Retention   Data




Flgum IV.10: Navy Eiigibiilty for
Reenlirtment - Fimt Term
                                    loo    hmult
                                     %
                                     9s
                                     a
                                     m
                                     n




                                                                                              lU8




                                     P&gel07           GAO/NSIAD9087Bp   Attrition   and Retention
                                       hw’=*         N
                                       Betmdon       D8ta




Flgum IV.1 1: Navy Reenllattwnt   of
Ellglble Pemons - Fimt Term
                                       loo -
                                        a
                                        so
                                        a
                                       m
                                       7s
                                       m
                                       s6



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                                       40
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                                       1
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                                       Ptgt    108                        GAO/N8uD8087Bp Attridon   and Retendon
                                          AQW* N
                                          Retention Data




Figun IV.12 Navy Reenllstmonts as a
Percentage of Tots1 Sepsrstlons - First
                                          loo      Pomaa
TOfIll
                                           96
                                           so
                                           a
                                           so
                                           7s
                                           70
                                           65
                                           68
                                           a
                                           m
                                           4s




                                            Ptgt    109    GAO/NSIMMO47BR   Attrition   and Retention
~-
Figun IV.13 Navy EligMty for
Reenlistment - Second Term
                               1Qo   hIwIll
                                a
                                so
                                86                                                            ..***...*..m**;
                                8s ---        ----...**.*....*..**...**----        ***.*---
                                7s
                                7s
                                as
                                a
                                5s
                                m
                                4s
                                48
                                a
                                SD
                                as
                                                                                              18.7              lU@




                               Pya    110                                     GAO/NSlAD4047RR Attrldon and Retention
                                    Appendix     N
                                    Retention    Data




Figun IV.lI: Navy Reenlirtmont of
Qlble Pwaonr - Second Term
                                    whreent
                                    a5
                                    a0
                                    75
                                    70
                                    65
                                                                                                          -,.
                                    60 --***                           **I---   *---------****..*****
                                                  ---1.   *****.*--*
                                    6s                                                                                  ----y****
                                    68
                                    45
                                    48
                                    38
                                    30
                                    28
                                    28

                                                                19#6              l#U                    1887                         ls0




                                     Pap   111                                          GAO/NSL4IWJWBB          Attrition   and Retention
Figure IV.lSi Navy h.nIbtnnnt,       88 8
Peroent8ge of Toa sepe~ons       -
SeoondTefm                                  600
                                            aa
                                            00
                                            7s
                                            70
                                            65
                                            66
                                            56
                                            so
                                               --***   --***                  *****---------***********
                                            45                 -********---                                             ---******
                                            49
                                            111
                                            sa
                                            II
                                            P
                                            18                                 .I .-


                                                                                       1SU                lN7




                                            Page 111                                       GAO-             Attrition      and Retention
                                        Am=*      N
                                        Retention Data




    Figwo IV.lb: Navy Eligibility for
    Reenliatmwll - CIrow
                                        loo      hmd
                                         m                                     *****-***************
                                         a@**************.----          **--                                  ---** ---*I**
                                         a6
                                         a
                                         76                                                                                           I
                                         70




                                          l#B4                    lU#               1rW                 101                     1SW
                                          Mwu
                                                 -MUl
                                                 **I*   waln.fl




                                        Page 118                                       GAO/N8uDBo%7Bo     Attrition   and Retention




-    .-
                                      Appmdlx        N
                                      l&tention      Data




Figure IV.1 7: Navy Reenllatment of
Ellglble Persons - Career
                                      160     mmala
                                          -__,
                                       96 -0h-*9***
                                                                   *.***********-------------------*************~
                                       So




                                         1W                              1r                                la@                 101                     l(o
                                         WYW

                                              -WI
                                              ***I          mpmn




                                      P4e     114                                                              GAO/lWADMM7BB     Attrition   and Retention
                                             Appcndlx   N
                                             Retention Da?a




FIgwe IV.18: Navy Roenllrtnnntr    as a
Percentage of Total Sop8ntions    - Career   1oo -
                                              66
                                              60




                                                                             ln7                  lS8@




                                             P8ge 116         GAO/NSuDgo87BBAttrition   and Retention
                                             Appc*w
                                             Retention         Data




Figure IV.19: Marine Corps Eligibility for
Rnnliatment - Flnt Term
                                             loo        -
                                              66
                                              aa
                                              n
                                              a0
                                              m
                                              ‘70
                                              Y
                                              8




                                                                                                                               --------
                                              Y
                                              m
                                              31                                 -.---         - .-- .,

                                                  l#U                        m           m                   lU7                          10
                                                  MYW

                                                        -Urn
                                                        I***          warm




                                             P8ge 116                                        GAO/NSUMO47BR         Attrttion    and Retentiw
                                          API=*              N
                                          Retention          D8ta




Figure IV.20: Marine Corps Reenllrtment
of EIIgiMe Persona - Firat Term
                                          loo        -
                                           I
                                           90
                                           86
                                           (10
                                           7s
                                           76
                                           66
                                           a                                                        *----**
                                           I -***I                                        **-- go--                       --**
                                                                                                                                 ---0..
                                           m                   -------------
                                                                                                                                            --*r-
                                           46                                                                                                       --0 -0
                                                                                                                                                           -0
                                           M                                       31                                                                           -0 -0

                                           n
                                           30
                                           a      .-_,.,-- -,_,.-.,.,-                  ,._,-.._., - .-.. .,,,. ,, ,.,


                                               19M                             m                                1m                        101                       l#N
                                               rnYw

                                                      -MUl
                                                      ***I          man




                                          P4e         117                                                            GAO/N~7BR              Attrition   and Retention
Figure IV.21: Mmine Corps
RemWbnonta as a Pwcentago of Total
Sepamtlonr - Flat Term               a00

                                     45



                                     55




                                     10         _   ..,__-,,.
                                                         .... -,.-.__.- _..-._          .

                                                    1r                           m                    lW7




                                     Page 118                                        GAO/N&O5047Blt     Attrition   and Retention
                                             APW*                N
                                             Retention           Data




Figure IV.22: Marine Corps Eligibility for
Reenlistment - Second Term
                                             loo      hIma
                                              %
                                              90
                                              55
                                              0
                                              75
                                              7. **********------0               -----am*-           _.-   --   ----------**********

                                              55
                                              56          ~~
                                              55
                                              50
                                              da
                                              40
                                              m
                                              50
                                              m

                                                   1596                     1Y               111)                            lU7
                                                   MYW
                                                          -Urn
                                                          ****          m




                                              P8ge 119                                              GAO/N8uD8087Bp                 Attrition   and Retention
                                      Appc-XN
                                      Dctcntlon     Data




Figw IV.23 Marine Corps Remllatmont
of Eliglbk Perma - Second Tmn
                                      loo    -
                                       w
                                       so
                                       56
                                       50
                                       75 ********-----    -r********---*
                                                                             ---0.
                                                                                     ---0.
                                       m                                                     ----***
                                                                                                               ----rrr**,
                                       m
                                       50
                                       55
                                       50
                                       45
                                       40
                                       m
                                       30
                                       25




                                      P4a     120                           GAO-R                  Attrition       and Retention
Flgure IV.24i Mwlne Corps
ReonWmenta 18 l Percentqe   of Total
                                       loo    koaa
SepwUons - Second Term
                                        w
                                        60
                                        85
                                        #
                                        75
                                        70
                                        65
                                        50




                                        40
                                        m
                                        50
                                        ?I

                                                     m          l(11                       lU8




                                        Pyc   121        GAO-          Armtloa   and Ihetention
m    IV.=   Mwlno Corps EIQibiHty tar
RW-CUOU
                                        loo    -
                                         55
                                         50
                                         55 -0.
                                         a         -0,   --0,                 ****---------*********************
                                         m                      --..****---
                                         70
                                         55
                                         a
                                         55
                                         m
                                         45
                                         40
                                         55
                                         50
                                         m                                                      - -,,.. .
                                                                              _.
                                             l@M                     ,555                m                         1#8T                     l555
                                             WYW
                                               -Urn
                                               ***I      mDnrn




                                        Page122                                                GAO-                   Attrltlon   and Retentior




                                                                                                                                             .-
                                         Appendix       N
                                         Retention D8b




Figure IV.26: Marine Corps ReenliMment
of Eligible Person8 - Career
                                         100
                                                                              _   _.-                . .Y
                                                  --0                                          *a-          l
                                          a             --**                              *-                    *
                                                               --0.                *a--                             l
                                                                      -***-                                             l
                                          a                                                                                 l

                                          70

                                          w

                                          a

                                          40

                                          10

                                          20

                                          10
                                              0

                                                                        1SW                           l#N                       lU7




                                         P4e      12s                                                       GAO/NSIAD&M7Bil       Attrition   and Retention
Flgure IV.27: Marine Corp5
Reonlhtmenta aa l Percentago of Total
                                        loo      u
Sepwtbno - hoer
                                         10




                                          0
                                                 _.._..,. ., .-,
                                          l556                       me   m                   lU?                           1SDf
                                          WYW

                                                 -MNl
                                                 ***II        wemo




                                        P4e      124                          GAO/TWADW27BP         Attrition   and Itetentiol
                                     APL=*       N
                                     Retention     Data




Figure IV.28: Army Eligibility for
Reenlistment - Flrat Term
                                     loo    hmaa

                                                                 ******--------******
                                                                                                              --***         -1********..*
                                                                                                                                                            \




                                      75
                                      70
                                      65
                                      W
                                      65
                                      W
                                      45
                                      40
                                      m
                                      30
                                      a5

                                                          19.S                          1W                            111                              l#I)




                                      Page 125                                               GAO/NSlAlWM7BB             Attrition           and Retention




  -..
                                                                                   ~-
                                     Appendix lv
                                     Retention   Data




Figure IV.29: Army Roonllstmont of
Eligibk Porsonr - First Tom




                                     a6
                                     66
                                     1                                 ---.




                                     P8ge 126           GAO/N~R   Attrition   and Retention
Figure IV.30: Army Reonlistmontr as a
Porcontrgo of Total gqmMions - Fht
Tornl                                   loo    -
                                         w
                                         so
                                         w
                                         60
                                         7s
                                         ‘20
                                         66
                                         w
                                         66




                                        Page 127   GAO-R   Attrition   and Retention
FigwIv31:Amly      EUOibimyfor
Roanllatnlant - sooond Tom
                                 loo   hmom
                                  66




                                              lu6           101




                                 Pye   128          GAO-R     Attrldon and Retention
                                    Appendix    N
                                    Retention   Data




Figun IV.32: Army Reenlistment of
EIlglble Persons - gecond Term      loo    hmaN




                                     %
                                     60
                                     %
                                     so
                                     46
                                     40
                                     Y
                                     20
                                     26




                                    Pa#e 129           GAO/NSlAD9@67RR   Attrltlon   and Retention
GAO-R   Attrition   and Retention
Appe*       IV
Retention    Data




76
m
65
60
8
50
46
40
%
%
%

                    lam                 1W                   lU8




Page la1                  GAO/Nt3IAlMW~RAttrition   and Retention
Appendix    N
Retention   D8t.a




Pyc   182           GAO-R   Attrition   and Retention
                                           API=*        N
                                           Retention D8ta




Figure IV.36: Army Reenlistments as a
Percentage of Total geparatlons - Career
                                           1Qo   hmau
                                           %
                                           %




                                           75
                                           m
                                           %
                                           60
                                           %
                                           90
                                           46
                                           40
                                           311
                                           a
                                           25




                                           Page lsa         GAO/lUt3lAD~7SRAttrition   and Retention
Table IV.6: Officer Retention Ratoa for
the Sorvkoe   Combined (Fiscal Years 1984   Figures     in percent
Through   1986)
                                                                               Fiscal year
                                            zzi:"             1664    1965          1666         1667                  1666
                                            Men
                                            3                90.88    90.50        91.22         90.48                90.21
                                            4                88.30    88.30        89.01         86.56                88.10
                                            5                 91.26   90.85        90.98         90.31                90
                                                                                                                      __.70_
                                            6                 91.60   90.87        90.75         90.72                90.95
                                            7                 92.68   91.43        91.09         89.68                89.79
                                            8                 94.14   92.71        93.09         92.50                91.89
                                            9                 95.86   94.88        94.65         94.37                94.18
                                            10                95.88   95.51        95.02         94.71                93.75
                                            11                95.64   94.66        93.92         91.28                 90.97
                                            12                95.45   94.35        95.49         95.24                 96.00
                                            13                97.40   97.40        97.79         97.40                 97.15
                                            14                97.92   98.15        98.21         97.69                 97.74
                                            15                96.31   98.15        98.30         96.15                 98.26
                                            16                99.02   96.61        98.56         98.72                 96.55
                                            17                99.07   99.05        99.09         99.02                 98.76
                                            18                98.38   99.31        98.50         99.30                 99.43
                                            19                98.52   98.68        96.67         98.90                 98.88
                                            20                68.85   70.95        72.03         68.41                 68.50
                                            21+               81.77   02.74        84.15         83.85                 82.71



                                            3                 82.86   02.50        82.11         81.67                 00.29
                                            4                 84.39   83.85        84.95         84.62                 84.16
                                            5                 91.25   89.85        86.13         88.53                 88.88
                                            6                 91.78   91.11        88.88         88.73                 89.30
                                            7                 92.92   91.94        91.47         89.68                 88.43
                                            8                 93.62   93.00        93.19         92.85                 91.31
                                            9                 92.85   94.44        94.30         92.80                 93.23
                                            10                93.44   91.44        95.41         93.05                 93.13
                                            11                95.93   9!5.43       83.44         90.66                 91.29
                                            12                96.25   84.83        93.55         94.36                 96.04
                                            13                97.21   97.52        95.88         95.56                 94.82
                                            14                96.24   97.37        97.30         97.71                 96.66
                                            15                97.96   97.60        96.07         97.65                 97.24
                                                                                                                (continued)




                                            Pyc       134                        GAO/NSMD@W7RR    Attrition   and Retention
APPC*       N
Retention   Data




Yom in                                            Fiscal year
service        1984               1985                 1986                1987                 1988
16             98.40              9917                98 09                98.93               99 19
17             98.96              99.68               98 94                9917                99 14
18             99.48              98.97               99.68                99 73               98 as
19             96.18              94.57               96.89                9662                96 73
20             75.84              79.95               75.00                75.88               73.75
21+            79.65              81.86               82.83                80.83               8127

Women minus men’
3             -7.92               -8.01               -9.11               -8.80                -9 91
4             -3.91               -444                -4.06               -3.94                -3.94
5             -0.02               -1.00               -2.85               -1.79                -102
6             -0.02                 0.24              -0.87               -1 99                -1.65
7                  0.23             0.50                0.38                0.01               -1.36
8             -0.53                 0.29                0.10                0.35               -058
9             -3.21               -0.44               -0.35               -1.56                -0 95
10            -2.44               -4.07                 0.40              -166                 -0.61
11                 0.29             0.77              -0.49               -0.62                  0.33
12                 0.80             0.48              -1.94               -0.89                  004
13            -0.19                 0.12              -1.80               -185                 -2.34
14            -1.69               -0.78               -0.91                 0.02               -108
15            -0.35               -0.55               -2.23               -0.50                -102
16            -0.63               -0.44               -0.47                 0.21                 0.64
17            -0.11                 0.63              -0.15                 0.15                 038
18                 0.11           -0.34                 0.17                0.43               -055
19            -2.34               -4.12               -1.78               -2.28                -2.15
20                 6.99             9.00                2.97                7.47                 5 10
21+           -2.12               -0.85               -1.32               -3.02                -1 44

Slen's  rates were subtracted from women's rates.Therefore,a  positive numberrndrcates a higher
women’s rate, while a negative number indicates a higher men's rate. Differences may not appear exact
due to rounding.




Page 131                                             GAO/IUgL4DW-g7RR       Attrition   and Retention
Tab40 IV.7: Air Force Offkor Retentkn
R~(FiscelYears    1984Through   1988)   Figures    in percent
                                        Yeara in                         Fiscal year
                                        sewke            lw4     lS85        lffl            1987                  1988


                                        3                95.88   95.98       96.45           96.39                9490
                                        4                66.74   90.21       90.16           89.24                89.52
                                        5                95.02   94.21       94.49           94.00                9406
                                        6               93.86    93.59       93.52           94.50                93.&i
                                        7                94.75   93.67       93.38           89.11                --.--02
                                                                                                                  A!3
                                        8                95.16   93.88       93.39           93.16                90.72
                                        9               96.07    95.43       94.62           93.88                9447
                                        10              98.35    96.00       95.25           94.75                94.31
                                        11               97.43   95.74       94.05           93.83                 91.70
                                        12               94.03   91.99       93.94           95.24                 98.80
                                        13               97.55   96.98       97.72           97.61                 97.26
                                        14               98.16   98.29       98.09           98.22                 98.18
                                                                                                                   --. .-
                                        15               96.75   98.40       98.50           98.84                 98.39
                                        16               99.26   98.69       98.56           98.94                 98.89
                                        17               99.24   99.21       99.44           98.99                 99.10
                                        18               99.56   99.61       99.74           99.49                 99.76
                                        19               99.38   98.63       99.17           99.44                 99.23
                                        20               67.27   70.49       71.07           88.26                 63.90
                                        21+              77.61   80.22       62.71           82.01                 80.59



                                        3                84.45   83.93       85.48           83.24                 82.27
                                        4                82.8    81.22       81.93           85.01                 83.85
                                        5                91.37   89.33       87.21           90.31                 88.90
                                        6                93.05   93.17       90.50           87.18                 89.76
                                        7                93.31   91.77       91.97           89.67                 85.93
                                        8                94.10   92.82       93.28           93.52                 91.45
                                        9                93.61   94.12       94.54           93.23                 94.07
                                        10               93.73   91.51       94.40           95.84                 93.88
                                        11               98.86   95.36       92.49           90.55                 89.77
                                        12               94.22   90.96       91.46           94.50                 98.90
                                        13               97.37   97.72       96.28           97.73                 97.59
                                        14               96.10   98.39       93.07           98.25                 97.70
                                        15               97.48   99.32       98.90           96.81                 96.88
                                                                                                            (contmued)




                                        Page l&l                           GAO/N8uDg(L878p    Attrition   and Retention
Appendix N
Retention   D8ta




                                                  Fiscal year
:cz:”          1984               1986                 1986                1907                 1988
16             99.39              97.44                97.97               98.35               99.59
17             98.99             100.00                98.25              100.00               99.44
18             99.21             100.00              100.00               100.00              10000
19            100.00              99.21               97.00                99.38               98.20
20             47.25              42.66                56.20               48.57               52.10
21+            74.13              7754                 78.46               78.40               77 40

Women minu8 morP
3            -11.23             -12.05               -10.98              -13.15               -12.62
4             -6.05               -8.99               -8.23                -4.23               -5.68
5             -366                -4.87               -7.28                -3.70               -5.16
6             -0.81               -0.52               -3.03                -7.32               -4.05
7             -1.44               -1.90               -139                   0.58              -3.09
8             -1.06               -1.04               -0.12                  0.37                0.73
9             -246                -1.32               -0.08                -0.65               -0.40
10            -2.62               -4.49               -0.85                  0.89              -0.65
11            -0.55               -0.39               -1.56                -3.28               -1.93
12                 0.20           -1.02               -2.46                -0.75                 0.11
13            -0.18                 0.74              -1.44                  0.11                0.34
14            -2.05                 0.09              -0.02                  0.03              -0.48
15            -1.27                 0.93                0.40                 0.17              -1.51
16                 0.13           -1.26               -0.59                -0.58                 0.70
17             -0.25                0.79              -1.19                  1.01                0.34
18             -0.35                0.39                0.26                 0.51                0.24
19                 0.82             0.59              -2.17                -0.08               -1.03
20           -20.02              -2764               -14.87               -17.69              -11.81
21+            -3.49              -2.66                -4.24               -3.62               -319

*Men’s rates were subtracted from women’s rates. Therefore, a positive number indrcates a higher
women’s rate, white a negative number indicates a nigher men's rate. Differences may not appear exact
due to rounding.




P4e 137                                              GAO/NSIAD-WWBR
                                                                 AttxldonandRetention
                                       AppendixN
                                       &tenuon Data




Tabh 1V.b:Navy omcor R*tentlon Rator
(Fiscal Years 1984Through   1988)      Fiaures   in cwcent
                                                                       Flsc8l year
                                       ZE              1984    198s         1906           1987                  1980


                                       3              93.07    93.22       93.37           93.33                92.92
                                       4              87.62    88.05       88.62           88.44                89.84
                                       5              88.20    88.41       89.70           88.49                88.48
                                       6              89.09    86.51       87.35           86.57                86.72
                                       7              89.24    86.04       86.05           86.81                87.23
                                       8              90.70    89.33       89.58           89.06                89.27
                                       9              93.88    91.79       92.50           92.64                91 95
                                       ld             94.60    83.96       92.51           91.90                89.01
                                       11             96.58    96.03       95.00           95.77                95.59
                                       12-            97.26    96.70       96.95           97.40                96.23
                                       13             97.i     97.51       97.92           97.79                97.94
                                       14             97.98    98.13       98.33           97.74                98.07
                                       15             98.78    98.50       98.54           98.39                 98.94
                                       16             99.17    98.95       98.80           98.83                 98.53
                                       17             99.25    99.18       99.08           99.04                 98.60
                                       18             99.15    98.81       99.47           99.55                 99.13
                                       19             98.52    98.51       98.71           98.77                 99.09
                                       20              74.11   73.76       74.44           73.74                 74.67
                                       21+            85.98    85.35       85.23           85.22                 83.67



                                       3               87.35   88.77       83.23           83.91                 81.70
                                       4               89.36   87.75       88.73           8448                  81.94
                                       5               90.08   90.89       89.97           88.54                 89.33
                                       6               m?o     89.93       88.40           86.96                 89.92
                                       7               92.89   91.01       80.98           87.28                 90.14
                                       8               94.27   95.78       91.71           92.03                 89.91
                                       9               93.91   96.30       92.88           92.43                 92.66
                                       10              96.23   87.96       96.60           90.74                 89.10
                                       11              98.80   96.09       93.65           94.76                 96.05
                                       12              98.34   97.64       97.20           98.37                 96.73
                                       13              98.59   98.87       94.92           93.57                 92.67
                                       14              86.64   98.60       98.26           97.98                 97.05
                                       15              99.03   97.86       97.16           97.67                 97.56
                                                                                                          (continued)




                                       Pya lsa                            GAO/N8uDBoglBp    Attrition   and Retention
Appendix N
Betcntion D8ta




Years in                                          Fiscal war
service       i 984                1985                1986                1987                 1988
16           100.00               99.07               97.93                9926                9943
17           100.00              100.00              100.00                99.30               9925
18           10000                98.48              10900                100.00         -____ 97 92
19            98.28               96.67              100.00               100.00               98 13
20            60.00               61.67               6452                 66.67               5532
                                                                                                 ---
21+           83.46               83.45               86.30                8354                81 72

Women mlnus men.
3            -5.72                -4.45              -10.14               -9.42               -1122
4              1.75               -0.31                  0.11             -3.97                 -7 90
5              1.88                 2.49                 0.27               0.05                  0.85
6              1.12                 3.42                 1.05               0.39                  3.19
7              3.65                 4.97                 4.93               0.47                 2.92
8              3.57                 6.45                 2.13               296                  0.65
9              0.03                 4.51                 0.39             -0.21                  0.71
10             1.62               -5.98                  4.09             -1.16                   0.09
11             2.22                 0.06               -1.35              -1.01                   046
12             1.08                 0.94                 0.25               0.97                  050
13             0.86                 1.36               -3.00              -4.21                -527
14           -1.33                  0.47               -0.07                0.24               -103
15             0.25               -0.54                -1.37              -0.71                -1.38
16             0.83                 0.11              -0.97                 0.43                  0.90
17             0.75                 0.82                0.92                0.26                  0.65
18             0.85               -0.33                 0.53                0.45                -1 21
19           -0.25                -1.84                 1.29                1.23                -0.96
20          -14.11               -12.09               -9.92               -7.07               -19.35
21+          -2.53                -1.89                 1.07              -1.69                 -1.95
Stan’s rates were subtracted from women’s rates. Therefore, a positive number Indicates a higher
women's rate, while a negative number indicates a higher men's rate. Differences may not appear exact
due to rounding.




P8ge139                                              GAO/NSLUWMHBB          Attrition   and Retention
T&l8 IV.0: Army Otflcer Retention Wea
(Fiscal Years 1984Through   1988)

                                        Figures   in percent
                                                                        Asc8l     yew
                                        ZtzF            19U     lW5             1986    1987                  isaa
                                        Man
                                        3               86.89   87.21       88.08       84.69                 85.55
                                        4               88.33   87.38       88.59       88.29                 86.36
                                        5               89.73   90.40       89.88       88.57                 88.63
                                        6               92.97   92.38       92.59       91.24                 --.-
                                                                                                              9291
                                        7               93.36   93.10       92.64       ;2.;3                 92.66
                                        8               95.21   93.43       94.86       93.87                 94.19
                                        9               96.55   96.00       95.75       95.46                 95.07
                                        10              96.65   96.28       96.23       95.62                 --.-.
                                                                                                              95.57
                                        11              93.71   93.73       93.54       85.99                 87.57
                                        12              95.36   95.27       95.82       93.55                 96.54
                                        13              96.83   97.68       97.93       96.78                 96.47
                                        14              97.55   98.05       98.18       96.94                 96.88
                                        15              97.54   97.66       97.86       97.49                 97.71
                                        16              98.65   98.28       98.36       98.49                 98.25
                                        17              98.75   98.81       98.75       99.12                 98.38
                                        18              99.39   99.27       99.42       98.99                 99.26
                                        19              97.88   99.02       98.33       98.77                 98.64
                                        20              66.97   68.88           71.52   67.42                 69.27
                                        21+             82.36   83.01       84.87       84.47                 84.16



                                        3               78.74   77.99           78.68   79.19                 77.55
                                        4               83.59   83.79           85.62   84.45                 85.62
                                        5               91.90   90.34       88.32       86.51                 88.88
                                        6               91.28   88.83           89.97   91.31                 89.19
                                        7               91.94   92.80           91.35   91.77                 89.70
                                        8               92.98   90.89           93.65   92.41                 91.96
                                        9               90.57   93.33           96.17   92.63                 92.52
                                        10              90.62   92.77           95.31   91.77                 95.04
                                        11              92.72   95.16           94.72   87.04                 88.91
                                        12              97.29   95.64           93.67   91.89                 94.56
                                        13              97.16   97.67           98.09   96.35                 92.06
                                        14              98.31   96.20           97.65   98.40                 96.59
                                        15              97.71   97.70           93.68   98.13                 98.03




                                        Pyc    140                        GAO-R          Attrition   and Retention
Years in                                         Fiscal year
service       1994                1995                1999                 1987                1989
16            97 04               97 a4               99.37               99.44                99 03
17            98.45               99.21               98.51               98.75                98 a4
ia           100.00               96.52               99.20               99.25                99 37
19            95.83               96.04               97.74               96.12                97 74
20            60.53               70.42               63.64               66.42                67 63
21+           81.65               86.18               82.73               81.25                a517

Women minur man.
3            -8.15               -9.22                -9.40               -5.50                -6.00
4            -4.74               -3.56                -2.96               -3&l                 -0.74
5              2.16              -0.05                -1.56               -2.06                  024
6            -1.69               -3.55                -2.61                 0.07               -3.72
7            -1.42               -0.31                -1.29               -0.36                -2.98
a            -2.23               -2.53                -1.21               -1.46                -2.22
9            -5.98               -2.67                -0.58               -2.84                -2.56
10           -6.03               -3.51                -0.92               -3.85                -0.52
11           -0.99                  1.43                1.18                1.05                 1.34
12             1.93                0.36               -2.15               -166                 -197
13             0.33                       0             0.16              -0.43                -4.41
14             0.76               -1.86               -0.53                 1.46               -0 29
15             0.17                0.05               -4.17                 0.64                 033
16           -1.61                -0.44                 1.01                0.94                 0.78
17           -0.30                 0.41               -0.25               -0.37                  0 47
ia             0.61               -0.75               -0.22                 0.26                 011
19           -2.05                -2.98               -0.59               -2.65                -0.89
20           -6.44                  1.54              -7.89               -1.00                -1.65
21+          -0.71                  3.17              -2.14               -3.22                  1.01

Wen’s rates were subtracted from women’s rates. Therefore, a positive number lndlcates a higher
women’s rate while a negative number indicates a higher men’s rate. Differences may not appear exact
due to rounding.




Page 141                                             GAO/N8IADMWBB          Attrition   and Retention
Appendix V

Objectives,Scope,and Methodology


                 The Chairman, Subcommitteeon Military Personnel and Compensation,
                 HouseCommittee on Armed Services,requested that we review the
                 attrition and retention of women in the military. The Subcommittee
                 requested that we
             . compare attrition rates for men and women in officer and enlisted
               grades,
             l identify the primary categoriesof separation for enlisted men and
               women during their first enlistment, and
             . compare retention rates for men and women in officer and enlisted
               grades.
                 As used in this report, attrition refers to the loss (voluntary or involun-
                 tary) of military personnel prior to completion of the first term of enlist-
                 ment or obligated duty. Retention refers to the voluntary continuation in
                 military service of persons who complete their first enlistment or
                 obligation.

                 We discussedattrition and retention issueswith, and obtained documen-
                 tation from, officials of the Department of Defense,the Air Force, Army,
                 Navy, and Marine Corps. For each service, we met with officials at head-
                 quarters, military personnel centers, training commands,and one basic
                 training location.
                 Our analysis of enlisted and officer attrition, and officer retention, is
                 basedon data from the DefenseManpower Data Center. Our analysis of
                 enlisted retention usesdata obtained from the servicesthrough a special
                 request from the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defensefor Force
                 Management and Personnel.We did not verify the data obtained from
                 these sources.

                 Our review covered attrition and retention of active duty officers and
                 en&&es. For enlisted personnel, our analysis focused on non-prior ser-
                 vice enlistees for the primary terms of enlistment, which were the 4-
                 year enlistment in each service and also the 3-year enlistment in the
                 Army. Becausean officer’s initial term of obligation was generally 3,4,
                 5, or 6 years in the 19809,our review of officer attrition focused on
                 separations occurring during the first 3 years of service.

                 The data presented comparesmen and women who entered or left the
                 service in the sametime frame and context. Our review covered data for
                 5 fiscal years, with the exception of enlisted separation categorieswhich
                 were analyzed for 3 fiial years. We did not review service programs or


                 Page 142                                GAO-R            Attrition   and Retentioll
      policies which might contribute to differences in behavior for one group
      of fiscal year entrants or separations in comparison to another fiscal
      year’s results. We did not obtain information on the causesof attrition
      beyond what separation category data provides. To reach enough people
      to conduct a valid independent survey would have required considerable
      calendar and staff time and produced results with very limited
      applicability.
      We conducted our review from September 1988 to May 1989 in accor-
      dance with generally acceptedgovernment auditing standards.




      Page 148                             GAO-R           Attrldon and Retention



--.
Appendix VI

Ganments From the Department of Defense



                                             ASSISTANT    SECRETARY       OF DEFENSE
                                                  WASNINOTON.   D.C.   l0I0I-4000

                                                         68APRlQQO
              CONCLMANAOCYLYT
                AN0 WRSONNCL

                     Mr. Frank C. Conahan
                     Assistant Comptroller General
                     National Security and International
                       Affairs    Division
                     U.S. General Accounting Office
                     Washington, D.C.  20548

                     Dear   Mr.   Conahan:
                             This is the Department  of Defense   (DOD) response to the General
                     Accounting Office GAO) draft apart,        "#oEw IN THE MILITARY:
                     Attrition    and RhteI%iOn," dated March 19, 1990 (GAOCode 391096/OSD
                     Case 8273) .
                           The DOD has reviewed the report and concurs without further
                     cozmmnt. Tha Departmnt appreciates the opportunity to review the
                     report in draft form.

                                                                Sincerely,




                        PageI44                                         GAO-R          Attrition   end bteetlor
       Ppe
      hhz Contributors to This Report


                              Foy D. Wicker, Assistant Director
      National Security and   Marilyn C. Mauch, Assistant Director
      International Affairs   Beverly Ann Bendekgey, Evaluator-in-Charge
                              Judy Lasley, Evaluator
      Division                Diane Blake Harper, Social ScienceAnalyst
      Washington,DC.

      Norfolk Regional        Robert Mandigo, Site Senior
      Office                  Susan D. Martin,Evaluator




                              Pa#elM                             GAO~At%rlUMand   Reteodon
      (a@low



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