I3rief‘ing Report to the Chairman, GAO - Subcommittee on Investigations, @ommitt,eeon Armed Services, House of Representatives .____-.r_-_XI_ Now1111wr 1!)!N I( II, 1 DEFENSE I REORGANIZATION DOD’s Efforts to Streamline the Space Command 142843 United States GAO General Accounting Office Washington, D.C. 20648 National Security and International Affairs Division B-240714 November21,199O The Honorable Nicholas Mavroules Chairman, Subcommitteeon Investigations Committee on Armed Services Houseof Representatives Dear Mr. Chairman: As you requested,we reviewed the implementation of recommendations concerningthe US. SpaceCommandcontained in a February 1988 Department of Defense(DOD) task force report entitled Review of Uni- fied and Specified Command Headquarters, commonly referred to as the Vander Schaaf Report. The report recommended,among other things, eliminating all three command service component headquarters for spaceoperations. Specifically, you asked that we assessthe progress that had been made in eliminating the separate Army, Navy, and Air Force component command headquarters and in creating a single inte- grated US. SpaceCommandheadquarters. You also expressedinterest in any other actions taken by the U.S. SpaceCommandthat would affect the organizational relationships between itself and its components.We briefed membersof your staff on the results of our efforts. This letter provides additional details on the matters we discussed. Our review showed that: Resultsin Brief . The Secretary of Defensedid not accept the task force’s recommenda- tion to eliminate the service component headquarters. Instead, he directed the US. SpaceCommand and its component headquarters to eliminate 110 positions rather than the 341 positions recommendedin the task force report. l Despite the elimination of positions directed by the Secretary of Defense,the Command and the Army component headquarters have increasedtheir staffing levels since the task force issued its report. These increaseswere due primarily to planned growth, the establish- ment of new organizations within the Army component command, and additional responsibilities assumedby the Command. Page 1 GAO/NSLAD-91-49BR Space Command R-249714 The U.S. SpaceCommand,headquartered at PetersonAir Force Base, Background Colorado, was established on September23, 1986, as a unified com- mand’ to consolidate assetshaving to do with U.S. activities in space. The Commandis responsible for providing an integrated warning and assessmentof missile and space-relatedattacks on the continental United States.The Commandhas responsibilities in both spaceopera- tions and aerospacedefense.The Commanderof the U.S. SpaceCom- mand also servesas the Commanderof the North American Air Defense Command(Nom)-a binational commandresponsible for the aerospace defenseof Canada and the United States. The U.S. SpaceCommandhas three service components:the Air Force SpaceCommand,at PetersonAir Force Base,Colorado; the Naval Space Command,at Dahlgren, Virginia; and the Army SpaceCommand at Colo- rado Springs, Colorado. The Air Force and Navy SpaceCommandswere established as major component commands,before the task force review, in 1982 and 1983, respectively. However, the Army Space Agency was not converted to a major component commanduntil April 1988, and at that time its name was changedto the Army Space Command. In a memorandum dated December14, 1987,the Secretary of Defense directed that DOD Deputy Inspector General Vander Schaaf review the unified and specified command headquarters. The primary objective of the review was to identify ways to reduce staffing levels and overhead costs,giving particular attention to overlapping responsibilities, duplica- tion of functions, and excessiveorganizational layering. The task force issued its report in February 1988. The task force identified 2,391 positions associatedwith the U.S. Space Commandand its major component headquarters. It recommended transferring 1,446 positions from the component command headquar- ters to the Command headquarters and eliminating 1,768 positions at the major component headquarters. Additional reductions were to result from reducing the staffing standards for watch stander positions,2 which would entail eliminating 28 positions from the Command’s combat operations staff. ‘Unified commands are composed of forces from two or more services. 2Watch standers are crew positions for staffing command and control center functions such as missile warning, space surveillance, space control, and space defense. Page 2 GAO/NSlAIb91-49BR Space Command B-849714 The Secretary of Defensedid not agreeto transfer the 1,446 positions or Recommendationto to eliminate the positions that the task force recommended.Instead, the Eliminate Component Secretary directed, in September 1988, that the U.S. SpaceCommand CommandsWasNot and its component headquarters reduce their staffs by a total of 110 positions. The Secretary indicated that he was persuaded by a compel- Acceptedby the ling casemade by senior military leadership that the service components Secretary of Defense of the unified commandsneededto be retained. Therefore, he rejected most of the proposed reductions associatedwith that recommendation. U.S. SpaceCommandofficials agreedwith the Secretary’s decision to retain the service component headquarters, citing the lack of any benefit in altering the current organizational structure. From a legal, opera- tional, and resourcemanagementperspective, Commandofficials saw no advantagesin disestablishing the component headquarters. They said that the componentswere essential for effectively distributing the Com- mander’s span of control, which allows the Commandto focus on its primary mission. In addition, the Commanddid not accept the task force’s recommenda- tion to reduce the staffing standards for watch standers. Commandoffi- cials said that the standards for watch stander shifts are basedon a traditional conceptthat works well, and they saw no benefit in changing the standards. Table 1 shows the U.S SpaceCommandand its major componentshead- quarters’ authorized staffing baseline used by the task force, the changesrecommendedby the task force, and the changesthat were directed by the Secretary of Defense. Page 8 GAO/NSIAIb914OBR Space Cmmnand - 5.249714 Tablo 1: U.S. Space Command and Its Major Componentr Headquarterr’ Ba#ellne staff Proposed task DOWdIrected Basallna Staff Levels, Propoaad Task level8 force change8 8tafl changes Force Changer, and DOD-Directed U.S. Space Command Changer Headquarters 291 +1,445 -8 Combat operations 342 -28 -3 Subtotal 633 +1,417 -1V Major components headquarters Army Space Command 42 -42 -2 Naval Space Command 103 -103 -3 Air Force Soace Command Command headquarters 709 -709 -94 Combat operations 904 -904 0 Subtotal 1,758 -1,758 -99 Total 2,391 -341 -110 aDirected reduction to US. Space Command/NORAD was 11. Reductions of 3 positions taken in NORAD, with remaining 8 taken at U.S. Space Command. The Command has experiencedsomegrowth since the task force issued The Commandand the its report. Commandofficials said increasesresulted primarily from Army Component three factors: planned growth of the General DefenseIntelligence Pro- HeadquartersHave gram, growth resulting from the normal budgeting processand validated by a Joint Chiefs of Staff staffing survey, and growth as a result of ExperiencedGrowth transferring Special Security Office responsibilities from the Air Force DespiteDOD-Directed component to the U.S. SpaceCommand. cuts Staff levels at the Army component headquarters have also grown during this period. Commandofficials cited the transfer of DefenseSat- ellite Communication System elements from the Information Systems Commandto the Army component as the primary reason for the increase.In addition, staff levels increasedas new functions were trans- ferred from other commands,and as the Army SpaceAgency was con- verted to a component command. The Naval component headquarters has not seenany changein staffing during this period, and Commandofficials do not expect any change in the future. They said growth has been limited by a congressionalman- date that capped staffing levels at the Naval component before the task force issued its report. Staffing levels at the Air Force component headquarters declined signifi- cantly from 1988 to 1991. Commandofficials attributed the decreaseto Page 4 GAO/NSIAD914oBR Space Command the transfer of certain functions and missions from the Air Force compo- nent headquarters to its subordinate spacewings. Although the compo- nent headquarters reduced its staffing levels substantially, increases in staffing levels at the subordinate spacewings have resulted in a net increasein the total staff of the Air Force component. Table 2 shows authorized staffing levels for the U.S. SpaceCommand and its major componentsheadquarters since the task force issued its report. Table 2: U.S. Space Command and It8 Major Compononta Herdquarton’ Staff Fiscal year Change Authorlratlons 1998 1989 1990 1991 1988-91 U.S. Soace Command Headquarters 288 306 307 315 +27 Combat operations 340 351 365 378 +38 Subtotal 828 857 872 893 +85 Major components headquarters Army Sdace Command 42 46 61 105 +63 Naval Soace Command 97 97 97 97 -tO Air Force Space Command Headquarters 709 719 720 694 -15 Combat operations 904 497 423 366 -538 Subtotal 1,752 1,359 1,301 1,282 -490 TOM 2,380 2,018 1,973 1,955 -425 Commandofficials, anticipating further staffing changesin future years, said that they expect the servicesto make staffing cuts at the component levels. However, they said that it was too early to determine the extent of the cuts. In addition, the Joint Chiefs of Staff may reduce staffing by as much as 16 percent at the unified commandheadquarters levels. Initiatives stemming from the DefenseManagementReport,3 could also reduce staff levels at the Command and its components. We conducted our review primarily at the U.S. SpaceCommand’shead- Scopeand quarters at PetersonAir Force Base,Colorado. We discussedimplemen- Methodology tation of the task force’s report with Commandofficials and obtained documents related to changesin authorized staff levels and other Y aspectsof the task force’s recommendations.We conducted our review 3The Defense Management Report wss issued in July 1989 and identified a number of initiatives to substantially improve defense management. Page 6 GAO/NM&D-91-40BR Space Cmunand from July through September 1990 in accordancewith generally acceptedgovernment auditing standards. We did not obtain written agency comments,but we discussedthis report with U.S. SpaceCommandofficials as well as representatives of the Office of the Secretary of Defense,and have included their com- ments where appropriate. Unless you announceits contents earlier, we plan no further distribution of this report until 30 days from the date of this letter. At that time, we will send copiesto the Chairmen, HouseCommitteeson Armed Services, Appropriations, and Government Operations and the SenateCommittees on Armed Services,Appropriations, and Governmental Affairs; the Sec- retary of Defense;the Director, Office of Managementand Budget; and other interested parties. We will make copies available to others upon request. Pleasecontact me at (202) 276-3990if you or your staff have any ques- tions concerningthis briefing report. Other major contributors to this briefing report are listed in appendix I. Sincerely yours, Paul L, Jones Director, DefenseForce ManagementIssues Page 0 GAO/NSIAD-91-4oBR Space Command Y Page 7 GAO/NXAD-914OBlt Spnce Command Appendix I Major Contributors to This l&port GeorgeE. Breen, Jr., Assistant Director National Security and International Affairs Division, Washington, DC. Gary L. Billen, Assistant Regional Manager St. Louis Sublocation Gregory J. Symons,Evaluator-in-Charge Diane S. Gadberry, Evaluator (39112a) Page 9 GAO/NSLAD-914BR Space Command Orclc~ring Inli)rrnat,ion The first. five copies of coach GAO report are frcx!. Additional copiths arc: $2 ctach. Orders should be sent to the following address, accompanied by a check or money order made out to thct Supc!rint,ondt~nC of Documents, when necessm-y. Orders for 100 or more copies Co be mailed to a single address are disc~unt,c~d 25 percent.. IJ.S. Gc~nc~ral Accounting Office I’. 0. Box 6015 <;;1ithersburg, MI) 20877 Ordc*rs may also be placed by calling (202) 275C241. I II,, “, .,l.” ..“.-.* ..-_...-- l-.-.-.- ._--..--
Defense Reorganization: DOD's Efforts to Streamline the Space Command
Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1990-11-21.
Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)