oversight

Defense Satellite Communications: Alternative to DOD's Satellite Replacement Plan Would Be Less Costly

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1997-07-16.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                   United States General Accounting Office

GAO                Report to the Secretary of Defense




July 1997
                   DEFENSE SATELLITE
                   COMMUNICATIONS
                   Alternative to DOD’s
                   Satellite Replacement
                   Plan Would Be Less
                   Costly




GAO/NSIAD-97-159
             United States
GAO          General Accounting Office
             Washington, D.C. 20548

             National Security and
             International Affairs Division

             B-272656

             July 16, 1997

             The Honorable William S. Cohen
             The Secretary of Defense

             Dear Mr. Secretary:

             We reviewed the Department of Defense’s (DOD) plan to acquire a
             follow-on system to the Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS).
             Our specific objectives were to assess DOD’s long-range plan to replace
             DSCS in fiscal year 2006 and its interim plan to replenish the DSCS
             constellation with satellites in the inventory, relative to satellite
             communication requirements. This report discusses an alternative to DOD’s
             long-range plan that could save the government about $2.8 billion in future
             years if acquisition of the replacement system were accelerated to fiscal
             year 2003.


             DSCS  is DOD’s primary means of providing worldwide satellite
Background   communications in support of the National Command Authorities,
             intelligence users, and military forces. DSCS also provides communications
             services to non-DOD users, as approved by the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the
             Office of the Secretary of Defense.

             According to a 1992 Joint Chiefs of Staff policy statement, the DSCS
             constellation is to consist of five fully capable satellites, plus any residual
             satellites in orbit that have partial capabilities. Currently, operational DSCS
             satellites are located over the East and West Atlantic, East and West
             Pacific, and Indian oceans. Each fully capable satellite has a
             communications throughput capacity of about 100 megabits per second
             (MBPS).1 Additionally, DOD has five DSCS satellites that are scheduled to be
             launched during fiscal years 1997 through 2003 to replenish the existing
             constellation. DOD does not plan to acquire any more DSCS satellites of the
             current design.




             1
              The amount of information that can be passed through a satellite is measured in bits per second. A bit
             is the smallest unit of information, and a megabit is a million bits. Megabits per second and gigabits
             (one billion bits) per second are used as common units of measure for high-capacity satellite
             throughput.



             Page 1                                     GAO/NSIAD-97-159 Defense Satellite Communications
                   B-272656




                   In 1996, the DOD Space Architect2 assessed alternative ways of meeting
                   emerging satellite communication requirements and established time
                   frames for replacing existing satellite communication systems. Regarding
                   DSCS, which is designed for high-capacity communications (defined as
                   1.544 MBPS and greater), the Architect recommended that DOD acquire a
                   constellation of replacement satellites, based on commercial technology
                   and using commercial acquisition practices, that would include a
                   broadcast capability.3 According to the Architect, this acquisition strategy
                   would minimize technical risks, development costs, and delivery times.
                   DOD expected that each satellite would have about 1 gigabit per second
                   (GBPS) of capacity—10 times the amount of an existing 100 MBPS
                   operational DSCS satellite. Because of expected funding constraints, the
                   Architect recommended that the first replacement satellite be launched in
                   fiscal year 2006. The Joint Space Management Board4 agreed with the
                   Architect’s recommendation, and DOD authorized the effort last fall in a
                   program decision memorandum.


                   During the next decade, DOD anticipates that its requirements for
Results in Brief   high-capacity satellite communications will increase significantly because
                   of the (1) shift in the national military strategy and (2) increasing
                   availability of advanced satellite communication technologies and services
                   and DOD’s desire to take advantage of such technologies. DOD’s Joint
                   Requirements Oversight Council5 plans to review these requirements later
                   this year.

                   The Defense Satellite Communications System’s replenishment satellites,
                   most of which are to have twice the capacity of the existing operational
                   satellites, are not expected to keep pace with the projected requirements.
                   To the extent that these requirements are not satisfied by the System, the



                   2
                    The purpose of the Space Architect organization is to consolidate the responsibilities for DOD space
                   missions and system architecture development into a single organization to achieve acquisition and
                   future operational efficiencies. The Architect also performs this function with the intelligence
                   community to support national security requirements.
                   3
                    Satellite broadcast means data would be transmitted from terrestrial sources to the satellites, and
                   then retransmitted from the satellites to multiple users, simultaneously, within focused or earth
                   coverage listening areas.
                   4
                    This Board was established by the Secretary of Defense and the Director of Central Intelligence to
                   ensure that defense and intelligence needs for space systems, and their terrestrial components, are
                   satisfied within available resources, using integrated architectures to the extent possible.
                   5
                    This Council is DOD’s authoritative forum for assessing requirements for defense acquisition
                   programs. It is chaired by the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.



                   Page 2                                     GAO/NSIAD-97-159 Defense Satellite Communications
                          B-272656




                          users’ alternative would be to lease satellite communications from
                          commercial providers.

                          Funding for the replacement of the System in fiscal year 2006 is to be
                          requested starting in fiscal year 2001. Meanwhile, the projected
                          requirements are expected to continue increasing, which will force
                          increases in the leasing of commercial satellite communication services to
                          meet unsatisfied requirements. A DOD analysis indicates that commercial
                          leasing is more costly than acquiring equivalent commercial-like
                          capabilities.

                          According to military satellite communications program representatives
                          and studies, the first launch of a replacement satellite would be technically
                          feasible in fiscal year 2003. Our analysis of the effect on costs of this 2003
                          alternative, compared to DOD’s 2006 plan, indicates that the government
                          could save about $2.8 billion in future years. The alternative, however,
                          would require DOD to transfer about $945 million in planned funding from
                          fiscal years 2004-2006 to its fiscal years 1999-2003 future years defense
                          program.


                          DOD anticipates that the requirements for satellite communications will
DOD Anticipates a         increase significantly during the next decade. In the 1996 military satellite
Significant Increase in   communications architecture study, the Space Architect predicted that the
Satellite                 demand for high-capacity communications would increase from the
                          current requirement of 1 GBPS to at least 3.6 GBPS by fiscal year 2006.
Communication             Although quantifying requirements beyond fiscal year 2006 is more
Requirements              difficult, the U.S. Space Command and other DOD representatives project
                          that the demand could be much higher by fiscal year 2010. The Joint
                          Requirements Oversight Council has not validated the fiscal year 2006
                          requirements, but it is expected to review them later this year.

                          A 1995 DOD Satellite Communications Technical Advisory Group’s final
                          report and several previous and subsequent DOD documents that led to the
                          1996 architecture study stated that the expected increase in satellite
                          communications is attributable, in part, to the shift in the national military
                          strategy from deploying large numbers of forces overseas to stationing
                          most forces in the United States. According to the documents, this shift
                          creates a greater dependence on satellite communications because of the
                          operational support required from centers in the United States when
                          forces are to be deployed overseas for military operations.




                          Page 3                          GAO/NSIAD-97-159 Defense Satellite Communications
                      B-272656




                      In addition, the documents indicate that the requirements are expected to
                      increase because of the increasing availability of advanced satellite
                      communication technologies and services. DOD has indicated its desire to
                      take advantage of such advanced technologies. Future satellite
                      communications systems, for example, are expected to support increased
                      military demands for video, imagery, and personal communication
                      capabilities as well as alternate transmission methods such as direct
                      broadcasting. These growing demands will require higher communication
                      data rates, additional communications capacity, and better
                      interoperability.


                      DOD plans to replenish the existing DSCS constellation during fiscal years
DOD’s DSCS            1997-2003 with the five satellites remaining in the inventory. DOD is
Replenishment Plan    modifying four of these satellites (1) to double each satellite’s capacity
Will Not Satisfy      from 100 MBPS to about 200 MBPS and (2) to replace potentially defective
                      parts with improved electronic components. Although the increase in
Emerging              capacity is significant, it will not keep pace with the projected
Requirements That     requirements. To the extent that valid high-capacity requirements are not
                      satisfied by DSCS, the users’ alternative would be to lease satellite
Will Result in More   communications from commercial providers.
Leasing
                      In comparing the 1 GBPS requirement for 1997 with the existing DSCS
                      constellation’s capacity, 50 percent of the requirements either are satisfied
                      by leasing commercial services or unsatisfied. Using a straight-line
                      extrapolation to 3.6 GBPS, by fiscal year 2005—1 year before DOD plans to
                      replace DSCS—about 75 percent of the requirements could be satisfied by
                      leasing or using other satellites, or could be unsatisfied.

                      A preliminary DOD assessment indicates that DOD currently pays
                      commercial providers, on average, about $450,000 per year for 1 MBPS of
                      satellite communication services. This average leasing cost was derived
                      from costs under DOD’s commercial satellite communications initiative6
                      and defense business operations fund7 rates. DOD representatives
                      estimated that of the current 1 GBPS requirement, about 500 MBPS are
                      satisfied by DSCS, about 300 MBPS are leased, and the remaining 200 MBPS

                      6
                       In 1992, DOD established this initiative to explore greater uses of the advances in commercial satellite
                      communications. The initiative is managed by the Defense Information Systems Agency and was
                      intended to consolidate commercial satellite leases into a comprehensive program to take advantage
                      of economies of scale.
                      7
                       This is a revolving fund for providing goods and services on a reimbursable basis. For commercial
                      satellite communications, the Defense Information Systems Agency develops specific billing rates for
                      use by DOD components.



                      Page 4                                     GAO/NSIAD-97-159 Defense Satellite Communications
                                       B-272656




                                       are unsatisfied. Thus, DOD’s current annual leasing costs are estimated at
                                       $135 million ($450,000 times 300 MBPS). These leasing costs could be as
                                       high as $225 million ($450,000 times 500 MBPS) if all the requirements were
                                       to be satisfied. By fiscal year 2005, the difference between requirements
                                       and DSCS capacity could be about 2,500 MBPS. Assuming that the current
                                       average leasing cost remained the same, DOD’s annual leasing cost would
                                       be over $1 billion ($450,000 times 2,500 MBPS) if all the projected
                                       requirements were to be satisfied.


                                       DOD’s fiscal year 2006 replacement plan for DSCS will not satisfy the growth
Replacing DSCS                         in satellite communications requirements, which will necessitate an
Earlier Than Planned                   increase in commercial leasing of high-capacity communications services.
Is a Less Costly                       A less costly alternative would be to launch the follow-on system in fiscal
                                       year 2003. Our analysis indicates that this alternative would cost about
Alternative                            $2.8 billion less than DOD’s 2006 plan. Table 1 illustrates the differences in
                                       the estimated acquisition and commercial leasing costs associated with
                                       (1) DOD’s fiscal year 2006 plan and (2) the alternative of accelerating DOD’s
                                       plan by 3 years to 2003.

Table 1: Acquisition and Commercial
Leasing Costs for DOD’s Current Plan   Dollars in millions
and an Alternative                                                                                                    Increases and
                                                                                                                   (decreases) from
                                       Costs by fiscal years               2006 plana       2003 alternative               2006 plan
                                       Acquisition cost                        $1,575                  $1,575                        0
                                           1999-2003                               630                   1,575                   $945
                                           2004-2006                               945                       0                   (945)
                                       Commercial leasing                      $6,219                  $3,384                  ($2,835)
                                       cost
                                           1999-2003                             3,125                   2,810                   (315)
                                           2004-2006                             3,094                     574                  (2,520)
                                       Total cost                              $7,794                  $4,959                  ($2,835)
                                           1999-2003                             3,755                   4,385                    630
                                           2004-2006                             4,039                     574                  (3,465)
                                       a
                                       Our funding assumptions are based on preliminary DOD satellite replacement cost data.



                                       According to a DOD analysis, purchasing commercial-like, high-capacity
                                       communication capabilities is more cost-effective than leasing equivalent
                                       commercial services. Under DOD’s 2006 plan, a constellation of five
                                       commercial-like DSCS follow-on satellites, which would include a broadcast




                                       Page 5                                 GAO/NSIAD-97-159 Defense Satellite Communications
                 B-272656




                 capability, would (1) have a total capacity of about 5 GBPS (1 GBPS per
                 satellite) and (2) cost almost $1.6 billion, including launch costs
                 ($315 million per satellite). Each satellite would be expected to provide
                 communications over a 10-year life span. These costs convert to $31,500
                 for 1 MBPS of capacity per year ($315 million divided by 10 years divided by
                 1,000 MBPS), which is in contrast to the estimated average of $450,000 for
                 1 MBPS of capacity that DOD currently pays for commercial leasing. Thus, if
                 this leasing rate remained the same for 10 years, there would be a 14-to-1
                 cost advantage ($450,000 to $31,500) for DOD to acquire a commercial-like
                 system rather than lease an equivalent amount of commercial services.

                 Under its plan, DOD could spend about $6.2 billion in commercial leasing
                 during the 8-year period from fiscal year 1999 through 2006 to satisfy all
                 the requirements not satisfied by the existing DSCS and the replacement
                 system. This estimate (1) assumes that the requirements for high-capacity
                 satellite communications will increase on a straight-line basis, (2) includes
                 the existing capacity of the operational DSCS satellites and the increased
                 capacity of the replenishment satellites that are currently being modified,
                 and (3) applies the $450,000 annual average lease rate to the difference
                 between (1) and (2).

                 Under the alternative, DOD could satisfy all the requirements not satisfied
                 by DSCS and the replacement system through commercial leasing for about
                 $3.4 billion during fiscal years 1999-2006. However, all the planned funds
                 to acquire the five DSCS replacement satellites would be needed earlier,
                 requiring DOD to transfer about $945 million from fiscal years 2004-2006 to
                 fiscal years 1999-2003. The next opportunity for DOD to address a funding
                 transfer is in its fiscal year 1999 future years defense program, which will
                 be developed during the remainder of 1997. Such a funding change would
                 create considerable savings in operations and maintenance funds that
                 would otherwise be needed for commercial leasing to satisfy all the
                 projected requirements. We estimated that during fiscal years 1999-2006,
                 the alternative would save about $2.8 billion ($6.2 billion minus
                 $3.4 billion) compared to DOD’s 2006 plan.


                 Considering the (1) anticipated increase in requirements for high-capacity
Recommendation   satellite communications, (2) relative high cost of leasing commercial
                 satellite communications and apparent cost-effectiveness of acquiring
                 commercial-like satellites instead of leasing equivalent services from
                 commercial providers, and (3) potential for significant long-term savings
                 to the government, we recommend that the Secretary of Defense



                 Page 6                          GAO/NSIAD-97-159 Defense Satellite Communications
                  B-272656




                  accelerate the introduction of a DSCS replacement system from fiscal year
                  2006 to 2003, or as soon as practicable, if the emerging requirements are
                  deemed valid, the estimated acquisition and commercial leasing costs are
                  considered credible, and the necessary acquisition funds can be made
                  available.


                  In commenting on a draft of this report, DOD agreed with our assessment of
Agency Comments   future shortfalls in military satellite communications. It stated that our
                  recommendation regarding accelerating the introduction of the DSCS
                  replacement system is one option that will be given full consideration
                  pending completion of efforts by a DOD military satellite communication
                  transition planning team. DOD indicated that in the fall of 1997, it will
                  validate future needs, determine the level to which these needs will be
                  satisfied, and establish dates for a replacement system. Until then, DOD
                  does not believe it is in a position to consider departures from the baseline
                  plan, such as accelerating the DSCS replacement system. Therefore, it
                  partially concurs with our recommendation at this time.

                  DOD’s    comments are reprinted in appendix II.


                  To develop information for the report, we examined (1) transition plans,
Scope and         launch schedules, and budget information related to DOD’s replenishment
Methodology       plans for DSCS; (2) the military satellite communications architecture
                  study, master plan, capstone requirements document, single integrated
                  program plan, investment strategy, and contractor studies related to DOD’s
                  replacement plans for DSCS; and (3) internal memoranda and analyses
                  related to satellite communication requirements and commercial leasing.

                  To perform our analysis, we used DOD’s estimates for future high-capacity
                  requirements, high-capacity satellite replacement and launch costs, and
                  average commercial leasing rates. We developed a model to derive the
                  total costs DOD could incur if the requirements that exceed DSCS capacity
                  were to be satisfied through commercial leasing. Appendix I discusses our
                  analysis of the high-capacity communications shortfalls in more detail,
                  including information on DOD’s emerging satellite communication
                  requirements, DSCS constellation capacity, DOD’s replacement plan, and an
                  acquisition alternative.

                  We held discussions with representatives of the Office of the Deputy
                  Under Secretary of Defense for Space; the Office of the DOD Space



                  Page 7                           GAO/NSIAD-97-159 Defense Satellite Communications
B-272656




Architect; the Defense Information Systems Agency; the Joint Staff
Directorate for Command, Control, Communication, and Computers; the
Air Force’s Office of the Assistant Secretary for Acquisition; and the
Army’s Directorate of Information Systems for Command, Control,
Communication, and Computers in the Washington, D.C., area. We also
held discussions with representatives of the Air Force’s Space and Missile
Systems Center and the Aerospace Corporation in El Segundo, California.

We performed our review from June 1996 through April 1997 in
accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards.


As you know, the head of a federal agency is required by 31 U.S.C. 720 to
submit a written statement on action taken on our recommendations to
the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs and the House Committee
on Government Reform and Oversight not later than 60 days after the date
of this report. A written statement must also be submitted to the Senate
and House Committees on Appropriations with the agency’s first request
for appropriations made more than 60 days after the date of the report.

We are sending copies of this report to the Chairmen and Ranking
Minority Members of the Senate Committee on Armed Services; Senate
Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Defense; House
Committee on National Security; and House Committee on
Appropriations, Subcommittee on National Security. We are also sending
copies to the Secretaries of the Air Force, the Army, and the Navy and the
Director, Office of Management and Budget. Copies will be made available
to others upon request.




Page 8                         GAO/NSIAD-97-159 Defense Satellite Communications
B-272656




This report was prepared under the direction of Thomas J. Brew,
Associate Director, Defense Acquisitions Issues, who may be reached at
(202) 512-4841 if you or your staff have any questions concerning this
report. Major contributors to this report are listed in appendix III.

Sincerely yours,




Louis J. Rodrigues
Director, Defense Acquisitions Issues




Page 9                        GAO/NSIAD-97-159 Defense Satellite Communications
Contents



Letter                                                                                              1


Appendix I                                                                                         12

DOD’s Projected
Satellite
Communication
Requirements
Compared With
Existing and Planned
DSCS Constellation
Capacity
Appendix II                                                                                        16

Comments From the
Department of
Defense
Appendix III                                                                                       19

Major Contributors to
This Report
Table                   Table 1: Acquisition and Commercial Leasing Costs for DOD’s                 5
                          Current Plan and an Alternative

Figures                 Figure I.1: DOD’s Projected High-Capacity Requirements                     12
                          Compared With DSCS Constellation Capacity and DOD’s Fiscal
                          Year 2006 Replacement Plan
                        Figure I.2: DOD’s Projected High-Capacity Requirements                     14
                          Compared With DSCS Constellation Capacity and the Fiscal Year
                          2003 Replacement Alternative

                        Abbreviations

                        DOD       Department of Defense
                        DSCS      Defense Satellite Communications System
                        GBPS      Gigabits Per Second
                        MBPS      Megabits Per Second


                        Page 10                      GAO/NSIAD-97-159 Defense Satellite Communications
Page 11   GAO/NSIAD-97-159 Defense Satellite Communications
Appendix I

DOD’s Projected Satellite Communication
Requirements Compared With Existing and
Planned DSCS Constellation Capacity
                                        Figure I.1 illustrates the Department of Defense’s (DOD) projected
                                        high-capacity satellite communication requirements (solid line) from the
                                        validated 1 gigabit per second (GBPS) for fiscal year 1997 to the projected
                                        3.6 GBPS in fiscal year 2006. The 6.6 GBPS in fiscal year 2010 is based on an
                                        interpolation of DOD’s estimated high-capacity satellite communications
                                        requirements. We used a straight-line extrapolation to assess requirements
                                        data between these points.



Figure I.1: DOD’s Projected High-Capacity Requirements Compared With DSCS Constellation Capacity and DOD’s Fiscal
Year 2006 Replacement Plan

Requirements and capacity (MBPS)

8,000

                                                                                                 6,600


6,000




4,000                                                              3,600




2,000
         1,000




    0
         1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
                                                Fiscal year
                 DSCS capacity

                 2006 replacement capacity

                 DOD's projected requirements




                                        Page 12                            GAO/NSIAD-97-159 Defense Satellite Communications
Appendix I
DOD’s Projected Satellite Communication
Requirements Compared With Existing and
Planned DSCS Constellation Capacity




Figure I.1 also illustrates the estimated Defense Satellite Communications
System (DSCS) constellation capacity for fiscal years 1997-2010 (bold bars).
Currently, the cumulative capacity of the existing constellation of five DSCS
satellites is about 500 megabits per second (MBPS). Enhancements to four
of the five satellites in the inventory, which are to replenish the existing
constellation, would increase this capacity to about 900 MBPS in fiscal
year 2003. Thereafter, the constellation capacity is expected to decrease to
about 500 MBPS by 2010. This is because satellites gradually degrade before
they reach the end of their useful lives. We used a straight-line
extrapolation to assess capacity data between these points.

In addition, figure I.1 shows the cumulative capacity per year for the DSCS
replacement satellites under DOD’s 2006 plan (shaded bars) that would be
added to the DSCS constellation. We assumed that DOD would launch one
satellite per year. Each replacement satellite is estimated to have about
1 GBPS of capacity, consisting of about 700 MBPS for high-capacity
communications and about 300 MBPS for a broadcast capability. For direct
comparison purposes with the high-capacity requirements, the figure
shows only 700 MBPS for each satellite.

The satellite capacity information presumes no launch vehicle or satellite
failures or delays that would affect the schedule in future years. From
fiscal year 1997 through 2006, the gap between projected requirements and
the cumulative satellite capacity represents unsatisfied requirements that
would have to be leased or satisfied with other satellite systems or would
remain unsatisfied. DOD has not made a decision regarding capacity
beyond its fiscal year 2006 plan, and would therefore need to evaluate the
continuing gap between requirements and capacity.




Page 13                           GAO/NSIAD-97-159 Defense Satellite Communications
                                         Appendix I
                                         DOD’s Projected Satellite Communication
                                         Requirements Compared With Existing and
                                         Planned DSCS Constellation Capacity




Figure I.2: DOD’s Projected High-Capacity Requirements Compared With DSCS Constellation Capacity and the Fiscal Year
2003 Replacement Alternative

Requirements and capacity (MBPS)

 8,000


                                                                                                 6,600

 6,000




 4,000
                                                                    3,600




 2,000

         1,000



     0
         1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
                                      Fiscal year
                 DSCS capacity

                 2003 replacement capacity
                 DOD's projected requirements




                                         Figure I.2 shows the same basic information as figure I.1, but it introduces
                                         the DSCS replacement system in fiscal year 2003 instead of fiscal year 2006.
                                         From fiscal year 1997 through 2006, the gap between projected
                                         requirements and the cumulative satellite capacity represents unsatisfied
                                         requirements that would have to be leased or satisfied with other satellite
                                         systems or would remain unsatisfied. However, compared with figure I.1,
                                         this gap is considerably narrowed, therefore reducing the need for costly
                                         commercial leasing. Similar to figure I.1, DOD has not made a decision




                                         Page 14                            GAO/NSIAD-97-159 Defense Satellite Communications
Appendix I
DOD’s Projected Satellite Communication
Requirements Compared With Existing and
Planned DSCS Constellation Capacity




regarding capacity beyond its fiscal year 2006 plan, and would therefore
need to evaluate the continuing gap between requirements and capacity.




Page 15                           GAO/NSIAD-97-159 Defense Satellite Communications
Appendix II

Comments From the Department of Defense




              Page 16   GAO/NSIAD-97-159 Defense Satellite Communications
                      Appendix II
                      Comments From the Department of Defense




Now on pp. 6 and 7.




                      Page 17                           GAO/NSIAD-97-159 Defense Satellite Communications
Appendix II
Comments From the Department of Defense




Page 18                           GAO/NSIAD-97-159 Defense Satellite Communications
Appendix III

Major Contributors to This Report


                        Homer H. Thomson
National Security and   Rahul Gupta
International Affairs   James P. Tallon
Division, Washington,
D.C.
                        Keith A. Rhodes
Accounting and
Information
Management Division,
Washington, D.C.
                        James D. Moses
Los Angeles Office      Samuel L. Hinojosa




(707144)                Page 19              GAO/NSIAD-97-159 Defense Satellite Communications
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