Selective Service: Cost and Implications of Two Alternatives to the Present System

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1997-09-10.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                   United States General Accounting Office

GAO                Report to Congressional Requesters

September 1997
                   SELECTIVE SERVICE
                   Cost and Implications
                   of Two Alternatives to
                   the Present System

             United States
GAO          General Accounting Office
             Washington, D.C. 20548

             National Security and
             International Affairs Division


             September 10, 1997

             The Honorable Peter A. DeFazio
             The Honorable Ronald V. Dellums
             The Honorable Dana Rohrabacher
             The Honorable Gerald B. Solomon
             House of Representatives

             This report responds to your requests that we review the Selective Service
             System’s (SSS) draft registration program and other selected alternatives.
             We reviewed two alternatives, suspending active registration and placing
             the agency in “deep standby.” A suspended registration alternative would
             eliminate the current requirement for men between the ages of 18 and 26
             to register for a possible military draft. Under this alternative, most of SSS’
             infrastructure would remain intact—including a significant portion of its
             staff and all of its local, district appeal, civilian review, and national
             boards. The “deep standby” alternative would suspend registration, reduce
             a substantial portion of the workforce, and disband the local, district
             appeal, civilian review, and national boards. Between 1976 and 1980, SSS
             operated in a deep standby posture similar to the one detailed above.

             We reviewed the organization and costs of the current program, and
             agency estimates of the comparative costs and organizational structure
             changes of the two alternatives.1 Further, assuming implementation of
             either of the two alternatives, we obtained estimates on how quickly and
             at what cost SSS could be returned to its present posture and a draft
             conducted upon mobilization. Ultimately, any decision to change SSS
             would require policy judgments that involve other considerations, some of
             which cannot be quantified, in addition to cost and time required to
             respond to a national emergency.

             SSSis an independent agency within the executive branch of the federal
Background   government. Its missions are to (1) provide untrained manpower to the
             Department of Defense (DOD) for military service in the event of a national
             emergency declared by the Congress or the President, (2) administer a
             program of alternative service for conscientious objectors in the event of a
             draft, and (3) maintain the capability to register and forward for induction
             health care personnel if so directed in a future crisis. SSS’ authorizing

              Initially, we also considered a passive registration system. Such a system would automate
             identification/registration, requiring no actions by individuals to register. After consultations with your
             staffs, we discarded this alternative because its implementation would raise constitutional issues.

             Page 1                                                          GAO/NSIAD-97-225 Selective Service

legislation, the Military Selective Service Act,2 requires that all males
between the ages of 18 and 26 register with SSS under procedures
established by a presidential proclamation and other rules and regulations.
Men are required to register within 30 days of reaching age 18.

SSS operations have fluctuated since the end of the draft in 1973. In 1975,
President Ford terminated registration under the act by revoking several
presidential proclamations.3 In 1976, SSS state and local offices were
closed, placing the agency in a deep standby. In 1980, following the Soviet
invasion of Afghanistan, President Carter issued a proclamation to
establish the current registration procedures.4 Under these procedures, SSS
has been registering young men between the ages of 18 and 26, but not
classifying them for a potential draft.

According to SSS officials, the September 30, 1996, version of the
registration database contained about 13 million names of men between
the ages of 18 and 26 and represented about 92 percent of the eligible
universe of males subject to registration. Men are most vulnerable to being
drafted during the calendar year they reach age 20 and become
increasingly less vulnerable each year through age 25. SSS officials estimate
that registration compliance for men considered “draft eligible,” those
aged 20 through 25, is 95 percent. A detailed description of registration
methods appears in appendix I.

Currently, SSS operates as a backup for the recruiting efforts of the
volunteer armed forces in case an emergency compels a reintroduction of
the draft. To carry out its operations, SSS is authorized a staff of
197 civilians (166 on board as of June 1, 1997); 15 active military personnel
(2 additional positions are funded by the Air Force); 745 part-time
authorized reservists (518 are funded); 56 part-time state directors (one in
each state, territory, the District of Columbia, and New York City); and
10,635 uncompensated civilian volunteer members of local, review, and
various appeal boards. The state directors would manage state
headquarters and oversee their states’ Area and Alternative Service Offices
and boards for SSS in the event of a mobilization. The local and district
appeal boards would review claims that registrants file for draft
deferments, postponements, and exemptions in a mobilization. Under the
Alternative Service Program, civilian review boards review claims for job

 50 U.S.C. app. 451-471a.
 Proclamation No. 4360, 40 Fed. Reg. 14567 (1975).
 Proclamation No. 4771, 45 Fed. Reg. 45247 (1980).

Page 2                                               GAO/NSIAD-97-225 Selective Service

                   reassignment based on conscientious objector beliefs. SSS’ 1997 budget is
                   $22,930,000, which is divided as follows: $7,810,000 for operational
                   readiness (includes all boards activities), $7,360,000 for registration
                   (includes public awareness activities), and $7,760,000 for administration.
                   (All cost figures provided in this report are in 1997 dollars.)

DOD’s Views on     Although DOD does not currently foresee a military crisis of a magnitude
Registration       that would require immediate reinstatement of the draft, it continues to
                   support registration for all men between the ages of 18 and 26. The
                   registration process furnishes a ready pool of individuals that could be
                   drafted when needed to meet DOD’s emergency manpower requirements.

                   Until 1994, DOD required the first inductees to be available 13 days after
                   mobilization notification and 100,000 to be available 30 days after notice.
                   That year, DOD modified its requirements, prescribing accession of the first
                   inductees at 6 months plus 13 days (that is, on day 193) and 100,000
                   inductees at 6 months plus 30 days (that is, on day 210). For a draft of
                   doctors, nurses, and other medical personnel, the first inductees are
                   presently slated to report on day 222. SSS officials stated that they can
                   provide personnel to DOD in the event of an unforeseen emergency
                   assuming adequate funding and staff. DOD based its time line modifications
                   on the expectation that active and reserve forces would be sufficient to
                   respond to perceived threats, thereby mitigating the need for an immediate
                   infusion of inductees. We did not validate the current DOD requirements for
                   inductees. However, according to DOD, the current requirements maintain
                   an adequate margin of safety and provide time for expanding military
                   training capabilities.

                   Most of SSS’ potential cost reductions, under either a suspended
Results in Brief   registration or a deep standby alternative, would result from reductions in
                   personnel. SSS estimates that the suspended registration alternative would
                   reduce authorized and assigned civilian, active military, and part-time
                   military reserve personnel by about 33 percent (to 123 civilian, 13 active
                   military, and 504 reserve personnel). These reductions would produce
                   first-year cost savings of $4.1 million and subsequent annual cost savings
                   of $5.7 million. SSS estimates that the deep standby alternative would
                   reduce authorized civilian, active military, and part-time reserve personnel
                   by about 60 percent (to 77 civilian, 10 active military, and 305 reserve
                   personnel). The latter alternative reflects a dismissal of thousands of
                   trained, unpaid local, review, and appeal board volunteers. In addition,

                   Page 3                                        GAO/NSIAD-97-225 Selective Service

under the deep standby alternative, the part-time state directors, who
according to SSS officials are paid for an average of 14 days of work per
year, would not be paid. Altogether, these reductions would produce
first-year cost savings of $8.5 million and subsequent annual cost savings
of $11.3 million.

Under both alternatives, mass registrations would be needed if a
mobilization were authorized. SSS’ plans show that the agency could
currently meet DOD’s requirement to provide the first draftees at 193 days.
In contrast, SSS officials believe that the agency would be unable to meet
DOD’s current requirements for untrained manpower under either
alternative. The reason cited is the time needed to reinstate an active
registration system (for either alternative), to reconstitute and train the
boards, and to rebuild their supporting infrastructure (for the deep
standby alternative). SSS officials estimate that in reinstating registration
after suspension, they could meet DOD’s requirement for the first draftees
in about 217 days (24 days more than the current 193-day requirement).
They also estimate that in reinstating a registration system, reconstituting
and training the boards, and rebuilding the supporting infrastructure after
a deep standby posture, they could meet DOD’s requirement for the first
draftees in about 374 days (181 days more than the current 193-day
requirement). Officials told us that these estimates represent their best
assessment of the time required to return to full operations. SSS officials
also estimated that the cost to reinstate a suspended registration could
total about $17.2 million and the cost to revitalize the agency from a deep
standby posture could total about $22.8 million.

Figure 1 shows a comparison of the current level of operations and the
two alternatives—suspending registration and placing the agency in a deep

Page 4                                         GAO/NSIAD-97-225 Selective Service

Figure 1: Selective Service System’s Current Operations and Alternatives

                     - Provide personnel for military service to the Department of Defense in the event of a national
  Mission:           - Operate an Alternative Service Program.
                     - Maintain the capability to register and forward for induction health care personnel, if so directed.

 Selective Service System                              Current operations                                         Deep standby
  Civilian (authorized/assigned)                                                                       123                            77
                                                                (as of 6-1-97)
                                                              15/15+2 paid by
    Active (authorized/assigned)                                 the Air Force
                                                                                                         13                          10

    Reserve part-time (authorized /funded)                            745/518                          504                          305

  State directors part-time                                                  56                          56               56 (unpaid)

  Local and appeal board members                                        10,390                      10,390                             0

  Civilian review board members                                            240                         240                             0

  National appeal board                                                       5                           5                            0

 Budget (1997)                                                    $22,930,000                 $17,230,000                $11,630,000

   Estimated 1st year gross savings                                                            $5,700,000                $11,300,000

   (less severance pay)                                                                      ($1,600,000)                ($2,800,000)

   Estimated net 1st year savings                                                              $4,100,000                     $8,500,000

   Estimated subsequent annual savings                                                         $5,700,000                $11,300,000

 Estimated time to deliver first draftees              Mobilization+193 days       Mobilization+217 days       Mobilization+374 days

 Estimated costs to restore operations                                                        $17,173,000                $22,773,000

                                                   The portions of the $22.9 million 1997 budget that could be most affected
Effects of the Options                             by the alternatives total approximately $15.2 million: $7.4 million for the
on Organization and                                registration program and $7.8 million for operational readiness.
Costs                                              Registration program activities include handling and entering information
                                                   into the database on new registrants, producing and distributing publicity
                                                   material about the requirement to register, running subprograms on

                                                   Page 5                                                             GAO/NSIAD-97-225 Selective Service

registration compliance and address updates, deactivating registrants who
no longer remain eligible because of age, and verifying the registration of
individuals who may be applying for federal or state employment or other
benefits. Operational readiness activities include organizational planning;
National Guard and reserve training and compensation; tests and
exercises; and various boards’ operations, including training, automatic
data processing support, and other logistical types of support.

Suspending the current registration requirement, with or without
maintaining the boards, would generate cost savings primarily through
reduced personnel levels. However, savings derived from implementing
either option would be partially offset by the cost of downsizing the
agency to accomplish planning and maintenance missions only and by
severance costs associated with reducing personnel levels. SSS officials
estimate one-time severance costs (including severance pay,
unemployment insurance, lump sum leave, and buyouts) of $1.6 million for
the suspended registration alternative and of $2.8 million for the deep
standby alternative.

Also, under current federal law and a number of state laws, certain
benefits may be denied to individuals who fail to register for a draft.5 SSS
officials estimate that the current cost to verify registration to ensure
compliance with such provisions totals about $1.6 million annually.
Therefore, the amount of savings under either alternative would depend
upon whether the agency is required to continue its verification function
(for individuals who were subject to registration prior to suspension) or
whether the applicability of such provisions is suspended.

According to SSS officials, under the suspended registration alternative,
74 civilian, 4 active duty military, and 241 part-time reserve positions may
be eliminated. SSS officials estimated first-year cost savings of $4.1 million
and subsequent annual cost savings of $5.7 million under this alternative.
SSS would maintain the various boards, their training and operating
programs, and the ability to update automated data processing capabilities
as technology advances. The agency also informed us that it would
continue readiness planning and training plus conduct or participate in

 For example, these benefits include federal and some state educational assistance and eligibility for
most federal and some state employment. See 50 U.S.C. app. 462(f) and according to SSS similar laws
in Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine,
Massachusetts, Mississippi, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Tennessee,
and Texas. (New Jersey recently passed similar legislation, which is awaiting the governor’s

Page 6                                                       GAO/NSIAD-97-225 Selective Service

                   mobilization field exercises to test and fine-tune its role in national
                   security strategies.

                   SSS officials told us that under the deep standby alternative,
                   120 civilian, 7 active duty military, and 440 part-time reserve positions may
                   be eliminated. Also, 10,395 local and appeal board members and 240
                   civilian review board members (all unpaid volunteers) would be
                   dismissed. In addition, the 56 state directors would move to an unpaid
                   status. SSS officials estimated first-year cost savings of $8.5 million and
                   subsequent annual cost savings of $11.3 million under this alternative. SSS
                   would be placed at a level at which it could accomplish planning and
                   maintenance missions only, including the ability to update automated data
                   processing capabilities as technology advances.

                   Under either the suspended registration or the deep standby alternative,
Time and Costs     reactivation of a draft registration process would be initiated upon receipt
Required to        of authorization. The President can reinstate registration requirements by
Reinstitute Full   issuing a proclamation,6 but the Military Selective Service Act does not
                   currently allow induction into the armed forces. The Congress would have
Operations         to pass legislation giving the President induction authority.7 Two major
                   concerns relating to the implementation of either of the alternatives are
                   whether SSS could meet DOD’s requirements, given the time needed to make
                   the agency fully operational, and how much reconstitution would cost.

                   SSS officials estimate that recovering from suspended registration or a
                   deep standby and delivering the first draftees to the induction centers
                   would take more time than DOD’s current 193-day requirement. They
                   estimate it would take about 24 more days to deliver the first draftees after
                   recovering from the suspended registration alternative. The officials
                   expect that the recovery costs would total about $17.2 million. SSS officials
                   also estimate that revitalizing the agency from a deep standby posture and
                   delivering the first draftees would take about 181 more days than DOD’s
                   current requirement and would cost about $22.8 million. These costs cover
                   rehiring personnel; obtaining data processing capability; and acquiring
                   equipment, supplies, and other resources needed to conduct a mass
                   registration and return the agency to its present operating capability.
                   These costs also cover acquisition of necessary additional office and data
                   processing space.

                    50 U.S.C. app. 453(a).
                    50 U.S.C. app. 467(c).

                   Page 7                                          GAO/NSIAD-97-225 Selective Service

SSS officials informed us that if the agency reinstated registration after
having operated under either the suspended registration or deep standby
option, it would need to conduct a time-limited registration of the 19- and
20-year-old groups and then conduct a continuous registration of all males
in the remaining age groups (those between the ages of 21 and 26). The
agency’s experience in conducting a 2-week registration of the 19- and
20-year-old age groups was very successful during the peacetime
reinstatement of registration in 1980. However, the agency could not
project with a high degree of confidence that it would similarly succeed
when conducting a time-limited registration during wartime or a national
crisis. SSS officials stated that unless the mass registration program can
achieve high levels of compliance (at least 90 percent of the targeted
population), the fairness and equity of the ensuing draft could be called
into question. Additionally, officials said the “lottery,” which would be
used to determine the order of call in a draft, could be delayed until high
compliance is achieved to preclude men with birthdates that draw low
numbers from willfully refusing to register.

In 1980, SSS demonstrated that it could achieve a high percentage of
compliance during a time-limited registration. At that time, SSS conducted
two time-limited registrations, after recovering from a deep standby
posture. During these registrations, 87 percent of the young men born in
1960 and 1961 (19- and 20-year-olds) registered during a 2-week period in
July 1980, and 77 percent of the young men born in 1962 (19-year olds)
registered during a 1-week registration period in January 1981.8 SSS
officials indicated that these mass registrations occurred after 6 months of
publicity and public debate and with no threat of an impending draft. In
the view of SSS officials, a return to registration from either alternative
described in this report is likely to be in connection with a war or crisis,
and they believe early compliance rates cannot be predicted in a crisis
environment. SSS officials stated that the agency’s main problem in gearing
up in 1980 was in reinstating and activating the local, district appeal, and
national boards in preparation for a possible draft. They said the process
would be time-consuming because more than 10,000 volunteers forming
2,000 boards would need to be identified, appointed, and trained. SSS
officials also stressed that to help ensure fairness, the composition of the
boards should racially and ethnically reflect the demographics of the
young men in the communities they would serve. Given the agency’s
experience in recovering from a deep standby in 1980, SSS officials added
extra time to their current estimates of the time required to make the

 Alternatives to Current Draft Registration Program Needed Unless Level of Compliance Improves
(GAO/FPCD-82-20, Apr. 19, 1982).

Page 8                                                     GAO/NSIAD-97-225 Selective Service

                  agency fully operational. SSS officials believed that the variables that could
                  affect the timeliness, fairness, and equity of a future draft made it prudent
                  to build additional time into their estimates to conduct a draft, should
                  registration be suspended or the agency placed in deep standby.

                  SSS reviewed a draft of this report and stated that the report did an
Agency Comments   excellent job of analyzing the dollar requirements of peacetime
                  registration and estimating the structure and funding changes that may
                  result if national security policy was changed to abandon the current
                  registration requirement. SSS also commented that our report did not
                  address some aspects of continuing peacetime registration that it
                  characterized as equally important, but less tangible. Those aspects
                  included viewing peacetime registration as (1) low-cost insurance against
                  unforeseen threats, (2) a sign to potential adversaries of U.S. resolve, and
                  (3) a link between the all volunteer military force and society at large. We
                  did not review these implications of continuing peacetime registration as
                  part of our audit scope and clarified the report to reflect this fact. SSS also
                  provided technical comments, which we incorporated as appropriate. SSS
                  comments are presented in appendix II.

                  In performing our review, we interviewed and obtained documents from
Scope and         SSS officials in Financial Management; Planning, Analysis, and Evaluation;
Methodology       Operations; Public and Congressional Affairs; and Information
                  Management. We identified SSS’ current mission and operating parameters,
                  focusing on the draft registration system. We made preliminary inquiries
                  regarding four alternatives to SSS’ present operations, that is, two passive
                  registration alternatives, a suspended active registration alternative, and a
                  deep standby alternative. Since passive registration alternatives would
                  raise constitutional issues and possibly encourage lawsuits regarding
                  fairness and equity of such systems during mobilization, we did not
                  address these alternatives.

                  For the two remaining alternatives, we obtained from SSS estimates of
                  costs that could be saved upon implementation of either alternative. Since
                  the cost savings would surface through reductions in personnel, we
                  obtained from SSS the effect of implementing either alternative on its
                  staffing levels. In addition, we obtained from SSS cost estimates associated
                  with revitalizing registration or with moving the agency from a deep
                  standby posture to full operational status. SSS also gave us time estimates
                  for the revitalization of both the registration process and the board

                  Page 9                                          GAO/NSIAD-97-225 Selective Service

structure and its assessment of the alternatives’ effects on meeting DOD’s
manpower and mobilization time frame requirements. We did not validate
the cost and time estimates but made judgments on their reasonableness
by discussing the methods and assumptions SSS used to develop the
estimates and by matching baseline information to agency backup
documents. We did not review the policy implications of changing or
continuing the peacetime registration program.

We conducted our review between December 1996 and July 1997 in
accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards.

We are sending copies of this report to the Chairmen and Ranking
Minority Members of the House Committee on Government Reform and
Oversight, Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, House and Senate
Committees on Appropriations, House Committee on National Security,
Senate Committee on Armed Services, and House and Senate Committees
on the Budget; and the Director of the Selective Service System; the
Secretary of Defense; and the Director, Office of Management and Budget.
We will also make copies of the report available to others, on request.

Please contact me on (202) 512-5140 if you have any questions concerning
this report. Major contributors to this report are listed in appendix III.

Mark E. Gebicke
Director, Military Operations
  and Capabilities Issues

Page 10                                      GAO/NSIAD-97-225 Selective Service
Page 11   GAO/NSIAD-97-225 Selective Service

Letter                                                                                              1

Appendix I                                                                                         14

Current Registration
Appendix II                                                                                        16

Comments From
Selective Service
Appendix III                                                                                       22

Major Contributors to
This Report
Figure                  Figure 1: Selective Service System’s Current Operations and                 5


                        DOD        Department of Defense
                        SSS        Selective Service System

                        Page 12                                     GAO/NSIAD-97-225 Selective Service
Page 13   GAO/NSIAD-97-225 Selective Service
Appendix I

Current Registration Methods

              Men between the ages of 18 and 26 can register with SSS in six ways: (1) fill
              out an SSS form at U.S. Postal Service facilities throughout the nation and
              at U.S. embassies or consulates overseas; (2) complete and return a
              registration reminder mail-back postcard or a compliance postcard
              required as a result of having been identified by SSS from various
              databases; (3) join the military or Job Corps; (4) complete a registration
              form provided by volunteer registrars; (5) register when applying for
              student financial assistance; and (6) initiate registration by computer using
              the Internet.

              Men may register at any one of the more than 34,000 post offices in the
              United States and U.S. territories by completing SSS Form 1. During fiscal
              year 1996, about 386,000 individuals used this procedure to register.
              Registrants should receive a registration acknowledgement and a Selective
              Service number within 90 days. If the registrant does not receive
              acknowledgement within this time frame, he is required to contact SSS.

              SSS sends reminder postcards to young men about to turn 18, based on
              driver licenses lists received from states’ departments of motor vehicles
              and similar lists from other sources. In fiscal year 1996, over 2 million
              young men were sent reminder mail-back registration postcards, and
              792,435 men returned the registration portion. SSS also does list matching
              to identify eligible males who have not registered as required, using data
              from each state’s departments of motor vehicles, Department of Defense
              high school recruiting lists, the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization
              Service’s files of individuals seeking citizenship or legal residency status,
              voter registration files, and the Department of Education. Once identified
              as possible nonregistrants, the individuals are sent a reminder, including a
              compliance postcard. About 343,300 men registered after receiving at least
              one communication requiring compliance. The names of those who did not
              register or respond are referred to the Department of Justice for possible

              The third registration method is the automatic registration of active duty
              and reserve military personnel as well as males in the Job Corps who have
              not reached age 26 at the time of their enlistment. Approximately 55,400
              military personnel and about 16,700 Job Corps members were
              automatically registered through this method in fiscal year 1996. Beginning
              in fiscal year 1998, the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service plans
              to include on its forms language for automatic registration of all eligible
              male aliens applying for citizenship or adjustment of status.

              Page 14                                       GAO/NSIAD-97-225 Selective Service
Appendix I
Current Registration Methods

SSS also has more than 10,000 volunteer registrars in public and private
schools who advise eligible males of their responsibility to register. The
volunteers provide registration forms and collect and forward the
completed forms to SSS. Additionally, SSS has about 4,300 volunteer
registrars in the National Association of Farmworkers program and in
various state agencies and state military departments. Approximately
60,500 men were registered by volunteer registrars during fiscal year 1996.

The electronic registration procedure can be used by students applying for
student financial assistance and by individuals who initiate registration
through the Internet. In 1982, the Congress amended the Military Selective
Service Act1 to provide that any student who is required to register with
SSS but has failed to do so is ineligible for student assistance under title IV
of the Higher Education Act of 1965. Since then, the Department of
Education and SSS have implemented a telecommunications datalink that
is used for electronic registration and registration verification. A student is
automatically registered by marking the box “register me” on the
Application for Federal Student Aid. During fiscal year 1996, about 177,600
men registered using this method.

Beginning in March 1997, men who have access to the Internet can initiate
the registration process by filling in name, date of birth, address, and
social security number on an on-line registration form. This information is
downloaded to SSS, which sends the registrant a card requesting that the
information be verified. When the verification card is returned and SSS
sends the registration acknowledgement to the registrant, registration is
completed. All new registrants receive an acknowledgement card from SSS.
The card serves as proof of registration and gives each registrant a unique
Selective Service number.

 See 50 U.S.C. app. 462(f).

Page 15                                        GAO/NSIAD-97-225 Selective Service
Appendix II

Comments From Selective Service System

              Page 16         GAO/NSIAD-97-225 Selective Service
Appendix II
Comments From Selective Service System

Page 17                                  GAO/NSIAD-97-225 Selective Service
Appendix II
Comments From Selective Service System

Page 18                                  GAO/NSIAD-97-225 Selective Service
Appendix II
Comments From Selective Service System

Page 19                                  GAO/NSIAD-97-225 Selective Service
Appendix II
Comments From Selective Service System

Page 20                                  GAO/NSIAD-97-225 Selective Service
Appendix II
Comments From Selective Service System

Page 21                                  GAO/NSIAD-97-225 Selective Service
Appendix III

Major Contributors to This Report

                        Sharon A. Cekala
National Security and   Carol R. Schuster
International Affairs   William E. Beusse
Division, Washington,   Robert J. Lane
                        George M. Delgado
D.C.                    MaeWanda Michael-Jackson

                        Mark C. Speight
Office of the General
Counsel, Washington,

(703186)                Page 22                    GAO/NSIAD-97-225 Selective Service
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