Base Operations: Challenges Confronting DOD as It Renews Emphasis on Outsourcing

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1997-03-11.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                  United States General Accounting Office

GAO               Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee
                  on Military Readiness, Committee on
                  National Security
                  House of Representatives

March 1997
                  BASE OPERATIONS
                  Challenges Confronting
                  DOD as It Renews
                  Emphasis on

                   United States
GAO                General Accounting Office
                   Washington, D.C. 20548

                   National Security and
                   International Affairs Division


                   March 11, 1997

                   The Honorable Herbert H. Bateman
                   Chairman, Subcommittee on Military Readiness
                   Committee on National Security
                   House of Representatives

                   Dear Mr. Chairman:

                   “Outsourcing,” or contracting out, for commercial services is a growing
                   practice within the government to achieve cost savings, management
                   efficiencies, and operating flexibility. Recent studies have noted that the
                   Department of Defense (DOD) could save billions of dollars by outsourcing
                   support functions associated with operating military bases. In response to
                   your request, we have developed information about outsourcing savings.
                   This report examines (1) the extent to which DOD and the services
                   emphasize the outsourcing of base support services, (2) the factors that
                   influence savings in the outsourcing process, and (3) impediments to DOD’s

                   DOD’s  efforts to outsource base support activities were constrained by
Results in Brief   legislation and other factors in the past. Because of the continuing
                   budgetary and personnel limitations, the need to fund weapons
                   modernization, and the elimination of key legislative constraints, DOD is
                   now increasing its emphasis on outsourcing support activities. Senior
                   leadership within the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and the
                   services are strongly supporting renewed efforts to outsource base
                   support activities. From October 1, 1995, to January 15, 1997, the services
                   announced plans to begin outsourcing studies during fiscal years 1996 and
                   1997. These studies will involve over 34,000 positions, most of which were
                   associated with base support activities. Additional studies involving more
                   than 100,000 positions will be started over the next 6 years.

                   Although the outsourcing studies have yet to be completed, some of the
                   services have programmed outsourcing savings projections into their
                   budgets. We recognize that outsourcing can be cost-effective because
                   outsourcing competitions generate savings, usually through a reduction in
                   personnel, whether competitions are won by the government or the
                   private sector. However, we question the magnitude of savings projections
                   cited in various DOD studies, as well as the services’ current savings
                   projections. These estimates are heavily premised on initial savings

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             estimates from previous outsourcing efforts, and such estimates change as
             the scope of the work and wages change. Furthermore, continuing budget
             and personnel reductions could make it difficult to sustain the levels of
             previously projected savings. Thus, the extent to which the services may
             achieve these savings is questionable. At the same time, two areas of
             outsourcing appear to offer the potential for significant savings, but the
             extent to which the services are exploring them is mixed. They involve
             giving greater emphasis to (1) the use of omnibus contracts, rather than
             multiple contracts, for support services and (2) the conversion of military
             support positions to civilian or contractor positions.

             Despite DOD’s renewed emphasis on outsourcing, impediments remain and
             new challenges are emerging. Although guidance for performing
             outsourcing studies has recently been changed to streamline and improve
             the process, the extent to which the guidance will lead to increased
             outsourcing remains to be seen. Also, federal contracting law may affect
             some DOD efforts to outsource, and some services preclude some activities
             from outsourcing because of military requirements. Finally, the potential
             lack of resources to perform outsourcing studies and funding to pay for
             outsourced activities is of growing concern to some service officials.

             Since 1955, federal agencies have been encouraged to obtain goods and
Background   services from the private sector through outsourcing. In 1966, the Office of
             Management and Budget (OMB) issued Circular A-76, which established the
             federal policy for the government’s performance of commercial activities.
             In a 1983 supplemental handbook, OMB established procedures for
             determining whether commercial activities should be outsourced.1

             Under A-76, DOD has historically outsourced functions to provide more
             cost-effective services. However, several provisions of law have
             inhibited DOD’s outsourcing efforts. The first provision contained in
             the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1988-89
             (P.L. 100-180) authorized installation commanders to determine whether
             to study activities for potential outsourcing. Because of disruptions to

              To compare costs associated with in-house versus industry performance, the supplemental handbook
             requires the government to conduct a management efficiency study. In this study, organizational
             structure, staffing, and operating procedures are reviewed to determine the most efficient and
             effective way of performing the activity with in-house staff. The resulting “most efficient organization”
             is used as the basis for the in-house cost. The government also prepares a performance work
             statement describing the work required, which serves as the basis for both contractor and in-house
             offers. Each of the services maintains a database of all A-76 studies. This database generally includes
             the function studied, the cost of the in-house workforce and contract, and the outcome of the

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their workforce, the cost of conducting studies, and a desire for more
direct control of their workforce, various officials told us that
commanders often chose not to pursue outsourcing. This law, which was
known as the “Nichols Amendment” and codified at 10 U.S.C. 2468, was
effective through September 30, 1995. Another provision contained in the
Department of Defense Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 1991
(P.L. 101-511) and subsequent DOD appropriations acts, prohibited funding
for lengthy A-76 studies. Finally, the National Defense Authorization Acts
for Fiscal Years 1993 and 1994 contained provisions that prohibited DOD
from entering into contracts resulting from cost studies done under OMB
Circular A-76, from October 23, 1992, to April 1, 1994. These prohibitions,
along with the Nichols Amendment, had the effect of limiting outsourcing
in most services until 1996. Since then, except for the Air Force, the
services have completed few A-76 studies. In 1996, OMB revised its
supplemental handbook in an effort to streamline and improve the
outsourcing study process. (See app. I for a summary of the changes.)

As of fiscal year 1996, DOD employed about 449,000 military and civilian
personnel to do support activities such as base support, health services,
and equipment repairs in-house (see fig. 1).2

  Other DOD-sponsored studies that take a broader view of infrastructure and support activities indicate
that the total number of DOD military and civilian personnel involved in such activities could be much
higher. The services differ in how they (1) define commercial activities and (2) determine which
activities and functions are inherently governmental, requiring that they be done in-house.

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Figure 1: In-house DOD Commercial
Activities (fiscal year 1996)

                                                                                            Social services   6.3%

                                               Health services   21.1%

                                                                                                                     Base support    20.2%

                                                                                                                            Property maintenance    4.5%

                                    c                                                                                  Education/training    6.3%
                                        Equipment repair   22.6%

                                                                                                         Nonmanufacturing    12.9%
                                                                             Other   6.2%

                                    Note: Percentages indicate the portion of the in-house workforce involved in commercial

                                     Other includes research, development, test, and evaluation support; automatic data processing;
                                    and products manufactured in-house.
                                     Nonmanufacturing includes functions such as storage and warehousing, engineering, and
                                    administrative support services.
                                    Equipment repair includes depot and intermediate maintenance.

                                    Source: DOD’s 1996 commercial activities inventory.

                                    DOD estimates that base support activities such as facilities and vehicle
                                    maintenance, food services, and local transportation will cost more than
                                    $30 billion in fiscal year 1997. (App. II provides a more detailed list of base
                                    support functions.) Several recent studies—DOD’s 1993 Bottom-Up Review,
                                    the 1993 National Performance Review, DOD’s 1995 report from the
                                    Commission on Roles and Missions of the Armed Forces, and the 1996
                                    report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Outsourcing and

                                    Page 4                                                                    GAO/NSIAD-97-86 Base Operations

                   Privatization—concluded that DOD could realize savings of upwards to
                   between 20 and 40 percent by outsourcing support activities. Some further
                   concluded that DOD could achieve the largest savings by using a single
                   omnibus contract, rather than several small contracts, to encompass
                   multiple activities.

                   Over the years, we have done many reviews of federal contracting,
                   addressing issues associated with outsourcing and questions regarding
                   cost savings. A list of related GAO products is presented at the end of this

                   After a lull in outsourcing efforts due to administrative and legislative
DOD and Services   constraints, in August 1995, the Deputy Secretary of Defense directed the
Have Renewed       services to make outsourcing of support activities a priority and chartered
Emphasis on        a Privatization Integrated Policy Team to identify opportunities for
                   outsourcing.3 In doing so, he was reacting to the reports recommending
Outsourcing        outsourcing of support activities, increasing budget pressures, and the
                   need to free up funding for modernization. Consequently, DOD and the
                   services initiated a review of six support areas, including base support, to
                   determine where outsourcing could generate savings.4

                   As of the beginning of fiscal year 1996, DOD officials estimated that DOD had
                   outsourced about 37 percent of its overall workforce connected with
                   commercial activities. Based on service definitions of commercial
                   activities, the Air Force estimated that it had outsourced 64 percent of its
                   workforce performing commercial activities, and at the end of 1996, the
                   Air Force had 126 A-76 studies underway—significantly more than the
                   other services. The Army and the Navy estimated they had outsourced 32
                   and 31 percent, respectively.5

                   The Air Force plans to study up to 60,000 positions for potential
                   outsourcing beginning in 1996 through 2003. Air Force officials estimated
                   that the majority of the positions are in base support services. In
                   January 1997, Air Force officials announced plans to study about 14,400

                    For DOD’s purposes, outsourcing is the use of federal funds to pay a private company to do defense
                   work or provide a service for a defense activity; privatization is the complete transfer of ownership
                   and management of a function to the private sector, but DOD pays for the services associated with the
                    The other five areas under review are materiel management, depot maintenance, finance and
                   accounting, education and training, and data centers.
                    Because each service differs in how it defines commercial activities, the totals could be increased as
                   the services reexamine areas previously excluded.

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                        positions. To organize its efforts, the Air Force formed an outsourcing and
                        privatization team and executive steering group in January 1996 and a new
                        outsourcing and privatization division in January 1997. Also, an Air Force
                        Center for Quality Management Innovations is expected to facilitate Air
                        Force-wide outsourcing and privatization efforts.

                        The Army plans to study about 11,000 positions during fiscal year 1997 and
                        about 15,000 positions during fiscal years 1998-2003 for potential
                        outsourcing. An Army official estimated that most of the positions are in
                        base support functions and that the majority are civilian positions. As of
                        January 1997, the Army had announced plans to begin studying about
                        9,600 positions for potential outsourcing, all of them in base support

                        Navy officials told us that they plan to study about 80,000 positions for
                        potential outsourcing over the next several years. These positions
                        represent about 50,000 civilians and 30,000 military members, and a
                        portion of them are involved in base support functions. In January 1997,
                        the Navy formally announced plans to study about 10,600 positions
                        beginning in fiscal year 1997. Of the 10,600, about 8,400 involve civilian
                        and 2,200 involve military positions. In 1996, the Navy established an
                        outsourcing support office to contract with industry to conduct A-76
                        studies and develop tools to streamline the study process. Further, the
                        Navy established a new outsourcing program division to identify
                        outsourcing candidates and fund A-76 studies. A Navy survey of
                        commercial activities to identify candidates for competition is underway.

                        The Marine Corps estimates it will study 5,000 positions for outsourcing;
                        however, it does not have a firm timetable for initiating or completing its
                        studies. In 1996, the Marine Corps established a senior staff-level
                        committee and working group to guide the selection of candidate
                        functions for outsourcing. The Marine Corps is part of the Navy’s survey of
                        commercial activities. Marine officials indicated that survey results are
                        expected to be available in the summer of 1997.

                        DOD is expecting significant savings from its current and planned
History and Current     outsourcing and privatization efforts. However, DOD’s outsourcing
Environment Suggest     experience and the current operating environment suggest that projected
the Need for Caution    savings from current and planned outsourcing efforts may be overstated.
                        At the same time, opportunities exist for greater savings through omnibus
in Projecting Savings
From Outsourcing

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                          contracting and military-to-civilian conversions, although they, too, have

DOD’s Projected Savings   A DOD official told us that the Department expects savings from
From Outsourcing          outsourcing and privatization to grow to at least $2.5 billion annually by
Initiatives               the end of the future years defense plan period (fiscal year 2003); however,
                          he could not tell us specific savings totals for each year before 2003.
                          According to OSD and service officials, DOD has programmed the savings
                          into its 6-year budget. In February 1996, the Deputy Secretary of Defense
                          directed the services to identify targets for savings from outsourcing and
                          privatization and to transfer the anticipated savings from their operations
                          and maintenance accounts to their modernization accounts. Each of the
                          services has projected potential savings based on outsourcing programs
                          planned or underway. These savings projections are not as large as some
                          studies had suggested were possible from outsourcing; still, caution is
                          warranted concerning the magnitude of savings likely to be achieved in the
                          current operating environment.

                          The Air Force projects a 20-percent cost savings of up to $1.26 billion from
                          outsourcing mostly base support functions between fiscal year 1998 and
                          2003. Air Force officials told us that prior outsourcing experience
                          projected an average 29-percent savings; thus, they considered their
                          current savings projection to be conservative. The Air Force projects that
                          its studies will recommend outsourcing about 12,000 positions. Air Force
                          officials could not tell us what portion of the 12,000 were military or
                          civilian positions because they had not identified specific functions to be

                          Until recently, the Army was projecting a 10-percent savings from its
                          renewed outsourcing emphasis, and a key program official was expressing
                          concern about the program’s ability to produce large-scale savings. Now,
                          while still expressing concern about the potential savings, this official told
                          us the Army was raising its savings projection to 20 percent, which is more
                          in line with savings projections being cited by the other services.6 He said
                          that the 20-percent figure represented a conservative application of Center
                          for Naval Analyses (CNA) study data, which estimated the Army has saved
                          27 percent from outsourcing studies.7

                           In neither case did Army officials provide us with a dollar amount for projected savings.
                           See DOD report to the Congress, March 1996, Improving the Combat Edge Through Outsourcing,
                          completed in response to section 357 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996.

                          Page 7                                                           GAO/NSIAD-97-86 Base Operations

                           The Marine Corps projects initial cost savings of about $10 million per
                           year beginning in fiscal year 1998, increasing to $110 million per year by
                           fiscal year 2004. Officials told us the Marine Corps estimate was based on
                           CNA study data. The CNA study data had projected that the Marine Corps
                           could save 34 percent through outsourcing, based on prior years’ savings

                           The Navy projects a 30-percent net cost savings from outsourcing
                           commercial activities, beginning in fiscal year 2000, based on the results of
                           CNA study data. The Navy expects savings to begin accruing in fiscal
                           year 2000 and increase to $1.3 billion per year by the end of fiscal year

Competition Generates      Some recent studies recommending increased outsourcing within DOD
Savings, but They May Be   have projected cost savings of 20 to 40 percent and generally created the
Less Than Initially        impression that large savings occur only if contracts are awarded to the
                           private sector. Our work indicates that the magnitude of savings from
Projected                  outsourcing over time is likely to be less than projected from initial cost
                           comparisons. Even so, competition is the key to realizing some savings,
                           whether the function is outsourced or remains in-house.

                           According to DOD data on cost comparisons done between fiscal year 1978
                           and 1994, savings from competed functions occurred regardless of
                           whether the government or a private company was awarded the work.
                           DOD’s data show the government won about half of the time and private
                           industry won the other half. DOD’s savings achieved through the
                           competitive process were largely personnel savings, the result of closely
                           examining the work to be done and determining how to do it with fewer
                           personnel, whether in-house or outsourced. This lesson was consistent
                           with an April 1996 CNA report, which stated that the Navy’s cost estimates
                           were lower than private industry about 40 percent of the time. CNA
                           concluded that competition, not outsourcing, was the key to savings
                           because winners of competitions, whether an in-house organization or a
                           contractor, generally used fewer people to do the work.

                           Although a number of recent studies cited the potential for outsourcing to
                           provide large savings, most studies we examined, including those from CNA
                           and the Defense Science Board, drew heavily from the initial savings
                           projections in DOD’s commercial activities database. This database,
                           individually maintained by each of the services, set forth operational
                           savings that represent the difference between the cost of the ongoing

                           Page 8                                          GAO/NSIAD-97-86 Base Operations

operation and the cost of the winning offer. The services are required to
track these savings for the first 3 years. However, the services’ databases
do not generally reflect savings actually attained beyond 3 years, which
are subject to change.

Service officials acknowledged that the cost of operations projected at the
time of an outsourcing competition may be subject to modification for a
variety of reasons, such as inadequate initial statements of work, other
changes to performance work statements necessitated by new missions,
and mandated increases to wages. According to various headquarters and
installation officials, inadequately crafted statements of work have
frequently necessitated changes to contracts, which usually have resulted
in cost increases.8 Likewise, headquarters and installation officials often
cited increases in federally established wage rates—larger at times than
wage increases received by federal employees—as a source of increased
contract costs. The Service Contract Act of 1965, as amended (41 U.S.C.
351-358), requires federal contractors to pay their service employees not
less than the prevailing wage as determined by the Department of Labor,
based on the type of work and the locale. When the prevailing wage
increases, contracts must be modified to reimburse contractors for the
increased cost.

Although DOD’s commercial activities database provides an initial
projection of savings from outsourcing competitions, few studies have
been done to determine actual savings realized over time. Various
headquarters and installation officials told us that such studies are
time-consuming and costly and are difficult to do, since a common
baseline for comparison is typically lost over time. Our 1990 evaluation of
DOD savings data showed that neither DOD nor OMB had reliable data on
which to assess the soundness of savings estimates. Also, DOD and OMB did
not know the extent to which expected savings were realized because DOD
does not routinely collect and analyze cost information to track savings
after the first 3 years of a contract.9 Furthermore, DOD does not capture
what many service officials consider to be the sizable costs associated
with conducting A-76 studies.

 Various service initiatives are underway to improve the development of performance work statements
through the use of standard templates, expert study teams to conduct A-76 studies, and outsourcing
the entire A-76 study process. Such steps could help to mitigate, but not eliminate, the need for
contract changes.
 OMB Circular A-76: DOD’s Reported Savings Figures Are Incomplete and Inaccurate
(GAO/GGD-90-58, Mar. 15, 1990).

Page 9                                                       GAO/NSIAD-97-86 Base Operations

Because post-contract reviews of activities outsourced have been limited,
we do not believe they provide a basis for projecting with reliability the
magnitude of savings achieved over time. Nevertheless, they do suggest
some potential for continuing savings, since many of the reviews indicated
that savings continued over the life of the contracts. For example, a 1989
Army Audit Agency review found that 9 of 10 large contracts audited were
still saving money after several years of operation. However, the scope of
work on the 10th contract had changed so dramatically that comparative
costs of in-house and contract operation could not be identified.
According to a Navy official, Naval Audit Service reviews of selected
contracts during the mid-1980s found that savings were realized over the
life of the contracts, although not as much as initially projected.

Our prior reports have identified savings and cost increases over time
from outsourcing. For example, in 1985, we reported that from a sample of
20 functions contracted out, savings were realized on 17 functions.10
Savings were not realized on two functions, and we could not determine
whether savings were realized on the third function. Even so, all but 1 of
the 20 functions had contract cost increases. Costs increased primarily
because of added work and mandated wage increases. Further, a 1995 DOD
Inspector General audit report found cost growth in 20 commercial
activity contracts it reviewed. The increases were related to changes in
work requirements and mandated wage increases associated with the
Service Contract and Davis-Bacon acts.11 The report also noted that
increased contract requirements would have affected both in-house and
contract costs but that the increased contract work requirements could
render the original cost comparison invalid.12

Many installation officials we met with suggested that a variety of factors
associated with the current operating environment could lessen the future
potential for savings, regardless of past savings. They expressed concern
that budget reductions and civilian personnel downsizing of recent years
had eliminated much of the potential for additional personnel savings in

 DOD Functions Contracted Out Under OMB Circular A-76: Contract Cost Increases and the Effects
on Federal Employees (GAO/NSIAD-85-49, Apr. 15, 1985).
 Similar to the Service Contract Act, the Davis-Bacon Act, 40 U.S.C. 276a et. seq., requires that federal
construction contractors pay their workers not less than prevailing wages as determined by the
Department of Labor.
  Cost Growth in Commercial Activity Contracts, Mar. 31, 1995.

Page 10                                                           GAO/NSIAD-97-86 Base Operations

                      new outsourcing studies.13 Some said that potential savings from
                      outsourcing may be minimized by increases in the scope of work. Such
                      increases can occur, when funding becomes available, to restore a level of
                      service that had been reduced due to resource constraints. For example,
                      various officials expressed the need or potential for increases in the work
                      level to redress the effects of postponing maintenance and repair
                      activities, a common base support-type function, due to reductions in

                      Various installation officials told us that one way of achieving
                      across-the-board personnel reductions mandated by OSD is to outsource,
                      which would free remaining civilian authorizations for use in other,
                      critically understaffed activities. One senior command official in the Army
                      stated that the need to reduce civilian positions is greater than the need to
                      save money. This view was reinforced by the DOD Inspector General’s 1995
                      report on cost growth, which noted that “the goal of downsizing the
                      Federal workforce is widely perceived as placing DOD in a position of
                      having to contract for services regardless of what is more desirable and
                      cost effective.”

Potential Areas for   Both omnibus contracting and the conversion of military positions to
Significant Savings   civilian or contractor performance appear to have the potential to yield
                      larger savings than those projected from current or planned DOD
                      outsourcing efforts. However, the services could face significant
                      constraints on their abilities to achieve savings in these areas.

Omnibus Contracting   Despite recent studies highlighting the potential for larger savings from
                      omnibus contracting than from contracting piecemeal, the extent to which
                      the services plan to emphasize omnibus contracting is unclear. Emphasis
                      on omnibus contracting may be constrained by competing DOD goals, such
                      as the goal to provide contracting opportunities for small and
                      disadvantaged businesses.

                      Currently, few installations have omnibus support contracts. The Army’s
                      Fort Irwin, California, and the Navy’s submarine bases at Bangor,

                        From fiscal year 1987 to 1996, total operations and maintenance (O&M) budget authority declined
                      25 percent in real terms, reflecting the overall decline in defense spending. The O&M funding
                      appropriation account provides the principal source of funds for day-to-day activities at the services’
                      installations and bases, including maintenance and repair of most facilities and civilian personnel pay.
                      Within O&M funding, even steeper reductions have occurred in obligations for facilities maintenance
                      and repair, a common base support function, declining 38 percent in real terms during the same
                      period. During the same period, DOD’s civilian workforce has declined by 27 percent and is expected
                      to decline by 33 percent by fiscal year 2002.

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Washington, and Kings Bay, Georgia, outsourced support services under
single contracts when the current organizations were first established.
Others, such as Vance Air Force Base, Oklahoma, outsourced in 1962 as
part of a test with another base to determine whether outsourced support
services were less costly than support services performed in-house. The
former Craig Air Force Base in Selma, Alabama, retained all support
functions in-house, while Vance Air Force Base outsourced all support.
Vance Air Force Base retained its omnibus contract because Air Force
officials concluded the contract was less costly than having services done

While DOD’s experience with omnibus contracts has been limited, some of
the services’ outsourcing experiences suggest the potential for larger
savings and benefits from such contracts. According to officials at one
installation, significant savings are realized by competing functions that
have large numbers of workers. Although there are few examples of
omnibus contracting, Air Force and Navy contracting data showed that a
higher percentage of savings was achieved in cases where large functions
were competed. For example, Air Force data showed that functions with
1 to 25 positions averaged 13 percent in staff savings, while functions with
over 300 positions averaged 41 percent in staff savings. The Navy data
showed that functions with 1 to 10 positions averaged 22 percent in
savings, while functions with over 200 positions averaged 35 percent in

A 1996 internal assessment by the Army’s Forces Command identified
several benefits of omnibus contracting. Examples of benefits are (1) a
single manager is held accountable for performance; (2) efficiencies, such
as reduced overhead, are more often achievable under an omnibus
contract than under separate contracts; and (3) the flexibility to change
the contract performance work statement is increased. The assessment
concluded that the greatest advantage of omnibus contracting was the
reduced effort and cost to develop and award one contract versus multiple
contracts. A 1984 government-sponsored study concluded that Vance Air
Force Base was able to implement several organizational and managerial
cost-saving initiatives because of its omnibus support contract and that
such savings would not have been possible under the usual installation
structure involving several contractors and in-house organizations.
Similarly, a 1991 Air Force report concluded that the Vance omnibus
contract resulted in an overall lower contract cost for the same service
compared to individual contracts at similar installations.

Page 12                                        GAO/NSIAD-97-86 Base Operations

Conversely, while omnibus contracts may produce larger savings, such
contracts do not always succeed or are sometimes viewed as having
drawbacks. For example, in 1996, the Army awarded five separate
contracts to replace its omnibus contract to provide base support services
to Fort Irwin. Army officials stated that the omnibus contract was replaced
because the contract was too large to manage and the quality of service
was not maintained for some portions of the contract.14 At installations we
visited, we encountered varying views regarding omnibus contracts. Some
officials viewed them as a more efficient way to manage, while others
cited the potential for a greater number of activities to be adversely
affected should contract problems arise.

On October 28, 1996, the Deputy Secretary of Defense issued a policy
statement concerning the consolidation of contracts. In it, the Deputy
Secretary announced that in planning to consolidate several contracts or
requirements, the services must consider the effect on small businesses.
According to the Deputy Secretary, requirements cannot preclude small
businesses as prime contractors unless a market research analysis shows
significant benefits in terms of reduced costs and services or both.

Omnibus contracts can exclude the participation of small businesses as
the prime contractor because they often do not have the capacity to fulfill
the various parts of single, large contracts. The policy statement
recognizes the balance that must be maintained between the cost benefits
that can be obtained through consolidated contracts and the loss of small
businesses’ participation. The Deputy Secretary’s statement also
recognizes the policy of fostering the participation of small business in
federal contracting embodied in statutes such as the Small Business Act
and section 2323 of title 10 as implemented by the Federal Acquisition
Regulation (FAR) and the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation
Supplement (DFARS).

Small business policies that could affect the use of omnibus contracts
include the requirement contained in FAR 19.502-2 that an acquisition be
set aside for exclusive small business participation if there is a reasonable
expectation that offers will be obtained from at least two responsible
small businesses and that the award will be made at a fair market price. If
DOD is considering a consolidation of services currently done by small
businesses, under section 15(a) of the Small Business Act, it must also
consider alternative procurement methods that would increase small
business opportunities (15 U.S.C. 644(a)).

  Our review did not examine this contract in-depth to assess why it did not succeed.

Page 13                                                         GAO/NSIAD-97-86 Base Operations

                                   The use of omnibus contracting must also be consistent with the mandate
                                   for full and open competition contained in the Competition in Contracting
                                   Act of 1984. The use of an omnibus contract could restrict such
                                   competition because multiple requirements are combined into one
                                   contract. Therefore, such a contract must represent DOD’s legitimate
                                   needs, rather than administrative convenience or unsupported claims of

                                   Because of legislation and policy that affect the ability of an activity to
                                   consolidate activities for outsourcing, the services’ plans to outsource
                                   through omnibus contracts are uncertain. Officials at the Army’s Training
                                   and Doctrine Command and U.S. Forces Command told us they are
                                   planning to study the potential for outsourcing all logistics and public
                                   works functions at installations under omnibus contracts. These functions
                                   make up the majority of support activities on Army installations.15
                                   However, according to an official at the Army’s Training and Doctrine
                                   Command, the command has not yet dealt with the potential effect of the
                                   policies associated with small businesses.

                                   Conversely, various Air Force installation officials told us that they had
                                   encountered problems with omnibus contracts for base support services
                                   in the past, even though the contracts resulted in significant savings, and
                                   they foresee problems in being able to use omnibus contracts in the future.
                                   Air Force headquarters officials said that while they encourage commands
                                   to outsource under omnibus contracts, the decision to do so is left to the
                                   field commander.

                                   In January 1997, the Navy directed field activities to consider omnibus
                                   contracting where possible. Field activities decide whether to consolidate
                                   activities for study purposes. Recently announced study plans indicate
                                   that some activities will be combined. The Marine Corps has not yet
                                   determined what functions it will study.

Military-to-Civilian Conversions   Historical data suggest the potential for significant savings from
                                   converting military support positions to government civilian or contractor
                                   positions. The April 1996 CNA report concluded that competing activities
                                   done by military personnel yielded the highest percentage
                                   savings—50 percent, on average. Our 1996 report also illustrated the

                                    Army logistics functions include vehicle maintenance, supply, food service, and transportation of
                                   military and civilian personnel. Public works functions include the maintenance and repair of buildings
                                   and grounds.

                                   Page 14                                                         GAO/NSIAD-97-86 Base Operations

                           potential for significant cost savings from such conversions.16 The extent
                           to which the services’ outsourcing studies will involve military positions
                           remains unclear.17

                           At the same time, the conversions could be a time-consuming and difficult
                           process within DOD, since they would involve changing how funding is
                           provided between two different appropriation accounts—a centralized
                           military personnel account and an installation’s O&M account. Service
                           officials told us that because of the budget/appropriations process,
                           changing funding from the military personnel account to the O&M account
                           to pay for civilian or contractor functions could take up to 2 years. In
                           responding to our previous recommendations to convert military positions
                           to civilian positions, OSD stated such conversions were impeded by the
                           lack of consistent funding for the hiring of the civilian replacements, the
                           ongoing civilian personnel drawdown, and the established minimums for
                           military strength. The conversion of military positions to civilian or
                           contractor positions could result in changes to military end strength.
                           Without reductions to military end strength authorizations, the conversion
                           of military functions will not produce the expected personnel savings.

                           Historically, impediments to outsourcing have included institutional
Some Historical            resistance, extensive requirements of the A-76 process, and legislative
Impediments to             barriers. Changes have been made in these areas to lessen the
Outsourcing Have           impediments to varying degrees; however, some impediments remain.

Been Addressed, but
Others Remain
Institutional Effects on   In the past, institutional resistance to outsourcing, and legislation that
Outsourcing                contained prohibitions regarding the A-76 process and gave installation
                           commanders the authority to forgo outsourcing, served to limit efforts to
                           outsource commercial support activities. Recently, the strong leadership
                           of OSD and the services, as well as funding and personnel reductions, were
                           cited by various service officials as important elements to reduce the
                           resistance to outsourcing. Yet, some institutional barriers to outsourcing

                            DOD Force Mix Issues: Converting Some Support Officer Positions to Civilian Status Could Save
                           Money (GAO/NSIAD-97-15, Oct. 23, 1996).
                            The DOD fiscal year 1994 inventory shows almost 300,000 military performing commercial-type
                           activities. A Defense Science Board 1996 summer study, Achieving an Innovative Support Structure for
                           21st Century Military Superiority, notes that 40 percent of active duty military are in infrastructure
                           versus war-fighting positions.

                           Page 15                                                        GAO/NSIAD-97-86 Base Operations

                     The services have for a long time set aside positions in support activities
                     to ensure adequate opportunities to rotate military personnel from
                     overseas locations or sea duty to tours of duty in the continental United
                     States. For activities with such military positions, the services generally
                     blocked the consideration of outsourcing. Over the years, the Army has
                     converted many of its military positions set aside for rotation purposes to
                     civilian positions. As such, the Army does not consider rotation
                     requirements a barrier to outsourcing. The Air Force and the Navy, on the
                     other hand, have relatively more commercial activities with positions
                     reserved for military rotation.

                     Because of the recent emphasis placed on outsourcing, the Air Force and
                     the Navy have begun to review ways to restructure activities with rotation
                     positions to compete the activities for outsourcing. Because such efforts
                     are in the beginning stages, however, it is uncertain to what extent these
                     efforts will free up commercial activities for outsourcing.

A-76 Study Process   As discussed in appendix I, OMB recently revised its supplemental
Requirements         handbook to Circular No. A-76 in an effort to streamline and improve the
                     A-76 study process. The effect of the revised handbook is uncertain,
                     however, since DOD has not yet completed any study using the new
                     supplement. DOD officials have expressed differing views on the revised
                     handbook. Some approved of the revised handbook, while others said they
                     would like the A-76 process to be eliminated.18

                     Although the revised handbook allows each service Assistant Secretary to
                     waive A-76 studies under certain circumstances, the services’ headquarters
                     have received few requests to do so. Officials said they expect more
                     requests as installation outsourcing programs mature. However, a
                     recurring provision in section 8015 of the Department of Defense
                     Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 1997 (P.L. 104-208) requires DOD to
                     certify in-house cost estimates before converting most DOD activities with
                     more than 10 civilian employees to the private sector. The provision, in
                     essence, restricts DOD’s use of the new waiver authority.

                       It should be noted that an A-76 study is not required to convert functions with 10 or fewer positions
                     or outsource emerging requirements, such as new functions. DOD is considering the possibility of
                     avoiding A-76 studies by eliminating a given function as a government activity and relying on the
                     private sector for its provision (privatization). Various DOD and service officials indicated that the
                     latter may provide the basis for greater reliance on the commercial sector in the future, unencumbered
                     by A-76 requirements. However, the extent to which conversions, outsourcing, or eliminations are
                     likely to occur is not now known.

                     Page 16                                                         GAO/NSIAD-97-86 Base Operations

                          It is uncertain whether DOD will be able to complete A-76 studies within the
                          time frames outlined in the revised handbook. The handbook states that
                          studies of single activities should be completed within 18 months and
                          studies of multiple activities should be completed within 36 months.
                          According to DOD data, cost studies have averaged 2 to 4 years. In
                          July 1991, we reported that DOD averaged 4 years and 3 months to
                          complete A-76 studies during fiscal years 1987 and 1990.19 Further, service
                          officials told us the procurement process that typically follows the A-76
                          study, takes time. For example, a large-scale effort to outsource aircraft
                          maintenance at Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma, took 23 months, 17 of
                          which involved some contracting actions. The A-76 study took place
                          concurrently with roughly one-half of the procurement process. The
                          services have various initiatives underway to streamline the A-76 process,
                          including using work statement templates, assembling A-76 teams of
                          experts to conduct studies, and outsourcing the A-76 study process to
                          industry. However, most officials we spoke with said that the time
                          involved in following the federal procurement process lengthened the
                          outsourcing process.

                          Despite changes to the factors used to cost in-house performance, such as
                          the costing of overhead, industry representatives testified in
                          September 1996 before the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs
                          that cost comparisons between the public and private sectors will
                          continue to be difficult due to differing accounting structures and
                          budgeting processes. The services have some initiatives to improve
                          in-house cost determinations, but efforts are in the early stages.

Resources to Manage the   Installation officials have expressed concern about the availability of
A-76 Program              resources to conduct A-76 studies and manage the program. In the past,
                          most studies were done using in-house staff. At most installations we
                          visited, we were told that, as a result of downsizing, they had lost many
                          personnel who were experienced in the A-76 program. For example,
                          officials at one Navy command said that during the 1980s they had about
                          70 staff who administered the commercial activities program
                          commandwide. Since then, the command had lost all field staff and all but
                          two staff at headquarters to administer the program. To help alleviate this
                          problem, both the Navy and the Army plan to outsource parts of the A-76
                          study process, although portions will be retained in-house, such as costing
                          of the in-house organization. OSD provided $14.5 million in near-term

                           OMB Circular A-76: Legislation Has Curbed Many Cost Studies in Military Services
                          (GAO/GGD-91-100, July 30, 1991).

                          Page 17                                                       GAO/NSIAD-97-86 Base Operations

                        funding to the services for A-76 studies. Air Force officials told us they are
                        considering augmenting the study process with contractor personnel.
                        Marine Corps officials told us they have not decided how they will conduct
                        A-76 studies.

Legislation Affecting   Various laws have affected DOD’s outsourcing efforts. Key
Outsourcing             provisions—which allowed installation commanders to determine whether
                        to conduct A-76 studies and prohibited the award of contracts resulting
                        from such studies—have lapsed. Yet a number of provisions in chapter 146
                        of title 10 continue to affect outsourcing.

                        Chapter 146 of title 10 contains various provisions that burden or restrict
                        DOD’s outsourcing.20 Section 2461 of title 10 requires A-76 cost comparison
                        studies, congressional notification of studies involving more than 45
                        civilians, and annual reports to Congress on outsourcing. Section 2465 of
                        title 10 prohibits DOD from outsourcing civilian firefighters or security
                        guards at military installations. DOD’s fiscal year 1996 inventory of civilian
                        and military personnel involved with commercial activities shows that
                        about 9,600 firefighters and 16,000 security guards were exempt from
                        outsourcing because of the law and considerations such as mobility
                        requirements. Outsourcing of these positions was permitted only if
                        positions were outsourced before September 24, 1983. Various service
                        officials expressed concern about the exclusion of these functions from
                        the A-76 process, from an equity standpoint.

                        In commenting orally on a draft of this report, DOD expressed the belief
Agency Comments         that our concern about the effect of cost growth on competition savings
and Our Evaluation      was overstated. DOD stated that cost growth may indeed result from
                        changes in the scope of work, but changes in the scope of work can occur
                        to any workload, including those which DOD never subjects to competition.
                        We recognize that cost growth can occur under either circumstance;
                        however, circumstances associated with outsourcing competitions have
                        made this a troublesome issue for many service officials. Historically, this
                        has included difficulty in drafting performance work statements that fully
                        capture work to be done, as well as mandated wage increases that
                        sometimes occur under the Davis-Bacon and Service Contract acts. Our
                        report recognizes the importance of competition to achieving operating
                        efficiencies and cost savings, but at the same time expresses an

                         Some of the provisions in chapter 146 apply only to depot-level maintenance and, therefore, do not
                        affect the outsourcing of base support services.

                        Page 18                                                        GAO/NSIAD-97-86 Base Operations

appropriate level of caution about the potential for large-scale savings
from outsourcing competition in today’s operating environment.

DOD also pointed out that it has programmed investment funds necessary
to provide the resources to conduct the A-76 studies needed to reach the
services’ savings goals. Our report recognizes the initial provision of these
resources for the services’ recently announced studies. However,
providing initial funding to facilitate outsourcing competition studies does
not necessarily translate into achievement of the savings goals, and does
not eliminate concerns about having sufficient personnel to manage the
program over time.

DOD also provided several technical comments to enhance the accuracy
and completeness of the report and we have incorporated them in the text
where appropriate.

Our scope and methodology are discussed in appendix III.

We are sending copies of this report to the Chairmen of the Senate
Committees on Armed Services and on Appropriations, House Committees
on National Security and on Appropriations; the Secretaries of Defense,
the Air Force, the Army, and the Navy; and the Director of OMB.

Please contact me at (202) 512-5140 if you or your staff have any questions
concerning this report. Major contributors to this report were Christine
Frye, Barry Holman, and Martin Scire.

Sincerely yours,

Mark E. Gebicke
Director, Military Operations
  and Capabilities Issues

Page 19                                         GAO/NSIAD-97-86 Base Operations

Letter                                                                                             1

Appendix I                                                                                        22

Summary of 1996
Changes to Circular
A-76 Handbook
Appendix II                                                                                       23

Base Operating
Support Functions
Appendix III                                                                                      25

Objectives, Scope,
and Methodology
Related GAO Products                                                                              27

Figure                 Figure 1: In-house DOD Commercial Activities                                4


                       CNA       Center for Naval Analyses
                       DFARS     Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement
                       DOD       Department of Defense
                       FAR       Federal Acquisition Regulation
                       GSA       General Services Administration
                       O&M       operations and maintenance
                       OMB       Office of Management and Budget
                       OSD       Office of the Secretary of Defense

                       Page 20                                        GAO/NSIAD-97-86 Base Operations
Page 21   GAO/NSIAD-97-86 Base Operations
Appendix I

Summary of 1996 Changes to Circular A-76

              The revised supplemental handbook to Office of Management and Budget
              (OMB) Circular No. A-76 expands the authority to waive studies, limits the
              length of studies, standardizes the costing methodology, and encourages
              the consideration of contract performance and best value.

              A cost comparison study may be waived where (1) the conversion will
              result in a significant financial or service quality improvement and will not
              significantly reduce the level or quality of competition in the future award
              or performance of work or (2) the waiver will establish why in-house or
              contract offers cannot reasonably be expected to win a competition under
              the cost comparison process. The revised handbook indicates that no one
              lower than the service Assistant Secretary may grant a waiver.

              Under the revised handbook, A-76 cost studies are to be completed within
              18 months for single activities and 36 months for multiple activities.

              The revised handbook includes various changes to the factors to be used
              to cost in-house performance in an effort to balance the comparison of
              government costs to industry. For example, under the revised handbook,
              government overhead is calculated based on a standard factor of
              12 percent of direct labor costs. In the past, private industry contended
              that government costing was inherently unfair to industry because the
              government understated its cost of in-house performance.

              The revised handbook places increased emphasis on consideration, during
              the review of industry offers, of the best overall value to the government.
              The government may select a contractor based on the quality of past
              performance, as well as cost.

              Page 22                                         GAO/NSIAD-97-86 Base Operations
Appendix II

Base Operating Support Functions

              Base commercial activities, also called base support, are the functions
              necessary to support, operate, and maintain Department of Defense (DOD)
              installations. The revised supplemental handbook to OMB Circular No. A-76
              defines base support as the following 29 services:

              Natural resource services
              Advertising and public relations
              Financial and payroll services
              Debt collection
              Bus services
              Laundry and dry cleaning
              Custodial services
              Pest management
              Refuse collection and disposal services
              Food services
              Furniture repair
              Office equipment maintenance and repair
              Motor vehicle operation
              Motor vehicle maintenance
              Fire prevention and protection
              Military clothing
              Guard service
              Electric plants and systems operation and maintenance
              Heating plants and systems operation and maintenance
              Water plants and systems operation and maintenance
              Sewage and waste plants operation and maintenance
              Air conditioning and refrigeration plants
              Other utilities operation and maintenance
              Supply operations
              Warehousing and distribution of publications
              Transportation management services
              Museum operations
              Contractor-operated parts stores and civil engineering supply
              Other installation services

              Although OMB’s supplemental handbook lists all these functions as base
              support, DOD does not have a generally accepted definition of base support
              activities, and the services differ in how they define base support
              activities. For example, the Army’s Cost and Economic Analysis Center
              identified 122 functions supporting Army installations. The Center for
              Naval Analyses developed a working definition of 37 different functions

              Page 23                                       GAO/NSIAD-97-86 Base Operations
Appendix II
Base Operating Support Functions

supporting Navy installations. Air Force officials told us that they did not
have a definition for base operating support and that functions included as
base support may differ across the service. According to a cognizant
Marine Corps official, the Marine Corps does not have a standardized
definition for base operation support.

Without a common definition of base support, it is difficult to accurately
determine the size and cost of DOD’s base support workforce. In fiscal
year 1994, DOD estimated it had 629,000 military and civilians involved in
commercial activities in house. In 1996, DOD revised its inventory and
estimated it had about 449,000 personnel involved in those activities. This
significant revision reflects a change in what the Air Force considered
commercial activities. According to Air Force officials, a number of
functions were deleted from the Air Force inventory because DOD
considered them inherently governmental. DOD’s inventory total also
changed, according to officials, because the services had recently
surveyed their databases and added and deleted various functions.

Some support services common to military installations are neither part of
the A-76 handbook definition nor the services’ varied definitions of base
support. For example, family housing maintenance and repair is a
common base support service. Yet, the A-76 definition of base support
does not include family housing maintenance. Further, installation
officials told us that they did not consider family housing maintenance a
part of base support for budgeting purposes.

Page 24                                        GAO/NSIAD-97-86 Base Operations
Appendix III

Objectives, Scope, and Methodology

               For this report, we determined (1) the extent to which DOD and the
               services emphasize the outsourcing of base support services, (2) the
               factors that influence savings in the outsourcing process, and
               (3) impediments to DOD outsourcing. We focused our review on the
               outsourcing of base support-type functions because DOD expects the
               streamlining of infrastructure, of which base support is a major
               component, to yield significant savings to fund weapons procurement.

               To determine how current DOD and service efforts to outsource compare
               with those of prior years, we analyzed DOD’s database of A-76 cost
               comparison studies conducted since 1978. Due to the size and complexity
               of the DOD database, we did not validate the accuracy of the data. We
               determined the cost of base support activities using DOD’s definition of
               base support in its budget and discussions with Office of the Secretary of
               Defense (OSD) officials on what portions of base support to include. We
               reviewed DOD and industry studies on DOD’s A-76 program and an extensive
               number of our reports. We spoke with responsible service and OSD officials
               about the environmental influences on outsourcing in DOD and current
               efforts to outsource support activities. On a limited basis, we also
               discussed outsourcing with industry officials.

               To determine the reasonableness of DOD’s projected cost savings from
               outsourcing, we selectively analyzed DOD’s database of A-76 cost
               comparison studies to determine average cost savings projected and
               savings trends. We also used DOD’s database to trace in-house activities to
               an updated listing of installation activities. We demonstrated that
               installation activities and staffing change and that tracking savings is
               difficult. We discussed the various institutional, procedural, and legislative
               effects on savings with responsible service headquarters, installation, and
               OSD officials. On a limited basis, we discussed installation officials’
               experiences with specific contracts.

               To determine what factors currently constrain DOD’s outsourcing efforts,
               and efforts to correct problems, we spoke with responsible service
               headquarters and installation officials. We researched laws cited by
               officials and discussed specific legislation, such as the Small Business Act,
               with OSD officials and the services’ small business offices.

               The majority of our work was done in Washington, D.C. Work was also
               done at the U.S. Atlantic Fleet, Norfolk, Virginia; U.S. Army Training and
               Doctrine Command, Fort Monroe, Virginia; U.S. Army Forces Command,
               Atlanta, Georgia; the Air Force Air Education and Training Command, San

               Page 25                                         GAO/NSIAD-97-86 Base Operations
Appendix III
Objectives, Scope, and Methodology

Antonio, Texas; the Air Force Air Combat Command, Langley, Virginia;
and the Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base,
Ohio. We performed our review from May 1996 to February 1997 in
accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards.

Page 26                                     GAO/NSIAD-97-86 Base Operations
Related GAO Products

              Air Force Maintenance: Privatization-in-Place Plans Are Costly While
              Excess Capacity Exists (GAO/NSIAD-97-13, Dec. 31, 1996).

              Navy Depot Maintenance: Cost and Savings Issues Related to
              Privatizing-in-Place at the Louisville, Kentucky, Depot (GAO/NSIAD-96-202,
              Sept. 18, 1996).

              Army Depot Maintenance: Privatization Without Further Downsizing
              Increases Costly Excess Capacity (GAO/NSIAD-96-201, Sept. 18, 1996).

              Defense Depot Maintenance: Commission on Roles and Mission’s
              Privatization Assumptions Are Questionable (GAO/NSIAD-96-161, July 15,

              Defense Depot Maintenance: DOD’s Policy Report Leaves Future Role of
              Depot System Uncertain (GAO/NSIAD-96-165, May 21, 1996).

              Military Bases: Opportunities for Savings in Installation Support Costs Are
              Being Missed (GAO/NSIAD-96-108, Apr. 23, 1996).

              Defense Depot Maintenance: Privatization and the Debate Over the
              Public-Private Mix (GAO/T-NSIAD-96-148, Apr. 17, 1996).

              OMB  Circular A-76: Legislation Has Curbed Many Cost Studies in the
              Military Services (GAO/GGD-91-100, July 30, 1991).

              OMB Circular A-76: Expected Savings Are Not Being Realized in Ft. Sill’s
              Logistics Contract (GAO/GGD-91-33, Feb. 11, 1991).

              OMB Circular A-76: DOD’s Reported Savings Figures Are Incomplete and
              Inaccurate (GAO/GGD-90-58, Mar. 15, 1990).

              Army Procurement: Fort Benjamin Harrison’s Commercial Activity Study
              Should Be Redone or Updated (GAO/NSIAD-89-90, Feb. 24, 1989).

              Federal Productivity: DOD’s Experience in Contracting Out Commercially
              Available Activities (GAO/GGD-89-6, Nov. 28, 1988).

              Army Procurement: No Savings From Contracting for Support Services at
              Fort Eustis, Virginia (GAO/NSIAD-89-25, Oct. 31, 1988).

              Page 27                                          GAO/NSIAD-97-86 Base Operations
           Related GAO Products

           Air Force Contracting: Contracting for Maintenance of Training Aircraft at
           Columbus Air Force Base (GAO/NSIAD-88-136BR, Apr. 6, 1988).

           Federal Productivity: DOD Functions With Savings Potential From Private
           Sector Cost Comparisons (GAO/GGD-88-63FS, Apr. 8, 1988).

           DOD Functions Contracted Out Under OMB Circular A-76: Costs and Status
           of Certain Displaced Employees (GAO/NSIAD-85-90, July 12, 1985).

           Information From Previous Reports on Various Aspects of Contracting Out
           Under OMB Circular A-76 (GAO/NSIAD-85-107, July 5, 1985).

           DOD Functions Contracted Out Under OMB Circular A-76: Contract Cost
           Increases and the Effects on Federal Employees (GAO/NSIAD-85-49, Apr. 15,

           Synopsis of GAO Reports Involving Contracting Out Under OMB Circular
           A-76 (GAO/PLRD-83-74, May 24, 1983).

           Review of DOD Contracts Awarded Under OMB Circular A-76 (GAO/PLRD-81-58,
           Aug. 26, 1981).

           Factors Influencing DOD Decisions to Convert Activities From In-house to
           Contractor Performance (GAO/PLRD-81-19, Apr. 22, 1981).

(703156)   Page 28                                        GAO/NSIAD-97-86 Base Operations
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