oversight

DOD Service Academies: Problems Limit Feasibility of Graduates Directly Entering the Reserves

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1997-03-24.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                  United States General Accounting Office

GAO               Report to Congressional Requesters




March 1997
                  DOD SERVICE
                  ACADEMIES
                  Problems Limit
                  Feasibility of
                  Graduates Directly
                  Entering the Reserves




GAO/NSIAD-97-89
             United States
GAO          General Accounting Office
             Washington, D.C. 20548

             National Security and
             International Affairs Division

             B-276401

             March 24, 1997

             The Honorable Strom Thurmond
             Chairman
             The Honorable Carl Levin
             Ranking Minority Member
             Committee on Armed Services
             United States Senate

             The Honorable Floyd Spence
             Chairman
             The Honorable Ronald Dellums
             Ranking Minority Member
             Committee on National Security
             House of Representatives

             Section 557 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997
             (P. L. 104-201) directed us to report to the congressional defense
             committees on the policy and cost implications of up to 5 percent of each
             academy’s graduating class serving in the reserve with a corresponding
             increase in the number of Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC)
             graduates serving on active duty. Based on discussions with your offices,
             we (1) determined the number of academy graduates serving in an active
             status in the reserve component; (2) obtained information regarding the
             feasibility and implications of a proposal to have academy graduates serve
             in a drilling status in the reserve component, without having served on
             active duty, as a means of enhancing the capability of the guard/reserves;
             and (3) identified other means through which the reserve components are
             recruiting junior officers.


             The Department of Defense (DOD) has several commissioning programs
Background   that it uses to bring new officers onto active duty, including the service
             academies, ROTC, and the services’ Officer Candidate Schools/Officer
             Training Schools (OCS/OTS). These programs vary in length, intensity, and
             content; the required period of active duty service incurred; and their cost
             to DOD. Each of the academies produces about 1,000 graduates a year.
             Consequently, if 5 percent of the graduates were to enter the
             guard/reserve, it would involve about 50 graduates a year from each of the
             3 DOD academies. In 1996, the numbers of ROTC and OCS/OTS officers
             produced, respectively, in each of the services were: 2,887 and 350 in the




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                   Army, 857 and 1,383 in the Navy, 227 and 365 in the Marine Corps, and
                   1,637 and 646 in the Air Force.

                   The reserve components have become increasingly central to the U.S.
                   national defense strategy and have played an integral part in most recent
                   military operations, including the Gulf War and Bosnia. The reserve
                   component consists of various categories involving different degrees of
                   participation. The policy proposal we examined specified that placement
                   of academy graduates would be in an active reserve status, which includes
                   only those in the selected reserve. The selected reserve includes those
                   individuals in a part-time, paid drill status in either a reserve or National
                   Guard unit, personnel in the Active Guard/Reserve (AGR) on active duty
                   providing full-time support, and trained personnel called Individual
                   Mobilization Augmentees (IMA) designated to fill specific positions during
                   mobilization. Since AGR personnel are on active duty and IMA personnel are
                   typically fully trained, we focused our examination of the policy proposal
                   only on the drilling guard/reserve. (See app. II for further background on
                   the reserve components.)


                   As of October 1, 1996, 5,014 service academy graduates were serving in the
Results in Brief   active reserve components. Additionally, 424 academy graduates were on
                   active duty with a reserve component performing full-time AGR support
                   functions under the authority of 10 U.S.C. 12301(d) and 32 U.S.C. 502(f).
                   About 4.6 percent of the officers in the drilling guard/reserves were
                   academy graduates compared to 17.4 percent of the active forces.

                   Department of Defense, service, and academy officials, with the exception
                   of those representing the National Guard, believe that sending academy
                   graduates to the drilling guard/reserves upon graduation would be
                   counterproductive. They pointed to the need for new officers, regardless
                   of their commissioning source, to receive skill training and experience
                   before they can be productive guard/reserve members. Since the
                   academies are the most expensive source of new officers, concerns were
                   expressed that sending academy graduates to the reserves before they
                   complete their active duty obligation would not produce a sufficient
                   payback for the cost of their education. Department of Defense officials
                   additionally cited a number of administrative and practical problems that
                   would require policy changes at the academies and the selected reserves.

                   National Guard officials, however, noted that they have vacancies for
                   officers in the junior officer grades and believe that the assignment of



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                    academy graduates directly to the National Guard would be feasible.
                    Based on their experiences with programs for new Reserve Officers
                    Training Corps graduate accessions, National Guard officials believe that
                    the policy and administrative difficulties in accessing academy graduates
                    could be managed.

                    The reserve components presently receive academy graduates through
                    normal attrition as academy-produced officers join the drilling
                    guard/reserves after completing their obligated active duty service. In
                    addition, efforts to downsize the active duty force have had a side benefit
                    of enhancing the capability of the reserve component by getting more
                    trained and experienced officers into active reserve status. Recently, these
                    early release programs have been opened to graduates from the academies
                    and the Reserve Officers Training Corps. Since 1994, the Army National
                    Guard Combat Readiness Reform Act of 19921 has allowed the Army to
                    bring in 482 academy graduates and 108 graduates from the Reserve
                    Officers Training Corps with 2 to 3 years of experience to serve the
                    remainder of their military service obligations in the selected reserves.


                    As of October 1, 1996, the drilling guard/reserve officer corps of 109,594
Academy Graduates   included 5,014 academy graduates, or about 4.6 percent (see fig. 1). This
in the Drilling     percentage compares to academy graduates comprising about 17.4 percent
Guard/Reserve       of the active duty officer corps (see fig. 2). The Navy reserve has the
                    largest proportion of academy graduates at 10.3 percent, followed by the
                    Air Force at 6.0 percent, the Marine Corps at 3.5 percent, and the Army at
                    2.6 percent.

                    About 424 academy graduates were on full-time active duty in a reserve
                    component under 10 U.S.C. 12301(d) and 32 U.S.C. 502(f) for the purpose
                    of organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, and training the
                    reservists. See appendix III for additional details on the number of
                    academy graduates serving in the selected reserve.




                    1
                     Title XI of P.L. 102-484, October 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2315, 2536.



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Figure 1: Drilling Guard/Reserve
Officers by Source of Commission
                                                                                               ROTC       28.3%



                                    OCS      17.7%


                                                                                                                      Academy           4.6%




                                                                                 Other     49.4%

                                    Note: The “OCS” category in this figure refers to the active duty OCS/OTS program. The “Other”
                                    category includes: graduates of the Army National Guard OCS schools run by each state and
                                    territory, the 6-week Air National Guard Academy of Military Science, direct commissions, officers
                                    trained in one service and accessed in another, and officers whose source of commission was
                                    missing.




Figure 2: Active Duty Officers by
Source of Commission
                                    ROTC       39.0%

                                                                                                           Academy        17.4%




                                                                                                        OTHER        22.7%

                                             OCS       21.0%

                                    Note: The “Other” category includes officers accessed by direct commissions (commissions
                                    offered to professionals in medicine, law, and the ministry), officers trained in one service and
                                    accessed in another, and officers whose source of commission was missing.




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Feasibility of
Academy Graduates
Serving in the
Guard/Reserve Upon
Graduation

Concerns Raised            DOD,  the active services, and the reserve components, with the exception
Regarding Lack of          of the Army National Guard and the Air National Guard, stated that
Experience and Training    sending service academy graduates directly to the drilling guard/reserve
                           without officer skill training or active duty experience would not enhance
for Immediate Reserve      the capability of the reserve component. Newly commissioned officers,
Duty                       regardless of whether they come from the academies, ROTC, or OCS/OTS, are
                           not fully prepared for direct entry into military jobs. The military
                           education at the service academies and the other commissioning programs
                           focus on preparing graduates to go into the active component. But these
                           commissioning programs do not provide specific military occupational
                           skills. The transition into the active service is considered a necessary part
                           of completing an officer’s education. Also, DOD officials told us that those
                           officers who enter the guard/reserves without active duty experience
                           would likely be at a competitive disadvantage, which could negatively
                           affect their long-term career potential as a member of the reserve
                           component.

                           An additional concern to the reserve components is funding for mandatory
                           follow-on training for newly commissioned officers transferred directly to
                           units after commissioning. The requirement to train these officers would
                           shift to the respective component, imposing significant increases in
                           training funds because the basic branch qualification courses involve
                           active duty, with sometimes lengthy training.


Direct Entry Into          DOD,  the service academies, and the reserves believe that serving in the
Guard/Reserve May Not Be   drilling guard/reserve may not be considered by the Congress or the
Considered Adequate        taxpayers to be sufficient recoupment for the cost of an academy
                           education. The service academies spent about $762 million in fiscal
Payback for the Cost of    year 1995 to produce 2,900 officers. The cost of producing an officer in the
Academy Education          class of 1995 was $277,000 at the Military Academy, $218,000 at the Naval
                           Academy, $283,000 at the Air Force Academy, and $82,0002 for the

                           2
                            The ROTC cost per graduate includes only those costs paid for by the military.



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                            B-276401




                            scholarship ROTC program. The services’ OCS/OTS programs and the National
                            Guard OCS programs are considerably less expensive.

                            The Congress has expressed concern about ensuring an adequate payback
                            for the cost of officer training. The minimum active duty service
                            commitment for academy graduates is 5 years, and ROTC graduates are
                            obligated to serve 4 years. The active duty service commitment for
                            academy graduates was raised to 6 years, starting with the class entering
                            the academies in 1992, in an effort to ensure a greater return for the cost of
                            an academy education. But before the change took effect, the 6-year
                            obligation was rolled back to 5 years in 1995 because of concerns that it
                            would harm academy recruiting.

                            DOD officials have raised the question of whether attendance at training for
                            2 days per month and an annual training requirement of about 14 days
                            would provide an adequate payback for DOD’s investment of $218,000 to
                            $283,000 in an academy graduate’s education. If an academy graduate’s
                            5-year service obligation was required to be served through drilling
                            guard/reserve participation, it would amount to about 190 total days of
                            service. That amount would provide an implicit payback rate for their
                            education of between $1,147 and $1,489 per day of drilling guard/reserve
                            service.


Administrative and          Officials cited a number of administrative and practical difficulties that
Practical Difficulties in   would have to be overcome to make direct accession of academy
Accessing Academy           graduates into the reserves feasible. They cited problems regarding the
                            absence of an employment placement process at the academies;
Graduates Directly Into     placement of graduates into drilling guard/reserve units; enforcement of
Active Reserve Service      guard/reserve service obligations; development of a fair and efficient
                            selection process for determining which academy graduates would go to
                            the guard/reserve, additional funding to provide skill training; the need to
                            increase Navy ROTC enrollments to take the place of the academy
                            graduates on active duty; and limited capacity in the Naval Reserve to
                            absorb additional officers.

                            The academies send their commissioned graduates to active duty and
                            therefore have had no need for a civilian job placement operation.
                            However, since service in the drilling guard/reserve would entail only
                            part-time service (1 weekend a month plus an annual 2-week training
                            period), academy graduates headed for immediate placement in the
                            guard/reserve would need to be offered assistance finding jobs. Job



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placement assistance for ROTC students who are not offered active duty
assignments is handled the same way it is for other students by the college
or university they attend. Regardless of the source of commission, there is
no guarantee that graduates would take jobs that are geographically close
enough to guard/reserve units with vacancies.

Potential reservists cannot be directed to specific units with vacancies if
they live beyond a certain distance from the unit/reserve training site. The
current policy is that guard/reserve members must live within 50 miles, or
a 90-minute commute, of their training sites. If multiple training periods
are performed together and mess facilities are available at the site, the
distance is extended to 100 miles. However, we were told that the Army
National Guard makes exceptions to this policy in less populated states for
highly qualified officers and enlisted candidates who are willing to travel
greater distances.

DOD and service officials told us it would be difficult to enforce
participation in the drilling guard/reserve by academy graduates or others
who decided to leave active guard/reserve service with some remaining
service obligation. The guard/reserves depend upon voluntary service.
Under current policy, guard/reserve officers with a valid reason, such as
family hardship, can move from the drilling guard/reserve to an inactive
status at any time. Also, the enforcement alternative of calling to active
duty those members who fail to abide by their guard/reserve commitment
would be counter to the proposal’s objectives.

Sending academy graduates to the guard/reserve directly after graduation
would create a dilemma regarding fair and efficient selection criteria.
Presently, students select their service assignments based on class
standing, with top performing cadets/midshipmen having preference to
available assignments over lower performers. A determination would need
to be made regarding whether immediate guard/reserve selection would be
voluntary or involuntary. If voluntary, there would be at least two issues to
consider: whether there should be any restrictions on eligibility and what
would happen if less than 5 percent volunteered. If assignment to the
guard/reserve was involuntary, academy officials expressed concerns
about a negative impact on cadet/midshipman motivation and breaking
faith with the promise of an active duty assignment following graduation.

During the past 5 years, Air Force Reserve officer accessions have been
primarily those with prior active service. Consequently, they have not
planned or budgeted for training for officers without active duty



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                              experience. The costs of initial skill training for academy graduates would
                              have to be programmed and budgeted by the Air Force Reserves.

                              Sending 5 percent of academy graduates to the reserve components would
                              require rescheduling a similar number of ROTC graduates to active service.
                              Initially, this would be a problem for the Navy. Navy ROTC programs have
                              not been producing any graduates for the reserve. Consequently, the Navy
                              would not currently have a sufficient number of excess ROTC graduates to
                              replace about 50 academy graduates a year diverted from active duty to
                              reserve service. Since most Naval ROTC students are on scholarship, with
                              long lead times between scholarship award and graduation, the
                              implementation of such a policy would require additional funding and
                              substantial lead time.

                              Finally, Navy officials stated that there are too few billets in the Naval
                              Reserve to accommodate the number of officers already seeking Naval
                              Reserve participation. Taking some of those billets for newly
                              commissioned ensigns coming directly from the Naval Academy would
                              compound the problem.


National Guard Has            Army National Guard officials stated that they have about 2,261 vacancies
Vacancies at Junior Officer   at the first and second lieutenant grade levels and believe the vacancies
Grades                        could be partially filled by academy graduates entering directly after
                              commissioning. The Air National Guard has about 200 entry-level officer
                              vacancies a year, particularly in technical occupations, that could be filled
                              by newly commissioned officers directly after graduation.

                              Both the Army and the Air National Guard have recently been recruiting
                              ROTC graduates who were commissioned but were not offered active duty
                              service. The Army Guard brought 283 ROTC graduates directly into drilling
                              guard service in 1994 and 852 in 1996.3 The Air Guard brought in 15 ROTC
                              graduates in 1995 and 40 applied in 1996. ROTC graduates entering the
                              guard directly after commissioning are given the appropriate officer skill
                              training.




                              3
                               The Army’s database would not allow the number entering the guard to be separated out from the
                              total number entering the guard and reserve in 1995.



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                                          B-276401




                                          The Army National Guard Combat Readiness Reform Act of 1992 provided
Efforts to Enhance                        several initiatives for enhancing the capability of the Army National Guard
the Capability of the                     to deploy. Responding to the act, the Secretary of the Army established an
Reserve Component                         objective of increasing the proportion of qualified prior active duty
                                          officers in the Army National Guard to 65 percent. However, as shown in
                                          table 1, the proportion of officers in the Army guard/reserve with 2 or
                                          more years of active duty service is only about 50 percent. The 65-percent
                                          goal has been suspended because under current manpower ceilings,
                                          increasing the percentage of experienced officers would require forced
                                          early retirement of guard officers with limited active duty experience.

Table 1: Army Reserve Component
Officers With 2 or More Years of Active   Fiscal Year                          Component                                Number         Percent
Duty                                      1996                                 Army National Guard                       20,247             49.3
                                                                               Army Reserve                              17,245             49.4
                                          1995                                 Army National Guard                       21,509             49.8
                                                                               Army Reserve                              21,623             53.8

                                          Another provision of the act, section 1112, allowed the Secretary to
                                          provide a program under which academy graduates and distinguished ROTC
                                          graduates could complete their military service obligation in the selected
                                          reserve. ROTC graduates with 2 years of service are allowed to serve the
                                          remainder of their obligation in the Army National Guard. This program
                                          has since been consolidated into the Voluntary Early Release/Retirement
                                          Program (VERRP)4 under category G.

                                          The number of academy and ROTC graduates leaving active duty before
                                          completing their initial active duty service obligation under VERRP are
                                          shown in tables 2 and 3. Those leaving active duty under category G before
                                          completing their military service obligation were required to serve out
                                          their remaining service obligation in the selected reserve. Those officers
                                          shown in the inactive reserve column qualified for VERRP under a category
                                          other than category G (e.g., having less than 1 year of initial active duty
                                          service obligation remaining) and were not required to serve in the
                                          selected reserves.




                                          4
                                           VERRP, which began in 1993, was designed to reduce the size of the officer corps by allowing officers
                                          on active duty to volunteer for release or retirement under specific conditions. Category G of the
                                          program includes all lieutenants in competitive branches with 24 to 36 months of active service. These
                                          officers qualify for early release if they obtain a National Guard or Army Reserve assignment and agree
                                          to serve the remainder of their military service obligation in the selected reserve.



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Table 2: Academy Graduates Released
by the Army Under VERRP, 1994-96                                                             Released         Released
                                                                                     Total to selected       to inactive     Hardship
                                      Fiscal year                                released     reserves           reserve     releases
                                      1994                                               90            90            N/A           N/A
                                      1995                                             446            223            186           37
                                      1996                                             223            169             47            7
                                      Total                                            759            482            233           44
                                      Note: N/A—Not available in the current Army database.

                                      Source: Army Posture Statements, Fiscal Year 1997 and Fiscal Year 1998 and Army officials.



Table 3: ROTC Graduates Released by
the Army Under VERRP, 1994-96                                                                Released         Released
                                                                                     Total to selected       to inactive     Hardship
                                      Fiscal year                                released      reserve           reserve     releases
                                      1994                                               27            27            N/A           N/A
                                      1995                                               63            36             17            9
                                      1996                                               47            45               0           2
                                      Total                                            137            108             17           11
                                      Note: N/A—Not available in the current Army database.

                                      Source: Army Posture Statements, Fiscal Year 1997 and Fiscal Year 1998 and Army officials.



                                      These numbers indicate that there is a potential for the drilling
                                      guard/reserve to get junior officers through programs such as VERRP. Also,
                                      such officers would enter the guard/reserve already possessing military
                                      skill training and active duty experience.


                                      The proposal to send up to 5 percent of service academy graduates
Conclusions                           directly to the drilling guard/reserve would likely encounter significant
                                      administrative and practical difficulties and be perceived as expensive.
                                      Reserve component capability would not be appreciably enhanced
                                      because the newly commissioned officers would not enter the
                                      guard/reserve with specific military skills or experience. Also, the small
                                      number of potential officer accessions proposed (about 50 per service per
                                      year) would not go far in relieving the junior officer needs of the National
                                      Guard. However, the program to attract academy- and ROTC-educated
                                      officers with 2 to 3 years active duty experience under the Army’s VERRP
                                      into the selected reserve appears to be relatively successful and offers the




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                     potential to access a number larger than 50 junior officers, who would be
                     trained and experienced.


                     DOD   reviewed a draft of this report and concurred with our conclusions.
Agency Comments      DOD’s   comments are reprinted in appendix III.
and Our Evaluation
                     To evaluate the feasibility of sending service academy graduates directly
Scope and            to the drilling guard/reserve, we interviewed officials at the Office of the
Methodology          Secretary of Defense, the service headquarters, the service academies,
                     reserve headquarters, and the National Guard Bureau about the potential
                     benefits and difficulties in accessing academy graduates directly into the
                     drilling guard/reserve.

                     The Office of the Secretary of Defense provided the cost data for the
                     service academies and ROTC program. The information on the number of
                     officers and types of commissions for the services and the drilling
                     guard/reserve was provided by the individual services from their personnel
                     databases. The VERRP results were provided by the Office of the Chief of
                     Staff, U.S. Army, Congressional Activities Division. We did not
                     independently verify the data provided.

                     We conducted our work from November 1996 to February 1997 in
                     accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards.


                     We are sending copies of this report to other interested congressional
                     committees; the Secretaries of Defense, the Army, the Navy, and the Air
                     Force; and the Superintendents of the Military, Naval, and Air Force
                     academies. Copies will also be made available to others upon request.

                     If you or your staff have any questions concerning this report, please
                     contact me at (202) 512-5140. The major contributors to this report were
                     William E. Beusse, Lawrence E. Dixon, and Jeanett H. Reid.




                     Mark E. Gebicke
                     Director, Military Operations and
                       Capabilities Issues


                     Page 11                                   GAO/NSIAD-97-89 DOD Service Academies
Contents



Letter                                                                                          1


Appendix I                                                                                     14
                     Training of the Guard/Reserve                                             14
Reserve Components
Appendix II                                                                                    16

Active Duty and
Drilling
Guard/Reserve
Military Officers
Appendix III                                                                                   18

Comments From the
Department of
Defense
Tables               Table 1: Army Reserve Component Officers With 2 or More Years              9
                       of Active Duty
                     Table 2: Academy Graduates Released by the Army Under                     10
                       VERRP, 1994-96
                     Table 3: ROTC Graduates Released by the Army Under VERRP,                 10
                       1994-96
                     Table I.1: Composition of the Ready Reserve                               14
                     Table II.1: Source of Commission of Navy and Naval Reserve                16
                       Officers
                     Table II.2: Source of Commission of Army Active Duty, Reserve,            16
                       and National Guard Officers
                     Table II.3: Source of Commission of Air Force Active Duty,                16
                       Reserve, and National Guard Officers
                     Table II.4: Source of Commission of Marine Corps Active Duty              17
                       and Reserve Officers
                     Table II.5: Active Duty Guard/Reserves serving under 10 U.S.C.            17
                       Section 1230

Figures              Figure 1: Drilling Guard/Reserve Officers by Source of                     4
                       Commission




                     Page 12                                 GAO/NSIAD-97-89 DOD Service Academies
Contents




Figure 2: Active Duty Officers by Source of Commission                    4




Abbreviations

AGR        Active Guard/Reserve
DOD        Department of Defense
IMA        Individual Mobilization Augmentees
OCS        Officer Candidate Schools
OCS/OTS    Officer Candidate Schools/Officer Training Schools
ROTC       Reserve Officers Training Corps
VERRP      Voluntary Early Release/Retirement Program


Page 13                                GAO/NSIAD-97-89 DOD Service Academies
Appendix I

Reserve Components


                                      The reserves consist of three major categories: the Ready Reserve, the
                                      Standby Reserve, and the Retired Reserve. The Ready Reserve comprises
                                      three groups—the Selected Reserve, the Individual Ready Reserve, and the
                                      Inactive National Guard (see table I.1). The military members of the Ready
                                      Reserve are organized in units, or as individuals, both of which are liable
                                      for recall to active duty to augment the active forces in time of war or
                                      national emergency. The Selected Reserve includes the drilling National
                                      Guard and reservists assigned to units, full-time support personnel, and
                                      individual mobilization augmentees.

Table I.1: Composition of the Ready
Reserve                                                                  Ready Reserve
                                                            Selected Reserve
                                          Units and Active Guard/Reserve


                                      Drilling              Full-time Active    Individual          Individual Ready
                                      Guard/Reserve Units   Guard/Reserve       Mobilization        Reserve and
                                                                                Augmentees          Inactive National
                                                                                                    Guard

                                      Under the total force policy, reserve component forces are considered an
                                      integral part of the U.S. Armed Forces and essential to implementation of
                                      the U.S. defense strategy. Reductions in the size of the active force and
                                      increased U.S. participation in peace operations since the end of the Cold
                                      War have increased reliance on the reserve forces, as illustrated by the
                                      inclusion of reserve component units in war-fighting contingency plans
                                      and peacetime operations.


                                      As part of their service obligation, most guard/reserve members are
Training of the                       required to participate in prescribed training activities. Members of the
Guard/Reserve                         Selected Reserve are required to participate in training to maintain their
                                      readiness and proficiency. Each year they must participate in at least 48
                                      4-hour inactive duty training periods—the equivalent of 24 8-hour days, or
                                      12 weekends a year. They must also participate in annual training periods
                                      of about 2 weeks, which is generally done during one consecutive period.
                                      However, some reservists, particularly those in the Air Force and the Navy
                                      components, often fulfill the annual training requirement during several
                                      shorter periods.

                                      Members of the Individual Ready Reserve and Inactive National Guard are
                                      not required to meet the same training requirements as members of the




                                      Page 14                                     GAO/NSIAD-97-89 DOD Service Academies
Appendix I
Reserve Components




Selected Reserve. However, they are required to serve 1 day of duty each
year to accomplish screening requirements and may participate voluntarily
in inactive duty training. Members of the Retired Reserve are not subject
to mandatory training. However, they are encouraged to participate
voluntarily to maintain their readiness.




Page 15                                GAO/NSIAD-97-89 DOD Service Academies
Appendix II

Active Duty and Drilling Guard/Reserve
Military Officers

Table II.1: Source of Commission of
Navy and Naval Reserve Officers                                                  Navy
                                                                                         Active duty              Reserve
                                      Source of commission                             Number     Percent      Number    Percent
                                      Academy                                           10,566      17.98        1,916       10.25
                                      Reserve Officers Training Corps                   11,278      19.19        2,723       14.57
                                      Officer Candidate Schools                         12,570      21.39        4,644       24.84
                                      Other                                             24,357      41.44        9,410       50.34
                                      Total                                             58,771     100.00       18,693      100.00

Table II.2: Source of Commission of
Army Active Duty, Reserve, and                                                   Army
National Guard Officers                                           Active duty               Reserve             National Guard
                                      Source of
                                      commission             Number       Percent Number           Percent Number        Percent
                                      Academy                  11,168       16.27         1,282         3.95      501         1.41
                                      Reserve Officers
                                      Training Corps           39,829       58.01        12,854        39.59    10,925       30.71
                                      Officer Candidate
                                      Schools                     6,032         8.79      2,928         9.02     2,107        5.92
                                      Other                    11,624       16.93        15,403        47.44    22,038       61.96
                                      Total                    68,653      100.00        32,467     100.00      35,571      100.00

Table II.3: Source of Commission of
Air Force Active Duty, Reserve, and                                         Air Force
National Guard Officers                                           Active duty               Reserve             National Guard
                                      Source of
                                      commission             Number       Percent Number           Percent Number        Percent
                                      Academy                  14,743       19.30           626         7.09      600         5.22
                                      Reserve Officers
                                      Training Corps           31,809       41.64         2,244        25.43     2,041       17.76
                                      Officer Training
                                      Schools                  16,016       20.97         2,010        22.78     5,497       47.82
                                      Other                    13,820       18.09         3,945        44.70     3,357       29.20
                                      Total                    76,388      100.00         8,825     100.00      11,495      100.00




                                      Page 16                                            GAO/NSIAD-97-89 DOD Service Academies
                                          Appendix II
                                          Active Duty and Drilling Guard/Reserve
                                          Military Officers




Table II.4: Source of Commission of
Marine Corps Active Duty and Reserve                                             Marine Corps
Officers                                                                              Active duty              Reserve
                                          Source of commission                     Number       Percent     Number       Percent
                                          Academy                                     1,691         10.55       89          3.50
                                          Reserve Officers Training Corps             2,848         17.77      201          7.90
                                          Officer Candidate Schools                  11,488         71.68     2,253        88.60
                                          Other                                          0           0.00        0          0.00
                                          Total                                      16,027        100.00     2,543       100.00



Table II.5: Active Duty Guard/Reserves Serving Under 10 U.S.C. Section 12301(d)
                                                             Army                      Air Force            Marine
Source of commission                         Navy      Reserve         ARNG        Reserve          ANG     Corps          Total
Academy                                        149           43             54          15           102        61          424
Reserve Officers Training Corps                329        1,328         1,016           61           349        92         3,175
Officer Candidate Schools/Officer
Training Schools                               973          391          431            81           752       212         2,840
Other                                          436          924         2,688           43           170         0         4,261
Total                                        1,887        2,686         4,189          200          1,373      365        10,700




                                          Page 17                                         GAO/NSIAD-97-89 DOD Service Academies
Appendix III

Comments From the Department of Defense




(703163)       Page 18      GAO/NSIAD-97-89 DOD Service Academies
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