United States General Accounting Office GAO Report to Congressional Requesters June 1999 COMBATING TERRORISM Analysis of Potential Emergency Response Equipment and Sustainment Costs GAO/NSIAD-99-151 United States General Accounting Office National Security and Washington, D.C. 20548 International Affairs Division B-282618 Letter June 9, 1999 The Honorable Ike Skelton Ranking Minority Member Committee on Armed Services House of Representatives The Honorable Christopher Shays Chairman, Subcommittee on National Security, Veterans Affairs and International Relations Committee on Government Reform House of Representatives Under the Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Domestic Preparedness program,1 the Department of Defense (DOD) and others provide training, equipment, and advice to enhance the capability of civilian emergency response personnel to respond to a possible terrorist incident involving a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear device (CBRN). In 1998, we reported that some local jurisdictions were deciding on equipment purchases without the benefit of formal threat and risk assessments based on valid threat data.2 In the absence of defined requirements, you asked us to determine the potential cost of equipping and maintaining the capability of cities to respond to a terrorist incident involving CBRN. Specifically, we (1) obtained the views of federal, state, and local officials on equipment they believed would provide various levels of capability to respond to a CBRN incident and (2) determined the potential procurement and sustainment costs of these items. To conduct our work, we developed a preliminary equipment list based on our prior work and discussions with DOD, Federal Bureau of Investigation, and local officials. We then surveyed 36 federal, state, and local officials 1This program was authorized in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997 (title XIV of P.L. 104-201, Sept. 23, 1996) and is commonly referred to by its sponsors’ names, Senators Nunn, Lugar, and Domenici. 2 Combating Terrorism: Observations on Crosscutting Issues (GAO/T-NSIAD-98-164, Apr. 23, 1998); Combating Terrorism: Threat and Risk Assessments Can Help Prioritize and Target Program Investments (GAO/NSIAD-98-74, Apr. 9, 1998); Combating Terrorism: Observations on the Nunn-Lugar- Domenici Domestic Preparedness Program (GAO/T-NSIAD-99-16, Oct. 2, 1998); and Combating Terrorism: Opportunities to Improve Domestic Preparedness Program Focus and Efficiency (GAO/NSIAD-99-3, Nov. 12, 1998). Page 1 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism B-282618 with hazardous materials (HAZMAT) expertise—24 of whom responded—to determine the equipment they believed would provide various levels of response capability. Based on the 24 responses, we revised the equipment list. The list is for illustrative purposes, is not meant to represent a minimum or maximum of equipment needs for local jurisdictions, and may not reflect the actual equipment costs for a local jurisdiction. Appendix I further describes our scope and methodology. Results in Brief We identified over 200 equipment items that federal, state, and local officials believed would enhance their capability to respond to a CBRN incident. These items ranged from standard items such as duct tape and gloves to more sophisticated devices such as mobile command posts and climate control systems. The officials we surveyed categorized the items to represent different levels of capability—basic and modest, moderate, and high in comparison to the basic level. A modest increase over basic HAZMAT would include additional detection and decontamination equipment. A moderate increase would include a greater array of detection equipment than the modest level. The high level of increased equipment capability would include additional and more expensive detection equipment. We estimated the potential cost of initially procuring and sustaining the equipment items over a 10-year period using a notional city of 500,000. As table 1 shows, these costs ranged from a total of about $4.6 million for items considered to provide a basic capability to about $43 million for items considered to provide a high capability. Page 2 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism B-282618 Table 1: Possible Cost to Equip a Notional City of 500,000 to Respond to a CBRN Event Dollars in millions Equipment Initial Sustainment cost Total level procurement cost over 10 years cost Basic HAZMAT $1.3 $3.3 $4.6 Modest $5.2 $13.1 $18.3 Moderate $8.3 $20.9 $29.2 High $12.2 $30.7 $42.9 This table represents a baseline and does not include some costs, such as those associated with equipment maintained as a stockpile, equipment training and certification, or some hospital and emergency medical response services. Background According to the U.S. intelligence community, conventional explosives and firearms are the weapons of choice for terrorists at least partly because chemical and biological weapons are more difficult to weaponize and the results are unpredictable. However, intelligence agencies state that terrorists’ use of chemical and biological materials may increase over the next decade. Despite differing views, Congress authorized and funded over $200 million in fiscal year 1999 for numerous training and equipment programs, including those offered by the Departments of Justice and Defense and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, to prepare local jurisdictions for a CBRN incident. Some jurisdictions are deciding on equipment purchases without the benefit of formal threat and risk assessments using valid threat data. As we have emphasized in our April 1998 report and testimony, a critical component of establishing and expanding programs to combat terrorism is an analytically sound threat and risk assessment using valid inputs from the intelligence community and other agencies. Such an assessment is widely recognized as an effective decision support tool for prioritizing security investments and would help local jurisdictions select equipment that would provide the greatest benefit whether purchased with federal, state, or local funds. Page 3 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism B-282618 While no valid set of equipment requirements has been defined or established for equipping a local jurisdiction to respond to a CBRN terrorist incident, the InterAgency Board3 for Equipment Standardization and InterOperability recently developed a list of standardized equipment. The list can be used by emergency personnel as a guideline when acquiring CBRN response equipment and is intended to promote interoperability and standardization among the response community at the local, state, and federal levels. Use of the list, however, is voluntary, and state or local jurisdictions decide the manufacturers, types, and quantities of the items to be selected to meet their perceived operational needs. No Defined There is no assessment that would provide a basis for clearly defined and prioritized equipment requirements based on threat and risk, and there is Requirements and little consensus among federal, state, and local officials on the types of Little Consensus on equipment needed for a city to prepare for a CBRN terrorist incident at various levels. Based on our previous work, the Board’s list, and Needed Equipment discussions with agency officials, we identified about 200 equipment items that might be used to respond to a CBRN incident. We then surveyed 36 federal, state, and local officials on the equipment they believed would provide a basic HAZMAT equipment capability and various increments of increased equipment capabilities to respond to industrial chemical spills and/or CBRN terrorist events. Twenty-four of these officials responded. The results of our survey identified additional protective, detection, decontamination, and communications equipment to illustrate incremental increases in equipment capability over basic HAZMAT. The modest increase in equipment capability included more detection, communications, and decontamination equipment, such as decontamination showers. The moderate increase in equipment capability included additional detection and decontamination items, such as gas chromatograph/mass spectrometers. The high level in equipment capability included more expensive detection equipment, such as perimeter sampling systems and a Fox vehicle. 3 The Board is an advisory board to the National Domestic Preparedness Office at the Federal Bureau of Investigation and consists of officials from local, state, and federal government organizations, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Department of Justice, and the Director of Military Support, Department of the Army. Its charter is to establish, maintain, and update a standard equipment list that the interagency community could use to prepare for and respond to terrorism. Page 4 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism B-282618 All 24 survey respondents agreed that boundary marking tape was a basic HAZMAT item. Respondents varied widely as to the level of capability other equipment could provide. For example, six respondents designated a chemical agent water test kit4 as basic HAZMAT equipment, four indicated that it represented a modest increased capability above basic HAZMAT, three indicated that it represented a moderate level of increased capability, and seven indicated it represented a high level of increased capability. Four respondents did not place the kit in any category. The thermal imaging camera also received a varied response. For basic HAZMAT and modest, moderate, and high levels of increased capability over basic HAZMAT, the responses were eight, two, seven, and five, respectively. Two respondents did not place this item in any category. Procurement and No one has created a validated list of equipment to provide a sound basis for determining costs to initially equip and sustain various levels of Sustainment Costs equipment capability for a local jurisdiction to deal with a CBRN incident. However, using the weighted results of our survey to establish which equipment would go into which category, we estimated the potential costs to initially equip a notional city of 500,000 people.5 The notional city has 1,337 first responders, 112 of which are technically trained.6 As shown in figure 1, the estimated costs range from $1.3 million (basic HAZMAT) to $12.2 million (high level of increased equipment capability). 4 A chemical agent water test kit evaluates any chemical warfare agent contamination in a water source. 5Because of the widely varying opinions on which equipment belonged in which category, we reconciled the results through weighting. Based on how a respondent rated each item in our survey, we assigned a score to that response and then divided the total by the number of responses. 6 The numbers of first responders, the size of response teams, and our equipment list were derived from assumptions discussed in our scope and methodology and are for estimating purposes only. We do not intend to imply our concurrence with the appropriateness of such resources for responding to a CBRN incident, and our cost estimate is not to be considered a recommendation for how a city should be structured or equipped. Page 5 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism B-282618 Figure 1: Estimated Procurement Costs Dollars in Millions 15 12.2 10 8.3 5.2 5 1.3 0 Basic Level Modest Moderate High Level Level Level Basic Modest Moderate High Source: Our analysis. Each local jurisdiction has its own perceived HAZMAT needs and opinions on what types of equipment it would need to respond to a CBRN incident. Depending on the types of equipment, the number of items, the manufacturer, and discounts for quantity purchases, the actual costs to equip a city to respond to a CBRN incident could vary greatly. For example, a level A protective suit can cost between $600 and $2,000. As shown in figure 2, the estimated cumulative costs to sustain the equipment (in current year dollars) over a 10-year period range from $3.3 million for basic HAZMAT equipment to $30.7 million for a high level increased capability. Page 6 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism B-282618 Figure 2: Estimated 10-Year Sustainment Costs Dollars in Millions 35 30.7 30 25 20.9 20 15 13.1 10 3.3 5 0 Basic Level Modest Moderate High Level Level Level Basic Modest Moderate High Source: Our analysis. Sustainment costs, however, can also vary because some items have an indefinite shelf life (e.g. traffic cones and hard hats) while others have a limited shelf life. For example, level A protective suits have a shelf life of up to 5 years, while chlorine bleach, which is used for decontamination, has a shelf life of 6 months. In addition, the environment and/or the frequency that items are used can affect their useful life. For example, according to Los Angeles County Operational Terrorism Working Group officials, from mid-December 1998 to mid-April 1999, first responders from the Los Angeles County operational area addressed approximately 60 chemical and biological threats that were hoaxes. When responding to these hoaxes, first responders routinely wore hooded chemical resistant clothing or other appropriate clothing. Some hooded chemical resistant clothing can be worn only one time. As such, the county has had to replace Page 7 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism B-282618 approximately 200 of these items within the past 4 months. Furthermore, technical equipment has to be calibrated periodically to ensure that it functions properly, and some equipment becomes obsolete and is replaced by improved models. All of these factors can affect sustainment costs for items and equipment used to deal with a possible CBRN terrorist incident. The cost factor we used to estimate our sustainment costs included most of these issues, factoring in various assumptions about shelf life and usage. If an average inflation rate of 2.1 percent is included, the cumulative estimated sustainment costs range from $3.6 million for basic HAZMAT equipment to $34.2 million for the highest level of equipment capability (see fig. 3). Figure 3: Estimated 10-Year Sustainment Costs Then-year Dollars in Millions 40 34.2 35 30 25 23.2 20 14.5 15 10 3.6 5 0 Basic Level Modest Moderate High Level Level Level Basic Modest Moderate High Source: Our analysis. Page 8 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism B-282618 Agency Comments In written comments on a draft of this report, DOD concurred and noted the difficulties of developing procurement and sustainment costs for equipment needed to enhance the response capability of cities to respond to a terrorist incident involving CBRN. DOD also noted that our report provided a good base for decision-making entities to work from. DOD’s comments are included as appendix V. DOD provided technical comments, which we have addressed in our report where appropriate. As agreed with your offices, unless you publicly announce the contents of this report earlier, we plan no further distribution of this report until 30 days after its issue date. At that time, we will send copies to the appropriate congressional committees; the Honorable Jacob J. Lew, Director, Office of Management and Budget; the Honorable Louis J. Freeh, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation; the Honorable William S. Cohen, Secretary of Defense; the Honorable Louis Caldera, Secretary of the Army; other federal agencies discussed in this report; and other interested parties. If you or your staff have any questions about this report, please contact me at (202) 512–5140. The major contributors to this report were Carol R. Schuster, Davi M. D’Agostino, James F. Reid, and Lisa M.Quinn. Mark E. Gebicke Director, National Security Preparedness Issues Page 9 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism Contents Letter 1 Appendix I 12 Scope and Methodology Appendix II 14 Equipment List Sorted Basic HAZMAT Equipment Capability 14 Modest Increase in Equipment Capability 16 by Equipment Moderate Increase in Equipment Capability 18 Capability Level High Level of Equipment Capability List 19 Appendix III 20 Survey Respondents Local Jurisdictions 20 Federal Agencies 21 Associations 21 Contractor 21 Appendix IV 22 Additional Offices Local Jurisdictions 22 Federal Agencies 22 Consulted for Our Review Appendix V 23 Comments From the Department of Defense Appendix VI 27 Terrorism Related GAO Products Page 10 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism Contents Tables Table 1: Possible Cost to Equip a Notional City of 500,000 to Respond to a CBRN Event 3 Figures Figure 1: Estimated Procurement Costs 6 Figure 2: Estimated 10-Year Sustainment Costs 7 Figure 3: Estimated 10-Year Sustainment Costs 8 Abbreviations CBRN chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear device DOD Department of Defense HAZMAT hazardous materials Page 11 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism Appendix I Scope and Methodology AppIex ndi To estimate the procurement costs for equipment that might be required by a city responding to a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear device (CBRN) incident, we first developed a preliminary equipment list based on our previous work and input from the Army’s Director of Military Support and its Technical Escort Unit, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and Virginia’s Fairfax County Hazardous Materials Unit. This list formed the basis for our survey of city, state, and federal officials with expertise in the field of hazardous materials (HAZMAT ) and/or CBRN response equipment. The survey requested an evaluation of equipment that represented the four levels of capability, defined on page 2, that we constructed to analyze and illustrate potential costs. On the basis of our analysis of the survey responses, we compiled a master equipment list that reflected the different levels of capability. Because of the varying opinions on which equipment belonged in which category, we reconciled the results through weighting.1 Appendix III contains a list of survey respondents and appendix IV contains a list of additional offices that we consulted for our review. We then determined the amount and types of items and equipment that could be used by choosing a notional city and identifying the number of first responders. We chose a population size of 500,000 for a notional city, which is slightly above the median size of the 100 most populous U.S. cities. Cleveland, Ohio, and New Orleans, Louisiana, are within about 5,000 people of the notional city population size; therefore, we included them in our analysis to obtain the number and types of first responders—including their levels of training—assigned to their respective jurisdictions. From this information, we derived an average number of first responders for the notional city. We then consulted with local and federal officials, such as the Hazardous Materials Coordinators for the cities of Chicago, New York, and Baltimore and the Army’s Director of Military Support, to identify the amount of equipment, at each level of capability, that could be used by first responders. Our master equipment list, notional city size, and numbers of first responders are for illustrative purposes only and are not meant to imply that we agree with the appropriateness of such equipment or with how a city should be structured. 1 Because of the widely varying opinions on which equipment belonged in which category, we reconciled the results through weighting. Based on how a respondent rated each item in our survey, we assigned a score to that response and then divided the total by the number of responses. Page 12 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism Appendix I Scope and Methodology We are aware that many items on our equipment list are being used in local jurisdictions for fire fighting and HAZMAT operations; however, for the purposes of identifying procurement costs, we assumed the notional city would have no preexisting HAZMAT capabilities. We consulted with federal government officials to derive procurement costs. As mentioned previously, our procurement costs are for operational equipment, do not reflect additional equipment that might be maintained as a stockpile, and may not reflect the actual prices a local jurisdiction might pay. Differences might occur based on the equipment manufacturer, quantity discounts, or the use of alternative equipment to serve the same function. To calculate the equipment sustainment costs, we applied a factor of 25 percent of the initial procurement cost (in current-year and then-year dollars) to each item for every year of our analysis. This factor was derived from discussions with local and federal officials, and it represents an average sustainment factor. A heavy vehicle would actually require a higher relative sustainment cost than an article of clothing. The average sustainment factor accounts for (1) general wear and tear, instrument calibration, and general maintenance costs of the equipment and (2) replacement costs for small-scale incidents and hoaxes. For example, a small-scale incident would be in a localized area and would not include mass casualties. Replacement costs due to a large-scale incident, such as the Oklahoma City bombing, were not considered. We did not include training and certification costs in our sustainment estimates. Page 13 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism Appendix II Equipment List Sorted by Equipment Capability Level ApIpex ndi Basic HAZMAT Level A fully encapsulated chemical resistant suit ensemble Hooded chemical resistant clothing Equipment Capability Chemical resistant gloves (Butyl) Chemical resistant gloves (Nitrile) Inner gloves Hard-hat with face shield Safety glasses Duct tape Chemical resistant boots, steel or fiberglass toe and shank Outer booties Safety boots or shoes Two-way local communications, push to talk Personal alarm system to alert for downed personnel HAZMAT gear bag Surgical masks Appropriate air monitoring instruments Boundary marking tape: yellow-caution/red-danger Restricted access and caution warning signs Combination meter Combustible gas indicator pH paper and water finding test paper Radiation monitoring equipment Leak detectors (soap solution, ammonium hydroxide, etc.) pH meter or pen Water finding paste Gauging stick Squirt bottle Distilled water Ammonia for chlorine detection Drum thieves Grab sampling tubes Glass or plastic pipettes with aspiration bulb Tweezers, plastic Flags, wire stakes Wind socks Contaminated material disposal containers Traffic cones Brushes, long handle Garden hose with nozzles Polyethylene sheeting Containment basins, vehicle and personnel sized Page 14 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism Appendix II Equipment List Sorted by Equipment Capability Level 5-gallon buckets 55-gallon plastic bags Disinfectant, detergent, bleach, and sodium bicarbonate Hand-operated diaphragm pumps with hoses Small garden sprayers Backless stools Folding tables, folding (6 foot) Trauma-type first aid kit Emergency eye wash Timer or stopwatch Safety harness with 150 foot dry line retrieval ropes, 9.5mm-10.5mm. Locking carabiners 20-lb. ABC fire extinguisher Hand lights, explosive proof Portable lights Air compressors and generators, 8kw, 15kw, and 50kw Electric cord reels Copper grounding rods, ¾ x 4 feet (minimum length) Grounding cables, point-type clamps on both ends, 1/8 stainless steel (uninsulated) 50-foot minimum Traffic safety vests Megaphone/ public address system Overpacks: 35, 55, and 85 gallon poly-drums Miscellaneous non-sparking tool kit, to include bun and spanner wrenches Small, medium, and large equipment bags Handheld illumination Cellular telephone (satellite capability is optimal) Facsimile, copier, computer printer, and scanner (combined or individual machines) Binoculars Camera, self-developing Computers (laptop, desktop, or docking station) with common data and word processing software for stand-alone, local, and wide area networks Office supply kit (notepads, pencils, etc) Personal Protective Equipment Selection Guide CHRIS Manual, 1993 edition Merck Index, 12th edition Emergency Action Guides, Association of American Railroads Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation Page 15 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism Appendix II Equipment List Sorted by Equipment Capability Level Association of American Railroads, 1996 edition Farm Chemicals Handbook, Meister Publishing, 1997 edition First Responder’s Guide to Agriculture Chemicals Accidents, Foden-Weddell, 1993 edition NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, 1995 edition GATX Tank Car Manual, GATX 6th edition Hawley’s Condensed Chemical Dictionary, Sax & Lewis, 13th edition Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Sittig, 3rd edition TLVs and BELs Guidebook, ACGIH, 1996 edition Quick Selection Guide to Chemical Protective Clothing, Forsberg, 3rd edition Household Chemicals and Emergency First Aid, Foden-Weddell, 1993 Gardner’s Chemical Synonyms and Trade Names, Ash, 10th edition Modest Increase in Personal cooling system; vest or full suit Bio-pack rebreather (2-, 3-, or 4-hour supply, preferred) Equipment Capability Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) Chemical/biological resistant coveralls Spare ice packs for cooling systems Extraction gear Level A pressure test kit Full Face air purifying respirators with appropriate cartridges Emergency escape breathing apparatus (EEBA) Paper/disposable chemical/biological overgarments, including gloves and booties Hazard categorizing (HazCat) kit Air and liquid detector tube system Colormetric tube kit with additional tubes Photoionization detector (PID) Flame ionization detector (FID) Pesticide screening kit PCB test kits Petroleum finding paste Chemical spill classifier kit Waste water classifier kit Heat sensor, infrared Surface thermometer Page 16 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism Appendix II Equipment List Sorted by Equipment Capability Level Plastic or brass scoops and trowels Sample jars: 8 oz. wide mouth, with Teflon lids, 16 oz. wide mouth with Teflon lids Thermal imaging camera Meteorological stations (temperature, wind, and humidity) Decontamination shower for individual and mass application Decontamination system supplies (secondary) Water bladder, decontamination shower waste collection Spill containment pillows and devices Contaminated water run-off and collection pools Water pumps, hoses, couplers, and nozzles (electric and manual) Emergency decontamination shelter Air inflatable tents Sodium hypochlorite powder (15 lb. buckets) 85 gallon poly over pak drums Disposable personal property bags Paper hospital gowns Colored/nonviewable cadaver bags (Center for Disease Control standard) HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) vacuum for dry decontamination Ambu bag, chemical filtered Green line/red line battery activated marking system Class D fire extinguisher Ohm meter, intrinsically safe Ground resistance tester Explosive-proof exhaust fans Stretcher, litter decontamination mass casualty and field cart General purpose freezer/refrigerator Head area lighting system Portable area illumination Water trailers/source (potable and nonpotable) Heat stress monitor Hazardous material shipping containers Vehicle support Chlorine A (cylinder), B (1-ton cylinder), and C kit (railcar) w/appropriate tools Portable air cylinder carts Modular back packs Duty gear and modular load bearing systems/operational vests Medical/casualty bags Optics: day and limited visibility Page 17 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism Appendix II Equipment List Sorted by Equipment Capability Level Multi-channel (UHF/VHF) encrypted, push to talk radios with chargers and two extra batteries and accessories and trickle chargers with field programming capability Micro-tape recorders with audio in/out feature Camera, 35mm with flash, telephoto lens Camera, digital Camera, video, VHS Light amplification lenses Standardized NBC/commercial chemical hazard software and response system Portable repeater Two-way pagers (secure preferred) Miscellaneous adapter cables and connectors Bull horns and portable sound system. Matheson Gas Data Book , Matheson, 6th edition Effects of Exposure to Toxic Gases; First Aid and Medical Treatment, Matheson, 3rd edition Hazardous Material Injuries, Stutz, 3rd edition Emergency Care for Hazardous Materials Exposure, Bronstein, 2nd edition Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, Williams & Wilkens, 5th edition Joint Information Center (JIC) Manual Gloves Plus (computer program) Medical Management of Bio Casualty Book Medical Management of Chemical Casualty Book Moderate Increase in Escape mask Tents, standard or air inflatable with climate control and chemical/ Equipment Capability biological liners M-8 detection paper for chemical agent (weapons grade) detection M-9 detection paper (roll) for chemical agent (weapons grade) detection M-256 detection kit for chemical agent (weapons grade) detection M-18 series, chemical agent detector kit for surface and vapor chemical agent Point chemical agent detector and alarm Stand-off chemical detector, FTIR Hand-held chemical agent monitor with training set Chemical agent water test kit, M-272 Page 18 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism Appendix II Equipment List Sorted by Equipment Capability Level Container, sample transfer/small infectious substance Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) JPO-BD immunoassay tickets Sampling kit with aerosol collector Aerosol samplers M-295 equipment decontamination kit for chemical warfare agents M-291 skin decontamination kit Cryogenic shipment containers Liquid nitrogen for cryogenic shipment containers Decontamination trailer, multi-water source, and prime mover High pressure hot water system Ultraviolet lighting Tents for contaminant containment| Vaporized hydrogen peroxide solution 2PAM chloride autoinjector Atropine 2mg/ml, 25ml vial Atropine autoinjector CANA (Diazepam) autoinjector Commercial vehicles with run-flat tires: vans, sport utility vehicles and trucks for personal transportation and equipment Mobile command post or chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear incident response operations center Portable area climate control system Forward vehicle and equipment maintenance packages Solar battery chargers Vehicle-mounted communication systems for long-range, encrypted, voice, video, and data transmission capable of cross-band repeat Bi-direction amplifiers Secure telecomputer encryption High Level of Automated perimeter sampling system (portal shield) Portal shield sampling kits Equipment Capability Fox vehicle List Page 19 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism Appendix III Survey Respondents AIpIex ndi Local Jurisdictions Battalion Chief Downers Grove Fire Department Downers Grove, Ill. Department of Emergency Services Richmond, Va. District Chief Montgomery County Fire and Rescue Service Rockville, Md. Emergency Operations Bureau Los Angeles, Calif. Fire Station 39 Van Nuys, Calif. HAZMAT Coordinator Chicago, Ill. HAZMAT Coordinator Baltimore County Fire Department Towson, Md. Oahu Civil Defense Agency Honolulu, Hawaii Office of Emergency Management Denver, Colo. Office of Emergency Management New York, N.Y. Office of Emergency Management Philadelphia, Pa. Office of Emergency Management Seattle, Wash. Office of Emergency Preparedness New Orleans, La. Page 20 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism Appendix III Survey Respondents Office of Public Safety Columbus, Ohio Terrorism Coordinator Los Angeles County Fire Department Los Angeles, Calif. Federal Agencies Commander Soldier and Biological Chemical Command Department of Army Technical Escort Unit Soldier and Biological Chemical Command Department of Army Office of Emergency Response Department of Energy Office of the Emergency Coordinator Environmental Protection Agency Associations International Association of Fire Chiefs1 International Association of Fire Fighters National Fire Protection Association National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Volunteer Fire Council Contractor MKI Systems 1 The HAZMAT Coordinator for Chicago, Illinois, and the International Association of Fire Chiefs submitted a joint response. Page 21 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism Appendix IV Additional Offices Consulted for Our Review ApV Ienxdi Local Jurisdictions Department of Public Safety Cleveland, Ohio HAZMAT Coordinator City of Baltimore Baltimore, Md. HAZMAT Unit Fairfax County Fire and Rescue Department Fairfax, Va. Federal Agencies Director of Military Support Department of the Army Hazardous Materials Response Unit Federal Bureau of Investigation The National Domestic Preparedness Office Federal Bureau of Investigation Office of National Security Affairs Federal Emergency Management Agency Page 22 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism Appendix V Comments From the Department of Defense ApV enx di Page 23 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism Appendix V Comments From the Department of Defense Page 24 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism Appendix V Comments From the Department of Defense Page 25 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism Appendix V Comments From the Department of Defense Page 26 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism Appendix VI Terrorism Related GAO Products ApV enxdiI Combating Terrorism: Use of National Guard Response Teams Is Unclear (GAO/NSIAD-99-110, May 21, 1999) Combating Terrorism: Issues to Be Resolved to Improve Counterterrorist Operations (GAO/NSIAD-99-135, May 13, 1999) Combating Terrorism: Observations on Biological Terrorism and Public Health Initiatives (GAO/T-NSIAD-99-112, Mar. 16, 1999). Combating Terrorism: Observations on Federal Spending to Combat Terrorism (GAO/T-NSIAD/GGD-99-107, Mar. 11, 1999). Combating Terrorism: FBI’s Use of Federal Funds for Counterterrorism- Related Activities (Fiscal years 1995-98) (GAO/GGD-99-7, Nov. 20, 1998). Combating Terrorism: Opportunities to Improve Domestic Preparedness Program Focus and Efficiency (GAO/NSIAD-99-3, Nov. 12, 1998). Combating Terrorism: Observations on the Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Domestic Preparedness Program (GAO/T-NSIAD-99-16, Oct. 2, 1998). Combating Terrorism: Observations on Crosscutting Issues (GAO/T-NSIAD-98-164, Apr. 23, 1998). Combating Terrorism: Threat and Risk Assessments Can Help Prioritize and Target Program Investments (GAO/NSIAD-98-74, Apr. 9, 1998). Combating Terrorism: Spending on Governmentwide Programs Requires Better Management and Coordination (GAO/NSIAD-98-39, Dec. 1, 1997). Combating Terrorism: Efforts to Protect U.S. Forces in Turkey and the Middle East (GAO/T-NSIAD-98-44, Oct. 28, 1997). Combating Terrorism: Federal Agencies’ Efforts to Implement National Policy and Strategy (GAO/NSIAD-97-254, Sept. 26, 1997). Combating Terrorism: Status of DOD Efforts to Protect Its Forces Overseas (GAO/NSIAD-97-207, July 21, 1997). Aviation Security: FAA’s Procurement of Explosives Detection Devices (GAO/RCED-97-111R, May 1, 1997). eL rtet Page 27 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism Appendix VI Terrorism Related GAO Products Aviation Security: Commercially Available Advanced Explosives Detection Devices (GAO/RCED-97-119R, Apr. 24, 1997). Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: Responsibilities for Developing Explosives and Narcotics Detection Technologies (GAO/NSIAD-97-95, Apr. 15, 1997). Aviation Security: Urgent Issues Need to Be Addressed (GAO/T-RCED/NSIAD-96-151, Sept. 11, 1996). Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: Technologies for Detecting Explosives and Narcotics (GAO/NSIAD/RCED-96-252, Sept. 4, 1996). Aviation Security: Immediate Action Needed to Improve Security (GAO/T-RCED/NSIAD-96-237, Aug. 1, 1996). Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: Threats and Roles of Explosives and Narcotics Detection Technology (GAO/NSIAD/RCED-96-76BR, Mar. 27, 1996). (701149) eL rtet Page 28 GAO/NSIAD-99-151 Combating Terrorism Ordering Information The first copy of each GAO report and testimony is free. Additional copies are $2 each. Orders should be sent to the following address, accompanied by a check or money order made out to the Superintendent of Documents, when necessary, VISA and MasterCard credit cards are accepted, also. Orders for 100 or more copies to be mailed to a single address are discounted 25 percent. Orders by mail: U.S. General Accounting Office P.O. Box 37050 Washington, DC 20013 or visit: Room 1100 700 4th St. NW (corner of 4th and G Sts. 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Combating Terrorism: Analysis of Potential Emergency Response Equipment and Sustainment Costs
Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1999-06-09.
Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)