oversight

Gender Issues: Trends in the Occupational Distribution of Military Women

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1999-09-14.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                   United States General Accounting Office

GAO                Report to the Ranking Minority Member,
                   Subcommittee on Readiness and
                   Management Support, Committee on
                   Armed Services, U.S. Senate

September 1999
                   GENDER ISSUES

                   Trends in the
                   Occupational
                   Distribution of
                   Military Women




GAO/NSIAD-99-212
United States General Accounting Office                                                                   National Security and
Washington, D.C. 20548                                                                             International Affairs Division



                                    B-283056                                                                                          Letter

                                    September 14, 1999

                                    The Honorable Charles S. Robb
                                    Ranking Minority Member
                                    Subcommittee on Readiness and Management Support
                                    Committee on Armed Services
                                    United States Senate

                                    Dear Senator Robb:

                                    In 1993 and 1994, significant changes in legislation and policy allowed
                                    women to fly combat aircraft, serve on combat ships, and serve in more
                                    combat-related occupations. 1 As of September 1998, 90 percent of the
                                    services’ career fields were open to women, and 80 percent of the services’
                                    1,425,000 positions were open to women. The major areas closed to
                                    women include infantry, armor, special forces/SEAL, and submarine
                                    warfare. All are associated with ground combat, except submarine
                                    warfare, which remains closed due to the cost of changing habitability
                                    conditions. As you requested, we determined (1) all occupations women
                                    were in during fiscal years 1990 and 1998, particularly those with the
                                    highest percentage of women and (2) systemic barriers, if any, that limit
                                    women entering certain occupations.



Results in Brief                    As was the case in the early 1990s, a large percentage of military women
                                    continue to work in the areas of health care, administration, personnel, and
                                    supply occupations. For example, in fiscal year 1998, 44 percent of female
                                    officers were in health care professions. However, data suggest that
                                    military women, both enlisted and officers, are beginning to enter more
                                    nontraditional fields such as aviation, surface warfare, air traffic control,
                                    and field artillery. For example, the number of female Marine Corps
                                    officers that were pilots or naval flight officers increased from zero in fiscal
                                    year 1993 (the year these occupations opened to women) to 62 in fiscal
                                    year 1998. The 62 pilots or naval flight officers constitute over 7 percent of
                                    all female Marine Corps officers. The number of enlisted Army women that


                                    1
                                     The fiscal year 1992-93 National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 102-190, Dec. 5, 1991) lifted the ban on
                                    the assignment of women to combat aircraft. The fiscal year 1994 National Defense Authorization Act
                                    (P.L. 103-160, Nov. 30, 1993) lifted the ban on the assignment of women to combat ships.




                   Leter            Page 1                                                             GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
        B-283056




        were in field artillery increased from 32 to 122 in fiscal years 1992 and 1998,
        respectively. This increase is dramatic considering that the number of men
        in this occupation decreased by 26.5 percent during this time frame.

        While most military occupations and career fields are open to women,2 we
        identified two institutional barriers that limit the number of women going
        into these occupations. First, because of Department of Defense (DOD)
        and service policies, some units are closed to women even though the units
        may include occupations that are open to women. As a result, the number
        of women that can enter some career fields is limited. For example, the
        Navy limits the number of enlisted women in its nuclear training program
        because women cannot serve on submarines. The Navy also limits the
        number of women in medical corpsmen training because the Navy provides
        corpsmen to Marine Corps units that are closed to women. The Marine
        Corps limits the number of enlisted women that can serve as helicopter
        crew chiefs because helicopters are often assigned to ships and not all
        Navy ships can accommodate enlisted women at this time. In the Army,
        some occupations may be open to women, but the number of enlisted
        women or officers in those occupations is limited because many of the job
        slots are in male-only units. For example, a woman may be qualified as an
        administrative specialist but is not allowed to fill that position if the job is
        in a unit, such as infantry, that is closed to women. Only a handful of Air
        Force occupations are closed or restricted to women due to DOD’s
        assignment policies.

        Another barrier is the test used to match enlisted personnel to
        occupations—the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB)
        test—which contains sections that are based on exposure to a subject
        instead of aptitude. For example, one section tests knowledge of
        automotive components, systems, tools, and repairs. A person who has
        had little or no exposure to the workings of automobiles would not likely
        do well on this section of the test. Studies have found that women
        generally do not score well on this section of the test as well as those
        sections that test mechanical comprehension or electronic information
        because many women have had little or no exposure to these subjects.
        Attitudes are mixed on the impact of this type of test. Some officials
        believe that if people have not had exposure to certain subject matter, they
        are most likely not interested in that field even if they have an aptitude for


        2
         Gender Issues Information on DOD’s Assignment Policy and Direct Ground Combat Definition
        (GAO/NSIAD-99-7, Oct.19, 1998).




Leter   Page 2                                                       GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
             B-283056




             the subject matter. Others believe that people should be given a chance if
             they have an aptitude for the subject matter. DOD test designers are
             currently working on a new section of the ASVAB, assembling objects,
             which might mitigate the technical test’s effects on women’s scores.



Background   The Persian Gulf War saw the largest deployment of women in U.S. military
             history. Approximately 41,000 women were deployed, or 7 percent of the
             total deployed force. Partly because of women’s performance in the war,
             legislative restrictions on women’s occupations were lifted. In 1991,
             Congress repealed the restriction on women flying in combat roles, and
             DOD implemented this change in 1993. In November 1993, Congress lifted
             the ban on the assignment of women to combat ships. In January 1994, the
             Secretary of Defense announced a new assignment policy for women. This
             policy states that “servicemembers are eligible to be assigned to all
             positions for which they are qualified, except that women shall be excluded
             from assignment to units below the brigade level whose primary mission is
             to engage in direct combat on the ground.” In addition to this direct ground
             combat exclusion, the Secretary also permitted the services to close
             positions to women if (1) the units and positions were required to
             physically collocate and remain with direct ground combat units, (2) the
             service secretary attests that the cost of providing appropriate living space
             for women is prohibitive, (3) the units are engaged in special operations
             missions, or (4) job-related physical requirements would exclude the vast
             majority of women. No jobs are closed to women because of job-related
             physical requirements.

             As a result of these policy changes, many of the occupations previously
             closed to women are now open to them. These changes have meant that in
             the Air Force, women can fly bombers and fighters or serve as navigators
             on these aircraft. In the Navy, women can fly combat aircraft and serve on
             most combat ships, except submarines. In the Marine Corps and the Army,
             women are now allowed in occupations such as explosive ordnance
             disposal technician and field artillery surveyor that had been closed for
             years. Appendix I provides a list of occupations opened to women since
             the early 1990s. Although these occupations were opened to women,
             servicemembers cannot laterally transfer into occupations without
             undergoing retraining. Generally, women could enter these newly opened
             occupations only when they first entered into the military.

             Job assignments for enlisted members of the armed forces are generally
             made at the Military Entrance Processing Stations (MEPS). MEPS officials



             Page 3                                          GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                       B-283056




                       administer the ASVAB test to determine whether a recruit is qualified for
                       enlistment and the military job occupations for which the recruit is
                       qualified. The ASVAB test contains 10 sections: general science, arithmetic
                       reasoning, word knowledge, paragraph comprehension, numerical
                       operations, coding speed, auto and shop information, mathematics
                       knowledge, mechanical comprehension, and electronics information.
                       Using the recruit’s ASVAB scores, along with other factors such as strength,
                       physical health, and moral character, the services’ job counselors
                       determine what entry-level occupations the recruit is eligible for based on
                       the apparent strengths of the individual and the services’ needs at that time.
                       The recruit decides what occupation appeals to him or her from those that
                       are available.

                       Job assignments for officers vary by service. In general, however, all the
                       services match the officers’ preferences with the open occupations. The
                       Air Force classifies officers based on their preferences and the needs of the
                       Air Force. Factors considered are college major and other academic
                       endeavors, for example, a concentration in languages or math. All the
                       services, except for the Marine Corps, give top-ranking graduates of the
                       service academies priority in selecting occupations.



Occupations of Women   As was the case in the early 1990s, a significant number of officers and
                       enlisted women continue to be concentrated in the health care,
in the Military        administration, personnel, and supply occupations. However, the number
                       of women going into more technical or combat-related fields is increasing.
                       While this is true for all of the services, the Marine Corps officers had the
                       most dramatic growth of women in technical fields.

                       The following sections contain figures that show the percentage of all
                       women, DOD-wide and by service, that were assigned in occupations in
                       fiscal year 1990 (fiscal year 1992 for the Army) and fiscal year 1998. The
                       occupations shown for the services are those occupations that had the
                       most women in them in either fiscal year 1990 (fiscal year 1992 for the
                       Army) or 1998. Oftentimes, these occupations were the same for both
                       fiscal years, with one or two unique occupations for each year. These
                       figures show that the percentage of women in most of the career fields we
                       analyzed remained fairly stable between fiscal years 1990 (fiscal year 1992
                       for the Army) and 1998 for DOD-wide and for the four services. These
                       figures do not necessarily highlight those occupations with fewer positions,
                       but a high number of women when compared to men. In contrast,
                       appendix II details, by service, the occupations with the greatest



                       Page 4                                           GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
           B-283056




           percentage of women when compared to men. Appendix II also shows the
           information for those occupations that had the highest proportion of
           women when compared to men for one or both fiscal years.


DOD-Wide   According to data from the Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC),
           which collects occupational data from all four services and converts the
           data into a standardized, DOD-wide occupational classification, in fiscal
           years 1990 and 1998, enlisted women served predominantly in the
           functional support and administration occupational area (see fig. 1). This
           area includes such occupational areas as personnel, recruiting and
           counseling, law, supply administration, auditing and accounting, and
           general administration. Another occupational area that had a high
           concentration of enlisted women in both fiscal years was the medical and
           dental specialist area.




           Page 5                                         GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                               B-283056




Figure 1: Occupational Distribution of Enlisted Women, DOD-Wide, During Fiscal Years 1990 and 1998
40    Percent



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                                                               Source: DMDC data.


                                                               As shown in figure 2, over 40 percent of female officers were in health care
                                                               occupations during fiscal years 1990 and 1998. The next highest
                                                               concentration of female officers was in administration, which includes
                                                               occupations in general administration, manpower and personnel,
                                                               comptrollers, data processing, information, police, and morale and welfare.
                                                               By fiscal year 1998, 2 percent of women were general/flag officers or
                                                               executives compared to 0 percent in fiscal year 1990. In addition to general



                                                               Page 6                                                                     GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                    B-283056




                                                    and flag officers, this category includes senior officers, such as colonels,
                                                    that have command duties. Examples of positions are operating forces
                                                    command commander, judge advocate colonel, and operations
                                                    commander. In addition, the number of women increased in the tactical
                                                    operations area, which includes occupations such as pilots, aircraft crews,
                                                    ground and naval arms officers, and missiles and weapons officers.



Figure 2: Occupational Distribution of Female Officers, DOD-Wide, During Fiscal Years 1990 and 1998
50        Percent




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                                                    Source: DMDC data.




                                                    Page 7                                                             GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
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Navy   In both fiscal years 1990 and 1998, the “general detail” occupation had more
       enlisted women than any other occupation in the Navy (see fig. 3). The
       “general detail” occupation encompasses the apprenticeship level for
       seaman, airman, and fireman. Typically, only junior enlisted sailors are in
       this occupation. Enlisted sailors are assigned to this occupation if they are
       unsure about what occupation they want to pursue in the Navy, if their test
       scores do not qualify them for a particular occupation, or if the occupations
       they want have no openings when they enlist. Sailors are assigned to an
       occupation from the general detail occupation when one becomes available
       that fits their abilities, interests, and needs of the Navy.

       The health care occupation continues to have a high concentration of
       enlisted women. In fiscal year 1990, 13 percent of the Navy’s enlisted
       women were in health care; in fiscal year 1998, about 16 percent of the
       enlisted women were in these occupations. These occupations include
       hospital corpsmen, dental technicians, and laboratory technicians.




       Page 8                                          GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                       B-283056




Figure 3: Distribution of Enlisted Women in Navy Occupations in Fiscal Years 1990 and 1998
25    Percent




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                                                       Source: DMDC data.


                                                       In fiscal year 1998, the Navy nurse corps had more women than any other
                                                       community (see fig. 4). Twenty-eight percent of female officers in the Navy
                                                       were in the nurse corps compared to about 29 percent in fiscal year 1990.
                                                       However, the nurse corps did not have the highest concentration of women
                                                       in fiscal year 1990—special duty fleet support did.3 Women in this


                                                       3
                                                        In fiscal year 1990, special duty fleet support was called unrestricted line officers (URL).




                                                       Page 9                                                                      GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
B-283056




community serve in billets such as information systems management,
communications, personnel administration, and recruiting. In 1990,
31 percent of female officers were in special duty fleet support. This
percentage decreased to 15.4 percent in fiscal year 1998.

Figure 4 also shows that a growing percentage of women are going into the
surface warfare occupation. Officers in this occupation serve on
destroyers, aircraft carriers, and other surface ships in a variety of
positions. In fiscal year 1990, nearly 3 percent of female officers served in
the surface warfare occupation. By fiscal year 1998, this percentage had
increased to 8 percent due in part to the 1994 repeal of the law prohibiting
women from serving on combat ships.




Page 10                                         GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                                B-283056




Figure 4: Distribution of Female Officers in Navy Career Fields in Fiscal Year 1990 and Fiscal Year 1998
35   Percent




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                                                                          1998


                                                                Source: DMDC data.


                                                                As figure 5 shows, the Navy’s enlisted women have made gains in specific
                                                                jobs that were previously closed to them. The number of women in the fire
                                                                controlman job increased from zero in fiscal year 1993 to 266 in fiscal year
                                                                1998. The number of women in the sonar technician, surface job also
                                                                increased from zero in fiscal year 1993 to 345 in fiscal year 1998.




                                                                Page 11                                                                    GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                B-283056




Figure 5: Increase in the Number of Navy Women in Occupations Previously Closed to Women, Fiscal Years 1993 Through 1998
400



350



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250



200



150



100



 50



  0
          1993           1994                   1995                   1996             1997         1998


                                A v iation boats w ain mate--launc hing and rec ov ery , equipment
                                A v iation anti-s ub w arf are operator
                                Elec tronic s w arf are tec hnic ian
                                Fire c ontrolman
                                Gas turbine s y s tem tec h, elec tric al
                                Gas turbine s y s tem tec h, mec hanic al
                                Sonar tec hnic ian, s urf ac e
                                Gunner's mate



                                                Source: DMDC data.




Marine Corps                                    As figure 6 shows, the percentage of enlisted women in most of the Marine
                                                Corps career fields we analyzed remained fairly stable between fiscal year
                                                1990 and 1998. However, two career fields–personnel and administration
                                                and supply administration and operations—experienced a sizeable



                                                Page 12                                                     GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
B-283056




decrease in the percentage of enlisted women, and the career field of
general service marine showed a marked increase. This career field
includes a wide range of occupations such as general service marine, basic
marine with enlistment guarantee, sergeants major and first sergeants, and
marine air ground task force planners. Most of the enlisted women were in
the basic marine with enlistment guarantee category, with general service
marine being the next highest category. These marines’ military
qualifications and experience are not yet developed to be sufficient or
adequate for qualification in other occupations. The Marine Corps assigns
the general service marine occupation to those recruits undergoing training
who did not enlist under a special enlistment program. The basic marine
with enlistment guarantee category is assigned to personnel that join under
an enlistment option program or an enlistment incentive program.




Page 13                                        GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                         B-283056




Figure 6: Distribution of Enlisted Women in Marine Corps Occupations in Fiscal Years 1990 and 1998
30    Percent




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                                                              1990

                                                              1998


                                                         Source: DMDC data.


                                                         Patterns for female officers in the Marine Corps are similar to those for
                                                         enlisted women. As figure 7 shows, the greatest concentration of women
                                                         continues to be in the personnel and administration occupation. However,
                                                         there were an increased number of women serving as pilots and naval flight
                                                         officers and general service marines and in air control/air support/antiair
                                                         warfare occupations. In addition, the number of women officers decreased




                                                         Page 14                                                                     GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                              B-283056




                                                              in the personnel and administration; supply administration and operations;
                                                              auditing, finance, and accounting; and data systems occupations.



Figure 7: Distribution of Female Officers in Marine Corps Occupations in Fiscal Years 1990 and 1998
25 Percent




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                                                                                  flig ilots
                                     d o is




                                                                                                                                tra
                                                                     Lo




                                                                                                                                                            ell
ad rson




                                                                                                                                             ls
                                                     mm Co




                                                                                                              r
                                  an min




                                  an ing,




                                                                                                            ta




                                                                                                                                                           Int
                                                                                                           Ai




                                                                                                                                                                        R
                                                                                                                            tor




                                                                                                                                            ga
                                                                                     P




                                                                                                         Da
 Pe




                                    ad




                                                                                                                                            Le
                                    dit




                                                                                                                           Mo
                  se




                                 Au
                             ply




                                                     co
                            p
                         Su




                                                                     1990

                                                                     1998


                                                              Source: DMDC data.


                                                              As figures 8 (ground occupations), 9, and 10 (aviation related occupation)
                                                              show, Marine Corps women have been making gains in specific jobs that
                                                              were previously closed to them, especially in the combat engineer and pilot




                                                              Page 15                                                                            GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
B-283056




and naval flight officer jobs. The combat engineer job did not open to
women until 1994; however, by 1998, 36 women had this job. Even more
dramatic was the number of women that became pilots and naval flight
officers. By 1998, 62 women were pilots or flight officers. This number
constitutes over 7 percent of the Marine Corps female officers. No women
have yet been assigned to 11 recently opened jobs. These include

•   explosive ordnance disposal officer;
•   ground nuclear weapons assembly technician;
•   ground nuclear weapons assembly officer;
•   ground launched missile system maintenance officer;
•   aviation fire control repairer;
•   aviation fire control technician;
•   aircraft flight engineer, KC-130;
•   helicopter maintenance chief;
•   aircraft power plants test cell operator, rotary wing;
•   presidential support specialist; and
•   aerial navigation officer.




Page 16                                          GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                               B-283056




Figure 8: Increase in the Number of Female Marine Corps Enlisted and Officers in Ground Jobs Previously Closed, Fiscal
Years 1993 Through 1998
40



35



30



25



20



15



10



 5



 0
         1993                     1994                   1995              1996                        1997                1998


         E m b a rk a tio n offi c er                                      A ir d e live ry s p e c ia lis t
         L a n d in g s u p p o rt s p e c ia lis t                        E n g in e e r o ffic e r
         C o m b a t e n g in e e r                                        E x p lo s ive o rd n a n c e di s p o s al t e c h ni ci a n
         C ry p to lo g ic lin g u is t (M id d le E a s t )

                                                               Source: DMDC data.




                                                               Page 17                                                                     GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                    B-283056




Figure 9: Increase in the Number of Female Marine Corps Enlisted and Officers in Selected Aviation Jobs Previously Closed,
Fiscal Years 1993 Through 1998
70




60




50




40




30




20




10




 0
         1993                1994                1995            1996               1997               1998


                A irborne radio operator/loadm as ter               A irc raft m ec hanic , A V -8
                helic opter m ec hanic                              Helic opter airfram e m ec hanic
                Helic opter c rew c hief                            A irc raft c om m unic ation
                A irc raft elec tronic s y s tem tec h, A V -8


                                                    Source: DMDC data.




                                                    Page 18                                                   GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                          B-283056




Figure 10: Increase in the Number of Female Marine Corps Enlisted and Officers in Selected Aviation Jobs Previously Closed,
Fiscal Years 1993 Through 1998
70




60




50




40




30




20




10




 0
        1993             1994                      1995             1996                  1997                     1998


                   An tia ir w a rfa re office r                      Air s u p p o rt co n tro l o ffice r
                   H AW K m is s ile s ys te m o p e ra tor           Air s u p p o rt o p e ra tio ns o ffice r
                   Ae ria l n a vig a to r train e e                  Firs t n a vig a to r
                   P ilo t/n a va l flig h t o ffice r


                                                          Source: DMDC data.




Air Force                                                 The proportion of enlisted women serving in various Air Force occupations
                                                          was generally similar in fiscal years 1998 and 1990. Furthermore, women
                                                          were not highly concentrated in any one specific occupation. About
                                                          10 percent of enlisted women in the Air Force were in the information
                                                          management occupation, and another 10 percent were in the supply
                                                          occupation (see fig. 11). Detailed Air Force data also show that the number
                                                          of women in technical or combat-related occupations has increased. For




                                                          Page 19                                                         GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
B-283056




example, the number of enlisted women in airborne warning
communications and control systems occupations increased from 41 in
fiscal year 1990 to 108 in fiscal year 1998. Similarly, in space system
operations, the number of enlisted women increased from 26 in fiscal
year 1990 to 136 in fiscal year 1998. The biggest increase was in air traffic
control, where the number of women more than tripled since fiscal
year 1990 to 727 in fiscal year 1998.




Page 20                                          GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                B-283056




Figure 11: Distribution of Enlisted Women in Air Force Occupations in Fiscal Years 1990 and 1998
50 Percent




40




30




20




10




                                                                                            a
 0
                             ste el




                                                                     ns




                                                                                   sp r/




                                                                                                       l




                                                                                                                                            tal
      ge ion




                     ly




                                                                                                                                 s
                                                 po rity




                                                                                                      cia




                                                                                                                  su men s




                                                                                                                                                      pa ing
                                        rvi l
           nt




                                ms




                                                        e




                                                                                        e




                                                                                                                                                            ns
                                                                                 ro ge
                                      se ica




                                                                                                                                ce
                                           ce
                          sy onn




                                                                                                                   ge ce
                                                                                                                    pp t
                 pp




                                                                   tio




                                                                                                                                             n
                                                    lic




                                                                                     ac




                                                                                                                         t
        me
   na at




                                                                                                                      or
                                                                                                 an




                                                                                                                                          De




                                                                                                                                                    cu in
                                                                                                                                                        tio
                                                   cu




                                                                               ae ana




                                                                                                                               rvi
                                                                                                                na rvi
                                         d
                Su




                                                               ica
 ma form




                             rs




                                                                                                                                                  oc ema
                                      Me




                                                                                                Fin
                                                Se




                                                                                                                             Se
                                                                                                             ma h se
                                                                                 m
                          Pe




                                                              un




                                                                                                                                                    R
  In




                                                                              ms
                                                            mm




                                                                                                              alt
                                                                           ste




                                                                                                            He
                                                        Co




                                                                          Sy




                                                            1990

                                                            1998

                                                 a
                                                  This category did not exist in fiscal year 1998.


                                                Comparable data for female Air Force officers are shown in figure 12. The
                                                greatest concentration of female Air Force officers is in the nurse corps.
                                                As figure 12 shows, about 29 percent of the women were in the nurses’
                                                corps in fiscal year 1998, compared to almost 32 percent in fiscal year 1990.
                                                One occupation where the number increased significantly was in the space,
                                                astronaut, and missile occupation, which increased from 226 female



                                                Page 21                                                                          GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                    B-283056




                                                    officers in fiscal year 1990 to 384 female officers in fiscal year 1998. While
                                                    the proportion of female pilots decreased slightly between fiscal years 1990
                                                    and 1998, the figure remained about 3 percent.



Figure 12: Distribution of Female Officers in Air Force Occupations in Fiscal Years 1990 and 1998.
35 Percent




30




25




20




15




10




 5




 0
     rse




                ua ute s/




                                                       ine




                                                                                ic




                                                                                             na /




                                                                                                                        gin nt




                                                                                                                         tra n




                                                                                                                          ne e
                         me l/




                               e




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                                       ge ttle




                                                                       ec cal




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                                                                                                                                        en aft




                                                                                                                                                      pa ing
                                                                                                                      ge cat
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                                                                                                                                             ce




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                     ge ne




                            nc
                            nt


             vis omp tion




                                                                            lin




                                                                                                                     en pme
                                                                                                                            ee
                                                                                                    Pil
                          on
 Nu




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                                                   dic




                                                                                                                                     int ircr
                                          me




                                                                    sp edi




                                                                                                                                          an
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                                                                                                                                                    cu in
                                                                          ial




                                                                                                                                                        tio
                  na on




                        ige




                                                                          lc




                                                                                                                           o
                                                                                                                  r/C uis



                                                                                                                        dv
                c ica




                                                                                                                                                  oc ema
                                                                                          /m
                                                  Me




                                                                                                                       lo
                                                                      ica




                                                                                                                                   ma A
              ma Pers




                                                                     om
                                   ma Air
                     ell




                                                                                                               ge cq
                   liz




                                                                                                                    ea
                                                                                                                    ve
                                                                                       ce
                  un



                 Int




                                                                   ed
                                                                   Bi




                                                                                                                                                    R
                                                                                                             na A
                                                                                                                 De
                                                                                        a




                                                                                                                 dg
              mm




                                                                                     Sp
                                                                om




                                                                                                              Ju
           Co




                                                             Bi




                                                                                                          Ma




                                                               1990

                                                               1998


                                                    Source: DMDC data.




                                                    Page 22                                                            GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                          B-283056




                                                          As figure 13 shows, Air Force women have been entering specific jobs that
                                                          were previously closed to them. For example, the number of women that
                                                          are bomber and fighter pilots has increased as have the number of women
                                                          that have served as combat navigators. One job that women have not
                                                          entered is the sensor operator job, which opened to women in 1993. This
                                                          job requires a lateral transfer at the E-5 or E-6 level.



Figure 13: Increase in the Number of Women in Air Force Jobs Previously Closed to Women, Fiscal Years 1993 Through 1998
25




20




15




10




 5




 0
         1993             1994                           1995            1996                           1997                         1998


                      B o m b e r p ilo t s                                    F ig h t e r p ilo t s
                      S u r ve i l l a n c e r e c o n p i l o t s             B o m b e r n a vi g a t o r s
                      F i g h t e r n a vi g a t o r s                         S u r ve i l l a n c e r e c o n n a vi g a t o r s
                      S e n s o r o p e ra t o r



                                                          Source: DMDC data.




                                                          Page 23                                                                           GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
       B-283056




Army   Army enlisted women were generally in the same occupations in fiscal
       year 1998 that they were in fiscal year 1992 (see fig. 14).4 The three main
       occupations were administration, medicine, and supply and service.
       However, the number of enlisted women has been steadily increasing in
       many technical and combat-related occupations. For many of these
       occupations, the numbers of women entering these occupations were too
       small to affect the percentage of women in the occupations and were
       included in the “remaining occupations” category in figure 13. For
       example, the number of women in the field artillery occupation increased
       from 32 in fiscal year 1992 to 122 in fiscal year 1998. This increase is even
       more dramatic considering that the number of men decreased by
       26.5 percent in this occupation during this time frame. In addition, the
       number of enlisted women in air defense increased from 350 in fiscal year
       1992 to 546 in fiscal year 1998. The increase of enlisted women in
       electronic maintenance is especially dramatic, from 45 in fiscal year 1992 to
       719 in fiscal year 1998. Other occupations that show increases were the
       chemical and petroleum occupations. The number of women in the
       chemical occupation increased from 596 in fiscal year 1992 to 1,058 in fiscal
       year 1998, while the number of women in the petroleum occupation rose
       from 1,429 in fiscal year 1992 to 2,537 in fiscal year 1998.




       4
        Because we could not reconcile the Army’s data with DMDC ‘s database, we chose to use the Army’s
       data. However, Army officials were only able to provide data beginning with fiscal year 1992.




       Page 24                                                       GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                   B-283056




Figure 14: Distribution of Enlisted Women in Army Occupations in Fiscal Years 1992 and 1998
25    Percent




20




15




10




 5




 0
            n




                            se and




                                                                ion




                                                                                                 e
           tio




                                                                                                            ige al




                                                                                                                            um
                      al




                                    ce




                                                                               an l
                                               l




                                                                             en ca




                                                                                                                  e
                                                                                 ce
                                          na




                                                                                                lic




                                                                                                                                      pa ing
                                                                                                         ell ign
                  dic




                                                                                                               nc




                                                                                                                                            ns
                                rvi
      tra




                                                               tat




                                                                          int ani




                                                                                                                             le
                                                                                               po
                                         Sig
                               ly




                                                                                                                                    cu in
                                                                                                                                        tio
                                                                                                      int S
                 Me




                                                                                                                         tro
     nis




                                                               or
                            pp




                                                                        ma ech




                                                                                                                                  oc ema
                                                                                          ry
                                                          sp




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                           Su
 mi




                                                                                        lita
                                                                         M
                                                           n




                                                                                                                                    R
Ad




                                                       Tra




                                                                                      Mi




                                                           1992

                                                           1998

                                                   Source: Army data.


                                                   In the Army, female officers were generally in the same occupations in
                                                   fiscal year 1998 that they were in fiscal year 1992 (see fig. 15). As with the
                                                   Navy and the Air Force, the highest concentration of women was in the
                                                   Army Nurse Corps (ANC). About 30 percent of female officers were in
                                                   ANC during fiscal year 1992, compared to 23 percent in fiscal year 1998.
                                                   Although the percentage of women in the engineering and aviation
                                                   occupations remains small, detailed Army data show that the number of
                                                   women entering these occupations increased. Specifically, the number of



                                                   Page 25                                                            GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                       B-283056




                                                       women officers increased from 210 in fiscal year 1992 to 329 in fiscal
                                                       year 1998 in the engineering branch and from 234 in fiscal year 1992 to
                                                       293 in fiscal year 1998 in the aviation occupation.



Figure 15: Distribution of Female Officers in Army Occupations in Fiscal Years 1992 and 1998
30 Percent




25




20




15




10




 5




 0
                                 s




                                                   l




                                                           ne t




                                                                           ce




                                                                                                                             e




                                                                                                                                           ne e



                                                                                                                                                          st




                                                                                                                                                                     r
     Co my




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                                            e




                                                                                           r




                                                                                                            n
                                                 na




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          s




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       rp




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                                                                        dn




                                                                                                                                                     ec
                                                            j
                 se




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                                                         Ad
                              al




                                                                                                                                                               En
                                                                                                                                        ad
                                                                                                                   ary
                                                                                                    o
                                      ell




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                                                                                  ter
                                                                      Or
                           dic
              al




                                                                                                 sp
                                     Int




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                                                                                                                   lit
            dic




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                                                                                                  n
 Nu




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                                                                                                                                               dic
                                                                                Qu




                                                                                               Tra




                                                                                                                                    d
          Me




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                                                                                                                                             Me




                                                                    1992

                                                                    1998

                                                       Source: Army data.


                                                       In 1994, the Army opened new jobs to enlisted women and female warrant
                                                       officers. As figure 16 shows, Army women have entered some of these



                                                       Page 26                                                                                 GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                               B-283056




                                                               specific jobs in dramatic fashion. For example, the job of field artillery
                                                               surveyor had 68 women in fiscal year 1998 and the number of female
                                                               engineer bridge crewmembers reached 50 in fiscal year 1998. One job,
                                                               combat engineer senior sergeant, has had no women in it since it was
                                                               opened to women in fiscal year 1994. According to Army officials, this job
                                                               has not been open long enough for women to advance to the rank of senior
                                                               sergeant.



Figure 16: Increase in the Number of Women in Army Jobs Previously Closed to Women, Fiscal Years 1993 Through 1998
80



70



60



50



40



30



20



10



 0
         1993                  1994                            1995           1996                         1997                   1998


                  E n g in e e r b rid g e c re w m e m b e r                       C o m b a t e n g in e e r s e n io r s e rg e a n t
                  F i e l d a r t i l l e r y s u r ve y o r                        O H -5 8 A / C s c o u t p ilo t
                  O H -5 8 D p ilo t                                                A H -6 4 a t t a c k    p ilo t
                  A H -a t t a c k p ilo t


                                                               Source: DMDC data.




                                                               Page 27                                                                     GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                            B-283056




Civilian Women Make         To provide some perspective, we looked at the occupational distribution of
                            civilian women. The occupational patterns of military women are similar
Similar Occupational        to those of civilian women. Proportionally, civilian women do not work in
Choices                     the skilled trades, technical occupations, or protective service occupations
                            in the civilian sector to the extent that men do. Women represent
                            46 percent of the workforce but only about 10 percent of all workers in the
                            skilled trade, technical, and protective service occupations. For example,
                            about 2 percent of the construction workforce, 1 percent of automobile
                            mechanics, 2 percent of firefighters, 2 percent of electricians, and 5 percent
                            of truck drivers are women.5 On average, these nontraditional jobs pay
                            20 to 30 percent more than jobs women have traditionally held. An official
                            with the Department of Labor Women’s Bureau stated that societal factors
                            tend to discourage women from entering these occupations. According to
                            the Department of Labor, women generally have less math and science
                            education. In addition, peer pressure from friends and parents discourage
                            women from entering the skilled trades, technical occupations, and
                            protective services. Finally, some researchers believe that women are
                            reluctant to enter nontraditional occupations because women believe they
                            are unwelcome in these types of occupations.



Institutional Barriers      Most occupations are open to women in the military. However, even if an
                            occupation is open to women, there are two institutional barriers that keep
                            more women from going into these occupations. The first barrier is that
                            about 115,000 positions within military units may not be filled by women,
                            even though an occupation is technically open to women. For example, in
                            the Army some occupations are open to women, but the number of women
                            in those occupations is limited because many of the job slots are in
                            male-only units. The second institutional barrier is that the ASVAB, the test
                            the military uses to match women to occupations contains sections that are
                            based on exposure to certain subject matter instead of aptitude.


Positions Closed to Women   The services vary on why positions are closed to women. In general, the
                            Navy limits positions to women because some ships, such as submarines,
                            are closed to women. The Marine Corps generally limits positions for
                            women for this reason, but also limits positions to women because they
                            cannot engage in direct ground combat. The Army also limits positions for

                            5
                             U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment & Earnings, January 1999.




                            Page 28                                                        GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
               B-283056




               women because of this direct ground combat assignment policy. The Air
               Force has the most gender-neutral policy in assigning women to open
               occupations and does not have the constraints that the other services have.

Navy           The assignment of women to occupations in the Navy is complicated by the
               limited number of sea positions available to women–generally only 10 to
               20 percent of ship positions are available for women–and the fact that some
               ships, such as submarines, are closed to women. These factors have led
               the Navy to limit the number of women who can enter some occupations.
               For example, the Navy limits the number of enlisted women that enter its
               nuclear power program because a number of these positions are on
               submarines. The Navy also limits the number of women in some of its
               medical fields because of the requirements to provide medical personnel to
               ships that are not open to women and to Marine Corps units not open to
               women.

               According to Navy officials, the Navy has encouraged women to go into
               nontraditional occupations because it is easier to assign women to ships
               when they have a more diverse range of skills. When assigning women to a
               ship, personnel detailers must consider whether the ship needs a person
               with a particular skill and whether appropriate berthing is available. If a
               woman’s berth is available and a woman with the required skill is available,
               then the assignment is easily made. However, if a woman’s berth is
               available but no woman with the required skill is available, the positions
               may go unfilled. Additionally, if women continue to concentrate in
               traditionally female occupations, some women may not have the
               opportunity to undertake career enhancing sea assignments because ships
               have a limited need for their skills. This is not a problem for female officers
               because the Navy does not usually have to make major modifications to its
               ships to accommodate female officers.

Marine Corps   Because the Marine Corps often deploys on Navy ships, it limits the
               number of women in some occupations because the Navy has not
               completed integrating all of its ships. For example, the Marine Corps limits
               the number of enlisted women that can serve as helicopter crew chiefs
               because helicopters are often assigned to ships and not all Navy ships can
               accommodate enlisted women at this time. In addition, a significant
               percentage of its units remain closed to women, and women cannot fill
               slots in open occupations in those units. Enlisted women below the rank of
               staff sergeant are barred from approximately 25 percent of the Marine
               Corps’ administrative positions because these positions are in combat
               units.



               Page 29                                           GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                        B-283056




Army                    Army women can serve in 97 percent of officer career fields and 83 percent
                        of enlisted occupations but can serve in less than 70 percent of the job slots
                        because the remaining slots are in combat units or in units that collocate
                        with combat units. On the basis of DOD and Army policy, women cannot
                        serve in ground combat units or units collocated with such units, even
                        though they may be qualified to fill particular occupations in those units.
                        For example, a woman may be qualified as an administrative specialist but
                        is not be allowed to fill an available position because the job is in a combat
                        unit.

                        During a visit to a MEPS, a job counselor provided us with lists of
                        occupations that were closed to men and women. Some occupations may
                        be closed to both men and women because the Army already has a
                        sufficient number of soldiers with those particular skills. However,
                        14 occupations were closed to women but remained open to men. By
                        necessity, the Army must limit the number of women it trains in some
                        occupations because a number of units that require those occupations are
                        closed to women.

Air Force               Among the services, the Air Force has the most gender-neutral policy in
                        assigning women to open occupations. The Air Force is different from the
                        Marine Corps and the Army because 99 percent of its positions are not
                        associated with the direct ground combat rule and are therefore open to
                        women. The Air Force is also different from the Navy in that the Air Force
                        needed to consider only minor changes to its equipment to accommodate
                        women.


Barriers Due to ASVAB   The ASVAB test screens out some recruits from technical occupations
                        because it measures experience rather than aptitude on technical subjects.
                        DMDC has conducted a series of studies of the ASVAB. One study
                        determined that the test was a valid indicator. Recruits who score high in
                        certain sections of the test do well in the corresponding occupations. 6
                        However, the study also showed that there were significant differences in
                        how men and women scored on the technical components of the test.
                        DMDC conducted another study to determine why these differences




                        6
                        Sensitivity and Fairness of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) Technical
                        Composites, DMDC, December 1992.




                        Page 30                                                       GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
B-283056




existed.7 This study analyzed about 21,500 high school transcripts from
1990 high school graduates. DMDC found that roughly half the males took
one or two technical education classes, whereas only 20 percent of the
females took that many courses. About 40 percent of the males and
80 percent of the females took no technical education courses at all. Less
than 2 percent of the women took automobile/machine shop compared to
almost 19 percent of the men. In addition, less than 1 percent of the women
took electricity/electronics courses compared to almost 10 percent of the
men.

DMDC concluded that the difference in the exposure to the subject matter
affected the scores on the technical sections of the ASVAB, not the aptitude
of the test taker. For example, one section tests knowledge on automobile
mechanics. A person who has not been exposed to the principles of
automobile mechanics would most likely not do well on the test. The study
concluded that women have generally not excelled on the technical
sections since many have not taken classes such as automobile mechanics
in high school. Officials from the services we spoke with had varying
opinions on this issue. Some officials thought it was acceptable that the
ASVAB technical sections focused on exposure rather than aptitude. They
stated that because people were not interested enough in the subject to
study it in school, they would not be interested in pursuing a job in that
field. Others thought that people should be given the chance if they have
an aptitude in that subject matter.

Marine Corps officials stated that they encouraged women to go into more
nontraditional occupations a few years ago and that they are now analyzing
the attrition rates of women in these occupations. Preliminary results
indicate that the attrition rates are much higher for women than men in
these nontraditional occupations. If the final results show that women in
more nontraditional occupations are leaving the Marine Corps at higher
rates than others, the Marine Corps may abandon its attempt to encourage
women to enter these occupations and instead assign women to
occupations of their choice as long as they are qualified. In addition, the
Congressional Research Service reported that DOD studies have shown
that enlisted women have much higher rates of retention when they are
assigned jobs in the administrative, clerical, medical, and dental



7
 Item Evaluation for the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) Science and Technical
Test Specifications: Conduct Exposure to Content Analysis, DMDC, December 1997.




Page 31                                                        GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                  B-283056




                  occupations and lower retention rates in mechanical and electrical
                  equipment occupations.8

                  Recognizing the shortcomings of the ASVAB, DMDC officials stated that
                  they were working on a new section of the ASVAB that focuses more on
                  aptitude and less on exposure to subject matter. This section--assembling
                  objects--has been found to narrow the difference in scores between the
                  genders. The section needs to be validated, however, before it will be used
                  to assign recruits to occupations. This validation will determine whether
                  people that score high on this new section would do well in the
                  corresponding occupations. If this happens, the new section will replace
                  the mechanical comprehension section. This validation will take at least a
                  year or two to conduct. To do this validation, the services are
                  administering this section of the test but not using it in assignment
                  selections. People who score high on the mechanical comprehension and
                  assembling objects sections should do well in the corresponding
                  occupation, assuming the assembling objects section is valid. However,
                  because assignment decisions are not being made using the new section, it
                  will not be known how well recruits would do if they scored high on
                  assembling objects, but low on mechanical comprehension because they
                  would not be placed in mechanical occupations.



Agency Comments   We provided a draft of this report to the Office of the Secretary of Defense,
                  the Army, the Air Force, the Marine Corps, and the Navy. The Office of the
                  Secretary of Defense and the military services orally concurred with
                  information presented in the report. Additionally, the military services
                  provided technical comments, which we incorporated as appropriate.



Scope and         To determine what occupations women are working in, we obtained
                  occupational data from DMDC for fiscal years 1990 through 1998 for all
Methodology       four services. We compared these data to similar data provided by the
                  services to determine if the DMDC data were correct. The Army data
                  provided by DMDC could not be reconciled with Army-provided data
                  because DMDC did not appear to be using the Army occupational
                  classification system. Consequently, we used Army-provided data instead
                  of DMDC data for the Army only. However, the Army could only provide


                  8
                   Women in Armed Forces, Burrelli, David F., Congressional Research Service, updated February 2, 1998




                  Page 32                                                        GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
B-283056




data since fiscal year 1992. We judged this to be sufficient since it predated
the legislative and policy changes of fiscal years 1993 and 1994. We also
obtained data for men from the same sources for the same periods of time.

We analyzed these data in two ways. First, we compared the occupations
women occupied in fiscal year 1990 (1992 for the Army) to those in fiscal
year 1998. We compared percentages rather than absolute numbers to
reduce the effects of downsizing on our analysis. Next, we analyzed which
occupations had a high percentage of women. This could differ greatly
from the first analysis because an occupation may not have many slots to
affect the overall numbers, but a large percentage of women may be in that
occupation. For example, 14 percent of all Air Force enlisted personnel in
fiscal year 1990 were women, however, over half of Air Force enlisted
paralegals were women during this same year. But, less than 1 percent of
all women were in the paralegal occupation because of the small number of
slots in that occupation. For both of these analyses, we identified the top
10 or so occupations women were in for fiscal years 1990, 1998, or both for
each service. Oftentimes, the occupations were the same for both fiscal
years. We selected these occupations to compare for fiscal years 1990 and
1998. To determine what occupations women fill in the civilian sector, we
analyzed Bureau of Labor statistics data and discussed these issues with
officials from the Department of Labor Women’s Bureau and with a
sociologist who had studied women’s issues in the military and civilian
sectors.

To ascertain whether any systemic barriers inhibit women from entering
occupations, we interviewed officials dealing with women’s affairs from
the four services and officials responsible for determining the occupational
needs of the four services. To determine how the services assign women to
occupations, we interviewed job counselors from the services at the MEPS
in Los Angeles, California. We also met with officials from DMDC’s
Personnel Testing Division and an Office of the Secretary of Defense
consultant who developed the ASVAB test to discuss possible barriers
caused by that test.

We performed our review between July 1998 and July 1999 in accordance
with generally accepted government auditing standards.


We are sending copies of this report to Senator Wayne Allard, Chairman,
and Senator Max Cleland, Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on
Military Personnel, Senate Committee on Armed Services, as well as



Page 33                                          GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
B-283056




Representative Steve Buyer, Chairman, and Representative Neil
Abercrombie, Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Military
Personnel, House Committee on Armed Services. We are also sending
copies to the Honorable William S. Cohen, Secretary of Defense; the
Honorable Lewis Caldera, Secretary of the Army; the Honorable John H.
Dalton, Secretary of the Navy; the HonorableF. Whitten Peters, Secretary
of the Air Force; and General James L. Jones, Commandant of the Marine
Corps. We will also make copies available to other interested parties.

If you or your staff have any questions concerning this report, please
contact me on (202) 512-5140. Major contributors to this report were Carol
R. Schuster, William E. Beusse, Cheryl L. Gordon, and Carole F. Coffey.

Sincerely yours,




Norman J. Rabkin
Director, National Security
 Preparedness Issues




Page 34                                       GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
Page 35   GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
Contents



Letter                                                                                            1


Appendix I                                                                                       40
Military Occupations
Opened to Women in
the Early 1990s, by
Service

Appendix II                                                                                      43
Occupations With the
Greatest Percentages
of Women When
Compared to Men

Figures                Figure 1: Occupational Distribution of Enlisted Women, DOD-Wide,
                         During Fiscal Years 1990 and 1998                                        6
                       Figure 2: Occupational Distribution of Female Officers, DOD-Wide,
                         During Fiscal Years 1990 and 1998                                        7
                       Figure 3: Distribution of Enlisted Women in Navy Occupations in Fiscal
                         Years 1990 and 1998                                                      9
                       Figure 4: Distribution of Female Officers in Navy Career Fields in Fiscal
                         Year 1990 and Fiscal Year 1998                                          11
                       Figure 5: Increase in the Number of Navy Women in Occupations
                         Previously Closed to Women, Fiscal Years 1993 Through 1998              12
                       Figure 6: Distribution of Enlisted Women in Marine Corps
                         Occupations in Fiscal Years 1990 and 1998                               14
                       Figure 7: Distribution of Female Officers in Marine Corps
                         Occupations in Fiscal Years 1990 and 1998                               15
                       Figure 8: Increase in the Number of Female Marine Corps Enlisted and
                         Officers in Ground Jobs Previously Closed, Fiscal Years 1993
                         Through 1998                                                            17
                       Figure 9: Increase in the Number of Female Marine Corps Enlisted and
                         Officers in Selected Aviation Jobs Previously Closed, Fiscal Years
                         1993 Through 1998                                                       18




                       Page 36                                        GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
Contents




Figure 10: Increase in the Number of Female Marine Corps Enlisted
  and Officers in Selected Aviation Jobs Previously Closed, Fiscal Years
  1993 Through 1998                                                      19
Figure 11: Distribution of Enlisted Women in Air Force Occupations in
  Fiscal Years 1990 and 1998                                             21
Figure 12: Distribution of Female Officers in Air Force Occupations in
  Fiscal Years 1990 and 1998.                                            22
Figure 13: Increase in the Number of Women in Air Force Jobs
  Previously Closed to Women, Fiscal Years 1993 Through 1998             23
Figure 14: Distribution of Enlisted Women in Army Occupations in
  Fiscal Years 1992 and 1998                                             25
Figure 15: Distribution of Female Officers in Army Occupations in
  Fiscal Years 1992 and 1998                                             26
Figure 16: Increase in the Number of Women in Army Jobs Previously
  Closed to Women, Fiscal Years 1993 Through 1998                        27
Figure II.1: Navy Occupations With High Concentrations of Enlisted
  Women                                                                  43
Figure II.2: Navy Occupations With High Concentrations of Female
  Officers                                                               45
Figure II.3: Marine Corps Occupations With High Concentrations of
  Enlisted Women                                                         46
Figure II.4: Marine Corps Occupations With High Concentrations of
  Female Officers                                                        47
Figure II.5: Air Force Occupations With High Concentrations of Enlisted
  Women                                                                  48
Figure II.6: Air Force Occupations With High Concentrations of Female
  Officers                                                               49
Figure II.7: Army Occupations With High Concentrations of Enlisted
  Women                                                                  50
Figure II.8: Army Occupations With High Concentrations of Female
  Officers                                                               51




Page 37                                        GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
Contents




Abbreviations

ANC        Army Nurse Corps
ASVAB      Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery
DMDC       Defense Manpower Data Center
DOD        Department of Defense
JAG        Judge Advocate General
MEPS       Military Entrance Processing Stations
URL        Unrestricted Line Officers



Page 38                                      GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
Page 39   GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
Appendix I

Military Occupations Opened to Women in the
Early 1990s, by Service                                                                                Appenx
                                                                                                            Idi




Navy                        Aviation boatswain mate—launching and recovery equipment
                            Aviation antisubmarine warfare officer
                            Electronics warfare technician
                            Fire controlman
                            Gunner’s mate, guns
                            Gunner’s mate, missiles
                            Gas turbine systems technician, electrical
                            Gas turbine systems technician, mechanical
                            Sonar technician, surface



Marine Corps

Opened Prior to January     Ground nuclear weapons assembly technician
1994                        Cryptologic linguist (Middle East)
                            Ground nuclear weapons assembly officer
                            Ground launched missile system maintenance officer
                            HAWK missile systems technician
                            Aviation fire control repairer
                            Aviation fire control technician
                            Aircraft flight engineer, KC-130
                            Antiair warfare officer
                            HAWK missile system operator
                            Aerial navigator trainee
                            First navigator
                            Aerial navigation officer
                            Airborne radio operator/loadmaster
                            Pilot/naval flight officer


Opened After October 1994   Embarkation officer
Based on New Assignment     Landing support specialist
                            Air delivery specialist
Policy
                            Engineer officer
                            Combat engineer
                            Explosive ordnance disposal officer
                            Explosive ordnance disposal tech
                            Aircraft mechanic, AV-8
                            Aircraft hydraulic pneumatic mechanic, AV-8



                            Page 40                                       GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
            Appendix I
            Military Occupations Opened to Women in
            the Early 1990s, by Service




            Helicopter mechanic trainee
            Helicopter mechanic, CH-46
            Helicopter mechanic, CH-53
            Helicopter mechanic, U/AH-1
            Helicopter mechanic, MV-22
            Helicopter maintenance chief
            Helicopter power plants mechanic, MV-22
            Aircraft power plants test cell operator, rotary wing
            Helicopter airframe mechanic trainee
            Helicopter airframe mechanic, U/AH-1
            Helicopter airframe mechanic, MV-22
            Presidential support specialist
            Helicopter crew chief, CH-46
            Helicopter crew chief, CH-53
            Helicopter crew chief, UH-1N
            Helicopter crew chief, MV-22
            Aircraft communication, Navy system technician, AV-8
            Aircraft communication, Navy electronic system technician, CH-46
            Aircraft communication, Navy electronic system technician, CH-53
            Aircraft communication, Navy electronic, weapons system technician,
            U/AH-1
            Aircraft electronic system technician, AV-8
            Air support control officer
            Air support operations operator
            Marine Corps security force cadre trainer



Air Force   Fighter pilot
            Fighter navigator
            Bomber pilot
            Bomber navigator
            Surveillance reconnaissance pilot
            Surveillance reconnaissance navigator
            Sensor operator



Army        Engineer bridge crewmember
            Combat engineer senior sergeant
            Field artillery surveyor
            OH-58A/C scout pilot
            OH-58D pilot



            Page 41                                      GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
Appendix I
Military Occupations Opened to Women in
the Early 1990s, by Service




AH-64 attack pilot
AH-1 attack pilot




Page 42                                   GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
Appendix II

Occupations With the Greatest Percentages of
Women When Compared to Men                                                                                                                                        AppenIx
                                                                                                                                                                        di




Navy                                                       The occupations in the Navy with the greatest percentage of enlisted
                                                           women when compared to men for fiscal years 1990 and 1998 are shown in
                                                           figure II.1. Although women represented 9.8 percent of the Navy’s enlisted
                                                           force in 1990 and 12.8 percent in fiscal year 1998, women represented a
                                                           significant percent of the personnel in occupations such as cryptology, air
                                                           traffic control, and communications.



Figure II.1: Navy Occupations With High Concentrations of Enlisted Women
30       Percentage




25




20




15




10




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                                                                 1990

                                                                 1998


                                                           Source: Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) data.




                                                           Page 43                                                                   GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
Appendix II
Occupations With the Greatest Percentages
of Women When Compared to Men




The occupations that had high concentrations of women officers when
compared to men for fiscal years 1990 and 1998 are shown in figure II.2. In
fiscal year 1990, women constituted 10.8 percent of all officers; in fiscal
year 1998 they constituted 14.1 percent. During these 2 years, women
officers constituted a vast majority of the nurse corps and special duty fleet
support. Other occupations with high concentrations of women included
special duty public affairs, the judge advocate general corps (JAG), the
medical corps, and medical services corps.




Page 44                                          GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                                     Appendix II
                                                                     Occupations With the Greatest Percentages
                                                                     of Women When Compared to Men




Figure II.2: Navy Occupations With High Concentrations of Female Officers
100        Percentage




 80




 60




 40




 20




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                                                                         1990

                                                                         1998


                                                                     Source: DMDC data.




Marine Corps                                                         The occupations that had high percentages of women enlisted in the
                                                                     Marine Corps when compared to men for fiscal years 1990 and 1998 are
                                                                     shown in figure II.3. In fiscal year 1990, 4.9 percent of the Marine Corps
                                                                     enlisted force were women. In fiscal year 1998, 5.7 percent of the force
                                                                     were women. During both years, women were in a significant portion of
                                                                     some occupations, including public affairs and legal services.



                                                                     Page 45                                                                              GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                         Appendix II
                                                         Occupations With the Greatest Percentages
                                                         of Women When Compared to Men




Figure II.3: Marine Corps Occupations With High Concentrations of Enlisted Women
30         Percentage




25




20




15




10




 5




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                                                          a
                                                           Job classification did not exist during this fiscal year.

                                                         Source: DMDC data.


                                                         The Marine Corps occupations that had high percentages of female officers
                                                         when compared to men for fiscal years 1990 and 1998 are shown in
                                                         figure II.4. In fiscal year 1990, 3.4 percent of the officers were women; in
                                                         fiscal year 1998, 4.8 percent of the Marine Corps officers were women. In
                                                         both years, personnel and administration; auditing, finance, and
                                                         accounting; and public affairs had a large percentage of women.


                                                         Page 46                                                                             GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                                  Appendix II
                                                                  Occupations With the Greatest Percentages
                                                                  of Women When Compared to Men




Figure II.4: Marine Corps Occupations With High Concentrations of Female Officers
30     Percentage




25




20




15




10




 5




                                                                                                                                                                   a
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                                                                  Source: DMDC data.




Air Force                                                         The Air Force occupations with high concentrations of enlisted women in
                                                                  fiscal years 1990 and 1998 are shown in figure II.5. In fiscal years 1990 and
                                                                  1998, 14 percent and 18.4 percent of the enlisted personnel, respectively
                                                                  were women. In both years, more than half of the personnel in the



                                                                  Page 47                                                                                 GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                               Appendix II
                                                               Occupations With the Greatest Percentages
                                                               of Women When Compared to Men




                                                               paralegal occupation were women and more than one-third of the
                                                               personnel in several health occupations as well as personnel systems and
                                                               chaplain service support were women.



Figure II.5: Air Force Occupations With High Concentrations of Enlisted Women
70       Percentage




60




50




40




30




20




10



                                                          a
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                                                                       Job classification did not exist during this fiscal year.

                                                               Source: DMDC data.




                                                               Page 48                                                                         GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                                Appendix II
                                                                Occupations With the Greatest Percentages
                                                                of Women When Compared to Men




                                                                The Air Force occupations with high concentrations of female officers for
                                                                fiscal years 1990 and 1998 are shown in figure II.6. In fiscal year 1990
                                                                13.3 percent of all officers in fiscal year were women. In fiscal year 1998
                                                                16.7 percent of officers were women.



Figure II.6: Air Force Occupations With High Concentrations of Female Officers
80     Percentage



70



60



50



40



30



20



10



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                                                                              1990

                                                                              1998

                                                                 a
                                                                  Job classification did not exist during this fiscal year.

                                                                Source: DMDC data.




                                                                Page 49                                                                              GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                             Appendix II
                                                             Occupations With the Greatest Percentages
                                                             of Women When Compared to Men




Army                                                         In fiscal year 1992, women were 12 percent of the Army’s enlisted force.
                                                             This percentage increased to 15.2 percent in fiscal year 1998. During both
                                                             of these years, more than one-third of the personnel in administration were
                                                             women and women were also highly concentrated in many other
                                                             occupations, as shown in figure II.7



Figure II.7: Army Occupations With High Concentrations of Enlisted Women
 50 Percentage




 40




 30




 20




 10




  0
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                                                                          1992

                                                                          1998


                                                             Source: Army data.




                                                             Page 50                                                            GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
                                                             Appendix II
                                                             Occupations With the Greatest Percentages
                                                             of Women When Compared to Men




                                                             The Army occupations with high concentrations of female officers for
                                                             fiscal years 1992 and 1998 are shown in figure II.8. In fiscal year 1992
                                                             13.9 percent of officers were women and in fiscal year 1998, 14.4 percent
                                                             were women. However, during both of these fiscal years, the vast majority
                                                             of the Army Nurse Corps were women. In addition, high percentages of
                                                             women officers were in adjutant general, medical specialist, and veterinary
                                                             branches.



Figure II.8: Army Occupations With High Concentrations of Female Officers
80   Percent



70



60



50



40



30



20



10



 0
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                                                                         1992

                                                                         1998


                                                             Source: Army data.




(703275)                  Lert                               Page 51                                                          GAO/NSIAD-99-212 Gender Issues
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