oversight

Military Safety: Army M939 5-Ton Truck Accident History and Planned Modifications

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1999-04-09.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                  United States General Accounting Office

GAO               Report to Congressional Requesters




April 1999
                  MILITARY SAFETY
                  Army M939 5-Ton
                  Truck Accident History
                  and Planned
                  Modifications




GAO/NSIAD-99-82
             United States
GAO          General Accounting Office
             Washington, D.C. 20548

             National Security and
             International Affairs Division

             B-282071

             April 9, 1999

             The Honorable Christopher J. Dodd
             The Honorable Joseph I. Lieberman
             United States Senate

             The Honorable Rosa L. Delauro
             House of Representatives

             In April 1997, two U.S. Army Reserve soldiers were fatally injured during a
             training exercise at a U.S. Army installation. Both were passengers in a
             M939 series 5-ton tactical cargo truck that overturned. In response to your
             request, this report identifies (1) the extent to which accidents involving
             the M939 series 5-ton tactical cargo truck have occurred and (2) the results
             of Army studies on the truck’s design and its plans to address any
             identified deficiencies. You also asked us to evaluate the adequacy of the
             Army’s training program for the drivers of the M939 truck because
             inadequate training could be a contributing factor in accidents. This issue
             will be addressed in a later report.


             The Army classifies its vehicles on the basis of such factors as function
Background   and physical characteristics. For example, tracked vehicles (Abrams
             Tanks and Bradley Fighting Vehicles) are classified as Army combat
             vehicles; wheeled vehicles (trucks, automobiles, cycles, and buses) are
             classified as Army motor vehicles. Within the Army motor vehicle
             grouping, vehicles are further separated into tactical and non-tactical
             categories and within the tactical grouping, into light, medium, and heavy
             classifications based primarily on vehicle weight. The M939 series trucks
             are accounted for as part of the Army motor vehicle’s medium tactical
             fleet.

             The Army reviews operational requirements for its vehicle fleet in an effort
             to improve readiness. From January 1983 through October 1993, the Army
             upgraded its 5-ton medium tactical fleet by purchasing about 34,900 M939s
             to replace aging and obsolete trucks. The new truck, designed to operate
             on and off road, maintained the basic design of its predecessors but came
             equipped with such first-time standard equipment as air-brakes and
             automatic transmissions. At present, the Army has three variations and
             nearly 40 different models of the M939 in its inventory. Depending on the
             model, the truck performs multiple duties that include hauling cargo,




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                                        collecting refuse, transporting troops, and operating as a tractor or
                                        wrecker. The last M939s were fielded in late 1993.


Figure 1: M939A2 5-Ton Tactical Cargo
Truck




                                        Source: U.S. Army.




                                        Should vehicles or equipment prove dangerous or unsafe to operate, the
                                        Army Safety Center, Transportation School and Center, and
                                        Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command (TACOM) are responsible for
                                        identifying problems and disseminating information. Among other duties,
                                        the commands collect and evaluate information from accident
                                        investigations and field reports. They also issue Army-wide safety alerts,
                                        precautionary messages, and other information warning of identified
                                        dangers with equipment and vehicles.


                                        Our analyses and an Army analysis indicate a higher rate of accidents
Results in Brief                        involving the M939 series 5-ton tactical cargo truck than other comparison
                                        vehicles. Specifically, our analysis of January 1987 through June 1998
                                        accident data showed that, while M939s made up an average of about
                                        9 percent of the Army motor vehicle fleet during that time, about
                                        34 percent of the fleet’s accidents resulting in fatalities of vehicle




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                          occupants involved these trucks. Moreover, 44 percent of accidents that
                          involved a rollover and resulted in fatalities of vehicle occupants involved
                          the M939. Furthermore, our comparison of U.S. Department of
                          Transportation accident statistics and M939 accident statistics showed
                          that over a 10-year period, the fatality rate of occupants of the M939
                          averaged about 30 times higher than the fatality rate for occupants of
                          comparably sized commercial trucks. Finally, an Army Safety Center
                          analysis found that the chance of a fatality in a M939 was 3 to 21 times
                          higher than in other similar military trucks in the Army motor vehicle
                          fleet—the M34/M35 series 2-1/2 ton trucks.1

                          The Army plans to spend an estimated $234 million on various
                          modifications to improve the M939’s safety and operational performance.
                          Based on the results of studies into the root causes of M939 accidents, the
                          Army concluded that the overall truck design was sound, but some
                          modifications were necessary. The Army plans to use the $234 million to
                          add anti-lock brake kits, alter brake proportioning specifications, upgrade
                          the truck’s tires, install cab rollover crush protection, and modify
                          accelerator linkage. Most modifications will be complete by 2005. The
                          M939s will remain in service as these modifications are made.


                          Our two analyses and the analysis conducted by the Army Safety Center all
Three Different           involved comparisons of different types of accident data collected over
Analyses Point to         different time frames. Nevertheless, all of the analyses showed that the
High M-939 Accident       M939 had a higher accident rate than each type of comparison vehicle.
Rates
Comparison of M939 With   In our first analysis, we reviewed data from January 1987 through
Army Motor Vehicles       June 1998 and compared selected M939 accident statistics with those of
                          the rest of the Army motor vehicle fleet. We reviewed the accident
                          categories in terms of “fatal accidents,” defined as any accident event in
                          which at least one occupant of an Army motor vehicle died; “occupant
                          deaths,” defined as the total number of Army motor vehicle occupants
                          killed; “rollovers,” defined as any vehicle that did not remain upright as the
                          result of an accident; and “rollover deaths,” defined as those occurring to
                          occupants of Army motor vehicles that rolled over as a result of an
                          accident.




                          1
                           The latter two analyses were based on accident rates per million miles driven.



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In analyzing this selected accident information compiled by the Army
Safety Center, we found the frequency of M939 accidents high in each
instance. For the 11-1/2 year period reviewed, the M939 series truck
inventory averaged 26,991, or about 9 percent of the average annual Army
motor vehicle inventory of about 314,000 vehicles, and accounted for
about 15 percent of the total Army motor vehicle accidents.2 Appendix I
shows the actual figures by year, 1987-1998.

Our comparison of M939 accident statistics with accident statistics for the
rest of the Army motor vehicle fleet showed that the M939 accounted for
about 34 percent of all Army motor vehicle fatal accident events, and
34 percent of all Army motor vehicle occupant deaths. Comparative
rollover statistics revealed much the same. The M939 rollovers accounted
for 17 percent of the total Army motor vehicle rollovers, and 44 percent of
the total Army motor vehicle rollover fatalities. Figure 2 shows these
accident statistics.




2
 Army Regulation 385-40 establishes the criteria for Army motor vehicle classification of a motor
vehicle involved in an accident. A vehicle’s general purpose must be to transport cargo or personnel,
and be under full operational control of the Army. A vehicle can include a passenger car, station
wagon, truck, ambulance, bus, motorcycle, fire truck, or refueling truck.



Page 4                                                            GAO/NSIAD-99-82 Military Safety
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Figure 2: Comparison of Selected
M939 Accident Statistics to Remaining
Army Motor Vehicle Fleet, 1987-1998     In percent
                                        100

                                          90

                                          80

                                          70

                                          60

                                          50

                                          40

                                          30

                                          20

                                          10

                                           0
                                               AMV Accidents          Occupant Deaths          Rollover Deaths
                                                          Fatal Accidents          All Rollovers              AMV Fleet
                                                                               Categories

                                                                             M 939s       Remaining AMVs


                                        Source: GAO analysis of Army Safety Center accident data.




Comparison of M939s With                In our second analysis, we used Department of Transportation published
Commercial, Single-Unit                 data for years 1987-1996 and compared the accident rate for M939s with
Medium and Heavy Trucks                 the rate for single-unit medium and heavy commercial trucks (which are
                                        physically similar to M939s). According to an agency official, the
                                        Department of Transportation defines “fatal crashes” as any event in
                                        which someone is killed in a crash—vehicle occupant or otherwise—and
                                        “truck occupant fatalities” as a fatality of an occupant of a single-unit
                                        truck. These comparisons revealed that the accident rates for the M939
                                        were substantially higher than those found for the commercial trucks.
                                        However, Army officials point out that commercial trucks are driven
                                        almost exclusively on paved roads; the M939 is driven on both paved and
                                        unpaved roads.




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                                         We found that over the 10-year period, 1987-1996, the frequency rates of
                                         fatal crashes per million miles driven for M939s averaged about seven
                                         times higher than those for commercial trucks. The M939 accident rate
                                         ranged from a high of 12 to a low of 3 times higher than the commercial
                                         truck rate. In 1988, the M939’s accident rate was 0.23 and the commercial
                                         truck rate was 0.02—about 12 times higher; and in 1992, the M939 accident
                                         rate was 0.056 and the commercial truck rate was 0.018—about 3 times
                                         higher. Figure 3 shows these statistics.



Figure 3: Comparison of Rate of Commercially Driven Single-Unit Medium and Heavy Trucks Fatal Crashes With Related
M939 Statistics, 1987-1996
Fatal crashes per 1,000,000 miles
0.25



 0.2



0.15



 0.1



0.05



  0
         1987        1988       1989   1990       1991       1992        1993         1994        1995        1996
                                                    Calendar year

                                                  M939    Commercial

                                         Source: GAO analysis of Federal Highway Administration, Army Safety Center, and
                                         Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command data.




                                         We also found that, over this same 10-year period, the M939 occupant
                                         fatality rate averaged about 30 times higher than those for commercial




                                         Page 6                                                       GAO/NSIAD-99-82 Military Safety
                                            B-282071




                                            trucks. The M939 occupant fatality rate ranged from a high of 59 to a low
                                            of 13 times higher than the commercial truck rate. In 1995, the M939
                                            occupant fatality rate was 0.165 and the commercial truck rate was
                                            0.0028—about 59 times higher; and in 1989, the M939 rate was 0.046 and
                                            the commercial truck rate was 0.0035—about 13 times higher. Figure 4
                                            shows these statistics.



Figure 4: Comparison of Rate of Commercially Driven Single-Unit Medium and Heavy Trucks Occupant Fatalities With
Related M939 Statistics, 1987-1996

Occupant fatalities per 1,000,000 miles
 0.2




0.15




 0.1




0.05




  0
         1987       1988      1989        1990        1991      1992        1993        1994        1995        1996
                                                       Calendar year

                                                     M939    Commercial

                                            Source: GAO analysis of Federal Highway Administration, Army Safety Center, and
                                            Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command data.




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Comparison of M939s With   The Army Safety Center’s analysis reviewed accident data from October
2-1/2 Ton Tactical Army    1990 through June 1998. In this analysis, the accident rate of the M939 was
Trucks                     compared with accident rates for another series of trucks—the M34/M35
                           series 2-1/2 ton truck. Army officials advised us that this truck was most
                           comparable with the M939. The analysis reviewed accidents categorized as
                           Class A mishaps. Army Regulation 385-40 defines a “Class A” mishap as an
                           accident where total property damage equals $1 million or more; an Army
                           aircraft or missile is destroyed, missing or abandoned; or an injury and/or
                           occupational illness resulting in a fatality or permanent total disability.
                           Because an M939 costs significantly less than $1 million, almost all Class A
                           mishaps involving an M939 are so classified because they result in a death
                           or permanent total disability.

                           The Army Safety Center’s analysis found accident rates for M939s to be
                           higher than the comparison vehicles. The analysis showed M939 Class A
                           mishap frequency rates per million miles driven to be 3 to 21 times higher
                           than those of similar M34/M35 series 2-1/2 ton trucks.3 For example, the
                           1995 Class A mishap rate for the M939 was 0.21 and for the 2-1/2 ton
                           M34/35s, it was 0.01 per million miles driven—about a 21-fold difference.
                           Figure 5 shows this comparison.




                           3
                            The M939, M34, and M35 series trucks are all classified as medium tactical vehicles. Army records
                           indicate that for the 1991-98 time frame, these three truck series comprised around 70 percent of all
                           vehicles similarly categorized.



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Figure 5: Comparison of Rate of Class A M939 and M34/35 Truck Mishaps, 1991-98

Class A mishaps per 1,000,000 miles
0.25



 0.2



0.15



 0.1



0.05



   0
          1991         1992           1993            1994         1995          1996          1997           1998
                                                          Fiscal year

                                                        M939    M34/35


                                             Note: For years 1992, 1994, 1997, and 1998, the M34/35 had no Class A mishaps.

                                             Source: 1998 Army Safety Center Analysis.



                                             The Army has initiated a program to improve the M939’s safety
Army Plans to Spend                          performance and, according to TACOM estimates, plans to spend around
$234 Million to                              $234 million for various modifications. Most of the modifications are the
Improve M939 Safety                          direct result of corrective actions suggested in studies. These studies
                                             focused on identifying root causes of M939 accidents based on
Performance                                  information contained in accident investigation reports. On the basis of
                                             the studies’ findings, the Army concluded that the overall truck design was
                                             sound but that some modifications were necessary to improve the truck’s
                                             safety performance. Planned modifications include $120 million for
                                             upgrading the trucks tires, altering brake proportioning specifications, and
                                             adding anti-lock brake kits. Other modifications include $114 million to
                                             install cabs equipped with rollover crush protection systems and improve




                                             Page 9                                                       GAO/NSIAD-99-82 Military Safety
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                            accelerator linkage. The modifications, for the most part, will be
                            completed by 2005 with the M939s remaining in service during the process.


Higher Accident Frequency   To identify possible mechanical problems or performance limitations
and Injury Severity Rates   contributing to M939 accidents, the Army conducted two studies and a
Give Rise to M939 Causal    computer simulated modeling analysis. Although M939 trucks have been in
                            service since 1983, Army Safety Center personnel stated that no aberrant
Studies                     accident statistics appeared before early 1992. However, during 1990-91,
                            with the increased operating tempo associated with Desert Shield/Desert
                            Storm, there was an increase in fatal accidents and deaths attributable to
                            M939s.4 In August 1992, TACOM issued Safety of Use Message 92-20
                            discussing M939 performance limitations. This message warned of the
                            truck’s sensitive braking system—specifically that, when the truck is
                            lightly loaded and on wet pavement, aggressive braking could cause rear
                            wheel lockup, engine stall-out, power steering inoperability, and
                            uncontrolled skidding.5

                            The Army began taking a closer look at the M939’s accident history after
                            circulating Safety of Use Message 92-20. Between 1993 and 1995, TACOM,
                            the Army Safety Center, and the Army Transportation School and Center
                            initiated a review of M939 accident reports and began putting together
                            evidence that validated the need for the studies. Also, in an effort to
                            reduce the number and severity of M939 accidents, the Army issued
                            Ground Precautionary Message 96-04 in December 1995, limiting M939s to
                            maximum speeds of 40 miles per hour on highway and secondary roads
                            and 35 miles per hour over cross-country roads.

                            Between September 1995 and June 1997, TACOM conducted two studies and
                            a computer simulation analysis. The studies among other things, recreated
                            and analyzed repetitive events cited in many accident investigation reports
                            and discussed in Safety of Use Message 92-20. The two studies and
                            modeling analysis focused on tire and air brake performance under
                            various conditions. On the basis of the project’s findings, TACOM concluded
                            the overall truck design was sound and nothing was significantly different
                            between the M939 and its commercial counterparts produced during the



                            4
                             We previously noted this increase in vehicle related fatal accidents during the Operation Desert
                            Shield/Desert Storm time period in our report, Military Safety: Analysis of DOD’s On-duty Non-aviation
                            Accident Fatalities (GAO/ NSIAD-99-14, Oct. 16, 1998).
                            5
                             The Army uses Ground Precautionary Messages and Safety of Use Messages to disseminate
                            servicewide safety information.



                            Page 10                                                          GAO/NSIAD-99-82 Military Safety
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same time period. However, the studies found that improvements to some
vehicle subsystems would enhance the truck’s safety performance.

The tire study completed in October 1996, together with other information
relating to M939 usage, confirmed that the M939s were being used on-road
more than originally planned. The original intent was for M939s to be
driven on-road 20 percent and off-road 80 percent of the time. In some
Army units, especially reserve units, this no longer held true. Some units
were using the M939s on-road as much as 80 to 90 percent of the time. The
truck’s original tire, designed for maximum efficiency during off-road
usage, performed less efficiently on-road, especially during inclement
weather. The increased on-road usage enhanced the probability of the
M939’s being involved in an accident. On the basis of this scenario, TACOM
tested several different tire designs looking to improve on-road traction
under all environmental conditions, while retaining required off-road
capabilities. The study recommended that all M939s be equipped with
radial tires.

The brake study, completed in June 1997, concluded that the air brake
system may lock up more quickly than drivers expect, especially when the
vehicle is lightly loaded. In tests, the Army found that aggressively applied
pressure to the brake pedal caused the sequence of events found in many
accident reports: wheel lockup, engine stall-out, loss of power steering,
and uncontrolled skidding, often culminating in rollover. The probability
of spin-out and rollover increased on wet or inclined surfaces. To lessen
the likelihood of wheel lockup and the resulting chain of events, the study
suggested (1) modification of all brake proportioning systems and
(2) installation of anti-lock braking kits.

The modeling analysis used computer technology to recreate the truck’s
probable behavioral characteristics in a simulated environment and also to
validate conditions being tested in the studies. According to TACOM
officials, the modeling results correlated with actual testing results
compiled during the tire and brake studies.

Besides the recommended improvements from the studies, the Army
identified others it considered necessary. The Army decided to replace
M939 cabs when they wore out with ones outfitted with a rollover crush
protection system and also to modify the accelerator pedal resistance on
the A2 variant of the M939. Both TACOM and Army Safety Center personnel
stated that installation of the reinforced cab rollover crush protection




Page 11                                          GAO/NSIAD-99-82 Military Safety
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                                       system, while not an industry standard or required by law, would better
                                       protect M939 occupants in the event of a rollover.


Ongoing or Scheduled                   According to TACOM officials, the scheduled M939 modifications will cost
M939 Modifications                     around $234 million. The Army estimates that tire upgrades, brake
                                       proportioning, and anti-lock brake system improvements will cost about
                                       $120 million or about $3,800 per truck; adding cab rollover protection and
                                       modifying the A2’s accelerator linkage will cost another $114 million or an
                                       additional $3,600 per truck. With respect to the current schedule for
                                       completing M939 modifications, brake proportioning and accelerator
                                       linkage equipment modifications will be completed by the end of fiscal
                                       year 1999; all remaining modifications, except for cab replacement, are
                                       scheduled for completion around 2005. Because the truck cabs will be
                                       replaced as they wear out, a precise schedule for completing this
                                       modification cannot be estimated at this time.

                                       Even though some of the M939s have been in service for 15 years, the
                                       decision to spend $234 million on modifications and equipment upgrades
                                       is based on the need to improve the vehicles’ safety because the Army
                                       expects these trucks to be in service for at least 30 years. According to
                                       TACOM, the June 1998, M939 inventory was around 31,800 trucks. All M939s
                                       will be equipped with radial tires, brake reproportioning, anti-lock brake
                                       kits installation, and reinforced cab replacements. However, the
                                       accelerator linkage improvements are needed only on the 16,800 A2
                                       variant of the trucks. Table 1 shows the schedule for the planned
                                       modifications.

Table 1: Scheduled M939
Modifications, Costs, and Completion   Dollars in millions
Dates                                                                                                              Completion date
                                       Scheduled action                                        Estimated cost         (fiscal year)
                                       Upgrade tires                                                      $39.5                    2003
                                       Realign brake proportioning                                          3.5                    1999
                                       Install anti-lock brake kits                                        77.4                    2005
                                       Add rollover crush protection cabs                                 112.0                    2005a
                                       Modify accelerator linkage                                           2.0                    1999
                                       Total                                                            $234.4
                                       a
                                        Replacement of all M939 cabs may not be completed by the end of fiscal year 2005 because
                                       they are being replaced when they wear out.

                                       Source: Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command.




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                                        Although most scheduled modifications will not be completed until fiscal
                                        year 2005 or later, TACOM and Army Safety Center personnel noted that
                                        accident rates have declined significantly since the reduced speed limits
                                        instituted by the December 1995 precautionary message. Figure 6 shows
                                        the drop in the number of mishaps since 1995.


Figure 6: M939 Class A Incident Rates
Since 1995
                                         Class A incidents per 1,000,000 miles
                                         0.25



                                          0.2



                                         0.15



                                          0.1



                                         0.05



                                            0
                                                       1995                 1996                    1997              1998
                                                                                     Fiscal year

                                                                                        M939


                                        Source: GAO analysis of Army Safety Center accident data.




                                        Army officials believe the modifications being made to the M939s will
                                        improve their safety performance and reduce severe accidents, rollovers,
                                        and fatalities.




                                        Page 13                                                        GAO/NSIAD-99-82 Military Safety
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                  In written comments on a draft of this report (see app. III), DOD stated that
Agency Comments   it concurred with this report and noted that the report accurately
                  describes problems the Army found to be causing M939 accidents.


                  To analyze the accident history of the M939 series 5-ton tactical vehicle,
Scope and         we obtained specific information from the Army Safety Center, Fort
Methodology       Rucker, Alabama; TACOM, Warren, Michigan; the Department of
                  Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.; and
                  the Department of the Army, Washington, D.C.

                  To identify any accident anomalies associated with the M939s, we
                  conducted two analyses and reviewed another conducted by the Army
                  Safety Center. Our first analysis compared selected M939 accident
                  statistics with similar information for the overall Army motor vehicle fleet
                  (of which M939s are a subset). Our second analysis compared M939
                  accident statistics per million miles driven to Department of
                  Transportation accident statistics for comparable commercial trucks. The
                  Army Safety Center study we reviewed compared various M939 accident
                  frequency rates per million miles driven with rates for comparable military
                  tactical trucks.

                  The number of years used in each comparison varied on the basis of the
                  data available. Army motor vehicle fleet to M939 comparisons did not
                  include events prior to 1987 because some accident statistics were not
                  readily available. Our comparison of rates of M939 fatal accident events
                  and vehicle occupant fatalities with rates for corresponding commercial
                  sector trucks was limited to 1987-1996 due to the unavailability of accident
                  data for commercial sector vehicles after 1996. Lastly, the Army Safety
                  Center study comparing M939 Class A accident rates with rates for other
                  similar Army tactical vehicles only included events occurring between
                  October 1990 and June 1998. The extent to which other factors, such as
                  human error, driver training, and off-road versus on-road usage, may have
                  contributed to disparate accident rates was beyond the scope of this
                  review.

                  To assess Army initiatives directed at identifying M939 performance,
                  mechanical, or systemic problems and limitations, as well as
                  recommended corrective actions, we obtained or reviewed relevant Army
                  studies. We also interviewed officials at the Army Safety Center and TACOM
                  about these studies but did not assess or validate the findings, estimated
                  costs, or recommendations resulting from these studies.



                  Page 14                                          GAO/NSIAD-99-82 Military Safety
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Although we worked with personnel from the Army Safety Center, TACOM,
Department of Transportation, and the Department of the Army during
data gathering and reviewed those results for reasonableness, accuracy,
and completeness, we did not validate the accuracy of accident statistics
contained in various databases or other published information. However,
this data is used to support the management information needs of both
internal and external customers and is periodically reviewed internally by
each organization for accuracy, completeness, and validity.

We conducted our review from July 1998 through February 1999 in
accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards.


We are sending copies of this report to the Honorable William Cohen,
Secretary of Defense; the Honorable Louis Caldera, Secretary of the Army,
and interested congressional committees. Copies will also be made
available to other interested parties upon request.

Please contact me on (202) 512-5140 should you or your staff have any
questions concerning this report. Major contributors to this report were
Carol R. Schuster; Reginald L. Furr, Jr.; Kevin C. Handley; and Gerald L.
Winterlin.




Mark E. Gebicke
Director, Military Operations
  and Capabilities Issues




Page 15                                         GAO/NSIAD-99-82 Military Safety
Contents



Letter                                                                                            1


Appendix I                                                                                       18
M939 Selected
Accident Statistics
Compared to All
Other Army Motor
Vehicles, 1987-1998
Appendix II                                                                                      19
M939 Fatal Crash and
Occupant Fatality
Statistics Compared
to Commercial,
Single-Unit Medium
and Heavy Trucks,
1987-1996
Appendix III                                                                                     20
Comments From the
Department of
Defense
Table                  Table 1: Scheduled M939 Modifications, Costs, and Completion              12
                         Dates


Figures                Figure 1: M939A2 5-Ton Tactical Cargo Truck                                2
                       Figure 2: Comparison of Selected M939 Accident Statistics to               5
                         Remaining Army Motor Vehicle Fleet, 1987-1998
                       Figure 3: Comparison of Rate of Commercially Driven Single-Unit            6
                         Medium and Heavy Trucks Fatal Crashes with Related M939
                         Statistics, 1987-1996




                       Page 16                                       GAO/NSIAD-99-82 Military Safety
Contents




Figure 4: Comparison of Rate of Commercially Driven Single-Unit            7
  Medium and Heavy Trucks Occupant Fatalities with Related
  M939 Statistics, 1987-1996
Figure 5: Comparison of Rate of Class A M939 and M34/35 Truck              9
  Mishaps, 1991-98
Figure 6: M939 Class A Incident Rates Since 1995                          13




Abbreviations

AMV        Army Motor Vehicles
DOD        Department of Defense
SUMHT      single-unit medium and heavy trucks
TACOM      Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command


Page 17                                       GAO/NSIAD-99-82 Military Safety
Appendix I

M939 Selected Accident Statistics Compared
to All Other Army Motor Vehicles,
1987-1998

             Total accidents     Fatal accidents         Occupant deaths              Total rollovers           Rollover deaths
Year          M939        AMV     M939          AMV          M939          AMV         M939          AMV          M939             AMV
1987            258       2264         3           22             3           23           25          344             2            12
1988            191       1867         8           22             8           24           30          292             7            15
1989            164       1239         3           18             3           18           29          250             2            12
1990            149       1054         9           29           12            31           28          178            10            16
1991            175        958       12            41           13            51           44          179            13            30
1992            138        618         4           14             4           14           40          140             3            12
1993            130        543       10            22           10            23           39          117             9            18
1994            102        464         3            6             3            6           30          105             3             3
1995             84        415         8           16           10            19           24           85             6            14
1996             84        353         3            9             3            9           18           85             3             6
1997             62        311         4            4             5            5            9           52             2             2
1998             21        117         2            2             2            2            4           24             2             2
Total         1,558     10,203       69          205            76          225          320         1,851            62           142
                                  Note: “Fatal accidents” are defined as any accident event in which at least one occupant of an
                                  Army motor vehicle (AMV) died. For all other definitions, see page 3 of this report.

                                  Source: GAO analysis of Army Safety Center accident data.




                                  Page 18                                                         GAO/NSIAD-99-82 Military Safety
Appendix II

M939 Fatal Crash and Occupant Fatality
Statistics Compared to Commercial,
Single-Unit Medium and Heavy Trucks,
1987-1996
                                        Fatal crashes           Occupant fatalities        Million miles driven
              Year                       M939      SUMHTa           M939      SUMHTa            M939      SUMHTa
              1987                            8        1,118             3          177          56.8      49,537.
              1988                           13        1,014             8          180          56.5      51,239.
              1989                            6        1,056             3          187          65.8      52,969.
              1990                           11          979            12          185          87.4      53,443.
              1991                           17        1,072            13          168         109.2      53,787.
              1992                            5          987             4          156          88.6      53,691.
              1993                           12        1,054            10          159          70.3      56,781.
              1994                            4        1,188             3          193          58.7      61,284.
              1995                           12        1,133            10          176          60.7      62,705.
              1996                            5        1,159             3          174          85.5      63,967.
              a
               Single-unit medium and heavy trucks.

              Note: “Fatal crashes” are defined as any event in which someone is killed in a crash—vehicle
              occupant or otherwise—and “truck occupant fatalities” as a fatality of an occupant of a single-unit
              or M939 truck.

              Source: GAO analysis of Federal Highway Administration, Army Safety Center, and
              Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command data.




              Page 19                                                          GAO/NSIAD-99-82 Military Safety
Appendix III

Comments From the Department of Defense




(703276)       Page 20        GAO/NSIAD-99-82 Military Safety
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