oversight

Defense Acquisitions: Naval Surface Fire Support Program Plans and Costs

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1999-06-11.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                  United States General Accounting Office

GAO               Report to Congressional Requesters



June 1999
                  DEFENSE
                  ACQUISITIONS

                  Naval Surface Fire
                  Support Program
                  Plans and Costs




GAO/NSIAD-99-91
United States General Accounting Office                                                                      National Security and
Washington, D.C. 20548                                                                            International Affairs Division




                                     B-281508                                                                                         Letter



                                     June 11, 1999

                                     The Honorable John Warner
                                     Chairman
                                     The Honorable Carl Levin
                                     Ranking Minority Member
                                     Committee on Armed Services
                                     United States Senate

                                     The Honorable Floyd Spence
                                     Chairman
                                     The Honorable Ike Skelton
                                     Ranking Minority Member
                                     Committee on Armed Services
                                     House of Representatives

                                     This letter responds to one of four reporting requirements in section 1015
                                     of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year
                                     1999. The requirements involve the status of inactive battleships and the
                                     Navy’s plans, costs, and capabilities to provide naval surface fire support
                                     (NSFS). 1 Since 1994, the Navy has been engaged in a two-phase research
                                     and development program intended to address current shortfalls in its
                                     NSFS capabilities. We previously reported on the Navy’s compliance with
                                     legislation directing it to retain two inactive Iowa class battleships and
                                     their associated logistical support infrastructure. 2 This report, addressing
                                     the second and third requirements, describes the Navy’s program to
                                     modernize its NSFS capabilities and identifies the cost of the
                                     modernization. A third report, addressing the final requirement, will
                                     analyze the Navy’s assessment of the costs associated with alternative
                                     methods for executing the naval surface fire-support mission, including the
                                     alternative of reactivating two battleships.




                                     1
                                      NSFS is the use of guns, missiles, and electronic warfare systems on surface ships to support
                                     amphibious, maritime, or land forces.

                                     2 Force Structure: Navy Is Complying With Battleship Readiness Requirements (GAO/NSIAD 99-62,
                                      Apr. 12, 1999).




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Results in Brief   In the first phase of the NSFS modernization program, planned for
                   completion by 2009, the Navy plans to develop a modified 5-inch gun and
                   associated guided munition, land-attack missiles, and mission planning
                   system for installation on 49 of the current classes of cruisers and
                   destroyers. However, the weapons developed during this phase are not
                   expected to satisfy the full range of Marine Corps NSFS requirements.
                   Development of the modified 5-inch gun is currently on schedule, but
                   development costs have increased slightly. Development of the guided
                   munition for this gun has been delayed by technical problems, and costs
                   have increased. Because the most critical testing of the munition has not
                   yet been conducted, it is too early to know whether the munition will meet
                   performance specifications in terms of range, accuracy, and lethality. In
                   May 1998, the Chief of Naval Operations decided to modify missiles in the
                   Navy’s inventory into a land-attack variant rather than develop a Navy
                   variant of an Army missile. In May 1999, the Under Secretary of Defense
                   for Acquisition and Technology approved the Navy’s proposal in the near
                   term, provided more funds were programmed to modify the Army Tactical
                   Missile system to be fired from DDG-51 tubes. The Navy expects fleet
                   introduction of a mission planning system in 2001 to support weapons
                   developed during the first phase of the NSFS modernization program.

                   The second phase of the modernization program, beyond 2003, includes
                   development of a longer range gun and munition and an advanced
                   land-attack missile for the planned DD-21 class of destroyers. Weapons
                   developed during this phase are intended to fully meet Marine Corps NSFS
                   requirements. The Center for Naval Analyses is conducting an analysis of
                   gun system alternatives for the DD-21, and industry teams are also
                   developing advanced gun concepts for this class of ship. Thus far, the Chief
                   of Naval Operations has deferred a decision on a land-attack missile for the
                   DD-21 pending further development of competing missile systems. At the
                   same time, the Navy is conducting technology demonstration projects
                   intended to improve performance and reduce the costs of future munitions.
                   Under the Navy’s current plan, it will be many years before the fleet will
                   have these weapon systems in the quantities needed to support major
                   combat operations. The Navy plans to accept delivery of 32 DD-21s
                   between 2008 and 2020.

                   In fiscal years 1994-98, the Navy spent $309 million on both phases of its
                   modernization program. For fiscal years 1999-2005, both phases are
                   estimated to cost a total of about $2 billion, not including the cost of the
                   ships. The estimate also does not include the cost of (1) integrating Land




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             Attack Standard Missiles into the Vertical Launch System, (2) changing to
             the Tactical Tomahawk Weapons Control System, and (3) developing and
             procuring of an advanced land-attack missile for the DD-21. Total program
             cost estimates beyond fiscal year 2005 are not available. 3



Background   Since the end of the Cold War, the Navy and the Marine Corps have been
             working on operational concepts for coastal combat operations that stress
             speed, maneuverability, and avoidance of enemy strong points to achieve
             military objectives. These concepts are in striking contrast to the attrition
             operations of past wars such as World War II, when amphibious forced
             entry operations required fire support from large-caliber guns on
             battleships and other combatants operating near enemy shores. The new
             war-fighting strategy assumes that amphibious assaults will be launched
             from at least 25 nautical miles from shore to enhance surprise and the
             survivability of the fleet and invading forces. According to the Marine
             Corps, operating at this distance from shore and the need to neutralize
             enemy artillery at its maximum range results in a need for NSFS from
             between 41 and 63 nautical miles. As illustrated in figure 1, the Marine
             Corps’ fire support requirement under its new operational concept is up to
             200 nautical miles. The Marine Corps has stated a need for both
             conventional unguided and precision munitions to meet its requirements.
             Each fire support ship should be able to deliver munition effects that equal
             the explosive weight and volume of fire of an artillery battery
             (six 155-millimeter howitzers firing high-explosive munitions).




             3 Official Navy program budget estimates are contained in the Fiscal Year 2000 President’s Budget
             submitted to Congress in February 1999. The President’s budget contains budget estimates for fiscal
             years 1999-2005.




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Figure 1: NSFS Requirements




                              Source: U.S. Navy


                              The Navy is developing modern surface fire support weapons to address
                              current NSFS deficiencies. The Marine Corps believes that once they are
                              fielded, these weapons, along with the mobility enhancements provided by
                              the Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle and the MV-22 tilt-rotor aircraft,
                              will allow it to execute its new operational concept.



NSFS Modernization            During the first phase of the NSFS modernization, planned to be completed
                              by 2009, the Navy intends to improve the capabilities of the current class of
First Phase                   cruisers and destroyers by developing and installing (1) modified 5-inch,
                              62-caliber guns; (2) an extended-range guided munition for this gun;



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                   (3) land-attack missiles; and (4) a land-attack mission planning system.
                   The Navy plans to install 1 gun on each of 27 new Arleigh Burke class
                   destroyers between fiscal year 2001 and 2009, and 2 guns on each of 22
                   Ticonderoga class cruisers selected for modernization between fiscal year
                   2004 and 2009. The near-term guns, munitions, and missiles will improve
                   current NSFS capabilities, but they are neither intended nor expected to
                   meet all of the Marine Corps’ NSFS requirements for range, explosive
                   lethality, and volume of fire.



Gun and Munition   Development of the modified 5-inch gun is currently on schedule, but
Development
                   development costs have increased slightly. Development of the guided
                   munition for this gun has been delayed by technical problems, and costs
                   have increased. Since the most critical testing of the munition has not yet
                   been conducted, it is too early to know whether the munition will meet
                   performance specifications in terms of range, accuracy, and lethality. The
                   modified 5-inch gun and its guided munition are intended to provide
                   increased range and accuracy compared with those of the 5-inch guns on
                   existing surface combat ships. The guided munition’s operational
                   requirements include performance specifications for target accuracy at
                   ranges of between 41 and 63 nautical miles, compared with the 13 nautical
                   miles for existing unguided munitions.



The 5-inch Gun     Gun development is on schedule, though the manufacturer estimates that
                   development costs at completion will have increased about 8 percent over
                   the planned funding. Initial test firings of the propellant achieved the
                   required energy levels needed to launch the guided munition, but the
                   pressures created by ignition of the propellant caused some pitting of the
                   test-gun barrel. According to a Navy official, the program office is working
                   to solve this problem and believes a barrel life of 1,500 rounds can be
                   achieved. The program office has scheduled additional gun tests in May
                   1999. The Navy made a low-rate initial production decision on the gun in
                   April 1999 and initial operating capability is planned for fiscal year 2001.
                   However, delays in delivery of the guided munition have slipped the
                   schedule for incorporating and testing this capability from October 1999 to
                   June 2000. Because the modified gun will be able to fire conventional
                   5-inch ammunition to longer ranges than the current one, it will be installed
                   on new destroyers and modernized cruisers even if guided munition
                   development is delayed.




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Guided Munition         Technical design problems in development of the guided munition have
                        caused schedule delays and cost increases. These problems have delayed
                        development about 3 months. For example, during recent test firings, gun
                        gas leakage has occurred around the projectile obturator 4 because of the
                        increased energy generated by the new propelling charge and the mid-body
                        placement of the obturator. This leakage may cause unacceptable wear of
                        the gun barrel. To solve this problem, the manufacturer has been testing
                        various obturator designs and materials.

                        The most critical tests to determine how well the guided munition’s
                        components work together have been delayed until the end of fiscal year
                        1999 by disruptions associated with the contractor’s relocation from Texas
                        to Arizona. According to Navy officials, only 20 percent of the key people
                        who have been working on the guided munition have agreed to relocate.
                        The guided munition’s critical design review was intended to follow the
                        successful completion of the critical tests. As a result of these delays,
                        however, program officials expect a delay in the critical design review,
                        previously scheduled for August 1999. They also expect up to a 1-year
                        delay in fielding the guided munition.

                        Partly because of design risks and delays, the Navy and the guided
                        munition contractor are currently negotiating a restatement of contract
                        deadlines and a cost increase over the original contract price of $75 million.
                        In a November 1998 proposal, the contractor increased its price by
                        $57 million. The proposal did not consider any delays resulting from the
                        contractor’s relocation. The Navy expects a revised proposal from the
                        contractor in August 1999 that would address the relocation impact on the
                        program schedule.



Near-Term Land-Attack   The Navy’s plan to add land-attack missiles to the 27 Arleigh Burke class
Missile
                        destroyers and 22 Ticonderoga class cruisers was on hold. In May 1998, the
                        Chief of Naval Operations decided that it would be quicker and cheaper to
                        convert about 800 existing surface-to-air Standard Missiles to a land-attack
                        configuration than to develop a Navy version of the Army Tactical Missile
                        System. This decision was based on a land-attack missile assessment
                        conducted by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.



                        4 An obturator is a ring-like device that seals the projectile firmly against the gun barrel during projectile
                        launch.




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                             Both missiles would have a range of about 150 nautical miles—about 50
                             miles short of the Marine Corps’ stated requirement for deep support.
                             However, the Office of the Secretary of Defense put the Navy’s decision on
                             hold, pending additional review.

                             The Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year
                             1999 conferees directed an analysis of alternatives for the Navy’s
                             land-attack missile system. In response to the congressional direction,
                             Department of Defense (DOD) officials asked the Navy to provide
                             additional analysis for its decision. The Navy, in turn, asked the Center for
                             Naval Analyses to review the Johns Hopkins study’s analytical basis. The
                             Center analyzed both the land-attack version of the Standard Missile and
                             the Navy’s variant of the Army Tactical Missile System with regard to
                             targets, target location error, weapon performance (lethality), and the cost
                             and performance of the missiles’ Global Positioning System/Inertial
                             Navigation System (GPS/INS). In December 1998, the Center briefed the
                             Oversight Board 5 on the results of its review. The Center concluded that:
                             (1) finding reasonable target lists was easy but determining which targets
                             would be best assigned to the land attack missile and which ones to guns,
                             tactical tomahawk missiles, or aviation was not complete; (2) each missile’s
                             potential to generate a small target location error was not an issue;
                             (3) lethality: both the land attack version of the Standard Missile and the
                             Navy’s variant of the Army Tactical Missile System were effective weapons;
                             and (4) the GPS/INS costs were not a problem, but overall cost differences
                             of the missiles were.

                             On May 11, 1999, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and
                             Technology approved the Navy’s proposal to develop the land attack
                             Standard Missile in the near term, provided that more funds are
                             programmed in the Navy’s advanced land attack missile plan to modify the
                             Army Tactical Missile System to be fired from DDG-51 tubes.



Naval Fires Control System   The Navy is developing a Naval Fires Control System that will automate
Is Being Developed
                             shipboard fire support management functions for the modified 5-inch gun
                             and guided munition. The system will be used to receive targeting data,
                             conduct planning and coordination, and execute fire missions through


                             5 The Board is led by the Deputy Director, Naval Warfare, and includes representatives from the Office
                             of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology, the Office of the Secretary of
                             Defense, Program Analysis and Evaluation, the Army, the Navy, and the Marine Corps.




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                            interfaces to weapon control systems. To support a fiscal year 2003 initial
                            operating capability milestone, the Navy plans to perform an operational
                            assessment of the first phase of the fires control system in 2001. At that
                            time, this first phase of the system is scheduled to be installed aboard
                            16 destroyers (DDG-81 through 96), in a stand-alone mode in the ships’
                            Advanced Tomahawk Weapon Control Systems. The Navy plans to
                            introduce the next phase of the fires control system as an integral part of
                            the Tactical Tomahawk Weapon Control System and the fire control
                            systems of the Tactical Tomahawk and Land Attack Standard Missiles.
                            Later phases of the fires control system will support complex naval fires
                            planning and coordination and possibly other weapon systems such as the
                            Advanced Gun System. The Navy plans to install the new system on its
                            new destroyers and older cruisers and make it available to amphibious and
                            command ships.



NSFS Second Phase           Because the first phase of the NSFS modernization program will not fully
                            meet Marine Corps requirements for range, lethality, and volume of fire, the
                            Navy intends to develop, in a second phase after 2003, a larger caliber
                            advanced gun system and a new land-attack missile for the DD-21.
                            Weapons developed during this phase are intended to fully meet NSFS
                            requirements. The Navy has funded the advanced gun program and has
                            undertaken studies of the gun design. However, the missile program
                            remains unfunded, and the Navy has not made key decisions on its design
                            or type. The Navy will also assess various Office of Naval Research (ONR)
                            projects demonstrating maturing and emerging technologies to improve the
                            performance of and reduce the costs of future fire support systems.



Advanced Gun Alternatives   A new larger caliber gun for the DD-21 is being developed as the Advanced
for the DD-21 Are Under
                            Gun System (AGS). To ensure early design integration, the DD-21 program
                            office has been given responsibility for AGS development. 6 However,
Study
                            House and Senate committees have raised concerns about the extent to
                            which the Navy has considered different gun alternatives. In response to
                            these concerns, the Navy contracted with the Center for Naval Analyses to
                            conduct an analysis of alternative gun systems for the DD-21. The analysis


                            6 House Committee on National Security report (105-532, at 180) and Senate Committee on Armed
                            Services report (105-189, at 167-168).




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                            is to consider guns of various calibers and designs and the Multiple Launch
                            Rocket System. 7 The Center plans to brief the Navy on its results in June
                            1999 and to issue a final report in August 1999. At the same time, two
                            DD-21 industry teams are developing concepts for the AGS. The teams
                            expect to reach a decision on whether to adopt a vertical or deck-mounted
                            gun design by June 1999. The Navy will select the final characteristics,
                            based on the results of the Center’s analysis and on industry efforts, both of
                            which are scheduled for completion at the end of fiscal year 1999.



Advanced Land-Attack        When the Chief of Naval Operations decided to proceed with development
Missile Plans Deferred
                            and procurement of the Land Attack Standard Missile, he explicitly
                            deferred a decision on a next generation land-attack missile for the DD-21
                            pending further development of competing missile systems. According to a
                            Navy official, the Navy presently has no program activity or funding
                            associated with an advanced land-attack missile.

ONR Projects Explore NFSF   Over the next few years, the Navy plans to assess various ONR
Enhancing Technologies      demonstration projects intended to reduce costs and enhance weapon
                            performance of NFSF development programs. The projects will explore
                            both maturing and emerging technologies that may enhance fire support
                            capabilities in both the first and second phases of the NSFS modernization.

                            The goals of the first project, called Air and Surface Launched Weapons
                            Technology/Naval Surface Fire Support, are to increase gun-launched
                            projectile and missile ranges, decrease the response time required to reach
                            the target, increase the weapon’s accuracy against moving targets, and
                            increase the weapon’s lethality. The three goals are scheduled to be
                            achieved in 2005, 2010, and 2015.

                            The second project, called Air Systems and Advanced Technology/Weapons
                            Advanced Technology, is expected to demonstrate emerging technologies
                            in weapon system components/subcomponents that may improve the
                            performance of existing and future surface weapon systems. A portion of
                            the project will demonstrate improved mission planning and execution
                            times of missiles for land-attack missions.




                            7 The two major designs are a deck-mounted gun and a vertical gun.




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                          The next project is the “competent munitions” advanced technology
                          demonstration 8 that aims to combine miniaturized
                          (microelectromechanical system) inertial measuring units with the Global
                          Positioning System and with an inertial navigation system to guide and
                          control a gun-launched projectile such as the one designed for the 5-inch
                          gun. The goal is to produce a low-cost, highly accurate guidance and
                          control unit that can be used in various munitions by the Army, the Navy,
                          and the Marine Corps. Final flight tests are scheduled to be complete by
                          the end of fiscal year 1999.

                          The last project is the “best buy” advanced technology demonstration that
                          aims to demonstrate technologies critical to developing a projectile with a
                          range of 100 nautical miles and twice the payload of the guided munition
                          currently being developed for the modified 5-inch gun. This project plans
                          to demonstrate a projectile, made of composite materials rather than steel,
                          that can hold a variety of other payloads using guided munition subsystems
                          and components. The demonstration is scheduled for fiscal year 2000.



Full NSFS Capability Is   Table 1 shows that the delivery schedules for the modified 5-inch gun and
Years Away
                          projectile, the Land Attack Standard Missile, and the Advanced Gun System
                          span a number of years. According to its schedules, the Navy will have
                          accepted for delivery all of the 5-inch guns and Land Attack Standard
                          Missiles and some of the AGS and advanced land-attack missiles between
                          fiscal year 2010-2015. If it is able to obtain all the planned NSFS weapons
                          that perform as required, between fiscal year 2010-2015, the Navy will have
                          71 5-inch guns with guided munition capability and an expected NSFS
                          range of 63 nautical miles on 49 ships between fiscal year 2010-2015. In
                          addition, the Navy will have accepted delivery of Land Attack Standard
                          Missiles (about 20 per ship) with a range of 150 nautical miles aboard these
                          same ships. The Navy will fall short of meeting the full NSFS range goal of
                          200 nautical miles until it fields the advanced land-attack missile in the
                          DD-21 destroyer. But it expects to have fielded 22 DD-21 destroyers
                          equipped with AGS and advanced land-attack missiles by 2015. According
                          to one Navy official, this level of capability on cruisers and destroyers will
                          enable the Navy to have three to four NSFS-capable ships deployed at all
                          times to support operations ashore.



                          8 A narrowly-focused technology demonstration to identify key technologies ready for transition and
                          demonstrate their performance parameters.




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Table 1: Schedule of Fire Support Systems Deliveries
                                    Weapon system           First delivery (fiscal Last delivery (fiscal
System delivery                     range                   year)                  year)                      Quantity
5”/62 caliber gun, forward fit on   41-63 nautical          2001                    2009                      27 ships, 27 barrels
Arleigh Burke class destroyersa     miles
5”/62 caliber gun, retrofit on      41-63 nautical          2004                    2009                      22 ships, 44 barrels
Ticonderoga class cruisersb         miles
Naval Fires Control System          Not applicable          2001                    2009+                     All ships with 5”/62 caliber guns
                                                                                    c
Land Attack Standard Missile        150 nautical miles      2003                                              800
Advanced Gun System                 100 nautical miles      2008                    2020                      32 ships, 64 barrels
                                                            c                       c                         c
Advanced                            200 nautical miles
Land-Attack Missile
                                              aDestroyer    hull numbers 81 through 107.
                                              b
                                                  Cruiser hull numbers 52 through 73.
                                              c To   be determined.




Total Program Cost                            Figure 2 shows the cost of developing a modern NSFS capability from fiscal
                                              year 1994 to 2005, not including the cost of the ships. The Navy spent $309
Estimates Are                                 million between 1994 and 1998 and plans to spend at least another
Incomplete                                    $2 billion between fiscal year 1999 and 2005. 9 However, this amount also
                                              does not include significant additional costs for (1) integration of the Land
                                              Attack Standard Missile into the Vertical Launch System, (2) fire control
                                              modifications to the Tomahawk Tactical Weapons Control System, and
                                              (3) development and procurement of an advanced land-attack missile for
                                              the DD-21. Costs projected beyond 2005 for most of the NSFS programs
                                              are incomplete or not available.




                                              9 According to the most recent Future Years Defense Plan, submitted to Congress in February 1999 with
                                              the Fiscal Year 2000 DOD budget request.




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Figure 2: NSFS Programs Costs

            Dollars in Millions

            3 50

            3 00

            2 50


            2 00

            1 50

            1 00

              50

               0
                   1 9 9 4 1 9 9 5 1 99 6 1 99 7 1 99 8 1 99 9 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 2 0 0 2 2 00 3 2 00 4 2 00 5

                                                         Fi s c a l Y e a r




                                        Note: Fiscal years 1999-2005 are estimates.
                                        Source: Congressional Budget Documents.




Agency Comments and                     In written comments, DOD concurred with a draft of this report (see
                                        app. I). DOD also provided technical clarifications that we incorporated as
Our Evaluation                          appropriate.



Scope and                               To assess the Navy’s plans to modernize its surface fire support capabilities
                                        and describe the cost of these efforts, we interviewed officials and
Methodology                             obtained and reviewed documentation from the Office of the Secretary of
                                        Defense, the Chief of Naval Operations, the Commandant of the Marine
                                        Corps, the Marine Corps Combat Developments Command, the Naval Sea



                                        Page 12                                        GAO/NSIAD-99-91 Defense Acquisitions
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Systems Command and subordinate activities, the Center for Naval
Analyses, the Office of Naval Research, and the Johns Hopkins University
Applied Physics Laboratory.

We viewed firing demonstrations of the modified 5-inch gun and received
briefings on the guided munition, the automated munition handling system,
and the Naval Fires Control System software at the Naval Surface Warfare
Center, Dahlgren, Virginia.

We conducted our review from July 1998 through April 1999 in accordance
with generally accepted government auditing standards.


We are sending copies of this report to Senator Ted Stevens, Chairman and
Senator Robert C. Byrd, Ranking Minority Member, Senate Committee on
Appropriations; Representative C. W. Bill Young, Chairman and
Representative David R. Obey, Ranking Minority Member, House
Committee on Appropriations. We are also sending copies of this report to
the Honorable William Cohen, Secretary of Defense; the Honorable William
J. Lynn, Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller); the Honorable Jacob
Lew, Director, Office of Management and Budget; the Honorable Louis
Caldera, Secretary of the Army; the Honorable Richard Danzig, Secretary of
the Navy; and General Charles C. Krulak, Commandant of the Marine
Corps. Copies will be made available to others upon request.

Please contact me at (202) 512-4841 if you or your staff have any questions
concerning this report. Major contributors to this report are listed in
appendix II.




James F. Wiggins
Associate Director
Defense Acquisition Issues




Page 13                                     GAO/NSIAD-99-91 Defense Acquisitions
Contents



Letter                                                                                              1


Appendix I                                                                                         16
Comments From the

Secretary of Defense



Appendix II                                                                                        17
Major Contributors to

This Report




Tables                  Table 1: Schedule of Fire Support Systems Deliveries                       11



Figures                 Figure 1: NSFS Requirements                                                 4
                        Figure 2: NSFS Programs Costs                                              12




                        Abbreviations

                        AGS        Advanced Gun System
                        DOD        Department of Defense
                        GPS/INS    Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System
                        NSFS       naval surface fire support
                        ONR        Office of Naval Research



                        Page 14                                   GAO/NSIAD-99-91 Defense Acquisitions
Page 15   GAO/NSIAD-99-91 Defense Acquisitions
Appendix I

Comments From the Secretary of Defense                          ApIenxdi




              Page 16        GAO/NSIAD-99-91 Defense Acquisitions
Appendix II

Major Contributors to This Report                                                 ApIpx
                                                                                      Ien
                                                                                        di




National Security and   Martha J. Dey
                        Jack G. Perrigo, Jr.
International Affairs   Richard J. Price
Division, Washington,

D.C.




Office of the General   William T. Woods
                        Alan S. Goldberg
Counsel




Norfolk Field Office    Anton G. Blieberger




(707396)      Leetr     Page 17                GAO/NSIAD-99-91 Defense Acquisitions
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