oversight

Need for a Government-Wide Budget Classification Structure for Federal Research and Development Information, Appendix IV

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1977-03-03.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                          DOCOMENT RESUME
00053 -   A0891545]
Need for a Governsent-Wide Budget Classification Structure for
Federal Research and Development Information, Appendix IV.
PAD-77-4A; B-115398. March 3, 1977. 136 pp.

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General.
Contact: Program Analysis Div.
Budget Function: General Science, Space, and Technology: General
    Science and Basic Research (251); discellaneous: Financial
    Managesent and Information Systems (1002).
Organization Concerned: Department of Defense; Office of
    Management and Budget; Department of Health, Education, and
    welfare; Department of Housing and Urban Development;
    Mat,..nal eronautics and Space Administration; National
    Science Foundation.
Congressional Relevance: Congress.
Autho;ity: ORB Circular   -34.
         A classification structure has been developed by GAO
for the purpose of providing Congress ith a method of iewing
Federal research and development. The underlying concept is that
Federal research and development can be associated with
ob3jectives that are defined in terms of solving national
problems or accomplishing national goals. Reporting requirements
include: each category in the structure is to be taken as
exclusive of any other category; all organizational subdivisions
that '-ebnitand testify regarding appropriations requests to the
Congress should submit te required informaticn; obligations in
hundreds ,f thousands of dollars re to be provided for the
prior fiscal year, the current fiscal year, and the budget
fiscal year; a consolidated presentation will be prepared for
the respective research and development activities; and the
relationship with ORB reporting will be explained. Twelve
subject areas are defined: education and training; energy
development and conservation; environmental quality improvement;
food, fiber, and other agricultural products; health; housing
and community development; law enforcement and justice; mental
health and substance abuse; military; natural resources; science
and technology; space flight systems technology; transportation;
and other, a catch all for community services, foreign policy,
income assistance programs, anpower resources programs,
assessment of regulatory activities, and occupational and
consumer product safety programs. (Author/SS)
              RZPORT TO THE CONGRESS
CD



 :.n'-        BY THE COMPTROLLER GENERAL
 b,      W    OF THE UNITED STATES




             Need For A Government-wide
             Budget Classification Structure
             For Federal Research And
             Development Information--
             Appendix IV




             This appendix accompanies GAO report PAD-77-14.
             It contains the complete definition and
             instruction package for the unified
             classification structure for Federal
             research and development info mation
             developed by GAO.

             PAD-77-14A
                                                    MA,5J lX3, 1977
                           C o n t         n t s



                                                                          PAGE

 Preface

 Guidelines for Preparation of
 Presentation of Federal Research and
 Development Funding Using the Unified
 Objective-Oriented Structure                                             iii

   Attachment A - Unified Classifi-
     cation Structure for Federal
     Research and Development                                          viii

   Attachment B - Illustration of
     Overhead Allocation                                                  xiv

   Attachment C - Federal Research
     and Development Activities                                            xv

   Attachment D - Federal Research
     and Development Facilities
     Activities                                                           xvi

 Scope Notes:

   I.   Education and Training. .    . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            1

  II.   Energy Development and Conservation. . . . .             .   ..   .7

 III.   Environmental Quality Improvement. . . . . . . . . . 17

  IV.   Food, Fiber and Other Agricultural Products. ....                  26

   V.   Health.          . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 34

  VI.   HouPing and Community Development. . . . . . . . . . 60

 VII.   Law Enforcement and Justice. .         . . . . . . . . . . . 66

VIII.   Military. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

  IX.   Natural Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

   X.   Science and Technology Base. .         . . . . . . . .             94

  XI.   Space Flight Systems Technology. .         . . . . . . . . .117

 XII.   Transportation .    .....          .        .     ...             124

XIII.   Other.    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         . . . . . . .132

                                     -i-
                           PREFACE
     This classification structure has been developed by GAO
for the purpose of providing Congress with a method of viewing
Federal research and development funding in a unified manner
across the Federal Government. The concept underlying the
structure is that Federal research and development can be
associated with objectives that are defined in terms of solv-
ing national problems or accomplishing national goals.

     This structure has been developed by GAO pursuant to
its responsibilities under the Legislative Reorganization Act
of 1970, as amended by Title VIII of the Congressional Budget
Act of 1974.

     The presentation is to provide dollar information in terms
of obligations at each level of the structure for each agency
and its subdivisions and in total (Government-wide) for the
past, current and budget year.

     This information requirement will supplement existing
budget presentations. Accordingly, it is not intended to di-
rectly affect the method used by the agencies in presenting
their basic budget requests.
     This document includes general guidelines on how the
departments and agencies are to fulfill the requirement, the
unified Federal research and development classification struc-
ture, and detailed "Scope Notes" which define the content of
each category or element of the structure.




                             ii
                      GUIDELINES FOR PREPARATION OF
             PRESENTATION OF FEDERAL-RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT
          FUNDING USING THE UNIFIED OBJECTIVE-ORIENTED STRUCTURE
PURPOSE

     In order to provide the Congress with a unified presenta-
tion of Federal research and development funding, each agency
performing or funding research and development is required to
prepare this supplementary presentation of obligational data in
accordance with the following guidelines. The presentation is
intended to show research and development funds in a cross-
cutting manner which identifies specific national objectives
rather than agency missions. Accordingly, when preparing a
response to this requirement, agencies must use the complete
classification structure and accompanying definitions (Scope
Notes) which begin on page 1.
BACKGROUND

     This information requirement stems from congressional in-
terest in determining and evaluating the Federal commitment to
various national research and development objectives.  The
presentation will cut across agency lines, will facilitate eval-
uation and comparison of agencies' research and development ac-
tivities and will improve analysis of resource allocation with
respect to national priorities. The General Accounting Office
has developed the Unified Objective-Oriented Classification
Structure for Research and Development (Attachment A), and the
complete set of categories and definitions--Scope Notes, which
will be used as the basis for providing this information.
DEFINITIONS

     Conduct of Research and Development includes all direct,
indirect, incidental or related costs resulting fromn or neces-
sary to the actual conduct of research and development funded
by the Federal Government. For the purposes of this require-
ment, research and development includes scientific and techni-
cal information activities which encompass the dissemination
of knowledge or data resulting from the conduct of research
and development and which present the status, progress or re-
sults of research and development. In addition, research
and development includes funds for technology utilization pro-
grams which encompass those activities devoted to direct in-
teraction with State and local government and private organi-
zations to assist in the application of Federally developed
technology to the solution of their problems.



                               iii
     Operational activities such as the routine performance of
mapping and surveying by traditional techniques, the collec-
tion of general purpose statistics and the training of scienti-
fic manpower should be excluded from this analysis. The
following specific definitions and concepts are to be used in
preparing a response to this requirement:
     -- Research is systematic, intensive study directed to-
        ward fuller scientific knowledge or understanding of
        the subject.

     --Development is systematic use of knowledge and under-
       standing gained from research, directed toward the
       production of useful materials, devices, systems or
       methods, including design and development of proto-
       types and processes. It excludes quality control,
       routine product testing and production.
     -- Research and development facilities consist of facili-
        ties and fixed equipment, such as reactors, wind tun-
        nels, optical and radio telescopes, research radars,
        and the like. Includes acquisition of, construction
        of, major repairs to, or alterations in structures,
        works. equipment, facilities, or land, for use in
        research and development activities at Federal and
        non-Federal installations.

      Obligations, as defined in Office of Management and Budget
Circular No. A-34, include amounts of orders placed, contracts
awarded, services received and similar transactions during a
given period that will require payments duLing the same or a
future period. The data should include all obligations in-
culrred against receipts, corporate income, or other sources,
including funds appropriated to the President, that an agency
received or expects to receive. For this requirement re-
spondents should provide actual obligations for the prior year
and estimated obligations for the current year and the budget
year.

     Each agency or subdivision thereof should include in its
obligations the amounts allocated or otherwise made available
or intended to be made available to other agencies or subdivi-
sions for support of research and development. The receiving
agencies or subdivisions are not :o report funds allocated or
made available to them.
     The amount shown for each year should reflect obligations
for that year regardless of when the funds were originally ap-
propriated or received, and regardless of whether they were
appropriated, received, or identified in the agency's budget

                              iv
specifically for research, development, and research and
development facilities. Obligations for work performed in
foreign countries for an agency should include all funds
available to the agency, including "special foreign currency
program appropriations."
REPORTING-REQUIREMENTS
     a. Guidelines.  Each category in the structure (whether
the highest summary or lowest detailed level) is to be taken
as exclusive of any other category. With the exceptions
noted in the following paragraphs, a research project will be
assigned only to the one category which represents the primary
purpose for which the research i   unded.

     The intention here is to present a supplementary display
of research and development from the perspective o total fund-
ing committed to certain national problem-solving objectives
regardless of the performing agency's mission. For the De-
partment of Defense (DOD) and the National Aeronautics and
Space Administration (NASA), which have broad charters to
conduct research and devel7oinent to accomplish their missions,
work that is conducted excliusively to further that mission
will be separate from work that has clear potential to con-
tribute directly to solving the national problems identified
in the structure (all categories except Military, Science and
Technology Base, and Space Flight Systems Technology).
     DOD and NASA research and development that has a clear
potential of directly contributing to national objectives
will be included as part of the funding for those categories
instead of being shown in Military and Space Flight Systems
Technology.   For example, DOD and NASA research to reduce
aircraft  noise will be included in Category III, Environmental
Quality  Improvement.   Other examples are contained in the
definitions  of each  objective found in the attached Scope
Notes.
     In cases where multiple objectives exist for a research
project, amounts should be shown in the category that most
clearly defines the primary purpose for support (except when
choosing between mission and problem-solving o,.jectves).
In cases where the objective is to enhance understanding
of a subject and there is not clear connection with any
particular pr-oem-solving objective, the obligations should
be included in Category X, Science and Technology Base.   In-
dividual units of work may be allocated among two or more
mutuall exclusive categories within the structure if the
agency believes that this provides a more accurate presenta-
tion. Explanatory notes should be used, as appropriate, to
                                v
 clarify these allocations. In all cases,
 one part of the structure may not be shown funding entered in
 In this way the totals for all entries will anywhere else.
 cent of an agency's research and development add to 100 per-
                                               funding.
      b. Submission level. All organizational
 (units of a reporting agency, such as a bureau,subdivisions
 office or service) that submit and testify       division,
                                            regarding
 priation requests to the Congress should submit       appro-
 information. Each subdivision's information      the required
 separately and in a consolidated total for   will be reported
                                            the agency.
      c. Data to-be-included. Obligations
 thousands o dollars are to be provided forin hundreds of
                                               the prior fiscal
 year, the current fiscal year and the budget
                                                fiscal year.
      Amounts reported should include
 operational research and development obligations   to support
                                       activities performed in
 Federal laboratories, research centers, and
 ties that are directly related to research Federal facili-
 such as weapons test ranges, vehicle launch and development,
                                              facilities, and
 telescopes. The amounts reported should include
of Federal employees performing and/or administeringsalaries
programs and overhead costs up to and including         the
management of agency research and development      the general
detailed cost accounting data is not available,programs. If
                                                   overhead
costs may be allocated to the activities on
                                              the basis of
numbers of direct positions, direct costs,
or by any other method judged appropriate    cost per launch,
                                            by the agency.
In each submission, the method
and the total amount allocated selected   should be described
                                should be shown after the
data presentation (see Attachment B).
      Funding for research and development facilities
struction or acquisition should be shown in           con-
                                             a separate
schedule following the research and development
                                                 presentation.
This schedule includes obligations which can
                                              be assigned
directly to one entry in the structure
must be allocated to the lowest levels and  obligations which
                                        of the structure.
Again, the responding agency would determine
                                              the best method
for allocation and describe the method selected
                                                 after the
data presentation.

     It is recognized that the agency's accounting
formation systems ay not be able to directly       and in-
data requested. The amounts used may thereforesupply the
where they are not traceable to the agency's    be estimated
                                             accounting ys-
tem.



                              vi
     d. Preparation of materials.   Each aency and its sub-
divisions will prepare a consolidated presentation for their
respective research and development activities.   Examples
of the formats which  could be used are displayed in Attach-
ment C, Analysis of Federal Research  and Development  Activi-
ties and Attachment  D, Analysis of Federal Research  and
Development Facilities Activities.

     Obligations should be entered for all applicable num-
bered or lettered categories in the Scope Notes. NOTE:
The Structure, Attachment A on page viii, is presented as a
guide and includes only the too three levels of categories.
The complete set of categories presented in the Scope Notes
beginning on page 1 is to be used in providing this informa-
tion. It is not necessary to list the categories and subcate-
gories in the stub column for which there are no entries. For
example:
     II. ENERGY DEVELOPMEhL' AND CONSER:ATION
         A. Petroluem and Natural Gas
            1. Improve Extraction and P:ocessing
    III. ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
         C. Control and Abate Pollutants
            1. Air
            2. Noise
     e. Relationship to OMB analysis. It is the intention of
this requirement to btaain etail on the objectives of tne
research and development funding reporled to the Office o?
Management and Budget under the requirements of Circular A-11
(July 1976, Sections 44.1-44.3) and additional research and
development information discussed above. Since the total
amount which an agency reports for this analysis will differ
from the amount reported for the OMB report, the difference
should be explained in a separate attachment to the submission.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL REFINEMENTS

     The objective-oriented structure supplied may not be
altered for this year's submission. However, should any
agency believe that the Scope notes supplied do not indicate
appropriate inclusions and/or exclusions within an objective,
the agency may Suggest changes to the definitions and/or
structure itself in a document which accompanies the required
analysis. At its option, the agency may supply as a second
analysis, its data in the revised structure it is suggesting.




                                vii
ATTACHMENT A~.,                                                  ATTACHMENT A


                        UNIFIED CLASSIFICATION STRUCTURE
                      FO FEDERAL RESEARC        ND DEVEEPihT



    I. EDUCATION AND TRAINING
         A.   The L.earning Process
         B.   The Relationship between Education/Training and Society
         C.   Education Service Delivery
         D.   Vocational Training
   II.   ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION
         A. Petroleum and Natural Gas
            1. Improve Resource Assessment
            2. Improve Extraction and Processing
         B. Oil Shale
            1. Improve Resource Assessment, Exploration and Extraction
              2. Improve Upgrading Methods
            3. Improve Transmission, Storage and Refining
         C. Coal
            1. Improve Resource Assessment
            2. Improve Extraction and Processing
            3. Convert Coal to Oil or Gas
         D. Nuclear Energy
            1. Improve Resource Assessment and Recovery
            2. Develco Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Technology
            3. Develop Light Water Breeder Reactor Technology
            4. Develop Alternative Breeder Technologies
            5. Develop G&s-Cooled Thermal Reactor Technology
            6. Improve Lig;,t Water Reactor Technology
            7. Nuclear Safety
            8. Develop Fusion Power
         E. Solar Energy
            1. Produce Solar Thermal and Solar Thermal Electrical Energy
            2. Develop Photovoltaic Electric Power Systems
         F. Geothermal Energy
            1. Improve Resource Assessment
            2. Improve Extraction and Processing
            3. Convert Geothermal Resources to Thermal and Electrical Energy
         G. Alternative Energy Resources
            1. Congert Wind Energy to Electricity
            2. Improve Fuel Generation from Bioconversion
            3. Improve Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
            4. Other (must be specified and described)
         H. Energy Conservation
            1. Increase Electricity Generation Efficiency
            2. Improve Energy Storage
            3. Improve Electric Power Transmission
            4. Reduce Energy Consumption by End-Users
         I. Energy Systems Study and Analysis

                                   - viii   -
ATTACHMENT A
                                                                  ATTACHMENT A


 III.     ENVIROMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVERENT
         A. Identify Pollutant Effects
            1. Air
            2. Water
            3. Solid Waste
            4. Pesticides
            5. Noise
            6. Radiation
         B. UrAerstand Pollution Processes
            I. Air
            2. Water
            3. Solid Waste
            4. Pesticides
            S. doise
              .   Radiation
     C. Control and Abate Pollutants
         1. Air
         2. Water
         3. Solid Waste
         4. Pesticides
         5. Noise
     . Understand, Describe, Predict and Affect Weather
         1. Regional Environmental Systems               and Na'ural Hazards
         2. Climate and Weather Study
         3. Weather Modification
         4. Disaster and latural Hazards Studies and Control
IV. FOOD, FIBER AND OTHER AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS
        A. Identify and Develop New or Underdeveloped Food
        B. Improve Production                               and Feed Scarces
            1. Improve Crop Production for Food
           2. Improve Animal Production for Food
           3. Improve Production of Marine Food Souces
           4. Improve Production of Non-Food Items
           5. Improve Use of Land, Water, Fertilization, Equipment
                 Methods                                             and
        C. Improve Storage and Processing
           1. Improve Storage and Processing of Food Products
           2. Improve Storage and Processing
        D. Improve Distribution and Marketing of Non-Food Products
           1. Improve Distribution and Marketing of Food Products
           2. Improve Distribution and Marketing of  Non-Food Products
           3. Improve Consumption
        E. Improve Safety


                                     - ix   -
ATTACHMENT A                                               ATTACHMENT A


 V. HEALTH

      A. Diseases and Injuries
          1. The Aging Process--Diseases and Related Conditilns
          2. Arthritis and Rheumatism
          3. Blood Diseases and Disorders
          4. Cancer'
          5. Dental Diseases and isorders
          6. Diabetes and Other Endocrine Disorders
          7. Digestive Diseases
          8. Environmentally-Caused Health Disorders
          9. Eye and Visual System Disorders
         10. Genitourinary System Disorders (ncluding Kidney Disease)
         11. Heart and Vascular Diseases (including Stroke)
         12. Infectious and Parasitic Diseases (including Allergies not
                elsewhere classified)
         13. Injuries Not Related to Diseases
         14. Lung and Respiratory Diseases and Disorders
         15. Maternal and Child Health (including Genetics not elsewhere
               classified, Fertil ty Regulation and Mental Retardation)
         16. Metabolic Disorders
         17. Musculoskeletal System and Connective Tissue Dlsorders
         18. Neurological and Communicative Disorders
         19. Nutritional Disorders
         20. Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disao.es and Disorders
         21. Disease and Injury Base
      B. Mental nealth
          1. Mental Illness and Behavior Disorders
          2. Mental Health Aspects of Social Problems
          3. Mental Health Base
      C. Substance Abuse
          1. Alcoholism
          2. Drug Abuse
          3. Abuse of Other Substances
      D. Health Services Delivery
          1. Improve Quality
          2. Control and Reduce Cost
          3. Improve Accessibility
VI.   HOUSING AND COMIMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
      A. Housing
         1. Increase- Opportunities
         2. Improving Safety and Standards
         3. Improving Construction, Delivery and Costs
         4. Improving Housing Management
         5. Improving Housing Maintenance
      B. Community Development
         1. Preserve and Revitalize Neighborhoods
         2. Community Development and Growth


                                      -    X   -
ATTACHMENT A                                                     ATTACHMENT A


 VII.   LAW ENFORCEMENT AND JUSTICE
        A.   Prevention of Crime (includes a total for drug trafficking)
        B.    aw Enforcement (Includes a total for drug trafficking)
        C.   Adjudication
        D.   Corrections
        E.   Juvenile Justice
        F.   Understanding of Crime
        G.   Justice Technology
VIII.   MILITARY
        A. Deter Attack
           1. Land-based Missiles
           2. Sea-based Missiles
           3. Aircraft
           4. Deterrent Weapons Development and Protection
           5. Command and Control Elements of Nuclear Deterrence
           6. Nuclear Deterrence -- General
        B. Defend Continental United States Against Attack
           1. Ballistic Missile Warning
           2. Ballistic Missile Defense
             3.    Air Defense
             4.    Defend Continental United States -- General
        C. Combat Capability
           1. Land Warfare
           2. Air Warfare
           3. Ocean Control
             4.   Combat Capability -- General
           5. Theater Nuclear Forces
        D. Defensewide Applications
           I. Intelligence Systems
           2. Communications, Command and Control
           3. Area Navigation Systems
           4. Military Personnel Managemer.t and Ulization
           5. Biomedicine with Exclusive Military Applications
           6. Nuclear Weapons Effects
           7. Chemical/Biological Weapons
           8. Weather Modifications
  IX. NATURAL RESOURCES
        A. Forests
        B. Land
        C. Minerals
           1. Inprove Means of Locating and Assessing Mineral Sources
           2. Improve Mineral Extraction and Recovery Techniques
           3. Improve Mineral Processing Techniques
           4. Improve Techniques for Reusing and Recycling Matcerials or
                 Products Made from Mnerals
           5. Improve Mneral Supply/Demand Analysis


                                         - xi -
  ATTACHMENT A                                                 ATTACHMENT A


        D. Recreation
        E. Water
        F. Wildlife
   X. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BASE
       A.   Astronomy
       B.   Atmospheric Sciences
       C.    Biology
       D.   Chemistry
       E.   Computers
       F.   Engineering
       G.   Geological Sclences
       H.   Materials
       I.   Mathematical Sciences
       J.   Measurement and Standards Technology
       K.   Oceanographic Sciences
       L.   Physics
       M.   Psychology
       N.   Science Information Technology
       0.   Science Policy, Management Technology and Other Special Programs
       P.   Social Sciences
       Q.   Surveying, Mapping, Charting and Geodesy
       R.   Telecommunications
 XI.   SPACE FLIGHT SYSrEMS TECHNOLOGY
       A. Space Transportation Systems
          1. Space Shuttle
            2. Spacelab
          3. Interim Upper Stage/Tug
          4. Other Space Transportation Systems
       B. Space Flight Equipment Engineering
          1. Energy Systems
          2. Human Operations in Space
          3. Information and Communication Systems
          4. Materials Used in Space Vehicles
          5. Propulsion Systems
          6. Space Vehicle Aerothermodynamics
          7. Systems and Design Studies
          8. Vehicle and Satellite Structures
          9. Vehicle Guidance and Control
XII.   TRANSPORTATION
       A. Air
          1. Improve Vehicles
          2. Improve Aviation Operational Environment and Effectiveness
          3. Improve Aviation Safety
  ATTACHMENT A                                                ATTACHMENT A

        B. Rail
            1. Improve Rail Vehicles
            2. Improve Operational Environment and Effectiveness
            3. Improve Rail Safety
        C. Highway
            1. Improve Vehicles
            2. Improve Operational Environment and Effectiveness
           3. Improve Highway Safety
        D. Marine
           1. Improve Marine Vehicles
           2. Improve Marine Operational Environment and Effectiveness
           3. Improve Marine Safety
        E. Pipeline
           1. Improve Pipeline Equipment and Operational Effectiveness
           2. Improve Pipeline Safety
        F. Multi- and Inter-modal
XIII.   OTHER
        A. Community Services
        B. Foreign Affairs
           1. Foreign Aid
           2. International Agreements and Foreign Policy
        C. Income Assistance
        D. Manpower
        E. Regulatory Activities
        F. Safety
           1. Occupational Safety and Health
           2. Consumer Products Safety




                                   - xiii -
ATTACHMENT B                                                  ATTACHMENT B




 ILLUSTRATION OF OVERHEAD ALLOCATION

      For Bureau A of the Department of Research, administrative and

 management expenses which cannot be assigned directly to a research

 category are allocated on the basis of number of direct positions.

 These allocated amounts are added to the lowest level categories in

 which the Bureau conducts research.

      The total amount of administrative and management expenses assigned

 directly or indirectly through this allocation method are:

                $412 for FY 1976

                 115 for the three-month transition period

                 420 for FY 1977

                 470 for FY 1978




                                   - xiv   -
ATTACHMENT C                                                                                                                            ATTACHMENT C


                       ,-.




                   30°                                                                                                                                          0
                                                3 > <
                                                ~.4                v              E                 n                   oo               ¢          o       o




                                                                                                                        0

                         4.        ;                                                   aX                      e                                            4




  r..3                                      0                :;~            :;         1,       a:
                                                                                                O,"
                                                                                                  ,                     )    u                      o
         >o                             oi -r4
                                            vcn               u    H        4     H         C                      OW         OW,         °


              Tl   o          t        V-           O                                                                                           0           0
                                                                                                                                                        .       uz



                                             _  00u                              0     co 0_1                  > >      > >
     0)
     ·r                                C     o C 0H                                                                                      >     >
    0:~~~                                                                            C 00H                     OJ CO
                                                                                                                  mJ C, 0- o
                                         (L VC= 4
                                       W4-JWg                                                       '    P                  0                  -j

                              '-        0           w        u,-r4oo                                         0$.
     t                         °       cd       r       co   r4 vi     .0         rb 0E-
                                                                                 V_§  cd E-4    E
                                                                                                                             00          0c-
                                                                                                cn       0          0a .     W      .    WJ4-


                                                        &w0-Ho 4oJ4-J00                         u        P-4




                                                                                                    XV
                                                                                                                                                            E
     ATTACHMENT D                                                                                            ATTACHMENT D


                           OI-
                          to




                          r-.




                                                                                                                                U)

                                                                                                                                z




                          44
                         ..c:
                                 U)V3t                                                                                          P
                                                                                                                                a

             -,           0
      FoO- oU
      1-4 a                                                                                                                    >

                         C.,
             00



             k       H
      O.             0




            to                                 4
                                               u                    4U                   $4            c              U4

     _VEq                                     a Oz                       ¢                             Vs
                                            >% uo <0 EU0 U1  :< H                   0
                                                                                    w
                                                                                    P>        ·              o             ·
            noi                  M¢       Z ac- X @ o       OHW          .-                       U)             C0 X
             o                   ¢       vC X vC g       @ U @ C         W    B D
                                                                                B
                                                                                  -               8     )        gc
                                                                                                                                w
                                                   >u _i     a
                                                     Ai                       H          0             0b0            00       0
H                                2JkU
                                  Ci      * -1.      4U      co                                                                W404
                 >               Z       ¢ a:         ca >%0      -c4                                        c
                                          ia
                                 H        P.4v- u Ho      H0w
                                                          iW
                                                          4i    0     c
                                                                         0    ZoO
                                                                              Zaii 0114           w              0.
U4                                       A0 cUG1         .0Bu E-4       i-a

0n                                        U)'-4O          HmOdooo        U)   4I-D0a     )             Q.        v

                                         c-    4           M                  01"             H   *     .0            ..
I.   EDUCATION AND TRAINING
                         EDUCATION AND TRAINING


                                                                      PAGE

A.   The Learning Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     .     2
B.   The Relationship Between Education/Training and Society. .         2
C.   Education Service Delivery .. . . . .    . . . . . . . ...         3
     1. Quality of Instruction .................                        3
     2. Accessibility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...            4
     3.  Cost Reduction and Control   . .............           .       5.
     4. Organization and Administration. . . . . . . . . ....           5
D.   Vocational Training. ..........      .         ...   .....         5
I.   EWDUCATION AND TRAINING

          This section includes research to increase underst.:-ding of and

     to improve all acts and processes of systematic instruction, schooling

     and training.   Also includes research to improve means of imparting

     skills and knowledge to people at all education levels--pre-school,

     elementary, secondary, and post-secondary; means of developing gen-

     eral powers of reasoning and perception; and methods of improving or

     learning new job-specific vocational skills.

          Education research includes efforts to

          --improve knowledge concerning the learning process;

          --conduct studies of the influences of education on society and

              of society on education;

          --improve the quality, accessibility, cost, and organization and

              administration of education services delivery; and

          --improve vocational training.

     Vocational training herein refers only to the skilled occupations, such

     as the construction trades, clerical functions, or computer programmers.

     Research to increase understanding of or improve the education and

     training processes associated with certain highly skilled professions,

     for which there exist special, post-baccalaureate schools (such as

     medical, dental, or law schools), will be shown in the first four sec-

     tions, rather than under the vocational   raining entry.

          It is recognized that some research may be directed toward the

     special educational and training problems encountered by various persons



                                      -1-
because of their ethnic origin, limited ability or total lack of ability

to speak or understand the English language, physical or mental handi-

caps, economic situation, living conditions, limited mental or emotional

stability, or their gender.      However, responses are to be rendered on the

basis of educational processes, as described above, rather than on the

basis of suc   a targeted approach.

     A.   THE LEARNING PROCESS

          Includes research to increase understanding of the learning
          process and to determine why individuals learn at different
          rates and in different ways. This category will include research
          directed toward the fundamental cognitive process in reeding,
          writing, and comprehension, and the relation of this process to
          learning and instruction. Also included are studies of the foi-
          lowing factors and their effect on students' motivation, com-
          petence, performance, and attitude: non-school influences,
          such as family and community relations; variations in teach-
          ing methods and school environment, such as open classrooms,
          highly-structured classrooms, peer tutoring, or instruction
          outside the classroom; individual student characteristics,
          such as learning style and attention span; comprehension and
          reading problems; and sex roles or ethnic group membership.

          Excludes research on psychological (see X. M., PSYCHOLOGY),
          mental health (see V. B., MENTAL HEALTH), or behavioral (see
          X. P., SOCIAL SCIENCES) processes which are not specifically
          related to understanding the learning process,

     B.   THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EDUCATION/TRAINING AND SOCIETY

          Includes research on the impact cf education and training and
          changes in educational attainments or skill levels of individuals
          on society. Also includes research on the influence of societal
          changes on education and training techniques and systems.

          Typical objectives of research in this category include the fol-
          lowing: study the relationship between education and economic
          opportunity; improve knowledge concerning the capacity of formal
          education to influence an individual's social behavior and
          economic future; study the effect of training and education on
          motivation and morale in work situations; improve understanding


                                      -2-
     of the relationship between education and work, including
     studies of the interactions between work, school and om-
     munity activities, the response of the education system to
     changing needs of the labor market (including the supply of
     and demand for differing skill types and educational level
     attainment) and the adequacy of educational preparation for
     job entry and progression; imrzove understanding of the con-
     tribution of education to career awareness, in order to .ake
     wise career choices and to prepare for and obtain jobs; study
     career choices among adults starting second careers, or
     those preparing for advanced positions; examine the responsive-
     ness of education to the career-related needs of individuals;
     study the capacity of formal education to foster the social in-
     tegration of human beings; improve understanding of the effects
     of recent court decisions on various aspects of education,
     including desegregation, equality of access, and the process
     of compliance with an externally-imposed order to change; and
     investigate the legal status of the student, including a
     student's rights and responsibilities concerning education
     and educational systems, the effect of deviant behavior in
     schools, and the process of involuntary expulsion from school.

C.   EWDCATION SERVICE DELIVERY

     Includes research to improve understanding of the problems con-
     fronting educators and others in delivering educational services.
     Also includes research to develop improved methods of deliver-
     ing these services. Research in this section is directed to-
     ward the provision of high quality, accessible, low-cost, and
     effectively organized and administered education services.

     Exludes the provision of vocational training and job-specific
     education services (see I. D., VOCATIONAL TRAINING).

     1.   QUALITY OF INSTRUCTION

          Includes research to increase the quality of educational in-
          struction through improvements in curricula, subject matter,
          and instructional techniques. Research on curricula improve-
          went is directed toward the selection and sequencing of
          course packages presented to students. This research also
          addresses the need for increased understanding of and improve-
          ments in the subject matter studied in each course of in-
          struction and, efforts to improve the effectiveness of in-
          structional and teaching techniques.



                              -3-
     Research in this category is exemplified by the following
     objectives: develop the means to match curricula and
     subjects taught with the constantly changing needs of
     society; design curricula which, at a minimum, will pro-
     vide individuals with fundamental verbal, mathematical,
     and social abilities (including the skills of reading,
     writing, comprehension, the use of language, and basic
     analytical abilities); develop curricula and subject areas
     which are more responsive to unique educational settings
     or individual needs of students; improve teacher skills
     in implementilg new curricula and subject areas; develop
     better performance criteria to guide administrators in
     teacher selection; evaluate the fairness and quality of
     teacher selection procedures; develop methods to close
     the gap between disparate educational system qualities
     from area to area; improve standards of measurement to
     assess the adequacy of educational instruction and stu-
     dent achievement; identify and study effective educational
     innovations which were developed through practice rather
     than as a result of formal research; and identify schools
     with relatively higher academic achievement, determine
     why this occurred, and develop ways of replicating this
     condition in other schools and school systems.

2.   ACCESSIBILITY

     Includes research on ways to enhance the opportunity of in-
     dividuals to obtain educational instruction. Also includes
     research on new or better ways of financing education
     services.

     The following objectives exemplify research efforts to be
     included in this section: develop methods of      ;ng educa-
     tion more available to the general populace, including the
     application of technology (television, computers, audio
     cassettes, video tapes, and films); study the problems of
     availability of education services to various socioeconomic
     groups and develop methods to alleviate these problems;
     and examine the present methods of financing education ser-
     vices and the effects of changing those methods.

     Excludes research on improving the quality of educational
     curricula, subject matter, and instruction techniques (see
     I. C. 1., QUALITY OF INSTRUCTIO  .




                         -4-
     3.   COST REWDUCTION AND CONTROL

          Includes research on ways of providing the same quality and
          quantity of education services at lower cost or at the same
          cost level in the face of rising costs elsewhere. Also in-
          cludes research to impro-e our understanding of and use of
          productivity concepts in education delivery.

          The following objectives exemplify research efforts to be
          reported under this category:  study the distribution of ed-
          ucational costs among households according to percentage of
          family Income; improve understanding of the historical re-
          lationship between changes in educational costs and improve-
          ments in educational attainment; develop new concepts of
          efficiency in education delivery; examine alternative re-
          sources and resource mixes to deliver education services;
          and study the cost ffects of increased or excessive use
          of private schools over public schools.

     4.   ORGANIZATON AND ADMINISTRATION

          Includes research to improve understanding of current edu-
          cational organization structures and administrative practices
          and procedures. Also includes research to develop viable
          alternative methods for organizing and administering educa-
          tion services delivery.

          The following objectives are indicative of the research ef-
          forts to be reported under this category: study alternative
          structures of education which provide parents, teachers, and
          administrators more voice in determining he form, content,
          and style of eucation that is provided in a comuniL or
          school district (such as the use of education vouchers for
          student placement); develop better understanding concerning
          the organization and practice of education, including studies
          of factors which affect change in education systems; develop
          better methods to obtain information and provide input to
          education policy decisions; and improve understanding of the
          current methods and develop better alternatives for school
          system organization and management (such as some of the pre-
          sent experimental schools employing open learning or re-
          latively unstructured classroom situations).

D.   VOCATIONAL TRAINING

     Research in this category is directed toward improving methods
     of te&ahing individuals a marketable skill to enhance their




                               -5-
employability.   It differs from the four previous subsections
of I., EDUCATION AND TRAINING, in that this subsection covers
skill- or j   -specific instruction and learning, while the
other sections include research on the more general processes
of education.

Includes research to improve methods for providing the techni-
cal skills and associated general knowledge required in various
vocations or occupations, which are primarily characterized
                                                            by,
but not limited to, the existence of labor urn4 -- or other
specialized representative bodies corresponding to the trades
or skills involved in these vocations r occupations (for
example, the construction trades). Also includes occupations
which, although not strictly organized, likewise require
specific skills and education (such as computer programmers
or operators).

Efforts to be reported under this sectf.on are exemplified
                                                            by
the following objectives: develop ne-w or improve existing
occupational fields and associated taining methods; develop
or iprove methods of meeting specialized occupational needs;
develop ways to create shortcuts for experience as a method
                                                               of
learning or developing job-related skills; improve understanding
of the job preparation needs of various groups of people
                                                           and
develop ways to meet these needs; and improve existing or
develop new occupational guidance, counseling, and placement
services.




                       -6-
II.   ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND
        CONSERVATION
                             ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION
                                                                                                                      PAGE

A.    Petroleum and Natural Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                       8
                                                                                            .                           8
      1. Improve Resource Assessment..
                                 and     Processing           .   .  .      ..                                          8
      2. Improve Extraction
B.    Oil Shale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                           .                   8
      1.   Improve Resource   Assessment,           Exploration              and
           Extraction. . . . . ...                                     . . . . . . . ..                                 9
      2. Improve   Upgrading    Methods        ..                                              . .                      9
           a. Improve In    Situ   Processing          Methods               ..                .                        9
           b. Improve Above Ground Processing Methods . . . ..                                                          9
      3. Improve Transmission, Storage and Refining. . . . . ..                                                         9
C.    Coal. .          . . . . . . . . .                  . . . . . .                     .. .                .         9
       1. Improve Resource Assessment . . . . . . .                                  .    .    .     .                 10
                                                                                                                       10
       2. Improve Extraction and Processing . . . . . . . .
                                                                                                                       10
       3. Convert Coal to Oil or Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
      Nuclear Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                               .      10
D.
       1. Improve Resource Assessment and Recovery.                                                     .     .        11
       2. Develop Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Technology.                                                        11
       3. Develop Light Water Breeder Reactor Technology ..                                                            11
       4. Develop Alternative Breeder Technologies.                                        .11
                                                                                                                       12
       5. Develop Gas-Cooled Thermal Reactor Technology . . . . .
       6. Improve Light Water Reactor Technology. . . . . .                                                 .          12
       7. Nuclear Safety.                       .      . . .            . ..               ..      .     .     .       12
       8. Develop Fusion Power                                 . .         .     .. .         .     .     .    .       12
E.     Solar Energy   . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       .    .   .    .     .    .     .     . .       13
       1. Produce Solar Thermal and Solar Thermal
            Electrical Energy . . . . . . .                    . . .                   . .                             13
       2. Develop Photovoltaic Electric Power                       Systems            . . . . . .
       Geothermal Energy ..............                                       .         .                               14
 F.
        1. Improve Resource Assessment .                   . .      .   .    .   .     .    . . . . .                    4
        2. Improve Extraction and Processing                   .    .    .   .    .    .    . . . . .                   14
        3. Convert Geothermal Resources to Thermal                           and
            Electrical Energy                              .. . . .                  . .                                14
 G.     Alternative Energy Resources .             .  .   .   .   .    .    .   .      ..                               15
        1. Convert Wind Energy to Electricity.                       .   .        .         . . . . .                   15
        2. Improve Fuel Generation           from     Bioconversion.                    .              . ..             15
        3. Improve Ocean Thermal         Energy       Conversion              .   .    .    .    .     . . .            15
        4. Other (must   be  specified        and     described)              .   .     .   .    .     .                15
 H.     Energy Conservation   ....................                                                                      15
        1. Increase Electricity Generation Efficiency                                   . . .              .             15
        2. Improve Energy Storage.           .   .   .  *   .   .    .   .         .              .             .       16
        3. Improve Electric     Power      Transmission              .    .   .    .    .    .    .     .     .   .      16
        4. Reduce Energy Consumption             by   End-Users           .          .    .    .     .     .      .      16
        Energy Systems Study and       Analysis         .                                                                16
 I.
.    ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION

          Encompasses research on methods and technologies to increase

     the domestic supply of energy and energy resources and to promote

     their efficient utilization.    More specifically includes research to:

          --Develop technologies to increase oil and gas resources re-

            covery.

          --Develop techniques and systems to increase coal production

            and to convert coal to oil and gas.

          --Develop economical systems and techniques to convert solar

            radiation into thermal and electrical power.

          --Develop economical systems and techniques to convert geothermal

            resources into electrical and thermal energy.

          --Develop techniques and systems to develop and convert alternative

            energy resources such as wind and plant biomass into energ}.

          --Develop the capability to produce energy with all types of

           nuclear reactors.

         --Develop new methods and technologies to conserve energy.

         --Conduct studies and analyses for planning and management of

           energy systems.

         These objectives of ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION are

    subject to environmental constraints.    Exclude research directed

    towards such constraints' interface with ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND

    CONSERVATION objectives.   For example, exclude work to improve sulfur

    removal from coal before combustion in order to control environmental

    pollution.   (See III. C. 1., AIR)



                                    -7-
A.   PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS

     Research to develop technologies which will increase oil and
     gas resources recovery is shown here. Includes research :o
     assess the inventory of and to improve the extraction and
     processing of oil and gas.

     Exclude research to liquefy or gasify coal (See IT C. .,
     AIR if the primary purpose of the work is to redut  environ-
     mental impact. All other coal liquifaction and gasification
     research is shown in II. C. 3., CONVERT COAL TO OIL OR GAS).

     1.   IMPROVE RESOURCE ASSESSMENT

          Research to assess the nation's oil and gas resources
          in terns of quantity, quality, distribution, and
          recoverability is shown here. Includes research to
          develop n information base on distribution and quality
          of oil and gas deposits and improve ability to assess
          potential oil and gas recovery from off shore sites.

          Exclude research to assess the inventory of oil shale
          resources. (See II. B. 1., IMPROVE RESOURCE
          ASSESSMENT).

     2.   IMPROVE EXTRACTION AND PROCESSING

          Research to improve recovery techniques for gas and oil
          and increase efficiency in the processing of oil and
          gas products is shown here. Includes research to
          develop secondary and tertiary recovery methods and to
          develop methods to stimulate flow in low permeability
          areas.

          Exclude research to improve the extraction and process-
          ing of oil shale.   (See II. B. 2., DEVELOP IN SITU
          PROCESSING TECHNIQUES.)

B.   OIL SHALE

     Encompasses research to maximize oil shale's potential as
     an energy resource. Includes research to develop or improve




                                 -8-
     efficient methods of exploration, mining, processing,
     transmission, storage, and refining of oil shale.

     Exclude research to insure the safety of oil shale mines
     and facilities. (See XIII. F. 1., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
     AND HEALTH.)

     1.     IMPROVE RESOURCE ASSESSMENT, EXPLORATION AND EXTRACTION

            Encompasses research to assess oil shale resources in
            terms of quantity, quality, distribution, recover-
            ability, composition, and characterization ad to
            improve extraction methods.

     2.     IMPROVE UPGRADING METHODS

            Encompasses research to develop or improve efficient
            methods of upgrading oil shale; in other words, con-
            verting oil shale into a more useable and more easily
            refined form. This work is divided into in situ pro-
            cessing and off-site (above ground) processing.

            a.   IMPROVE IN SITU PROCESSING METHODS

                 Includes research to improve in situ techniques
                 of upgrading oil shale.

            b.   IMPROVE ABOVE GROUND PROCESSING METHODS

                 Includes research to improve the techniques used
                 to upgrade oil shale above ground.

     3.     IMPROVE TRANSMISSION, STORAGE AND REFINING

            Encompasses research to improve the techniques
            involved in transmitting oil shale, storing it and
            refining it into a higher quality energy resource.

C.   COAL

     Encompasses research to assess coal resources, improve the
     extraction and processing of coal, and to improve coal
     liquefaction and gasification.

     Exclude research on coal extraction, processing, and utilization
     whose primary purpose is to minimize the environmental impact.
     (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT). For example.
     exclude research to enhance cleaner coal combustion such ds
     sulfur removal from coal.  (See III. C. 1., AIR).

                                -9-
     Exclude research to improve electricity generation efficiency
     with coal such as magnetohydrodynamics, fuel cells, and advanced
         - systems. (See II. H. 1., INCREASE ELECTRICITY GENERATION
     Erp  :IENCY).

     1.   IMPROVE RESOURCE ASSESSMENT

          Includes research to assess the nation's coal resources in
          terms of quality, quantity, regional distribution and
          recoverability.

     2.   IMPROVE EXTRACTION AND PROCESSING

          Includes research to improve the productivity of coal mining
          and processing systems.

          Exclude mining technology research performed to minimize its
          environmental impact.  (See ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT).

     3.   CONVERT COAL TO OIL AND GAS

          Encompasses research to improve systems and technologies
          for converting coal to oil and gas. Includes the liquefaction
          systems of direct hydrogenation, solvent extraction, pyrolysis,
          and indirect liquefaction.   Includes research on processes
          to perform high-BTU gasification, low-BTU gasification,
          and in situ Pnsification.

          Exclut    .       -ion and gasification research conducted
          primarily to       -ize the environmental impact.  (See III.,
          ENVIRONMENTAL   UALirY IMPF.OVEMENT).

D.   NUCLEAR ENERGY

     Research to develop the engineering base, qualify materials,
     develop components and subsystems, and conduct studies to pro-
     duce energy with all types of nuclear reactors is shown here.
     Includes research to assess nuclear energy resources. Also
     includes research performed to insure orker and nuclear reactor
     safety in nuclear power plants and research to improve the
     management and disposal of radioactive materials and wastes.
     This involves research which improves the capability to determine
     the effects on workers due to radiation exposure which enables
     the formulation of threshold levels for the workplace. Also
     involves all research to prevent, control, or abate the escape
     of radioactive pollutants into the power plant itself or into
     the general environment.

     Exclude research on the effects and processes of human exposure
     to ionizing and nonionizing radiation in the general environment
     which enables radiation exposure standards for the general

                               - 10 -
environment to be set. (See III. A. 6., RADIATION for research
on radiation effects and III. B. 6., RADIATION for research on
radiation processes.)

1.   IMPROVE RESOURCE ASSESSMENT AND RECOVERY

     Research to evaluate and analyze U.S. uranium ore reserves,
     potential resources, and production capability; and research
     on the geology of uranium and thorium and on improved tech-
     niques to assess, discover, recover, and produce these
     resources is shown here. Only that work which fits this
     structure's definition of research and development is shown
     here. For example, exclude processes to produce reactor
     products, U-235, feed materials, and procurement of
     reactor products from this structure unless such material is
     used in research activities.

2.   DEVELOP LIQUID METAL FAST BREEDER
     REACTOR TECHNOLOGY

     Encompasses research to develop, demonstrate and improve
     systems, componentz, and technologies to support the estab-
     lishment of a commercially viable Liquid Metal Fast Breeder
     Reactor (LMFBR).

     Exclude research on the safety of the Liquid Metal Fast
     Breeder Reactor.  (See II. D. 7., NUCLEAR SAFETY).

3.   DEVELOP LIGHT WATER BREEDER REACTOR TECHNOLOGY

     Encompasses research to design, develop, and improve systems,
     components, and technologies necessary to develop the Light
     Water Breeder Reactor. Includes research to advance the
     design, operation and maintenance of pressurized water
     reactors and reactor plants.

     Exclude research on the safety of the Light Water Breeder
     Reactor.  (See II. D. 7., NUCLEAR SAFETY).

4.   DEVELOP ALTERNATIVE BREEDER TECHNOLOGIES

     Encompasses research to design, develop and improve systems,
     components and technologies to develop breeder reactors other
     than those mentioned previously. More specifically includes
     research to develop the Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors
     and the Molten Salt Breeder Reactors.

     Exclude research on the safety of these breeder reactors.
     (See II. D. 7., NUCLEAR SAFETY).

                        - 11 -
5.   DEVELOP GAS COOLED THERMAL REACTOR TECHNOLOGY

     Encompasses research to develop and advance the technology
     of gas cooled thermal reactors so as to achieve higher re-
     actor coolant outlet temperature, high thermal efficiency,
     and reliable operation.  Includes research to develop very
     high temperature reactors and a direct cycle program, and
     research to develop spent fuel recycling technology for the
     High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR).

     Exclude research on the safety of gas cooled thermal reactors
     and the safety of spent fuel recycling processes for the
     HTGR. (See II. D. 7., NUCLEAR SAFETY).

6.   LIGHT WATER REACTOR TECHNOLOGY

     Includes research to improve the reliability, availability,
     and capacity of Light Water Reactors (LWR). Also includes
     research to develop commercially applicable processes,
     equipment, and systems to recover and recycle plutonium
     and uranium from spent LWR fuels.

     Exclude research on the safety of LWR's and the safety of
     spent fuel recovery and recycling processes for the LWR.
     (See II. D. 7., NUCLEAR SAFETY).

7.   NUCLEAR SAFETY

     Encompasses research performed to insure worker and nuclear
     power plant (including reactor) safety and research to im-
     prove the management and disposal of radioactive materials
     and wastes. Includes research to improve the determination
     of effects on workers due to radiation exposure which enables
     the formulation of standards for the work place. Also
     includes research to prevent, control, or abate the escape
     of radioactive pollutants into the power plant itself or
     into the general environment.

     Exclude research that is conducted to set   radiation standards
     in the general environment by identifying   and measuring the
     human effects of ionizing and nonionizing   radiation and to
     understand radiation pollution processes.    (See III. A. 6.,
     RADIATION for research on effects and see   III. B. 6.,
     RADIATION for research on processes).

8.   DEVELOP FUSION POWER

     Research to develop the engineering base, qualify materials,
     develop components, and conduct engineering studies for the
     design, construction, and operation of prototype, demonstra-
     tion, and commercial fusion power reactors is shown here.


                            - I   -
            Includes research to investigate, develop and establish
                                                                     the
            feasibility of laser fusion as a basis for commercial
                                                                  power
            production. Examples of work shown here include research
            to:
              Develop and demonstrate methods to heat and contain high
              temperature plasmas; and
              Develop technology base for larger confinement systems.

E.    SOLAR ENERGY

     Research to design, develop, and prove practical, reliable,
                                                                  econom-
     ical systems to convert solar radiation into thermal and
                                                               electrical
     power is shown here. Includes research to develop and
                                                            demonstrate
     the practicality and desirability of solar heating and
                                                            cooling
     systems for buildings and facilities, to provide technology
     solar thermal energy production and solar thermal electric for
                                                                 power
     plants, and to develop photovoltaic electric power systems.

      1.   PRODUCE SOTAR THERMAL AND SOLAR
           THERMAL ELECTRICAL ENERGY

           Research developing the technology to produce thermal
                                                                  and
           thermal electric power from solar radiation is shown
                                                                 here.
           Includes research to develop solar thermal electric power
           plants s efficient, economical sources of electricity
                                                                    and
           research to evaluate solar total energy systems to produce
           both thermal and electrical energy. Also includes research
           to support the demonstration of solar heating and cooling
           systems to achieve widespread use of such systems for
                                                                  all
           purposes that are economically, socially, and environmentally
           acceptable. Examples of work shown here include research
           to:
             Analyze performance and operational data of solar heating
             and cooling systems;
             Perform feasibility determinations and system designs;
             Reduce technical and financial risk;
             Document design, construction, and operational experience;
             Prove the viability and reliability of new concepts and
             system designs;
             Develop the central receiver concept for solar thermal elec-
             tric plants;
             Develop facilities to test components and subsystems
                                                                   of solar
             thermal electric plants; and
             Evaluate solar total energy systems for urban complexes,
             rural communities, industrial parks, and Federal installations.

     2.    DEVELOP PHCOTOLTAIC ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS

           Research to develop efficient, economical photovoltaic elec-
           tric power systems is shown here. Includes research to:
             Develop low cost, practical photovoltaic arrays;


                               - 13 -
           Characterize all subsystems and components of the photo-
           voltaic electric power systems;
           Develop processes to fabricate these systems; and
           Insure continued involvement of potential users.

          Exclude research to assess the environmental impact of photo-
          voltaic systems.  (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVE-
          MENT).

F.   GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

     Encompasses research to develop and prove practical, reliable,
     technologically feasible and economical methods of producing
     electrical and thermal energy from geothermal resources. Includes
     research to explore and assess geothermal resources, to improve
     extraction and processing, to make mining materials and equip-
     ment more durable and to improve the conversion of geothermal
     resources to energy. Also includes the design, construction, and
     operation of facilities needed to test and solve problems of
     geothermal energy utilization.

     1.   IMPROVE RESOURCE ASSESSMENT

          Encompasses research to asb3ss geothermal resources in terms
          of quantity, quality, distribution, and recoverability.

     2.   IMPROVE EXTRACTION AND PROCESSING

          Encompasses research to improve the extraction and processing
          of geothermal energy resources. Includes research into drilling
          technology, reservoir engineering and management, and extrac-
          tion technology. Includes research to design, construct,
          and operate facilities needed to test these geothermal
          resource production systems. More specifically includes
          research to:
            Develop high temperature drill bits, downhole replaceable
            bits, explosive and spark drilling, and water jet drilling;
            Define expected life of a reservoir;
            Develop models of two-phase flow in geothermal reservoirs;
            Determine chemical reactions in a producing reservoir;
            Improve downhole temperature logging tools; and
            Develop downhole pumps and alternatives to pumping.

     3.   CONVERT GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES TO THERMAL
          AND ELECTRICAL ENERGY

          Encompasses research to develop, test, and evaluate systems
          and components for generating electric power and for other
          purposes such as space heating and cooling with geothermal
          resources. Work to design, construct and operate facilities
          to test and demonstrate these systems and components is
          shown here. Includes research on such power conversion

                              - 14 -
        systems as the single and multiple stage flash, organic
        and inorganic binary cycles, hybrid cycles, and total flow
        devices such as the impulse turbine and the helical screw
        expander.

G. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY RESOURCES

    1. CONVERT WIND ENERGY TO ELECTRICITY

        Research to develop efficient and economical methods to
        convert wind energy to electricity is shown here. Includes
        research to determine user requirements, wind potential,
        and cost and system performance.

    2. IMPROVE FUEL GENERATION FROM BIOCONVERSION

        Research to establish the commercial applicability of pro-
        ducing plant biomass and converting this biomass (and other
        wastes) to liquid, gaseous, and solid fuels as iell as
        thermal and electrical energy is shown here. Includes re-
        search to improve large-scale plant biomass conversions, to
        improve waste organic matter utilization such as urban solid
        wastes, and develop large-scale terrestrial and marine energy
        farming systems.

   3.   IMPROVE OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION

        Develop and demonstrate large-scale floating power plants
        to convert ocean thermal energy into electricity. Includes
        research to establish design and criteria for components and
        subsystems, examine economic feasibility of various ocean
        thermal concepts, and explore energy conversion and delivery
        systems.

   4. OTHER (Must Be Specified and Described)

        Research which cannot be shown under the former three objectives
        of ALTERNATIVE ENERGY RESOURCES is shown here. Each research
        project shown here must be specified and the project's primary
        objective must be explained.

H. ENERGY CONSERVATION

   Encompasses research on methods and technologies to conserve energy
   by improving the efficiency of electricity generation, developing
   new energy storae systems, increasing energy transmission ef-
   ficiency, and by reducing end-user's energy consumption.

   1. INCREASE ELECTRICITY GENERATION EFFICIENCY

        Encompasses research to develop higher efficiency technologies
        for generating electricity, especially with coal. Includes

                            - 15 -
           research on advanced power systems such as magnetohydrodynamics,
           fuel cells, and higher temperature and pressure turbine
           systems which generate more electricity from the same amount
           of coal.

           Exclude research whose primary purpose is to lessen the en-
           vironmental impact of converting coal to energy. (See III.,
           ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT).

      2.   IMPROVE ENERGY STORAGE

           Research to develop energy storage systems for electrical
           utility application; to develop storage systems to be used
           at residential, commercial, and industrial sites; to develop
           energy storage systems for automotive propulsion systems;
           and to develop storage systems related to new energy pro-
           duction means (such as solar and geothermal) is shown here.
           Includes research in such systems as batteries, hydrogen
           storage, thermal storage, flywheels, compressed air storage,
           and magnetic energy storage.

     3.    IMPROVE ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION

           Research to develop an increased capacity in ac and dc over-
           head transmission systems, to ~e.velop underground transmis-
           sion systems capable of matching future overhead systems,
           to develop security and control systems for the generation,
           transmission and distribution of electricity, to identify
           desirable growth options, and to develop more efficient
           distribution systems is shown here.

     4.    REDUCE ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY END-USERS

           Research to reduce energy utilization by end-users is shown
           here. Includes research to cut down use in the commercial
           and reldential sectors. For example, research on energy
           conserving office buildings and more efficient home appliances
           is shown here. Also includes research to improve energy
           consumption efficiency for existing propulsion systems for
           autos, ships, and airplanes, develop more efficient heat
           engines that use fossil fuels, and to develop systems to use
           alternative fuel substitutes for crude oil fuels.

I.   ENERGI SYSTEMS STUDY AND ANALYSIS

     Research to provide an understanding of the interrelationships
     among energy supply and demand options; energy systems analysis
     and tchnological assessment; input-output analysis of the energy
     sectors; develop models to forecast impact of various energy
     research efforts; and otherwise assist in the plannin'g and
     management of energy systems is shown here.


                              - 16 -
III.   ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IPROVEMENT




                                          _
                     ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT



                                                                         PACE
A.    Identify Pollutant Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          17
      1. Air . . . . . . ......                                           18
      2. Water.....18
     3. Solid Waste. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                                         18
     4. Pesticides .             .................                       19
     5. Noise . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           19
     6. Radiation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         19
 B. Understand Pollution Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                                         20
     1. Air .       . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     20
     2. Water.         .    . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     20
     3. Solid Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          21
     4. Pesticides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         21
     5. Noise .       . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     21
     6. Radiation . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           21
C. Control and Abate Pollutants               .     .    .    .22
    1.   Air. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        22
    2. Water .....                                  ..                   22
    3. Solid Waste ..                     .........    .      . . .      23
    4. Pesticides....                                                    23
    5. Noise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                                     .   23
D. Understand, Describe, Predict and Affect
    Weather and Natural Hazards ..                . . . . . . . . . .    23
    1. Regional Environmental Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                                         24
    2. Climate and Weather Study .        . . .. . . . . . . . . . .     24
    3. Weather Modification .....                                        25
    4. Disaster and Natural Hazards Studies and Control .                25
         a. Earthquakes .       . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     25
         b, Fire....                                                     25




                                   1
III.   ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

            Encompasses research to identify pollutant effects in   order to

       establish standards for regulating them, excluding research to improve

       treatment and cure of illnesses which result from pollutants; to improve

       means of identifying and measuring pollution processes; to control and

       abate all pollutants which adversely affect air, water, land and living

       things; and to improve the ability to understand, predict and affect

       weather and natural hazards.

            Researeh shown here includes all efforts conducted primarily to

       protect or improve environmental quality.   Therefore, research to re-

       move sulfur from coal before it is converted to electricity, and    here-

       by reduce sulfur dioxide emissions, would be shown here as would work

       to reduce emissions from automobiles or airplanes.

           I..   IDENTIFY POLLUTANT EFFECTS

                 Encompasses research to determine the ecological, social, and
                 health effects of environmental pollutants on man, animals
                 (including marine animals), inorganic materials, and plants
                 (including marine plant life) and research tc determine the
                 exposure levels at which these pollutants and their effects
                 become dangerous to the various elements of the environment.
                 Research in this category is general]; directed toward isola-
                 ting pollutants which cause adverse effects, in order to
                 establish standards or tolerance levels for regulatory pur-
                 poses. Furthermore, it usually precedes efforts to improve
                 technological or operational means of controlling and abating
                 pollution or otherwise meeting the above-mentioned standards
                 or tolerance levels. Research on the effects of pesticides
                 and of radiation is also shown here.

                 Exclude research on identifying and measuring pollutants which
                 is conducted to treat or cure an illness or disease that is
                 caused by a pollutant or to develop a personal preventive
                 device (see V. A., DISEASES AND INJURIES). Exclude research



                                        -17-
on understanding pollution processes or technological or
operational methods to control pollutants which are shown
elsewhere in III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT.
Exclude research on food safety thresholds and standards
(see IV., FOOD, FIBER AND OTHER AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS).
Also exclude research on occupational safety and health
and consumer product safety (see XIII. F., SAFETY).

1.   AIR

     Includes research on the effects of pollutants carried
     in the air, such as hydrocarbons. Excludes the effects
     on air from noise, pesticides and radiation and also
     excludes air pollution resulting from solid wastes (see
     the following pertinent categories in this section).
     Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to
     study epidemiological and toxicological health effects
     of air pollutants on man and animals and investigate
     long-term low-level effects of fossil fuel pollutants
     during energy conversion.

2.   WATER

     Includes research on the effects of pollutants, including
     thermal pollution, found in fresh and salt water excluding
     pesticides, radiation and pollution resulting from solid
     waste. Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to:
       Study relationship between water quality and disease;
       Study subsequent geueration effects of tritiated inges-
       tion;
       Study birth defects caused by heavy metals;
       Determine effects of asbestos on aquatic life;
       Determine methyl mercury effects on central nervous sys-
       tem of animals; and
       Assess ecosystem costs of thermal shock from power plant
       waste heat release and cooling tower blow-down.

3.   SOLID WASTE

     Includes research on the effects of solid waste handling
     and disposal. Solid waste includes, but is not limited to,
     animal wastes, crop residues, and municipal solid wastes.
     This entry specifically includes the effects _. solid
     waste handling which results in air or water pollution.
     Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to:
       Assess public health impact of toxic and athogenic
       products of solid waste, waste incineration, landfill
       and ocean dumping operations;



                      -18-
       Determine the environmental effect of coal, oil, oil
       shale, uranium and geothermal energy extraction tech-
       niques; and
       Assess environmental effects of hydrocarbon and other
       fuel transport, storage or waste releases during waste
       disposal.

4.   PESTICIDES

     Includes all research conducted to determine the adverse
     effects of pesticide use. Work to be shown here is
     exemplified by research to determine pesticidal effects
     on particular organs, metabolic reactions, reproduction
     and behavioral responses and on freshwater and saltwater
     life.

     Exclude research to improve treatment for a health problem
     caused by pesticide use (see V., HEALTH) and research on
     food safety that relates to pesticides (see IV. E., IMPROVE
     SAFETY).

5.   NOISE

     Includes all research conducted to determine the effects
     of noise on man, plants and animals. Work to be shown here
     is exemplified by research to improve health effects data
     for noise emissions standards and determine the effect of
     noise on man's ability to concentrate on a task.

     Research to determine the effects of aircraft noise should
     be reported both as a separate item and as a part of the
     total for this entry.

6.   RADIATION

     Includes research conducted to determine the effects of
     exposure to radiation in the general environment from
     any source. More specifically, this includes work to:
       Measure health effects of ionizing and nonionizing
       radiation exposure;
       Investigate long-term low-level effects of radioactive
       pollutants; and
       Assess environmental effects of radionuclide transport,
       storage and waste disposal.



                       -19-
          Exclude research on effects from radiation exposure
          within nuclear power plants (see II. D. 7., NUCLEAR
          SAFETY).

B.   UNDERSTAND POLLUTION PROCESSES

     Encompasses research to improve the understanding of pollution
     processes such as transportation and dispersion and to improve
     the means of identifying, measuring and sampling pollutants.
     Pollutants resulting from energy conversion and transportation
     sources are specifically included where appropriate in this
     entry. This research is an important step leading to the con-
     trol or abatement of pollution at its source.

     1.   AIR

          Includes research to study air pollution processes like
          dispersion and improve sampling or analytical methods and
          technology to measure and identify air pollutants. The
          following work exemplifies research to be shown here:
            Identify combustion products of fuels, fuel additives and
            catalytic reactor emissions;
            Standardize air measurement technologies;
            Study chemical and physical processes of atmospheric
            pollutants;
            Measure and predict dispersion and transportation of air
            pollutants from fossil energy production; and
            Characterize and identify emissions (SO, NO, hydrocarbons)
            from extraction and conversion processes.

          Exclude research related to air pollution processes of and to
          means of identifying, measuring and sampling solid waste,
          pesticide, noise, and radiation pollution. (See below in
          this entry.)

     2.   WATER

          Includes research on the movement, transformation and fate of
          water pollutants and research to improve the sampling,
          analytical methods and instrumentation measuring water
          quality and effluents. Pollutants which result from energy
          conversion and transportation sources and which adversely
          affect water are included here. The following work ex-
          emplifies research to be shown here:
            Improve measurement and tracing of ocean dumping of
            pollutants;
            Analyze, predict and assess sources and magnitude of water
            pollution such as mining and agriculture; and
            Assess groundwater pollution.



                            -20-
     Exclude research related to pollution processes of and
     identifying, measuring and sampling solid waste, pesticides
     and radiation pollution. (See below in this entry.)

3.   SOLID WASTE

     Includes research to study pollution processes related to
     solid wastes and to improve the means of identifying and
     measuring toxic and pathogenic products of solid waste
     incineration, landfilling and recycling operations. The
     following work exemplifies the research to be shown here:
       Increase understanding of soil transport mechanisms;
       Determine the fate of heavy metals and other hazardous
       materials from sludge; and
       Improve the means of tracing toxic and pathogenic pro-
       ducts of solid waste.

4.   PESTICIDES

     Includes research to improve methods of identifying and
     measuring exposure to pesticides and the transportation of
     pesticides through the environment. All such work on
     pesticides is shown here regardless of whether the pesticides
     utimately pollute air or water. This entry is exemplified
     by research to understand how pesticides move through soil
     and into the water supply.

5.   NOISE

     Includes research to identify major sources of noise and
     assess the state-of-the-art of noise technology. Exclude
     research to determine the effects of noise pollution or to
     reduce noise pollution (see III. A. 5., for effects re-
     search and III. C 5., for control technology).

     Research to improve means of identifying and measuring
     aircraft noise pollution and to increase understanding of
     its processes should be reported both as a separate item
     and as a part of the total for this entry.

6.   RADIATION

     Includes research to improve methods of identifying and
     measuring ionizing and nonionizing radiation that affects
     the general environment. For example, it includes research
     to improve radiation measurement and monitoring from nuclear
     power plant releases. However, exclude research to improve



                       -21-
          measuring and monitoring radiation in the work environment
          such as within a nuclear reactor and show that work in
          II. D. 7., NUCLEAR SAFETY.

C.   CONTROL AND ABATE POLLUTANTS

     Encompasses research to improve the means of preventing, con-
     trolling or abating pollution. This entry includes efforts
     to prevent pollution by treating the outputs of processes such
     as emissions or by changing the form of the inputs of a process
     such as coal cleaning processes for the purpose of reducing
     sulfur dioxide emissions.

     Exclude research to understand pollution processes; identify,
     measure or sample pollutants; or to identify pollutant effects
     (see the two subobjectives abov.).

     Exclude research to prevent or control accidents in nuclear
     power plants, especially in nuclear reactors, which would cause
     radiation to contaminate the reactor or plant area and would
     emit radiation into the general environment (see II. D. Z.,
     NUCLEAR SAFETY).

     1.   AIR

          Includes research to improve means of controlling or abating
          air pollution which results from all sources excluding pol-
          lution from solid waste, pesticides, noise and radiation.
          The following work exemplifies research to be shown here:
            Refine, purify and clean fuels;
            Develop methods for clean combustion of fuels such as
            coal gasification or liquefaction research which is con-
            ducted primarily to reduce or eliminate emissions;
            Develop fine particulate collection and control devices;
            and
            Develop propulsion systems or auxiliary pollution control
            devices which reduce emissions from means of transportation.

     2.   WATER

          Includes research to improve wastewater pollution treatment,
          control and abatement methods excluding that water pollution
          caused by solid wastes, pesticides and radiation. This
          entry focuses on efforts to protect and sustain the quality
          of water and accordingly includes efforts to control effluents
          at the source or to purify water which has already been
          polluted. The following work exemplifies research to be



                            -22-
          shown here:
            Control thermal pollution from power plants;
            Treat and control urban and industrial wastewater; and
            Remove asbestos from drinking water.

          Exclude research conducted to increase the water supply
          (see IX. E., WATER).

     3.   SOLID WASTE

          Includes research to control the toxic and pathogenic
          products of solid wastes incineration and landfilling and
          develop control techniques and technology for safe disposal
          of toxic and hazardous solid wastes. The following work
          exemplifies the research to be shown here:
            Control the toxic and pathogenic products of solid wastes.

          Exclude research to improve means of recycling materials
          in solid waste (see IX. C., MINERALS).

     4.   PESTICIDES

          Includes research to control the a verse effects of
          pesticide use by controlling the harmful agents in the
          pesticide and by minimizing certain pesticide usage through
          alternative methods of pest control.

     5.   NOISE

          Includes research to improve the technology to control or
          reduce the impact of major sources of noise. Research shown
          here pertains to all major sources of noise.

          In addition, research to reduce aircraft noise should be
          reported both as a separate item and as a part of the total
          for this entry.

D.   UNDERSTAND, DESCRIBE, PREDICT AND AFFECT WEATHER AND NATURAL
     HAZARDS

     Includes research to identify and analyze regional environmental
     problems and to encourage the development of solutions to those
     problems; to understand and modify severe and destructive
     weather and to predict natural hazards and reduce the damage
     they cause.



                            -23-
1.   REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS

     Includes research to improve means of planning and manag-
     ing regional environments with maximum environmental bene-
     fits and minimal environmental damage. This work is
     exemplified by research to define environmental problems
     unique to a geographic region and study the Arctic and
     Antarctic environmental systems.

2.   CLIMATE AND WEATHER STUDY

     Includes research to increase understanding of the natural
     processes which result in climate and weather, to improve
     means of evaluating the impacts of climate and weather,
     and to develop improved predictive techniques.

     More specifically, this research is exemplified by efforts
     to:
       Improve fundamental understanding of weather and climatic
       conditions;
       Develop inrc    ed knowledge concerning the natural
       hazards of ext. me wind (such as hurricanes or tornadoes),
       floods, hail, and lightning;
       Delineate the extent and mechanisms of metropolitan area
       weather changes;
        Improve long-term weather prediction;
        Improve measurement of atmospheric vertical temperature
       and moisture profiles;
        Improve the means of collecting global weather data;
        Study global data on atmospheric circulation models;
       Gather data on chemical constituents and meteorological
        parameters of upper atmosphere; and
        Conduct studies on precipitation processes, turbulence,
        diffusion and atmospheric surface interactions which will
        improve means of understanding, observing, describing,
        or predicting weather and climatic conditions.

     Weather and climatic condition research generally applies
     to many objectives in the overall structure; however, all
     weather research, excluding that on weather modification
     (see the following entry), will be shown in this category.

     Excludes that research which is conducted to resist weather
     problems or threats such as making crops or aircraft more
     resistant to hail storms or other severe weather (see IV.
     B. 1., IMPROVE CROP PRODUCTION FOR FOOD, or XII. A., AIR
     TRANSPORTATION).



                        -24-
     Also excludes research to study the effects of pollutants
     on the weather and atmosphere, such as resultant temperature
     changes (see III. A., IDENTIFY POLLUTANT EFFECTS.).

3.   WEATHER MODIFICATION

     Includes research co improve methods of modifying or alter-
     ing weather and climatic conditions to mitigate the un-
     desirable effects of weather or to increase its desirable
     effects. Also includes research to identify and correct
     unanticipated or inadvertent effects of weather modifica-
     tion, as well. as studies of the social and economic effects
     of these changes in the natural environment.

     Excludes research on weather modifications which have
     exclusive applications as destructive forces in support of
     military objectives (see VIII. D. 8., DEFENSEWIDE APPLI-
     CATIONS/WEATHER MODIFICATION).

4.   DISASTERS AND NATURAL HAZARDS STUDIES AND CONTROL

     Includes research to imnrove understanding of and to develop
     improved methods for evaluating and understanding fires and
     earthquakes and methods for reducing resulting losses in
     life and property. Also incl es research on the social
     impact of natural hazards and disasters.

     Excludes research on improved or new methods of weather
     modification (see WEATHER MODIFICATION above).

     Also excludes research on the fundamental process which
     resultsin  weither and climatic conditions and improved
     ways of predicting and measuring these changes (see
     CLIMATE AND WEATHER STUDY above).

     a.   EARTHQUAKES

          Includes, but is not limited to, research to improve
          earthquake prediction capability, research to improve
          design and construction methods for earthquake resistant
          structures, and research on better ways of integrating
          seismic risk information with land use policies.

     b.   FIRE

          Includes, but is not limited to, research on fires
          which occur naturally, primarily forest fires and range
          fires, in order to improve the means of measuring and
          controlling them.



                        -25-
IV.   FOOD, FIBER AND OTHER AGRI-
        CULTURAL PRODUCTS
               FOOD, FIBER AND OTHER AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS


                                                                    PAGE

A.   Identify and Develop New or Underdeveloped . . . . . . . . .
     Food and Feed Sources. . .   .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     27
B.   Improve Production . . . . . . . . . .. ..       ..
                                                       . . . . .     27
     1. Improve Crop Production for Food . . . . . . . . .    ..     27
     2. Improve Animal Production for Food . . . . . . . . . . .     28
     3. Improve Production of Marine Food Sources. .      . . ..     29
     4. Improve Production of Non-Food Items . . . . . . .    ..     29
     5. Improve Use of Land, Water, Fertilization,
         Equipment and Methods. . . .   . . . . . . . . . .. . .    29
C.   Improve Storage and Processing . .. . . . . . . . . .    ..    30
     1. Improve Storage and Processing of Food Products . . . .     30
     2. Improve Storage and Processing of Non-Food Products. ..     31
D.   Improve Distribution and Marketing .    .    . . . . . . . .   _1
     1. Improve Distribution and Marketing of Food Products.   .    32
     2. Improve Distribution and Marketing of Non-Food Products.    32
     3. Improve Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . ...   . . .    32
E.   Improve Safety.   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    33




                                     I
IV.   FOOD. FIBER AND OTHER AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

           This objective encompasses research primarily directed toward

      identifying and developing new and underdeveloped food sources;

      improving the productivity of existing food sources, including ef-

      forts to improve breeding, feeding, managing and protecting these

      sources; improving the productivity of non-food agricultural pro-

      ducts; improving the processing, marketing and distribution of

      food and non-food products; and reducing the hazards of food and

      non-food agricultural products to man.

           Research which is primarily directed toward improving the

      productivity, utilization and preservation of non-food producing

      trees is excluded from this objective (See IX. A., FORESTS).

      Also, research conducted primarily to determine the adverse effects

      of pesticide use, to improve methods of identifying and measuring

      exposure to pesticides and the transportation of pesticides through

      the environment, and to control the adverse effects of pesticide

      use is excluded (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT).

      Research directed toward the treatment and nature of nutritional

      diseases and the general understanding of nutrition and its effect

      on human health and well-being is excluded (See V. A. 19.,

      NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS).   Research to isolate pollutants which

      cause adverse effects upon livestock, crops and plants in order to

      establish standards or tolerance levels for regulatory purposes is

      excluded (See III. A., IDENTIFY POLLUTANT EFFECTS).   Research to




                                   -26-
improve the understanding of pollutiol processes such as trans-

rortation and dispersion, including improving the means of       dent-

ifying, measuring and sampling pollutants is excluded (See III. B.,

UNDERSTAND POLLUTION PROCESS).      Research   to increase the knowledge

and understanding of climate and weather; to improve means of eval-

iating the impacts of climate and weather; and to improve predictive

and measurement systems and tools and techniques to perform weether

modification is excluded (See III. D. 2., CLIMATE AND WEATHER STUDY;

and III. D. 3., WEATHER MODIFICATION).

A.   IDENTIFY AND DEVELOP NEW OR UNDERDEVELOPED
     FOOD AND FEED SOURCES

     This encompasses all research primarily directed toward ident-
     ifying new and developing previously underdeveloped sources
     of food for humans including research into the use of oilseeds
     as sources of food; the use of waste foodstuffs such as carrot
     tops, pea and potato vines, and plant vines as food sources;
     the development of improved methods of processing vegetable and
     non-animal protein into edible foods and feeds; improved methods
     for processing, distributing and marketing new food products
     or food products which are now underutilized; and identifying
     new food from marine sources.

B. IMPROVE PRODUCTION

     Encompasses all research directed toward increasing the pro-
     duction of food and non-food products whether agricultural,
     livestock or marine. This includes, but is not limited to,
     research toward improving breeding, feeding, livestock manage-
     ment, crop management, disease and pest control; improving
     nutritional quality; developing new varieties of crops; and
     developing improved feeds, forages, fertilizers, and fertili-
     zation and irrigation practices.

     1. IMPROVE CROP PRODUCTION FOR FOOD

         Encompasses all research primarily directed toward increasing


                             -27-
      the production and quality of crops such as food cereals,
     grains, fruits, vegetables, edible nuts, sugar crops as
     well as the honey production of bees and existing oilseed
     food sources. This includes, but is not limited to, re-
     search to develop new crop varieties; improve the nutritional
     value and palatability of crops; make crops more weather,
     disease, pollution and insect resistant; improve methods of
     fertilization, including new and improved fertilizers;
     improve various types and uses of pesticides; develop new
     and improved methods of weed and disease control; improve
     the understanding of microbiotics, physiology and genetics
     of food cereals and grains; develop hybrids; improve ir-
     rigation aia water management practices as they apply to
     food crops; improve crop and land management; improve
     equipment, technology and methodology for planting, main-
     taining and harvesting crops; increase the photosynthetic
     efficiency of plants to increase yield; improve pollination;
     and develop crop varieties which are adaptable to mechanized
     processing. Research to increase the production and quality
     of grain sorghums as food is included here.

     Excludes research into feed cereals and grains (See IV. 2.,
     IMPROVE ANIMAL PRODUCTION FOR FOOD below).

2.   IMPROVE ANIMAL PRODUCTION FOR FOOD

     Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving
     production and quality of beer cattle, swine, lambs, poultry
     (including eggs), dairy cattle and milk. This includes,
     but is not limited to, research to improve breeding methods,
     including reproductive efficiency and cross breeding; im-
     prove managing herds and flocks; control disease, parasites
     and insects; improve animal resistance to disease, pollution
     and natural hazards; improve means to control predators
     and protect livestock and poultry from predators; increase
     the understanding of nutritional needs of livestock, dairy
     cattle and poultry; increase understanding of factors con-
     trolling protein synthesis and the production of more meat
     and less fat; increase understanding of fat metabolism,
     physiology and genetics of livestock, dairy cattle and poultry;
     improve the quality and wholesomenesb of meat; and improve
     dairy management. TlLs category also includes research co
     increase yields and forage quality from pastures, forages
     and ranges; improve the use of soil and water resources
     in forage production; increase the resistance of forages
     to pests, weather, disease and weeds; improve methods to


                         -28-
     control pest, weed and disease; improve pasture and range
     management; improve feeds and feeding practices; and
     improve the production and quality of livestock, dairy
     cattle and poultry feed.

     Exclude research into new or underdeveloped feed sources
     such as industrial and agricultural waste (See IDENTIFY AND
     DEVELOP NEW OF, UNDERDEVELOPED FOOD AND FEED SOURCES, above).

3.   IMPROVE PRODUCTION OF MARINE FOOD SOURCES

     Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving the
     production and quality of fresh and salt water fish, shell-
     fish and edible vegetation. This includes, but is not limited
     to, research into breeding, including hatcheries and fish-
     eries; harvesting practices and regulation; developing new
     varieties; and improving the nutritional value of fish,
     shellfish and vegetation.

     Exclude research into the use of fish, shellfish and veg-
     etation as feeds and for fertilizer which should be shown
     in IMPROVE ANIMAL PRODUCTION FOR FOOD and IMPROVE CROP PRO-
     DUCTION FOR FOOD. Also exclude research into the sport and
     recreational aspects of marine life (See IX. F., WILDLIFE).

4.   IMPROVE PRODUCTION OF NON-FOOD ITEMS

     Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving
     the production and processing of non-food agricultural pro-
     ducts. This includes, but is not limited to, research into
     cotton, flax, ornamental plants, flowers, turf, shrubs,
     decorative trees and tobacco. Research into the uses of
     such products, for example, cottonseeds, as feeds or fertil-
     izers is excluded and should be shown in IMPROVE ANIMAL PRO-
     DUCTION FOR FOOD and IMPROVE CROP PRODUCTION FOR FOOD above.
     Also, research to improve the means and methods of increasing
     the production of forest resources and products other than
     fruit and edible-nut-producing trees is excluded (See IX. A.,
     FORESTS).

5.   IMPROVE USE OF LAND, WATER, FERTILIZATION,
     EQUIPMENT AND METHODS

     Encompasses research on land, water, fertilization, equip-
     ment and methods that are specifically directed toward pro-
     duction of food and non-food agriculture but which cannot



                         -29-
          be assigned to a specific production category in IMPROVE
          PRODUCTION.

          More specifically, this includes research which is other-
          wise unassignable to improve water management and use
          practices; improve means and methods of managing, using
          and preserving agricultural and forage lands, including
          methods for reclaiming lands for agricultural use; create
          new fertilizers-improve existing fertilizers and the use
          and application of fertilizers; and improve the production
          and quality of food and non-food agricultural products through
          new or improved equipment, methods and management techniques
          for planting, maintaining and harvesting crops or breeding
          and feeding livestock and poultry.

          Exclude research to improve the development, planning, use
          and conservation of fresh water which is not primarily
          directed toward improving food and non-food agricultural
          production. (See IX. E., WATER).

          Exclude research to protect and manage land which is not
          primarily directed toward improving food and non-food
          agricultural production.  (See IX. B., LAND).

C.   IMPROVE STORAGE AND PROCESSING

     Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving the
     methods for storing food and non-food items both prior to and
     after processing, toward improving the transportation of food
     and non-food items from the producer to processing and from
     processing to marketing, and toward improving the processing
     of livestock, sea and raw agricultural products into consumable
     products.

     1.   IMPROVE STORAGE AND PROCESSING OF FOOD PRODUCTS

          Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving the
          methods for storing food products or inputs to food processing
          prior to and after processing, but prior to transfer to
          the marketing and distribution system; improving the trans-
          porting of food productsfrom the producer to the processor
          and from the processor to the distributor; and the processing
          of livestock, sea products and raw agricultrual crops into
          consumable food products. This includes, but is not limited
          to, research into methods for maintaining quality during
          transportation, storage and processing; methods for eliminating



                             -30-
             livestock and poultry death losses during transportation;
            size, number and location of storage facilities;
                                                              improved
            methods for hancling farm output; methods
                                                       for reducing or
            preventing insect damage during storage; methods
                                                              for using
            or disposing of waste products from food processing;
                                                                  ways
            of reducing condemnation losses of livestock
                                                          and poultry
            during slaughter; improved methods of packing;
                                                            and improved
            processing equipment and technology.

           Exclude research primarily directed toward
                                                       reducing or pre-
           venting the transfer of agents harmful to
                                                      man through food
           (See IMPROVE SAFETY, below).

           Exclude research directed toward the improvement
                                                            of trans-
           portation systems, vehicles and safety (See
                                                       XII., TRANS-
           PORTATION). Exclude research directed toward
                                                         pollution
           abatement.  (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT).

      2.   IMPROVE STORAGE AND PROCESSING OF NON-FOOD
                                                      PRODUCTS
           Encompasses research primarily directed toward
                                                           improving
           the methods for storing non-food agricultural,
                                                           sea products
           and non-food livestock, sea and agricultural
                                                        by-products
           (including feeds) prior to and after processing;
                                                             improving
           the transportation of non-food products from
                                                        producer to
           processor and from processor to distributor;
                                                        and improving
           the processing of agricultural and sea products,
                                                             and live-
           stock, sea and agricultural by-products into
                                                        usable non-
           food products.

           Exclude research primarily directed toward
                                                      reducing or pre-
           venting the hazards to man of non-food products
                                                           (See IMPROVE
           SAFETY, below). Exclude research primarily
                                                       directed toward
           the improvement of transportation systems,
                                                      vehicles and
           safety (See XII., TRANSPORTATION). Exclude
                                                       research directed
           toward pollution abatement. (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL
                                                                 QUALITY
           IMPROVEMENT).

D.   IMPROVE DISTRIBUTION AND MARKETING

     Encompasses research primarily directed toward
                                                     improving the
     distribution, marketing and consumption of
                                                 food and non-food
     products, including studies of markets, consumption
                                                          patterns,
     and distribution systems. Export markets are
                                                    included in these
     studies. Exclude research primarily directed
                                                    toward improving
     the marketability of a specific item (See
                                                IMPROVE PRODUCTION,
     above).


                              -31-
1.   IMPROVE DISTRIBUTION AND MARKETING OF FOOD PRODUCTS

     Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving
      the distribution and marketing of livestock, sea and
     agricultural food products. This includes, but is not
     limited to, research to improve the understanding of the
     organization and performance of major commodity markets;
     improve the understanding of the impact of foreign policy
     and world trade on agricultural distribution; improve the
     understanding of export markets; improve the operation
     and management of commodity markets; improve merchandising
     methods and techniques; develop new or improved retailing
     systems; develop methods for reducing marketing costs;
     improve methods for efficient and equitable food distribution;
     improve methods for identifying and developing new markets
     for foods; and improve methods for increasing consumer ac-
     ceptance of new food products.

2.   IMPROVE DISTRIBUTION AND MARKETING OF NON-FOOD PRODUCTS

     Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving the
     distribution and marketing of agricultural and sea non-food
     products and non-food livestock, sea and agricultural by-
     products (these include feeds). This includes, but is not
     limited to, research into improving distribution systems;
     improving methods for identifying and developing new mar-
     kets; increasing the understanding of export markets; im-
     proving methods for reducing marketing costs; improving
     merchandizing methods and techniques; and developing new or
     improved retailing systems.

3.   IMPROVE CONSUMPTION

     Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving
     the understanding of consumer needs (nutritional and other-
     wise), consumption patterns and ways to improve consumption
     of food and non-food products. This includes, but is not
     limited to, research into improving the understanding of
     nutritional requirements, the nutritional composition and
     value of food used and needed by consumers; methods for
     improving consumption patterns to improve nutrition received
     while lowering costs; and improving the understanding of
     consumption patterns and trends.

     Exclude research primarily directed toward improving the
     treatment of nutritional disorders, understanding the



                           -32-
         nature of nutritional disorders, and the general under-
         standing of nutrition and its effect upon human health
         (See V. A. 19., NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS).

E.   IMPROVE SAFETY

     Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving the
     safety of food and non-food (developed from agricultural, sea
     or livestock sources) products to man. This includes, but is
     not limited to, research into improved methods for preventing
     the transmission of animal disease and parasites to man; im-
     proved methods for preventing pesticides from contaminating
     foods; improved methods for hazard-free processing; and improved
     methods for preventing potentially harmful products from being
     distributed.

     Exclude research primarily directed toward determining the ad-
     verse effects of pesticide use, improving methods for identifying
     and measuring exposure to pesticides, understanding the trans-
     portation processes of pesticides through the environment, and
     improving the control of the adverse effects of pesticide use
     (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT). Research into
     improving the safety of non-food products which are not derived
     from agricultural, sea or livestock sources is excluded (See
     XIII. F. 2., CONSUMER PRODUCTS SAFETY).




                            -33-
V.   HEALTH
                                    HEALTH


                                                                      PAGE
 A.    Diseases and Injuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     35
       1. The Aging Process--Diseases and Related Conditions. . .      36
       2. Arthritis and Rheumatism .   .. . . . . . . . . . . . .      37
       3. Blood Diseases and Disorders .   .. . . . . . . . . . .      38
       4. Cancer .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      38
       5. Dental Diseases and Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . .      39
       6. Diabetes and Other Endocrine Disorders .  . . . . . . .      39
       7. Digestive Diseases .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      40
       8. Environmentally-Caused Health Disorders . . . . . . . .     41
       9.   Eye and Visual System Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . .   42
      10.   Genitourinary System Disorders
            (including Kidney Disease) .     . . . . . . . . . . .    42
      11.   Heart and Vascular Diseases (including Stroke). ...       43
      12.
        Infectious and Parasitic Diseases
         (including Allergies not elsewhere classified) . . . .       44
   13. Injuries Not Related to Diseases . . . . . . . . . . .         45
   14. Lung and Respiratory Diseases and Disorders . . . . . .        46
   15. Maternal and Child Health (including Genetics
        npt elsewhere classified, Fertility Regulation
        and Mental Retardation) .         . . . . . . . . . . . .     47
   16. Metabolic Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        48
   17. Musculoskeletal System and Connective Tissue
        Disorders ...................                                 49
   18. Neurological and Communicative Disorders. . . . . .
                                                               . .    49
   19. Nutritional Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        50
   20. Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Diseases and Disorders .          51
   21. Disease and Injury Base .51
B. Mental Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                                      52
    1. Mental Illness and Behavior Disorders . . . . . . . .
                                                                 .    53
    2. Mental Health Aspects of Social Problems . . . . . . .         54
    3. Mental Health Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         55
C. Substance Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      . . . . . .     55
    1, Alcoholism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         55
    2. Drug Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                                      56
    3. Abuse of Other Substances ..                 .   . . . . .     56
D. Health Services Delivery .    .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       56
    1. Improve Quality ..                           .57
    2. Control and Reduce Cost ...............                        58
    3. Improve Accessibility . . . . . . .      . . . . .     .       5
V.   HEALTH

             Includes research to reduce the incidence and adverse human health

     effects of diseases, injuries, mental illnesses, and social disorders;

     and encompasses ail research for which the primary purpose is the main-

     tenance of human health.

             The health objective is divided into four components, each of which

     is further divided into more specific subcomponents.      The four major

     elements are:

             --Diseases and Injuries,

             --Mental Health,

             --Substance Abuse, and

             --Health Services Delivery.

             The arrangement of these components is indicative of the logic to

     be followed in reporting research and development funding.      All health

     research should first be viewed from the standpoint of its primary pur-

     pose.     If the primary   urpose of the research is related clearly to the

     categories under Z. A.. DISEASES AND INJURIES, then it should be reported

     there.     Thus, studies of the mental and social aspects of cancer, research

     into health care or service for cancer victims, and the resources needed

     to conduct cancer research should be reported under 7. A. 4., CANCER.

     The same logic applies to those projects which cannot be placed under

     the disease and injury category.       All research relating specifically to

     mental health and associated social disorders and to substance abuse

     should be reported under the appropriate category under 7. B., MENTAL



                                           -34-
HEALTH, and   .   C., SUBSTANCE ABUSE, respectively.   Research into health

care, service and delivery which cannot be assigned to specific items

under the previous three categories should be placed under the appropriate

categories of Y. D., HEALTH SERVICES DELIVERY.

    A.   DISEASES AND INJURIES

         Encompasses the primarily physical human health problems (dis-
         eases and injuries) and related conditions or activities. Re-
         search and development objectives which are included in this
         section are exemplified by the following statements:
           Improve understanding of a specific disease's entire process
           in humans, including advancing the scientific disciplines
           necessary to facilitate that understanding;
           Improve knowledge concerning the causes and complications
           specific diseases and injuries; and
           Develop improved methods of diagnosing, treating, curing
           and preventing diseases.

         The diseases, injuries, and related conditions or activities
         listed here are defined in terms of the classifications     te
         International Classification of Diseases, Adapted (ICDA,.
         While the ICDA ws not designed specifically to categorize
         health-related research, it is a useful guide for identifying
         the diseases, injuries, and related conditions contained in
         the categories listed in this structure. It is recognized
         that there may be initial inconsistencies in attempts to
         classify health-related research according to the ICDA. There-
         fore, respondents are requested to identify and explain any
         problems that are encountered in reporting in accordance with
         this structure.

         All research to be reported under this subobjective should
         first be viewed from the standpoint of its primary purpose.
         If the primary purpose is related to one of the specific dis-
         eases or special problems, then all research funding associa-
         ted with that disease or problem should be reported under the
         corresponding line item. Examples of these specific diseases
         and special problems, which cut across body systems, include
         cancer, arthritis and rheumatism, injuries, environmentally-
         caused health disorders, maternal and child health, and aging.

         If the research cannot be attributed to one of the above cate-
         gories, it then should be classified in terms of the body system



                                 -35-
to which the research is primarily related. These body sys-
tem classifications are aggregations of diseases and related
conditions, according to generally accepted divisions of the
human anatomy. If the primary purpose of the research is so
general or multidisciplinary that it cannot be classified in
terms of either diseases or body systems, it should then be
shown under DISEASE AND INJURY BASE. Again, for any research
which cannot be classified in accordance with the structure as
presented, respondents should identify the problem and suggest
a heading (not "Other") which would accommodate that effort.

Cross-cutting research on topics such as allergies or genetics,
to the maximum extent possible, should be reported under the
disease or body system to which it primarily applies. Research
on allergies not elsewhere categorized will be shown under
INFECTIOUS AND PARASITIC DISEASES. Genetic research not attri-
butable to a specific disease or body system will be reported
under MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH PROBLEMS.

The total research effort which is conducted primarily because
of a disease, injury or other health-related problem listed
herein should be shown under the corresponding category. This
may include related mental health, social considerations and
associated health services delivery.

In addition to the ICDA codes described above, each category
under this subobjective also presents a number of "key words."
These are short descriptors or subjects of typical research
to be included in each category under this subobjective.  The
key words are not meant to be all-inclusive; rather, they are
provided to facilitate respondents' identification of the most
appropriate placement for research funding. Respondents are
also encouraged to suggest additional key words for possible
inclusion in future versions of the structure, if such words
would tend to clarify, rather than complicate, the instructions.

1.   THE AGING PROCESS--DISEASES AND RELATED CONDITIONS

     Includes research to improve understanding of the general
     process and results of aging, including senility, in terms
     of its biomedical, social and behavioral, and service
     dslivery aspects. This includes improving understanding
     of the gradual changes in the structure of any organism
     that occur with the passage of time, that do not result
     from disease or gross accidents, and that eventually
     lead to the increased probability of death as the individual
     grows older. Excludes research to investigate diseases



                        -36-
    and disorders which are generally associated with the
    aging process but which are not exclusively a result of
    aging. For example, the incidence of cancer, arterio-
    sclerosis, and arthritis and rheumatism generally are
    more prevalent at advanced age, but they also affect
    individuals of other age groups and would therefore be
    repotted under other corresponding disease groupings.

    ICDA Codes

   The specific ICDA code included is senility without
   mention of psychosis (794). This is extended toward
   any general research in the aging process.

   Key Words

   Aged                   Aging              Maturation
   Geriatrics             Elderly            Nursing Homes
   Gerontology            Senescence         Senility
2. ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM

   Includes research concerning all disorders marked by
   inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement of
   the connective tissues of the body. Excludes research
   on rheumatoid and arthritic conditions which result from
   other diseases or disorders, such as a rheumatoid con-
   dition resulting from tuberculosis. Research on these
   arthritic or rheumatoid effects will be sh, a under -ne
   disease and injury line item corresponding to t      -
   erating ccndi'- ..

   ICDA Cods

   The ICDA codes included under this category are:
     Arthritis and Rheumatism, except Rheumatic Fever (710-
     718)

   Key Words

   Arthritis             Marie-Strumpell's     Rheumatism
   Dermatomyositis         Disease             Still's Disecase
   Duplay's Syndrome     Myalgia               Spondylitis
   Felty's Syndrome      Osteoarthritis        Torticollis
   Fibrositis            Periarthritis          traumatic Arthritis
   Frozen Shoulder       Polyarthritis         von Bechterew's
   Kummell's Disease     Pyarthrosis              Disease
   Lumbago               Polymyositis          Wry Neck



                       -37-
 3.    BLOOD DISEASES AND DISORDERS

       Includes all research on diseases and
                                              disorders of the
       blood and blood-forming organs, such
                                             as anemias, hemo-
       philia, and purpura. Excludes cancers
                                               of the blood, such
       as leukemia, and heart and vascular
                                            system disorders, both
       of which are included in other categories
                                                  under . A.,
       DISEASES AD INJURIES.

       Also includes research which concerns
                                              the provision of
       adequate blood resources to contribute
                                               to human health.
       An example of such research is the development
                                                       of blood
       substitutes.

       ICDA Codes

       Diseases of the blood and blood-forming
                                               organs (280-289).
      Key Words

      Anemia                   Christmas Disease    Hypersplenism
      Blood disease            Diseases of spleen   Polyeythemia
      Blood dyscrasia          Hemophilia           Purpura
                                                    Thrombocytopenia
4.    CANCER

      Includes all research on the various
                                            cancers and non-
      malignant tumors, regardless of the body
                                                system or part
      of the body in which they are located.
      studies of the mental and social effects Also includes
                                                of cancer, the
      special problems in delivering health
                                             services to cancer
      patients, and the research resources
                                            needed for cancer
      studies. Cancer research included herein
                                                 also concerns
      the effects of the disease on other parts
                                                 of the body as
      it spreads from the original site.

      ICDA Codes

     Malignant neoplasms of specified sites
                                            (140-189);
     Malignant neoplasms of other and unspecified
                                                  sites
        (190-199);
     Benign and related neoplasms of specified
                                                nature
       (200-228); and
     Neoplasms of unspecified nature (230-239).




                        _38-
     Key Words

     Benign tumor           M-lignant tumor     Neoplastic growth
     Cancer                 Melanoma            Neoplastic tumor
     Hodgkin's disease      Myeloma             New growth
     Leukemia               Neoplasms           Sarcoma
                                                Tumor

5.   DENTAL DISEASES AND DISORDERS

     Includes all research on tooth development, tooth decay,
     diseases of the salivary glands, and other disorders
     associated with the jaw; and research and development on
     new or improved dental prosthetics. Excludes the re-
     mainder of the digestive system (beginning with the
     pharynx), which is included as a separate category under
     T. A., DISEASES AND INJURIES.

     ICDA Codes

     Diseases of Oral Cavity (520-525, 528, 529);
     Salivary Glands (527); and
     Jaws (526).

     Key Words

     Dental Abcess              Diseases of the Salivary Clands
     Dental Caries              Diseases of the Tongue
     Dental Nerve               Malocclusion
     Dental Prosthesis          Oral Surgery
     Diseases of the Gums       Peridontal and Soft Tissue Diseases
     Diseases of the Jaw        Tooth Decay

6.   DIABETES AND OTHER ENDOCRINE DISORDERS

     Includes all diseases of the thyroid, pituitary, and
     adrenal glands; diabetes; and a variety of endocrine dis-
     eases. Excludes diseases of a specifically nutritional
     cause or deficiency, such as avitaminoses, which are
     included under . A. 19., NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS. Also ex-
     cludes dysfunction of ovaries and testes, which are in-
     cluded under . A. 10., GENITOURINARY SYSTEM DISORDERS.

     Research conducted primarily to affect diabetes, in terms
     of studies of the disease itself, related mental and social
     disorders, health service delivery considerations, and
     associated research resources, should be reported both as
     a subtotal and as a part of the total for endocrine disorders.



                         -39-
ICDA Codes

Diseases of the Thyroid Gland (240-246); and
Diseases of other Endocrine Glands (250-258).

Key Words

Adrenal disease      Endocrine diseases   Pituitary disease
Cystic fibrosis      Goiter               Thymus disease
Diabetes             Obesity, endocrine   Thyroid disease

DIGESTIVE DISEASES

Includes all diseases of the pharynx, esophagus, stomach,
duodenum, appendix, abdominal cavity, intestines, peri-
toneum, liver, gallbladder and pancreas. Specifically
excludes any of the cancers associated with those organs
(see . A. 4., CANCER). Also excludes diseases of the
oral cavity, salivary glands and jaws, which are to be
included under . A. 5., DENTAL DISEASES AND DISORDERS.

ICDA Codes

Diseases of esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (530-537);
Appendicitis (540-543);
Hernia of abdominal cavity (550-553);
Other diseases cf intestine and peritoneum (560-569);
Diseases of liver, gallbladder and pancreas (570-577); and
Symptoms referable to upper and lower gastrointestinal
tract and abdomen (784-785).

This categorization specifically excludes the ICDA categories
under diseases of oral cavity, salivary glands, and jaws
(520-529).

Key Words

Anorexia                      Diseases of Intestines
Appendicitis                  Diseases of Liver
Cirrhosis of Liver            Diseases of Pancreas
Diseases of Esophagus         Diseases of Peritoneum
Diseases of Gallbladder       Dysphagia
Flatulence                    Indigestion
Heartburn                     Jaundice
Hematemesis                   Nausea
Hepatitis                     Peptic Ulcer
Hepatomegaly                  Pylorospasm




                  -40-
     Hernia of Abdominal Cavity    Stomach Diseases
     Hiccough                      Stomach Ulcers
                                   Vomiting

8.   ENVIRONMENTALLY-CAUSED HEALTH DISORDERS

     Includes research for which the priryv purpose is to
     develop a treatment or cure for environmentally-caused
     health disorders, which result from both mat-made and
     natural hazards. Examples of man-made hazards include
     air pollution, radiation exposure, poor water quality,
     and pesticides and chemicals. Two of the natural
     hazards included herein are exposure and effects of
     contact with lightning.

     Specifically excludes research to improve methods of
     identifying and measuring the effects of pollutants on
     man, research to improve understanding of pollutant pro-
     cesses, and work to improve or develop new ways of con-
     trolling and abating pollutants (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL
     QUALITY IMPROVEMENT).

     ICDA Codes

     Toxic Effect of Substances Chiefly Nonmedicinal as to
     Source (980-989);
     Effects of Radiation (990);
     Effects of Reduced Temperature and Excessive Dampness
     (991);
     Effects of Heat (992);
     Effects of Air Pressures (993); and
     Effects of Other External Causes (994):
       Drowning and Nonfatal Submersion
       Lightning
       Hunger, Thirst, Exposure, and Excessive Exertion
       Motion Sickness
       Asphyxiation and Strangulation
        Electrocution and Nonfatal Effects of Electric Current .

     The research and development identified under these codes
     is extended to treating and curing general environmental
     health problems, both natural and man-made.



                       _41-
        Key Words

        The key words included under this category
                                                   are the health
        effects of the following:

        Air Pollution            Radiation exposure
        Chemicals                Rat Control
        Noise Pollution          Solid Waste Disposal
        Pesticides               Toxic Chemicals
                                 Water hygiene

  9.    EYE AND VISUAL SYSTEM DISORDERS

        Includes all research on diseases and conditions
                                                          of the
        eye including conjunctivitis, cataracts, reflective
        errors, and diseases of the retina and optic
                                                     nerves.
        Also includes research oriented to the overall
                                                       condition
        of blindness; however, exclude blindness, as
                                                     a secondary
       effect of a particular disease such as syphilis
                                                         or diabetes
        (see . A. 12., INFECTIOUS AND PARASITIC DISEASES,
       Y. A. 6., DIABETES AND OTHER ENDOCRINE DISORDERS, and
                                                           respectively).
       ICDA Codes

       Inflammatory diseases of the eye (360-369)
                                                  and
       Other diseases and conditions of the eye (370-379).

       Key Words

       Astigmatism        Conjunctivitis       Eye inflammation
       Blindness          Corneal opacity      Glaucoma
       Cataract           Corneoplasty         Hyperopia
       Color blindness    Detached retina      Myopia
                                               Ophthalmia
10.    GENITOURINARY SYSTEM DISORDERS (INCLUDING KIDNEY
                                                        DISEASE)
       Includes research on the diseases and disorders
                                                        of the
       urinary system, male genital organs, and
                                                  the female
       genital organs, including breast and ovaries.
                                                       Specifi-
       cally excludes any cancers of the various
                                                 organs involved
       in this category and any infectious and parasitic
                                                          dis-
       eases which affect this region of the body,
                                                    such as
       venereal disease.




                          -42-
Research on kidney disease should be reported both as
a separate item and as a part of the total for this cate-
gory.

ICDA Codes

Nephritis and Nephrosis (580-584);
Other Diseases of the Urinary System (590-599);
Diseases of Male Genital Organs, (600-607);
Diseases of breast, ovary, fallopian tubes, para-
metrium, uterus, and other female genital organs
(610-629);
Symptoms referable to genltourinary system (786); and
Abnormal urinary constituents of unspecified cause (789).

Key Words

Albuminuria                    Diseases of Breast
Diseases of Bladder            Diseases of Cervix
Diseases of Fallopian tubes    Kidney Disease
Diseases of Ovary              Menopausal Symptoms
Diseases of Prostate           IEicturition
Diseases of Ureter             Nephrosis
Disorders of Menstruation      Nephritis
Glycosuria                     Priapism
Hematuria                      Renal Colic
Hemoglobinuria                 Sterility
                               Vaginismus

HEART AND VASCULAR DISEASES (INCLUDING STROKE)

Includes research on heart disease, cerebrovascular, dis-
ease (stroke), and varijus diseases of the arteries, veins,
capillaries, and lymphatic system. Specifically excludes
any cancers or other growths of organs or other body parts
within the circulatory system.

Research on stroke or cerebrovascular disease, in terms
of causes of the malady and in terms of its effects,
should be reported both as a separate line item witnin
this category and as a portion of the total for the
category.

ICDA Codes

Active rheumatic fever (390-392);
Chronic rheumatic heart disease (393-398);




                 _43-
      Hypertensive disease (400-404);
      Other forms of heart disease (410-429);
      Cerebrovascular disease (430-438);
      Other diseases of circulatory system (440-458);
      Symptoms referable to cardiovascular and lymphatic
        system (782); and
      Cardiovascular and lymphatic disorders of presumably
        psychogenic origin (305.3-305.4).

      Key Words

      Aneurysm                  Coronary disease   Hypertension
      Angina pectoris           Dropsy             Palpitation
      Arteriosclerosis          Embolism           Phlebitis
      Cardiac Arrest            Fainting           Rheumatic fever
      Cerebral hermorrhage      Gangrene           Tachycardia
      Cerebrovascular disease   Heart disease      Thrombosis
      Chorea                    Hemorrhoids        Varicose Veins

12.   INFECTIOUS AND PARASITIC DISEASES (INCLUDING ALLERGIES
      NOT ELSEWHERE CLASSIFIED)

      Includes all diseases generally recognized as communi-
      cable or transmissable, except certain acute respira-
      toty ifections, influenza, and other localized infections
      which should be reported under Z. A. 14., LUNG AND RESPIRA-
      TORY DISEASES AND DISORDERS. Among the diseases included
      in this category are tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, various
      venereal diseases, and bacterial diseases such as leprosy,
      diphtheria, tetanus, and scarlet fever.

      Research on allergies and allergic reactions, to the maximum
      extent possible, should be reported under the specific body
      system disease groupings to which they apply. Any research
      on allergies not elsewhere classifiable should be reported
      under this category.

      ICDA Codes

      Intestinal infectious diseases (000-009);
      Tuberculosis (010-019);
      Facterial diseases (020039);
      Poliomyelitis and other enterovirus diseases of central
        ne:rvous system (040-046);
      Viral diseases (050-079);
      Rickettsiosis and other arthropod-borne diseases (080-089);
      Syphilis, venereal diseases, and other spirochetal




                        -44-
       diseases (100-104); and
       Infective and parasitic diseases (110-136).

      Key Words

      Allergies (not else-       Malaria                 Scarlet fever
        where classified)        Measles                 Smallpox
      Bacterial food poisoning   Meningitis, infective   Syphilis
      Chickenpox                 Mumps                   Tetanus
      Cholera                    Mycosis                 Tuberculosis
      Cowpox                     Parasitic disease       Typhoid fever
      Diptheria                  Plague                  Typhus
      Encephalitis               Poliomyelitis           Venereal disease
      Hepatitis, infectious      Rabies                  Viral disease
      Infective disease          Rubella                 Whooping cough
      Leprosy                    Salmonella              Yellow fever
13.   INJURIES NOT RELATED TO DISEASES

       Includes research on injuries and other deleterious con-
       ditions of human health, which are not caused by diseases
       or related problems, such as fractures, sprains, lacera-
       tions, puncture wounds, trauma, and the adverse effects
                                                                of
      medical agents. Excludes certain health problems resulting
       from the impact of man-made or natural environmental
                                                            con-
      ditions, which should be reported under . A. 8., ENVIRON-
      MENTALLY-CAUSED HEALTH DISORDERS. Also excludes self-
      afflicted abuse of drugs and similar agents, which is
                                                             in-
      cluded as a separate category under . C., SUBSTANCE
                                                            ABUSE.
      Research concerning the causes of or circumstances sur-
      rounding the injuries included within this category should
      be reported under other major objectives instead of
                                                           V.,
      HEALTH. For example, research concerning the causes
                                                            of
      wounds inflicted in combat situations are specifically
      excluded from this category (see v    . C., COMBAT CAPABILITY),
      while research to improve diagnosis and treatment of such
      injuries are included herein.

      ICDA Codes

      Fractures, Dislocations, and Sprains (800-848);
      Intracranial Injuries, exclusing skull fractures (850-854);
      Internal Injuries (860-869);
      Lacerations and Open Wounds (870-907);
      Superficial Injury (910-918);
      Contusion and Crushing with Intact Skin Surface (920-929);
      Effects of Foreign Body, entering through Orifice (930-939);




                        _45-
      Burns (940-949);
      Spinal Cord and Nerve Injuries 950-959);
      Adverse Effects of Medical Agents (960-979);
      Certain Early Complications of Trauma (995);
      Complications of Surgical Procedures and Medical
        Care (997-999); and
      Other and Inspecified Injuries (996).

      The following ICDA codes are specifically excluded from
      this rcategory:
        Toxic Effects of Subs:ances Chiefl Nonmedicinal as
        to Source (980-989) ad
        Effects of R&diation (990).
      These ICDA codes are included under ENVIRONMENTALLY-
      CAUSED HEALTH DSORDERS.

      Key Words

      Accidents                   Extreme Temperature
      Adverse Effects of          Foreign Bodies
        Medical Agents            Fractures
      Burns                       Injuries
      Concussion                  Internal Injury
      Contusion                   Intracranial Injury
      Dislocations                Sprains
      Extreme Air Pressure        Strains

14.   LUNG AND RESPIRATORY DISEASES AND DISORDERS

      Includes research on diseases of the respiratory system
      including any of the acute respiratory infections such
      as influenza, pneumonia, and tonsillitis.  Specifically
      excludes any of the cancers of the various organs involved.

      ICDA Codes

      Diseases of upper respiratory tract (460-508);
      Other diseases of respiratory system (510-519);
      Symptoms referable to respiratory system (783); and
      Respiratory disorders of presumably psychogenic origin
      (305.2).

      Key Words

      Abscess of Lung    Emphysema     Pneumonia
      Asthma             Epistaxsis    Pulmonary Congestion
      Bronchitis         Hay Fever     Respiratory Infection




                        -46-
       Bronchopneumonia       Hyperventilation   Shortness of Breath
       Conmmon Cold           Influenza          Sinusitis
       Cough                  Laryngitis         Stridor
       Diseases of Lung       Pharyngitis        Tonsillitis
                              Pleurisy           Tracheitis
15.    MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH (INCLUDING GENETICS
                                                     NOT ELSE-
       WHERE CLASSIFIED, FERTILITY REGULATION, AND MENTAL
       RETARDATION)

      Includes research on all conditions of the expectant
      mother and on other causes of perinatal morbidity
                                                         and
      mortality, which is oriented towards the impact
                                                       of such
      causes or the surrounding circumstances on the
      infant. Excludes research directed towards a fetus or
                                                     specific
      disease in infant or fetus, which should be reported
      under the appropriate category for that disease.
      includes research on the complications in the      Also
                                                    mother of
      pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium which
                                                       are not
      specifically related to diseases otherwise listed
                                                         under
      HEALTH.

      Encompasses research concerning population lanning
                                                            and
      control, including research into various fertility
                                                          regula-
      ticn techniques, such as contraception and sterilization,
      and the general organization of population planning
                                                           and
      control organizations. Specifically excludes
                                                     operation-
      al aspect:;, such as program implementation or
                                                     provision
      of population planning and control services
                                                   and devices.
      Includes research into congenital anomalies
                                                   such as
      hydrocephalus, spina bifida, and other physical
                                                       abnor-
      malities, in addition to Down's Syndrome and
                                                    mongolism.
      Also includes research into developmental disorders,
      including the biomedical, social, behavioral,
                                                     and ser-
      vice delivery considerations of mental retardation.
      Research on mental retardation should be reported
                                                         both
      as a separate line item within this category
                                                    and as a
      portion of the total for the category.

      Includes all genetic research which is not oriented
      towards another specific disease or injury category.
      Excludes genetic research oriented toward a
                                                  specific
      disease or injury, which should be reported
                                                  under the
      corresponding categories in this structure.




                       -47-
      Includes all research concerning abortion, regardless
      of the purpose for which the procedure would be per-
      formed.

      ICDA Codes

      Complications of Pregnancy (630-634);
      Urinary infections and toxemias of pregnancy and the
        Puerperium (635-639);
      Abortion (640-645);
      Complications of the Puerperium (670-678);
      Congential Anomalies (740-759);
      Genetic Research not Otherwise Classified; and
      Certain causes of perinatal morbidity and mortal-
        ity (760-779).

      No ICDA codes are specifically oriented towards popu-
      lation planning and control.

      Key Words

      Abortion                           Hemolytic Disease of Newborn
      Anemia of Pregnancy                Hydrocephalus
      Anencephalus                       Intrauterine Devices
      Birth Injury                       Labor, Difficult
      Childbirth                         Labor, False
      Cleft Lip                          Lactation
      Cleft Palate                       Mental Retardation
      Club Foot                          Mongolism
      Congenital Anomaly                 Population Planning and
      Contraception                        Control
      Death in Utero                     Pregnancy, Complications of
      Delivery                           Pregnancy, Ectopic
      Down's Syndrome                    Premature Birth
      Eclampsia                          Puerperiunm, Complications of
      Family Planning                      the
       Fertility Regulation              Spina Bifida
       Fetal Death                       Sterilization
      Genetics (not elsewhere            Still-Birth
         classified)                     Toxemia
                                         Vasectomy

16.    METABOLIC DISORDERS

       Includes research on ali disorders of both anabolic and
       catabolic processes. Specifically excludes research
       whose primary purpose is n the area of nutritional dis-
       erders, a separate category in this structure. Also



                         _48-
      excludes all research specifically attributable to the
      endocrine disorders objective.

      ICDA Codes

      Other Metabolic Diseases (270-279)

      Key Words

      Amino Acids                 Gout
      Cystic Fibrosis             Metabolism
      Gargoylism                  Metabolic Disorders

17.   MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORDERS

      Includes research on diseases associated with the musculo-
      skeletal system and connective tissues of the human body,
      such as osteomyelitis, bunion, and periostosis.  Excludes
      arthritis and rheumatism, which constitute another disease
      category within this structure.

      ICDA Codes

      Osteomyelitis and other diseases of bone & joint (720-729);
      Other diseases of musculoskeletal system (730-738);
      Symptoms referable to limbs and joints (787); and
      Musculoskeletal disorders of presumably psychogenic
      origin (305.1).

      Key Words

      Arthralgia                   Diseases of Joints
      Bone deformaties             Diseases of Muscle
      Bunion                       Diseases of Tendons
      Cramp                        Osteomyelitis
      Curvature of Spine           Periostosls
      Disease of Connective        Prosthetic Devices for functions
        Tissues                      of bones and joints

18.   NEUROLOGICAL AND COMMUNICATIVE DISORDERS

      Includes the nflammatory diseases of the central nervous
      system, various hereditary nervous system diseases, and
      other such diseases including multiple sclercss and
      epilepsy. Also includes all research on communicative
      disorders and on diseases of the ear and the mastoid,
      including deafness, and mastoiditis.  Specifically



                        -49-
      excludes diseases of the nervous system which are basically
      infective and parasitic in nature such as infective
      meningitis or encephalitis (see . A. 12., INFECTIOUS AND
      PARASITIC DISEASES).

      ICDA Codes

      Inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (320-324);
      Hereditary and familial diseases of the nervous system
        (330-333);
      Other diseases of the central nervous system (340-349);
      Diseases of nerves and peripheral ganglia (350-358);
      Diseases of the ear and mastoid process (380-389); and
      Symptoms referable to nervous system and special senses
        (780-781).

      It specifically excludes those portions of Category I
      of the ICDA that refer to disorders of the eye and visual
      systFm (see I. A. 9., EYE AND VISUAL SYSTEM DISORDERS).

      Key Words

      Amnesia                        Mastoiditis
      Ataxia, Hereditary             Migraine
      Auditory vertigo               Multiple Sclerosis
      Central Nervous System,        Muscular Dystruphy
        Diseases of the              Myotonia Atrophica
      Cerebral spastic               Neuralgia
      Coma                           Neuritis
      Convulsions                    Oculomotor Disturbance
      Deaf mut.sm                    Otitis Externa
      Deafness                       Paralysis
      Ear, Inflanmmation of the      Paralysis, Facial
      Encephalopathy                 Paralysis, Infantile
      Eustachian Tube, Disease of    Parkinson's Syndrome
      Hallucinations                 Photophobia
      Hearing Impairment             Sciatica
                                     Tympanum, Disease of
                                     Vertigo

19.   NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS

      Includes all research oriented towards the treatment and
      nature of nutritional diseases and the general understand-
      ing of nutrition and its effect on human health and well
      being. Excludes diseases of the oral cavity (see K. A. 5.,
      DENTAL DISEASES AND DISORDERS) and digestive disorders (see
      V. A. 7., DIGESTIVE DISEASES).



                       -50-
       ICDA Codes

       Avitaminosis and Other Nutritional Deficiencies
                                                       (260-269).
       Key Words

      Avitaminosis                   Nutrition
      Dietary Research               Scurvy
      Malnrutrition                  Vitamin Deficiency
      Mirasmus

20.    SKIN AND SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE DIS   .SES AND DISORDERS

      Includes all infections and inflammatory conditions
                                                           of
      the skin and subcutaneous tissue including any
                                                     aller-
      genic reactions.  Specifically excludes all research
      oriented toward the environmental impact of various
                                                           sub-
      stances or natural hazards on skin tissues, which
                                                        should
      be reported under . A. 8., ENVIRONMENTALLY-CAUSED
      DISORDERS. Also excludes research on skin tissues HEALTH
                                                          associ-
      ated with roblems of the mother and fetus during
                                                        pre-
      gnanc' and childbirth (see . A. 15., MATERNAL
                                                     AND CHILD
      HEALTH).

      ICDA Codes

      Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (680-709)
                                                             and
      Skin disorders of presumably psychogenic origin
                                                      (305.0).
      Key Words

      Acne           Dermatitis            Pruritus
      Boils          Diseases of Hair      Psoriasis
      Carbuncle      Diseases of Nails     Seborrhea
      Cellulitis     Eczema                Skin Ulcer
      Corns          Impetigo              Sunburn

21.   DISEASE AND INJURY BASE

      To the maximum extent prcticable, disease and injury
      research should be classified under the dise ,e,
                                                       injury
      or related condition which it primarily addresses.
                                                          If
      it does not apply to one of the above specific
                                                     categories
      or is too multi-directional to be shown above,
                                                     but is pri-
      marily disease and injury research, it should be
                                                       reported
      under this category.




                         -51-
        Exclude biology research which is not conducted primarily
        to understand or resolve problems of human diseases, in-
        juries and other health conditions (see X. C., BIOLOGY).

         ICDA Codes

        With the exception of ICDA ode 794 (Senility), which is
        included under o. A. 1., THE AGING PROCESS, any health-
        related problem that would otherwise be included under
        ICDA codes 790-796 (111-Defired Diseases) should be con-
        sidered part of this grouping.

         Codes 780-789 (Symptoms Referable to Systems or Organs)
         are excluded from tb4 s category and should be allocated to
         the specific disease or injury categories to whirh they
         apply.

         Kev Words

         Key words generally do not apply Lo DISEASE AND INJURY
         BASE, which is characterized by multi-directional health
         research.

B.   MENTAL HEALTH

     Includes human mental disorders and diseases and related social
     and behavioral problems. Research included herein will have
     the following objectives: improve understanding of the causes
     and complications of mental disorders and diseases and related
     social problems; and develop improved methods of diagnosing,
     treating, curing, and preventing mental diseases and disorders.

     This subobjective also includes research conducted primarily
     to increase our understanding of problem behavior which could
     result in or involves financial or physical harm or threats of
     harm gainst others or the commiss'on of statute-defined
     crime , and more specifically, includes studies of the individual
     behavior which may underlie the commission of a crime. Also
     included are multi-directional or cross-cutting studies of
     mental problems and related social disorders.

     Exclude research on the development and improvement of methods
     to deter, prevent, or control crime (see GP., LAW ENFORCEMENT
     AN4D JUSTICE). Also exclude general psvc!ological or behavioral
     research (See X. M., PSYCHOLOGY or .X, P., C)C'AL SCIENCES,
     respectively).




                           -52-
.    MENTAL ILLNESS AND BEHAVIOR DISORDERS

      This work focuses on individual behavior and mental
                                                           pro-
      blems.  It involves the diagnosis, description, etiology,
      treatment and preven .on of mental and psychiatric
                                                          pro-
     blems and the delivery of services to the mentally
                                                          ill.
     These problems include mental, psychiatric, psychological,
     and behavioral disorders, and biological and psychosocial
     mechanisms related to them, irrespective of research
                                                            sub-
     ject. Such disorders include organic brain syndromes,
     particularly those associated with chronic or functional
     psychoses, depression, schizophrenia, suicide, neuroses,
     psychosomatic and psychophysiological disorders and
     character and personality disorders. Also included
                                                           are
     major facets of psychopathology: anxiety, stress
                                                        re-
     actions, impulsive violence, hostility, and reactions
                                                             to
     interpersonal adjustment and coping problems.

    Explorations of related biological and psychosocial
    mechanisms include studies of both abnormal and normal
    functioning, in which the primary purpose is to delineate
    the relationships of such functioning to abnormal be-
    havior, or to develop normal baseline data.

     Also included are therapeutic interventions such
                                                       as
     psychopharmacology, sychotherapy, behavioral interven-
     tion, nd other forms of psychosocial treatment. Psycho-
     pharmacological studies cover such areas as the predic-
     tion of the individual's response to therapeutic drug
     treatment, the influence of patient or other cha.acteris-
     tics on this response, the development of better
                                                        sycho.
     tropic drugs, the development of improved drug screening
     methods, and improvement of our understanding of
                                                       the
     mechanisms of pyschoactive drug actions on a physiological,
     biochemical, pharmacological, gnetic, toxicologic,
                                                           or
     behavioral level. (This excludes research directed
                                                           pri-
    marily toward understanding, diagnosing, treating,
                                                         curing
    and preventing drug at    , which is included in this
     structure under SubstanLP Abuse.) Psychotherapy
                                                      includes
    developing and refining psychological treatment
                                                      examin-
    ing the patient-clinician interactions, and assessing
    treatment outcome. Behavioral intervention encompasses
    primarily studies of non-surgical behavior modification,
    learning and training in problem situations, and
                                                      bio-
    feedback methods such as the evelopment of individual
    self-control of hypertension. Other psychosocial
                                                        treat-
    ments include group therapy, milieu therapy, mental




                     -53-
     health crisis intervention, comr.unity programs for the
     mentally ill, and rehabilitation programs.

     Also included are studies of mental health service de-
     livery approaches. Included are studies of the organiza-
     tion, functioning and effectiveness of community mental
     health centers, the use of paraprofessionals n the de-
     livery of mental health services, the financing of mental
     health services, the developme:nt and evaluation of special
     approaches such as mental heal,:h crisis intervention,
     and partial hospitalization programs.

     Exclude mental disorders associated with the aging pro-
     cess (see r. A. 1. THE AGING PROCESS).

     Exclude studies of mental retardation (see Y. A. 15.,
     MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH).

     Exclude research directed primarily toward understanding,
     diagnosing, treating, curing and preventing the abuse of
     substances, including drugs and alcohol (see X. C.,
     SUBSTANCE ABUSE).

2.   MENTAL HEALTH ASPECTS OF SOCIAL   ROBLEMS

     Includes research on the effects of social problems,
     processes, and conditions beyond the contrcl of the
     individual which impact on mental illnesses. Research
     in this area will focus on the contribution of these
     factors to individual mental disorders and diseases.
     Such .-cial problems and conditions include individual
     virl.,t behavior, antisocial behavior, sex-role develop-
     ment, minority group membership and ethnicity, institu-
     tional racism, urban problems including the impact of
     urban institutions ad social structures on mental
     health, work ana unemployment, technological change,
     and social and physical environments.

     Examples of research topics included herein are the
     relation between mental problems and criminal, delinquent,
     and other deviant behavior; and law and mental health
     interactions, such as the issues of pretrial competency,
     exculpatory insanity, and the right to treatment.

     Exclude research on deterrents to criminal acts, such
     as the development or improvement o crowd control




                       -54-
          techniques and statistical studies of the incidence and
          patterns of crime (see PV1n., LAW ENFORCEMENT AND JUSTICE).
          Also exclude studies of the contribution of substance
          abuse to social problems (see . C., SUBSTANCE ABUSE).

     3.   MENTAL HEALTH BASE

          Mental health research should be placed under the above
          two categories, as much as possible. If the primary
          objectives of any given research effort does not apply
          to the first two categories or is multi-directional in
          terms of research objectives, but is primarily mental
          health research, it should be reported under this
          category.

          Exclude research which addresses fundamental psyLnolog-
          ical or social functioning, but is not directly related
          to mental problems (see . M., PSYCHOLOGY or X. P.,
          SOCIAL SCIENCES)    .

C.   SUBSTANCE ABUSE

     Includes research on all aspects of the problems associated
     with abuse of drugs, alcohol, and other substances, such as
     compounds containing aspirin, nicotine, or caffeine. Abuse
     herein refers to the misapplication, misuse, use for a wrong
     purpose or end, or excessive use of the above substances,
     including the u   of medicinal agents for non-medicinal
     purposes.

     Objectives commoul to substance abuse research efforts typi-
     cally include the following:   improve understanding of the
     chemistry of abused substances and the biochemical reactions
     of individuals to these substances; investigate psychological
     and epidemiological factors influencing substance abuse; and
     develop improved method' for diagnosing, treating, curing,
     and preventing sub. rance abuse, including better ways to
     deliver associated health services.

     Excludes research on the criminal actions of substance abusers
     and on preventive measures, such as criminal sanctions and
     seizures of illegal substances (see sfl., LAW ENFORCEMENT
     AND JUSTICE).

     1.   ALCOHOLISM

          Includes studies of alcohol, alcoholism, and alcohol
          abuse. In-luded are studies of the biological effects of




                               -55-
          alcohol on central nervous system functions, metabolic
          processes, liver function, cardiac function, and hemato-
          logy and circulation. Animal models of alcohol addiction
          are also included. Studies of the behavioral correlates
          of alcohol include psychological and emotional states
          associated with types of drinking episodes (e.g., memory
          functions, dysphoria, anxiety, depression, and work per-
          formance); and studies of the etiology, diagnosis, treat-
          ment and rehabilitation (including detoxification, be-
          havioral intervention, motivation for treatment, and out-
          come criteria development), prevention, and consequences
          of alcoholism are included. Research on social environ-
          ments leading to alcoholism, beverage con'rol laws, and
          societal response to alcoholism is also included.

     2.   DRUG ABUSE

          Includes research on opiates (e.g., heroin), marihuana,
          hallucinogens (e.g., LSD), stimulants (e.g., amphetamines,
          cocaine), and depressants (arbiturates).   Studies concern
          biological, psychological and sociocultural problems, and
          include consideration of epidemiology and incidence of
          drug abuse, diagnosis and etiology, psychosocial charac-
          teristics of drug abusers, treatment (including narcotic
          antagonists, methadone maintenance, behavioral interven-
          tions, and psychological and social supportive therapies),
          and prevention. Also relevant are studies of drug abuse
          from a broad social perspective, including attitudes about
          drugs and drug abuse, and legal and correctional issues.

     3.   ABUSE OF OTHER SUBSTANCES

          Includes research on the abuse of substances other than
          alcohol or drugs (see X. C. 2., DRUG ABUSE, for the types
          of drugs included in that section). Examples of abused
          substances included in this category are excessive amounts
          of food and compounds containing such agents as aspirin,
          nicotine, or caffeine.

D.   HEALTH SERVICES DELIVERY

     The primary purpose cf research shown here is to improve
     existing or develop new methods and systems wiich will pro-
     vide accessible, high quality and reL3onably priced health
     care delivery. Thir section consists of lower levels of
     aggregation ba ed u on the purpose for which the research
     is being conducted, not by the means by which that purpose



                            -56-
is being accomplished. Therefore, HEALTH SERVICES DELIVERY
research directed towards such means as health service
organization and management; the development, introduction,
coordination, use and productivity of manpower and other
resources; and statistical and data systems development,
but research into such means will be classified by its pri-
mary purpose. For example, research to lower the costs of
delivering health services by improving the productivity
of health manpower is shown under . D. 2., CONTROL AND
REDUCE COST. Thus, manpower research will be reported
throughout this section based upon the primary purpose of
the manpower research.

Research which has a primary purpose of affecting the
health service delivery associated with a specific entry in
any of the first three sections of Y., HEALTH, should be
shown in those sections. For example, research to improve
mental health care delivery specifically will be shown in
Y. B., MENTAL HEALTH, rather than in this section.

1. IMPROVE QUALITY

   The purpose of the research shown here is to maintain
   and improve the quality of health care delivery. This
   section includes research on health service organiza-
    tion and management, on health service delivery resources
    (including manpower nd plant resources) and on data
   and statistical systems whose primary purpose is to
   maintain or improve quality of health service delivery.
   Research to develop or assess the impact of financing
   methods --hose primary purpose is to improve quality
   will be shown here.

   The following research objectives exemplify the type of
   work to be shown here: devise mcthods to measure quality
   of health care delivery including development of health
   status indicators; identify what is to be measured, such
   as important elements of the health care process, re-
   lationships of that process to resources and their organi-
   zation, etc., design mechanisms to control the perform-
   ance of various types of providers; compare alternative
   approaches to control and improve the quality f health
   services; and measure impact on quality of various changes
   in the structure and organization of health care delivery
   systems.




                     -57-
2.    CONTROL AND REDUCE COST

     The primary purpose of research shown here is to control
     or reduce the cost of health care delivery to the con-
     sumer. This inc -des research into health services
     organization and     ,gement, such as the improvement of
     health maintena.._ organizations; the introduction,
     development, coordination, use and productivity of    -
     sources (including manpower); and data and statistical
     systems whose primary purpose is to control or reduce
     costs. Research to develop or assess che impact of
     financing methods and reimbursement schemes whose pri-
     mary purpose is to control or reduce costs will be shown
     here.

     The following research objectives exemplify the type of
     work to be shown here:  study work patterns of doctors
     and nurses which might result in economies; substitute
     different types of resources and alternative resource mix
     to deliver health services; examine effects of consumer
     preferences on the price of medical care; assess the im-
     pact on cost of alternative methods of capital finan.cing;
     examine impact on costs of various reimbursement schemes
     and direct and indirect subsidies; and examine cost effects
     from cver-use of health services due to new or improved
     financing methods (such as national health insurance).

3.   IMPROVE ACCESSIBILITY

     The primary purpose of research here is to improve the
     accessibility and availability of health services to con-
      sumers. Research into resource development, utilization
     and management, health service organization and manage-
     ment, and methods of educating the public about health
     problems and wys to counter them wili be shown here.
     Research which has a primary r;rpose of alleviating
     inequities of access to health services among various
     socioeconomic groups and geographic areas will be shown
     here. Work to develop or improve alternative modes of
     insurance (including national health insurance), payment
     and reimbursement and other financing schemes whose pri-
     mary purpose is to improve the accessibility of health
     service or research to assess the impact of such financ-
     ing methods on the accessibility of health service will
     be shown here.




                      -58-
Research concerning the development of a system of
national health insurance will be reported as a separate
subtotal and will be included in the total for . D. 3.,
IMPROVE ACCESSIBILITY.

The following research objectives exemplify the type of
work to be shown here:   examine barriers to preventative
health services uses; develop regional forms of heaith
service delivery organization to improve availability;
communication techniques such as remote satellite clinics
and "picture-phones" to improve accessability; examine
effects on accessibility of hospital mergers; evaluate
medical centers' impact on health service delivery; and
examine effects on availability of financing methods that
do not pay essential costs to the provider.

Exclude research into financing methods which are primarily
oriented toward improving the quality or reducing or con-
trolling the cost of health service delivery. Such re-
search should be shown in the appropriate section in this
objective (either r. D. 1., IMPROVE QUALITY. or . D. 2.,
CONTROL AND REDUCE COST).




                -59
VI.    HOUSING AND COMMUNITY
         DEVELOPMENT




I. '   ,
                      HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT


                                                                       iAGE

A.   Housing .     . . . . . . .. . . . . .      .    . . . . .    .   61
     1. Increase Opportunities .   . .. . . .      ..    ....          61
     2. Improving Safety and Standards .    . . . . . ....             62
     3. Improving Construction, Delivery and Costs. . . . . .          63
     4. Improving Housing Management .    .. . . . . . . . . . .       63
     5. Improving Housing Maintenance.      . .    . . . ....          64
B.   Community Development .             . . .. . . . . . . . .        64
     1. Preserve and Revitalize Neighborhoods.        . . . . .        64
     2. Community Development and Growth .    .. . . . . .     . .     65




                                               C~   ~    ~    ~    ~   6
VI.   HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

           Encompasses research and development which will:

           --Increase housing opportunities for those Americans with limited

           access to housing;

           --Improve safety and standards to protect building owners and

           occupants;

           --Improve construction and delivery of housing so as to reduce

           its cost;

           --Improve housing management (particularly public housing);

           --Improve housing maintenance processes;

           --Improve neighborhood preservation and revitalization;

           --Understand the foiees of growth and development; and

           --Develop strategies for those activities (such as taxation

           mechanisms and land use control techniques) which cn shape the

           direction and quality of growth and development.

      These objectives apply where appropriate to rural as well as urban

      growth and development.

           Exclude research to minimize Lhe adverse effects which housing,

      community and area development might have on the general environment

       (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT).

            Exclude research to improve the capability, efficiency and ef-

       fectiveness of state and local governments in planning, managing and

       delivering their programs and services which are not specifically

       related to housing or community development.     Such research is shown

       where appropriate in XIII., OTHER.
            Exclude research to develop systems and technologies which will



                                - 60 -
   provide and utilize energy more efficiently and effectively (See TI.,
   ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION).
A. HOUSING

   Encompasses research to develop programs which increase housing
   opportunities for those Americans with limited access to housing;
   research to improve safety and standards to protect building
   owners and occupants; research to improve construction and de-
   livery of housing so as to reduce its costs; research to im-
   prove housing management (particularly public housing); and
   research to improve the housing maintenance processes.

   1.   INCREASING OPPORTUNITIES

        Encompasses research to increase the understanding of the
        causes of inadequate housing and to increase housing op-
        portunities for those Americans with limited access to ade-
        quate housing due to such problems as insufficient income, ~
        discriminatory housing practices, and housing requirements
        of special-user groups such as the aged and disabled. Also
        includes research to assess consumer needs and their inter-
        face with the housing market. The areas discussed below
        will assist in determining what research is shown here.

        Provide Monetary Assistance To Enable People To Secure
        Adequate Housirg: Ecompasses research to examine and under-
        stand people's inability to afford adequate housing and re-
        search to develop and test programs which enable people to
        afford adequate housing including direct cash assistance as
        well as other forms of subsidies. Examples of work shown
        here include research to determine how families are using
        their housing subsidy, how the housing market reacts to
        housing allowances, and how housing allowance programs can
        be better administered.

        Eliminate Discrimination In The Housing Market: Encompass-s
        research to improve understanding of discriminatory pract -
        in the housing market; inprove methods of complying with
        equal opportunity statutes and regulations; and develop and
        test techiques to poi!iete equal opportunity and fair housing
        practices. Examples    cilude research to study discri :nation
        in real estate broker and salesperson examination ant   iiensin,
        and develop equal opportunity housing practices in rural areas.

        Address The Needs Of Special-User Crups:   Encompasses re-
        search directed toward understanding and meeting   ousing
        requirements which are peculiar and unique to sp _ial-user
        groups. An example is research to develop prcpe ty tax re-
        lief measures geared specifically for the elderly.

        Housing Markets And Consumer Education: Encompasses research
        to improve the consumers understanding of an interaction



                           -8i1-
     with the housing market so as to increase their capability
     to acquire adequate housing. Includes research to examine
     consumers' attitudes toward the housing market.

2.   IMPROVING SAFETY AND STANDARDS

     Encompasses research to achieve safer buildings including
     research to develop new methods, materials and technologies
     to construct safer buildings, research to promote the adoption
     and application of these new technologies, ai.d research to
     determine safety standards for the buildings and their com-
     ponents.

     Exclude research to develop technical reports, operating
     procedures and practical methods (such as architectural and
     structural security innovations, streetlighting, and alarm
     systems) which will prevent and reduce crime in housing de-
     velopments and surrounding neighborhoods (See VII. A., PRE-
     VENTION OF CRIME).

     The areas discussed below will assist in determining what
     type of research is shown here.

     Fire Safety:   Encompasses research to incrEase the fire safety
     of buildings.   Includes research to develop new methods,
     materials and  technologies;   to promote the adoption of new
     fire safety  technologies;  to  develop methods for comprehen-
     sive fire safety system analysis; and research to develop
     standards for firp safety systems which will increase the
     fire safety of buildings. Examples include resce ch to test
     the flammability of housing material; to test smoke and
     flame spread, and to develop smoke detection devices.

     Reduce The Hazard Of Lead-Based Paint Poisoning: Encompasses
     research to understand the nature and extent of lead-based
     paint poisoning and develop methods for its detection and
     elimination. Exclude research directed toward improved
     methods of treating lead-based paint poisonings (See V. A.
     13., INJURIES NOT RELATED TO DISEASES).

      Disaster Housing research:  Encompasses research on programs
      to improve temporary housing for disaster victims and im-
      prove buildings' resistance to inatural disaster forces
      (including improving building design standards related to
      disaster resistance). Exclude research to understand or
      control natural disasters (See III. D.4., DISASTER AND
     NATURAL HAZARDS STUDIES AND CONTROL).

                         mv..   7.
     Increase Safety Of Buildings: Encompasses research to develop
     new methods, materials and tennology which increases the
     safety of buildings; research to develop performance criteria,
     standards, and test methods by which housing systems or
     materials may be evaluated and used by local code officials,
     architects, engineers, etc.; and research to promote the
     adoption and application of new technology in the market.
     Examples include research to develop guidelines minimizing
     building failure risk, improving str"utural tests for building
     components, work to reduce the danger of gas explosion and
     studies on mobile home safety.

3.   IMPROVING CONSTRUCTION, DELIVERY AND COSTS

     Encompasses research to develop and demonstrate the latest
     methods amd materials by which houses and buildings can be
     built at a lower cost and/or a higher quality; research to
     determine the feasibility of improved construction techniques;
     research to increase material and natural resources' con-
     servation in housing construction and operation; research to
     improve the understanding of factors affecting housing
     financing, production and supply; and research to increase
     savings in non-construction costs such as acquisition costs.
     Examples of work shown here include research to improve all
     weather construction methods, study new piping material and
     structural adhesives, and develop new masonry water proofing
     methods; research on new framing and sheathing methods which
     result in lumber savings; and investigations into rural
     housing financing and studies of land parcel recordings in
     order to reduce closing costs.

     Exclude research performed primarily to develop and demon-
     strate construction methods which increase the safety of
     buildings.  (See VI. A. 2., IMPROVING SAFETY AND STANDARDS).

     Exclude research to increase energy corervation in housing
     construction and operation (See II. H., ENERGY CONSERVATION).

4.   IMPROVING HOUSIN   MANAGEMENT

     Encolapasses research to improve the efficiency and effective-
     nesj of housing management. Primarily includes research
     directed toward improving multi-family housing management,
     particularly public housing. This involves research to im-
     prove local housing authorities (LHA's) ability to manage
     low rent housing.



                        -63-
     5.   IMPROVE HOUSING MAINTENANCE

          Encompasses research to promote the maintenance and re-
          habilitiation of basically sound but currently obsolete
          housing of all types for occupancy by all income groups.
          Research here focuses mainly on problems and restraints
          to the individual property owner as compared to problems
          of the entire community (See VI. B. 1., PRESERVE AND RE-
          VITALIZE NEItBORHOODS). Examples of research to show here
          are studies to understand present maintenance and rehabili-
          tation processes and studies to determine better alternatives
          if any to these processes.

B.   ZOMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

     Encompasses research to improve the preservation and revitaliza-
     tion of neighborhoods, t understand the forces of growth nd
     development, and to develop strategies for those activities
     (such as taxation mechanisms and land use control techniques)
     which car. shape the direction and quality of growth and develop-
     ment. These objectives include where applicable research directed
     toward rural as well as urban growth and development.

     1.   PRESERVE AND REVITALIZE NEIGHBORHOODS

          Encompasses research to determine the appropriate public and
          private actions to prevent neighborhood decline; esearch
          to revitalize advanced decay areas; and to prevent decline
          where neighborhood instability is influenced by undisposed
          vacant properties. The areas discussed below will assist
          in determining what types of research to show here.

          Preservation Analysis and Demcnstration:  Encompasses re-
          search to develop an understanding of the causes and pro-
          cesses of decline; to develop means which identify neigh-
          borhoods susceptible to decline and preservation activities;
          to identify those activities which can reverse the decline
          prccess and promote the preservation process; and demonstrate
          local actions which have been successful in neighborhoods.

          Revitalize Neighborhoods: Encompasses research to develop
          and promote the adoption and application of successful re-
          vitalization programs.

          Acquired Properties Disposition: Research to develop ad-
          ditional techniques to dispose of HUD acquired properties
          without promoting a decline in neighborhood value. Includes


                             _64-
     research to design and test methods to prevent, cure, and
     treat defaults and foreclosures and thus reduce the drain
     on mortgage insurance funds.

2.   COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT   ND GROWTH

     Encompasses research to understand the forces of growth and
     development and to develop strategies for those activities
     (such as taxation mechanisms and land use control techniques}
     which can shape the direction and quality of growth and de-
     velopment. This objective includes where applicable rural
     as well as urban g.owth and development. The areas discussed
     below will assist in determining what type of research to
     show here.

     Community Growth Research: Includes research to strengthen
     community strategies for growth and development as related
     to the economic feasibility of development program implementation
     and program effects n the community's economic base. An
     example is research to increase awareness and understanding
     of how local government can and doe.; affect local econumic
     development.

     New Communities Research: Research to increase understanding
     of nets coa,:iitie    s a mechanism for development and growth.
     Includes   research to maintain the viability of existing new
     communities.

     Taxation Mechanisms; Research to develop efficient and equitable
     taxing mechanisms which can be used to further State and
     local development and management strategies.

     Land Use Control Techniques: Include research to develop
     land use control techniques as effective and equitable
     tools or community development and growth.




                         _65-
VII,   IAW ENFORCEMENT AND JUSTICE




                                     -!
                                      l




                                      I
                       LAW ENFORCEMENT AND JUSTICE


                                                                        PACE

A.   Prevention of Crime (includes a total for drug
     trafficking) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   . .        ..   .    66
B. Law Enforcement (includes a tot;al for drug trafficking). ..          67
C.   Adjudication ......................                            .    67
D.   Corrections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .....         67
E.   Juvenile Justice ......................                             68
F.   Understanding of Crime . . . . . . . ..........                     68
G.   Justice Technology .....................                            68
VII.    LAW ENFORCEMENT AND JUSTICE

             Incl des all research primarily directed toward improving

             the prevention or deterrence of criminal acts, the detec-

             tion end investigation of crimes, the search for and app-3-

             hension of suspects, the trial and sentencing of criminal

             offenders, and the incarceration and rehabilitation of

             criminal off:rnders.   Research into individual criminal

            behavior and research into the prevention and treatment of

             drug   buse and alcoholism is excluded from this objective

             (See V. B., MENTAL HEALTH and V. C., SUBSTANCE ABUSE).

       A.   PREVENTION OF CRIME

            Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving
            society's ability to prevent or deter crime whether through
            the use of equipment, personnel information or other means.
            This includes research into architectural and structural
            security innovations, stieetlighting, alarms or alarm sys-
            tems, effective uses of available police forces, changing
            community attitudes to reduce the incidence of crime;
            surveillance techniques and controls to prevent or deter
            criminal acts directed toward persons and cargoes of
            domestic and international transportation systems (hijacks);
            improvements in communications techniques intended to
            improve the preventative capabilities of police forces;
            methods for reducing "crimes of opportunity"; police com-
            munity relations activities; and training of police and
            other persons in prevention techniques. Research which is
            directed toward the prevention of alcoholism and drug abuse
            is excluded from this subobjective (See V. C., SUBSTANCE ABUSE).
            However, research into new or improved methods for preventing
            trafficking in illicit drugs is included and should be reported
            as a separate amount and as part of the total for PREVENI.' OF
            CRIME. Exclude from this subobjective that research which is
            primarily directed toward prevention or deterring the delinquency
            of and crimes by juveniles (See JUVENILE JUSTICE, below).




                                     _66-
 B.    LAW ENFORCEMENT

        Encompasses all research directed toward improving tne
        detection, identification and apprehension of persons sus-
       pected of committing a crime.   Includes rsearch into
       methods of dentifying, acquiring, preserring and analyz-
       ing evidential matter, new types of evidential matter such
       as individualization of physiological fluids, investigative
       methods and techniques, the use of communications to increase
       police effectiveness and aid in suspect identification and
       apprehension. That research which is primarily directed
       toward the detection, identification and apprehension of
       persons suspected of trafficking in illicit drugs should
       be reported as a separate amount and as part of the total
       for LAW ENFORCEMENT. Exclude from this category research
       primarily directed toward detection, identification and
       apprehension of juveniles suspected of crime and research
       directed toward enforcing delinquency laws (See JUVENILE
       JUSTICE, below).

C.    ADJUDICATION

       Encompasses research into all aspects of the idic'.al process
       from the point following the arrest of a suspect to the sen-
       tencing of the convicted ofende.     Includes research into
       the operations of the court system, new or improved methods
       of processing criminals, the conduct of trials, the pre-
       paration and prosecutiun of cases, alternative sentences,
       the functions and handling of juries, the training of judges
       and other judicial personnel, and the increased participation
       of victims and witnesses in the adjudication process. Exclude
       from this subobjective research which is primarily directed
       toward improving the judicial processes for juvenile offenders
       (bee JUVENILE JUSTICE, below).

D.    CORRECTIONS

      Encompasses research into the post-conviction handling of
      a criminal offender including research into probation, parole,
      recidivism, alternative correctional institutions, work-
      study programs, early-release, alternatives to incarceration,
      halfway houses, rehabilitation programs for prisoners, prison
      environments and characteristics, post-incarceration assis-
      tance to former convicts, and deinstitutionalizatiot; of
      offenders. Research dealing with the teatment of drug
      addicts and alcoholics which is directed toward curing addic-
      tion is exluded from this subobjective (See V. C.,




                             _67-
      SUBSTANCE ABUSE). Also, research primarily directed toward
      the post-convi-'lon handling of juvenile offenders is excluded
      from this subobjective (See JUVENILE JUSTICE, below).

E.   JUVENILE JUSTICE

      Encompasses all rese,.rch primarily directed toward improving
      the prevention or deterrence of delinquency and crimes com-
      mitted by juveniles, the enforcement of laws as i. relates to
      juveniles, and judicial process for juvenile suspects, the
      post-conviction handling of juvenile offenders, and the under-
      standing of juvenile crime and delinquency. Research directed
      toward the treatment of juvenile drug addicts and alcoholics
      which is directed toward curing addiction is excluded from this
      subobjective (See V. C., SUBSTANCE ABUSE). However, that re-
      search which i directed toward the prevention, and the detection,
      identification and apprehension of juveniles suspected of traf-
      ficking in illicit drugs should be reported as a separate amount
      and as pazr of the total for JUVENILE USrICE.

F.   UNDERSTANDING OF CRIME

      Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving the
      knowledge about and understanding of crime and criminal phenomenon
      which cannot e assigned to one of the other subobjectives.
      Included would be research :nto the incidence of a motivation
      for homicide in correctional institutions and studies of organired
      crime. Exclude research directed toward individual criminal
      behavior (See V. B., MENTAL HEALTH). Also exclude research
      directed toward the understanding of juvenile crime and de-
      linquency (See JUVENILE JUSTICE, above).

G.   JUSTICE TECHNOLOGY

      Encompasses research dire' ed toward the equipment, conmmunica-
      tions, information systems, weapons, vehicles, clothing, facili-
      ties and management and personnel techniques used by police
      and other law enforcement personnel which cannot be assigned
      to the other subobjectives.




                              _68.
VIII.   MILITARY




68
 t I
                                        MILITARY


                                                                                       PAGE

A.   Deter Attack . . . .      .......                 .....                   . .        69
      1. Land-based Missiles .............                                 ..             70
     2. Sea-based Missiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            70
     3. Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          71
     4. Deterrent Weapons Development and Protectior . . . . . .                          71
     5. Command and Control Elements of Nuclear Deterrence .                         .    72
     6. Nuclear Deterrence-General .           .         ......                .          73
B.   Defend Continental United States Against Attack                     . . . ..         73
     1. Ballistic Missile Warning..                          . . . . . . . . .            73
     2. Ballistic Missile Defense .        . . .. . . . . . . . . . .                     73
     3. Air Defense .     . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .                     . . . .        74
     4. Defend Continental United States-General . . . . . . . .                          74
C.   Combat Capability .        ........ . .                                              74
     1. Land Warfare .       .       .         ...................                        75
         a. Battlefield Surveillance .               .           ........        .        75
         b. Close Combat     ...................                                          76
         c. Fire Support                  ..                        ..... .               76
         d. Field Army ir Defense .               ...........                 .           76
         e. Land Warfare Intelligence, Reconnaissance,
             and Electro-lic Warfare .            ...........                 .           76
         f. Land Warfare Logistics .              ...........                 .           77
         g. Land Warfare Communications, Command and Control . .                          77
         h. Land Warfare-General .             .            ..                   .        77
     2. Air Warfare .             .......                               .. . . . .        78
         a. Air Superiority . .            . .. . . . . . . . . . . .                     78
         b. Deep StriKe-Interdiction .            . . .. . . . . . . . . .                79
         c. Air Defense Suppression .         . .. . . . . . . . . . .                    79
         d. Air Reconnaissance and Intelligence .                  . .. . . . .           79
         e. Air Warfare Logistics . . . .                                          ........
                                                                                          79
         f. Air Warfa.e Communication, Command, and Control. . .                          80
         g. Air Warfare-General.            .             ........... ..                  80
     3. Ocean Control .    . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..                            80
         a. Ocean Surveillance . .. .......                          .....                80
         b. Fleet Offense . . .         .         .           .      .....                81
         c. Fleet Air Defense                .            .           ..                  81
         d. Fleet Anti-submarine Warfare (ASW) . . . . . . . . .                          81
         e. Naval Mine Warfare ...............                                            82
         f. Ocean Control Logistics .         .. . . . . . . . . . .                      82
         g. Ocean Control Coammunications, Command and Control. .                         82
         h. Ocean Control-General .        .. . . . . . . . .                 . ..        82
     4. Combat Capability-general. .                ... . . . . . .                 .     83
     5.  Theater Nuclear Forces . . . . . . . . . . .                     . . .           83
D.   Defensewide Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           83
     1. Intelligence Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          84
                     MILITARY (Continued)


                                                                   PAGE

2.   Communications, Comnand and Control . . . . . . . . .   . .   85
3.   Area Navigation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     ..    85
4.   Military Personnel Management and Utilization . . .     ..    86
5.   Biomedicine with Exclusive Military Applications .      ..    86
6.   Nuclear Weapons Effects         .................             87
7.   Chemical/Biological Weapons . . . . . . . . . .   ..    . .   87
8.   Weather Modification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   . .   87
VIII.    MILITARY

         Encompasses research to improve the systems, technology,
                                                                  equipment
         and operations that perform exclusively military objectives.
                                                                         More
         specifically, MILITARY includes research to improve the capability

        of deterring nuclear attack or failing this, allows effective
                                                                      and
        appropriate retaliation; defending the continental United
                                                                  States
        against attack; and conducting combaL, primarily non-nuclear,

        activities.

        The funding for ?,partment of Defense research which also
                                                                  has
        potential to contribute to solving national problems,
                                                              as defined
        in the balance of this overall structure, should be included
                                                                     un-
        der the appropriate non-military category.   As examples, research
        to reduce the noise of military jet engines would be shown
                                                                   under
        III. C. 5., NOISE; research to improve the means of immunizing

        soldiers against malaria would be shown under V. A. 12.,
                                                                 INFECTIOUS
        AND PARASITIC DISEASES; and research to increase the energy
                                                                    efficiency
        and reduce the energy consumption of most naval vessels will
                                                                     be
        shown under II. H. 4., REDUCE ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY END-USERS.

        A.   DETER ATTACK

             The objective here is to develop, maintain and control
                                                                     a nuclear
             strike capability which will prevent or deter nuclear attack
             or coercion by threat of nuclear attack on the United States
             or its allies, and failing this, allows effective and appropriate
             retaliation. Research in this objective focuses on the TRIAD
             of delivery systems: land-based missiles, sea-based missiles
             and aircraft; their control and related nuclear weapons
                                                                      de-
             velopment.




                                  -69-
Excude research on weapons systems that i not conducted
primarily to strengthen nuclear deterrence capability. How-
ever, research conducted primarily to improve an aircraft's
capability to deliver nuclear weapons will be shown here re-
gardless of its ability to deliver non-nuclear weapons also.

1.   LAND-BASED MISSILES

     This category focuses on research which pertains to im-
     proving and insuring the quality, survivability, penetra-
     tion capability and flexibility of the force. Includes
     research and development to improve reentry vehicles for
     land-based missiles only.

     Exclude research to provide site defense (See VIII. B.,
     DEFEND CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES AGAINST ATTACK) and
     to improv, reentry vehicles for sea-based missiles (See
     SEA-BASED MISSILES below).
     The following specific goals exemplify the kind of work
     which will be shown under this category:
       Upgrade hardness of silos;
       Increase yield to weight ratio of present reentry
       vehicles;
       Demonstrate capability to carry more reentry vehicles
       on present and future generations of land-based missiles;
       Develop alternate basing modes;
       Improve reentry vehicles materials;
       Obtain very high accuracies for reentry vehicles;
       Develop terminal guidance technique with all-weather
       c pability;
       Develop light penetration aids;
       Improve maneuvering capability of reentry vehicles; and
       Improve weapon delivery y using advanced targeting
       techniques;

2.   SEA-BASED MISSILES

     This objective includes research to maintain the survivability
     of ballistic missile submarines and the effectiveness of
     the missiles they launch and their reentry vehicle systems.
     Examples of specific goals which comprise this category:
       r-zvide longer range missiles;
       Increase available operating areas for missile launch
       platforms;
       Maintain survivability of older submarines by improving
       their sonar and navigation subsystems;


                      -70-
       Develop new, smaller, less costly SBNs;
       Develop higher power long-life reactor cres necs,a
       for increased ship speed and siae, simpler operating
       and maintenance requirements and increased reli.biJ.-
       ity and maintainability of reacto pnt concepts;
       Conduct conceptual design studies of ut'lear propulsion,
       plants for potential application in ftte ballistic.
       missile submarines;
       Explore threats and countermeasures fo~ SSBNs;
       Upgrade and advance SSBN-launched reentry vehicle
       flexibility, survivability, accuracy and penetration
       capability;
       Determine phenomena contributing to svstew:s vulnerabil-
       ity and develop countermeasures to e.i::v capabilities;
       and
       Develop and improve cruise missiles wch can be
       launched from standard size torpedo tuba or surface ships.

     Exclude research and development on cruise missiles used
     in non-nuclear deterrent situations.

3.   AIRCRAFT

     This objective includes research to improve the survivability,
     payload, bombing accuracy, speed and penetration capabilities
     of aircraft which can deliver nuclear weapons and conse-
     quently deter nuclear attack. Examples of specLfic goals
     which comprise this category:
       Increase pre-launch survivability by improving reaction
       time, speed and hardness;
       Provid a weapons platform to launch cruise missiles,
       SRAMs and gravity bombs;
       Improve bomber defense weapons;
       Improve design and performance characteristics of new
       tankers , nich assure adequate refueling support;
       Enhance bomber penetration by ECM, self-defens. systems
       warning sensors and active defense weaponry; and
       Develop and improve cruise missiles which can be
       launched from aircraft and which carry nuclear weapons.

4.   DETERRENT WEAPONS DEVELOPMENT AND PROTECTION

     Includes research to improve the production of nuclear
     materials used in weapons manufacture; the development
     and test of specific weapons eeded by DoD; and the
     capability to detect, locate and identify nuclear detonations.


                      -71-
   This objective also includes research to understand better
   laser-induced and electron beam-induced implosion fusion
   with applications for weapons simulation and modelling and
   to improve means of controlling and protecting nuclear
   materials. Include here only that research and development
   which has military applications exclusively. Examples of
   specific goals which comprise this category:
     Improve means of isotope separation techniques which
     apply only to nuclear weapons develop.nent;
     Assure design integrity of weapons n development
     status and provide firm basis for future weapons
     development by continuously gathering information,
     Participate in surface-based and satellite-based sensor
     programs to improve means of detecting nuclear deton-
     ations;
     Improve weapons effects simulation and physics modelling
     by use of laser and electron beam-induced implosion
     fusions; and
     Define threats, develop guard and response force struc-
      tures, review safeguards systems, develop and analyze
     concepts and improve engineering development to protect
     and control nuclear materials and weapons.

   Exclude research related to nuclear materials and processes
   that pertain to both civilian and military objectives.
   Also exclude from the entire research and development
   structure obligations for the production of nuclear weapons
   as approved by the President and the surveillance of com-
   pleted nuclear weapons required to meet military needs.
   This is not research funding.

5. COMMAND AND CONTROL ELEMENTS OF NUCLEAR DETERRENCE

   Includes research to provide reliable, survivable and
   secure systems to insure that nuclear deterrence forces
   are immediately responsive to political and military
   decisions to maintain deterrent credibility and provide
   confidence in ability to respond flexibly. Examples of
   specific goals which comprise this category:
     Increase survivability, reliability and security in
     command and control systems;
     Improve means of supporting decision-making and executing
     retaliatory strike orders after absorbing a massive
     attack which could include selected strategic targets;
     Evaluate viability of communications systems in presence
     of interference from high altitude nuclear detonations;
     and
     Improve the survivability of related satellites.
                     -72-
     6.   NUCLEAR DETERRENCE-GENERAL

          Encompasses researnh development and technology which
          primarily applies to efforts to deter nuclear attack but
          which cannot be assigned to a specific sub-objective of
          that category or which can be assigned to two or more
          sub-,bjectives equally. For example, electronics, navi-
          gation or nuclear weapons effects research which relates
          to both land and sea-based missiles will be shown here.

B.   DEFEND CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES AGAINST ATTACK

     This objective focuses on research to improve warning, attack
     assessment and defense systems or capabilities related to
     intercontinental attacks launched at the Continental United
     States. It includes both ballistic missile and aircraft at-
     tacks. Also specifically included here is research related
     to satellites which are used to idcitify, provide warning of
     or defend against intercontinental attacks.

     1.   BALLISTIC MISSILE WARNING

          This research focuses on improving defensive techniques
          and equipment needed to protect key U.S. systems from at-
          tack. It includes research to improve warning anJ ident-
          ification capability and increase reliability and sur-
          vivability of these systems. Includes research on satel-
          lite systems to detect rocket launches and to detect,
          track and identify flying objects and to improve the
          survivability of satellites used for these purposes.
          Examples of specific goals which comprise this category:
            Provide warning coverage aginst new threats;
            Reduce vulnerability of warning system to direct
            attack and electronic countermeasures;
            Enhance the quality of information received from
            combination of warning sensors to characterize
            better the nature of attack;
            Demonstrate feasibility of near realtime ground-based
            capability to detect and track objects; and
            Increase systems resistance to degradation by weapons
            effects.

     2.   BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE

          This objective includes research to improve, consistent
          with existing Treaties, araa and site ballistic missile


                            -73-
          defense (BMD) systems and technical capdbilities in BMD
          to insure the existence of a second strike capability.
          Examples of specific goals which contribute to this ob-
          jective:
            Provide lower cost defense of ICBM sites than Safeguard
            can provide;
            Reduce costs and increase performance and reliability
            of sensor systems, computer software and irtrceptorn;
            Incorporate new technology into current systems; and
            Provide technology base for design and development of
            new systems.

     3.   AIR DEFENSE

          This objective focuses on research to improve means of
          detecting and destroying air breathing vehicles attacking
          the United States. Examples of specific goals directed
          toward this objective are:
            Improve warning capability to detect penetratore, for
            example, radars and sea.rs;
            Improve means of identifying unknown penetrators and
            restrict unchallenged overflight of U.S. air space;
            Develop Over-the-Horizon Backscatter radar;
            Develop single integrated surveillance system; and
            Improve SAM capability and dvelop new air defense inter-
            ceptor.

     4.   DEFEND CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES-GENERAL

          Encompasses research development and technology which
          primarily apply to improving the capability for defending
          the continental United States against attack b. which cannot
          be assigned to a specific sub-objective of that category or
          which can be assigned to two or more sub-objectives equally.
          For example, weapons or communications research that benefits
          both ballistic missile and air defense should be shown here.

C.   COMBAT CAPABILITY

     Encompasses research to provide systems and equipment which
     enable forces to deploy, maneuver, defend and esupply them-
     selves, and engage an enemy force. Work shown here relates
     to combat activity conducted on land, in the air and on or
     under water. COMBAT CAPABILITY includes, wherever appropriate,
     research on the environment or weather which relates directly
     and exclusively to defensive or offensive combat activities.


                           -74-
Research which has clear potential to contribute to solving
national problems, as well as military objectives, should bo
included under the appropriate national problem. For example,
research to improve all weather take-off and landing systems
and traffic control systems will be shown under II. A. 2.,
IMPROVE AVIATION OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND EFFECTIVENESS
and research to reduce discharge of wastes from ships will be
shown under III. C. 2., WATER.

1.   LAND WARFARE

     Research to provide our land forces with the capability
     of defending land areas against foreign non-nuclear aggres-
     sion or establish control over land areas. All logistics
     research whose primary purpose is to support land warfare
     objectives will be shown in VIII. C. 1. f., LAND WARFARE
     LOGISTICS. Communications Command and Control research
     which can be applied entirely to a specific -ategory with-
     in LAND WARFARE will be shown accordingly.    mmunications
     Command and Control research which applies equally to two
     or more categories in LAND WARFARE should be shown in
     VIII. C. 1. g., LAND WARFARE COMMUNICATIONS, COMMAND AND
     CONTROL.

     Research which has progressed far enough to identify LAND
     WARFARE as its primary purpose but cannot be applied to
     any of the LAND WARFARE objectives should be shown in
     VIII. C. 1. h,, LAND WARFARE-GENERAL. Examples of work
     to show in LAND WAPF/RE include research. to develop counter-
     systems to armor, artillery, and air threats; increase
     survivability and effectiveness of attack helicopters and
     Close-Air-Support (CAS) aircraft; increase survivability,
     mobility, and firepower of tanks and infantry combat ve-
     hicles; increase capability to destroy hard point targets;
     ir rease anti-tank missile survivability against counter-
     a sures; and improve systems' capability to perform in
     night and adverse weather conditions.

     a.   BATTLEFIELD SURVEILLANCE

          Encompasses research to develop systems to provide
          timely, accurate information on the location, ident-
          ification, and movement of enemy forces in the combat
          area. Includes research to:   improve surveillance be-
          yond the line-of-sight; identify the type of enemy
          target; improve means of locating enemy artillery and



                       -75-
     mortar; and increase systems' capability to perform in
     difficult and obstructing geography nd adverse weather.

b.   CLOSE COMBAT

     Encompasses research to develop the capability for in-
     fantry and armor t destroy enemy equipment, personnel,
     andr will to fight, to defend positions, and to gain
     ground. Includes research to: improve tanks' gun
     armamnents, survivability, mobility, and night fighting
     capability; improve mine detection and neutralization;
     and develop one-man machine guns, light-weight mortars,
     and light anti-tank weapons to improve infantryman's
     combat capability.

c. FIRE SUPPORT

     Encompasses research to develop systems c- equipment
     to provide ground gaining forces with close and on-
     tinuous fire, to deliver counter-battery fire, and to
     fire on targets in areas of interest. Includes re-
     search to: increase weapon effectiveness against hard
     point targets; increase fire support systems' surviv-
     ability and night and adverse weather capabilities;
     increase cannon artillery range; automate artillery
     data's transmission, receipt, ad computation; increase
     survivability and effectiveness of Close-Air-Support
     (CAS) aircraft; and improve ocean vessel systems that
     de;-.er fire support for land warfare.

d. FIELD ARMY AIR DEFENSE

     Encompasses research to develop systems and equipment
     to limit enemy air first-strike effectiveness against
     air bases, air defenses, command and control functions,
     troop concentrations, special ammunition support points
     and depots. Includes research to: provide medium-to-
     high, low-to-medium, and low altitude air defense; de-
     velop high portability air defense systems; and improve
     air defense gun systems.

e. LANjI WARFARE INTELLIGENCE, RECONNAISSANCE,
   AND ELECTRONIC WARFARE

     Encompasses research to devdop electronic systems and
     technology as an element of combat power in land warfare.


                    -76-
       Includes research to develop systems that detect,
       identify, and locate enemy forces in non-combat
                                                        areas
       and under all weather conditions and to provide
                                                        the
       ground commander protection through a full range
                                                         of
       countermeasures. Examples of wsork shown here incluCe
       research to: develop penetration aids and counter-
       measures to hostile ground based and airborne weapons;
       improve mapping, charting, and geodetic position-lo-
       cation systems for field support; and reduce our
                                                         forces
       vulnerability to electronic warfare.

 f.   LAND WARFARE LOGISTICS
      Encompasses research whose primary purpose is to
                                                         im-
      prove equipment procurement, supply, and maintenance;
      improve personnel movement; and provide facilities
                                                           in
      support of one or several of the above LAND WARFARE
      objectives. Includes work to:    improve aerial de-
      livery of supplies to isolated units with nemy
                                                       con-
      tact; provide over-the-track support of forces
                                                      ashore;
      provide rapid and positive identification of mass
      casualties; and provide offshore support of amphibious
      assault and subsequent operations ashore to reduce
                                                           the
      size, nxumber, and vulnerability of logistic facilities
      ashore.

g.    LAND WARFARE COMMUNICATIONS, COMMAND AND CONtROL

      Communications Command and Control research which
                                                          ap-
      plies or supports equally more than one category
                                                        in
      LAND WARFARE or which has progressed far enough
                                                       to
      identify LAND WARFARE as its primary purpose but
                                                        can-
      not be applied to any of the LAND WARFARE categories
      should be shown here. Communications Command and
                                                         Con-
      trol research which can be specifically applied
                                                       to a
      single category within LAND WARFARE should be shown
      in that category.

h.    LAND WARFARE-GENERAL

      Encompasses research which has progressed far enough
      to identify Land Warfare as its primary purpose
                                                      but
      cannot be applied to primarily one LAND WARFARE
      category.




                   -77-
2.    AIR WARFARE

      Encompasses research that provides
                                           the capability to de-
      fend and/or establish control of
                                        the air by dominating
      air battle over the forward edge
                                        of the battle area
      (FEBA), striking targets deep in
                                        enemy territory, and
      developing countermeasures to enemy
                                            air defense systems.
      All logistics research whose primary
      supports one or more AIR WARFARE       purpose applies or
                                        objectives is shown in
     VIII. C. 2. e, AIP. WARFARE LOGISTICS.
      Command and Control research which        Communications
                                          can be applied entire-
     ly to a secific objective within
                                         AIR WARFARE should be
     shown as such. Communications Command
                                               and Control re-
     search which applies or supports
                                       equally two or more ob-
     jectives in AIR WARFARE is shown
                                       in VIII. C. 2.     , AIR
     WARFARE COEMMUNICATIONS, COMMAND
                                      AND CONTROL.
     Research which has progressed
     WARFARE as its primary purpose far enough to identify AIR
                                     but cannot be applied
     primarily to one AIR WARFARE category
                                            is shown in VIII.
     C. 2. g., AIR WARFARE-GENERLL.

     Exclude research on those air systems
                                            which perform LAND
     WARFARE objectives. For example,
                                       exclude research to
     improve Close-Air-Support aircraft.   (See VIII. C. 1. c.,
     FIRE SUPPORT.) Exclude research
                                      which has definite
     applications and benefits to objectives
                                              in the overall
     structure other than MILITARY.
                                     For example, exclude heavy
     lift helicopter technology (See
                                     XII. A. 1., IMPROVE
     VEHICLES).

     a.   AIR SUPERIORITY

           Encompasses research to provide
                                           systems enabling
          U.S. to gain and maintain dominance
                                                in air battle
          over the forward edge of the battle
                                               area and enemy
          territory. Includes research to
                                            provide air combat
          maneuvering training to our pilots
                                              against dissimilar
          aircraft; and improve short range
                                             air-to-air missiles,
          cannon systems, ammunitions, and
                                            anti-radiation mis-
          siles.




                       -78-
     b.    DEEP STRIKE/INTERDICTION

           Encompasses research which provides
                                                 the capability to
           destroy highly defended targets
                                             (such as shelters,
           runways, and command centers)
                                         beyond the forward edge
           of the battle area and in the
                                         enemy's heartland under
           day/night and adverse weather
                                         conditions. Includes
          research to develop: munitions
          targets, cluster munitions for for use against hard
                                           area targets, land
          and shallow water mines, and
                                        anti-personnel fuel-air
          explosives.

 c.       AIR DEFENSE SUPPRESSION

          Encompasses research to provide
                                           systems and technology
          which will locate, degrade,
                                       and/or destroy enemy air
          defense sstem from beyond
          cludes research to develop their lethal range.    In-
                                      high-speed missiles to des-
          troy SAM's nd enemy radar and
                                          self-protection systems
          against SAM's for strike aircraft.

 d.       AIR RECONNAISSANCE AND INTELLIGENCE

       Encompasses research to develop
                                         systems and technologies
       to detect, locate, classify
                                    and
       in order to achieve AIR WARFARE identify enemy forces
                                        objectives. Includes
       systems and techniques to correlate,
                                               disseminate, and
       display this information for
                                     immediate operational use.
       Includes work to: develop
      and surveillance capability;an all-weather reconnaissance
                                     provide real-time target
      information to strike elements;
                                        develop processing,
      dissemination, and display systems
                                            to
      information; and provide information provide correlated
                                               on enemy targets
      and threat activity.

      Exclude reconnaissance and
                                 intelligence research directed
      towards LAND WARFARE objectives,
                                       (See VIII. C. 1.,
      LAND WARFARE).

e.    AIR WARFARE LOGISTICS

      Encompasses logistics research
                                     whose
      is to improve equipment procurement, primary purpose
      maintenance, personnel movement,     supply, and
                                       and provide facilities
      in support of one or several
                                   of the above AIR WARFARE
      objectives.


                      -79-
     f.    AIR WARFARE COMMUNICATION,   COMMAND,   AND CONTROL

           Encompasses Communications Command and Control research
           which applies or supports equally more than one ob-
           jective in AIR WARFARE or which has progressed far
           enough to identify AIR WARFARE as its primary purpose
           but cannot be applied to any of the AIR WARFARE ob-
           jectives That research which can be specifically
           applied to a single objective within-AIR WARFARE
           should be shown under that objective.

     g.    AIR WARFARE-GENERAL

           Encompasses research W:   . has progressed far enough
           to identify AIR WARFARP  .s its primary purpose but
           cannot be applied primarily to one AIR WARFARE ob-
           jective.

3.   OCEAN CONTROL

     Encompasses research to enable naval forces to provide
     freedom and protection of sea lanes for material supply
     to U.S. industrial and defense needs and resupply during
     a war and provide a fle-ible naval response in crisis sit-
     uations. Logistics research whose primary purpose is to
     support OCEAN CONTROL objectives is shown in VIII. C. 3. f.,
     OCEAN CONTROL LOGISTICS. Communications Command and Con-
     trol research which applies equally to two or more objectives
     in OCEAN CONTROL is shown in VIII. C. 3. g., OCEAN CONTROL
     COMMUNICATIONS, COMMAND AND CONTROL, Communications, Command
     and Control research which can be applied entirely to a
     specific objective within OCEAN CONTROL should be shown
     as such.

      Research which has progressed far enough to identify OCEAN
      CONTROL as its primary purpose but cannot be applied to
      any of the OCEAN CONTROL objectives is shown in VIII. C.
      3. h., OCEAN CONTROL-GENERAL.

      a.    OCEAN SURVEILLANCE

            Encompoasses research to develop systems and methods
            to ackire, correlate and provide data on the deploy-
            ment, location, and type of major combatants (includ-
            ing enemy submarines and Ballistic Missile Submarines)
            and to provide surveillance of any ocean waters in


                          -80-
      which the Navy performs il:s missions. Includes re-
      search to: improve si-nal, information processing,
      localization and tracking systems; improve system
      performance in all environments; and develop mobile/
      deployable systems.

b.    FLEET OFFENSE

      Encompasses research to improve and develop weapons
      to increase the Navy's capability and survivability
      in performing the following missions: destroy enemy
      ships; inhibit enemy commercial and military traffic
     movement through blockades; conduct tactical strikes
     against land targets (if such attacks are conducted
      to achieve or support objectives in LAND WARFARE,
     show research in support of these attacks in VIII. C.
     1., LAND WARFARE); and support troops ashore.   In-
     cludes only that research on submarines, surface com-
     batants and aircraft weapon systems intended to destroy
     ships. Research on other parts of the fleet's offensive
     capability are shown in other sections of OCEAN CONTROL
     based upon their primary purpose. Exclude research on
     launched weapons intended for use against shore tar-
     gets. Exclude research to improve amphibious assaults.
     (See VIII. C. 1. b., CLOSE COMBAT)

c.   FLEET AIR DEFENSE

     Encompasses research directed toward area defense weap-
     on systems to defend high value ships and self defense
     wealon systems for short-range defense of ships in
     which they are installed. Area defense systems r-
     search is conducted to provide the naval forces wth
     a capability of reducing attacking air threat to levels
     which can be defended by individual ship self deftnse
     systems. Self defense systems research is directed
     towards developing the capability to defend against
     a few anti-ship air threats delivered in a short time
     interval.

d.   FLEET ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE (ASW)

     Encompasses researcL to provide the capability to
     protect naval forces and material shipped by sea trans-
     port from hostile submarines. Examples of work to
     show here include systems to offset countermeasures
     and systems to improve kill probability.

                  -dl-
     Exclude research to improve location, tracking, and other
     surveillance type systems for submarines. (See VIII. C.
     3. a., OCEAN SURVEILLANCE).

e.   NAVAL MINE WARFARE

     Encompasses research to improve mine systems perfornance
     in offensive and defensive roles. Includes mine research
     to provide the exact level of attrition in (and only in)
     the intended area with reliability, target selectivity,
     and resistance to anticipated countermeasures; improve
     the detection, localization, and neutralization of hostile
     mining operations; and improve delivery platform destruc-
     tion, area neutralization (mine sweeping), individual mine
     locations and neutralization (mine hunting), and individual
     ship protection measures.

     Exclude countermeasures against mine delivery vehicles.
     Such work is shown in the section whose purpose is to
     locate and destroy such vehicles.

f.   OCEAN CONTROL LOGISTICS

     Encompasscs logistics research whose primary purpose is to
     improve equipment procurement,supply, and maintenance, per-
     sonnel movement, and provide facilities in support of one
     or several of the above OCEAN CONTROL objectives. For
     example, research to improve underway replenishment of
     combatant ships is shown here.

g.   OCEAN CONTROL COMMUNICATIONS, COMMAND AND CONTROL

     Encompasses Communications, Command, and Control research
     which applies or supports equally more than one objective
     in OCEAN CONTROL or which has progressed far enough to
     ide.tify OCEAN CONTROL as its primary ptrpose but which
     cannot be specifically applied to any of the OCEAN CONTROL
     objectives. That Commnunications, Command and Control
     research which can be specifically applied to a single
     objective within OCEAN CONTROL should be shown under that
     objective.

h.   OCEAN CONTROL-GENERAL

     Encompasses research which hs progressed far enough to
     identify OCEAN CONTROL as its primary purpose but cannot
     be applied primarily to one OCEAN CONTROL objective.

                          -82-
      4.   COMBAT CAPABILITY-GENERAL

           Encompasses research which has progressed far enough to
           identify COMBAT CAPABILITY as its primary purpose but can-
           not be applied primarily to a COMBAT CAPABILITY objective.
           Also includes research which applies to, supports, or
           performs equally nLre 'han one objective in COMBAT CAPABILITY,
           has wide applicability and cannot be entirely alied to
           a single objective within COMBAT CAPABILITY. For ex-
           ample, includes logistical systems to improve equipment
           maintenance or work to increase communication systems
           service speed which supports more han one objective
           within COMBAr CAPABILITY. More specifically, includes
           research to improve aircraft carriers which launch air-
           craft that perform LAND WARFARE, AIR WARFARE, and/or
           OCEAN CONTROL objectives.

      5.   THEATER NUCLEAR FORCES

           Conventional forces are primarily used to co.nter conventional
           aggression. But circumstances worse than those for which
           conventional forces are planned could warrant the use of
           Theater Nuclear Forces (TNF) in conjunction with conventional
           forces. Research shown here is to develop the capability
           of limited but effective TNF use in the immediate battle
           area and a capability for a range of limited attacks
           against fixed theater-wide targets. Includes work to pro-
           vide TNF with: minimal vulnerability to attark, advantages
           over conventional force alternatives; capability for flex-
           ible, limited, selective, effective attacks without exces-
           sive collateral damage; and security against unauthorized
           use.

D.   DEFENSEWIDE APPLiCATIONS

      To the maximum. extent practicable, research which has exclusively
      military applications will be classified under DETER ATTACK,
      DEFEND CONTINENTIAL UNITED STATES AGAINST ATTACK and COMBAT
      CAPABILITY. If research does not apply primarily to one of
      those categories but is exclusively military research, it
      should be reported here. In addition, DEFENSEWIDE APPLICATIONS
      includes military research which is conducted to meet two or
     more military objectives equally. As examples, research to
      improve sensing devices deployed to gather intelligence to
      facilitate air warfare would be shown urder VIII. C. 2., AIR
     JWARFARE while intelligence gathering research and development


                            -83-
which applies equally to DETER ATTACK and COMBAT CAPABILITY
will be snown here.

This objective includes research to improve defensewide com-
munications, develop more acurate navigation and position-
fixing systems, improve support for current users of intel-
ligence, study nuclear effects, improve military personnel
management and esolve biomedical problems that apply solely
to military personnel.

Exclude research which has clear potential for civilian con-
tribution as well as military contribution (See notes under
MILITARY). Such research would be shown elsewhere in the
structure.

1.   INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS

     Includes research conducted to improve the means and methods
     of collecting, analyzing and disseminating information
     about potential threats to the security of the U.S. and
     its aread forces. Includes work to give longer lead time
     in crisis warnings to field commanders so they can deploy
     their forces; expard technical collection to cope with
     sophisticated target envirotment and monitor detente
     treaties; provide better information to the analyst more
     quickly; and improvE intelligence presentation to user.
     Specific examples include work to: develop programs which
     determine enemy force capabilities; develop systems to
     correlate and automate data support and information dis-
     semination; improve systems to monitor deployment and
     operation of threat forces; and systems to provide threat
     data and projections to support weapons development.

     Exclude that work on intelligence which can be assigned
     solely to a specific weapon system and show such work un-
     der the objective with which the weapon system is ident-
     ified.   In addition, exclude intelligence work which can
     be applied entirely to a specific objective/sub--obective
     in the Military structure. For example, exclude research
     on intelligence to increase survivability of our Missile
     Attack Warning system which would be shown under DEFEND
     CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES AGAINST ATTACK/BALLISTIC MISSILE
     WARNING.




                      -84-
2.   COMMUNICATIONS, COMMAND AND CONTROL

     Research to improve the performance, effectiveness and
     security of defense-wide Communication, Command and Control
     systems is shown here. Includes work to:
       Provide interoperabilty of cryptographic and voice pro-
       cessing equipment;
       Provide end-to-end security;
       Improve voice quality and intelligibility and eliminate or
       reduce manual interface;
       Increase ability to restore DCS trunks and extend long-
       haul service into remote areas;
       Provide long-haul switched digital networks for high-
       speed, real-time, secure, computer-to-computer and com-
       puter-to-remote terminal communications; and
       Improve fixed-plant switched control increased relia-
       bility and speed.

     Exclude io~rk which can be applied entirely to a specific
     objectivw/sub-objective in the MILITARY structure. For
     example, exclude research on communications systems directed
     towards land warfare purposes and show it in the appropriate
     subheading of VIII. C. 1.; LAND WARFARE or if the work
     applies equally to more than two of those subheadings,
     show it in VIII. C. 1. g., LAND WARFARE COMMUNICATIONS,
     COMMAND, AND CONTROL.

3.   AREA NAVIGATION SYSTEMS

     Include researcn to develop accurate and survivable navi-
     gation and position-fixing systems which have equal -?-
     plication to wo or more objectives in the MILITARY struc-
     ture. Specifically includes work in the areas of navi-
     gation and position-fixing, mapping, and charting, and
     work to support that ordnance delivery which cannot be
     applied to military objectives other than DEFENSEWIDE
     APPLICATIONS. For example, navigation research to support
     ordnance delivery which applies equally to bombers in
     nuclear deterrence and ships in ocean control would be
     shown here.

     Also exclude navigation research which does not have
     exclusively military applications and which can be ap-
     plied to civilian situations.

     Exclude research which can be applied to specific ob-
     jectives within the MILITARY structure. For example,

                       -85-
     exclude, navigation research which improves nuclear weap-
     on delivery to improve nuclear deterrence capability.
     (See T'III, A DETER ATTACK).

     Anothier example is navigation systems research to improve
     the effectiveness of air deep strikes. (See VIII. C. 2.,
     AIR WARFARE).

4.   MILITARY PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION

     Encompasses research to achieve maximum effective use of
     military manpower. Includes research on new and better
     ways of maintaining and improving the performance of
     military personnel; to develop new and better ways to
     access, classify, train, sustain and manage careers of
     an adequate number of servicemen and women; to improve
     decisionmaking capability; to reduce life-cycle cost of
     weapon system ownership by reducing personnel and train-
     ing costs; and to develop training devices and simulators.
     Exclude research on post-miliLary careers - veterans
     employment.  (See XIII. D., MANPOWER).

5.   BIOMEDICINE WITH EXCLUSIVE MILITARY APPLICATIONS

     Includes research to find better ways to maintain and
     sustain performance in adverse circumstances or treat
     injuries which only result from military operations such
     as minefields, high velocity fragmentation weapons, anti-
     aircraft missiles, chemical or biological weaponF, nuclear
     weapons effects on personnel and combat stress. Also
     includes efforts to provide standards and criteria for
     exposure to those specific environmental hazards which
     adversely and exclusively affect military personnel; to
     improve protective design in equipment, systems and mis-
     sion operations, such as aircraft armaments, diverse combat
     situations and submarines; to improve man-machine and man-
     mission assignment criteria for use in systems, equip-
     ment and mission design and utilization. Furthermore,
     those health activities which have exclusively military
     applications, such as personnel armor and the development
     of deep submergence biomedical equipment and techniques,
     will be shown here.

     However, biomedical research which does not apply exclusively
     to military environments will be excluded and shown under




                      -86-
     the appropriate sub-category of HEALTH or other objectives
     in the overall structure.  For example, infectious disease
     research will be shown in V. A. 12., INFECTIOUS AND
     PARASITIC DISEASES; alcoholism or drug abuse research will
     be shown under V. C. 1., ALCHOLOISM, or V. C. 2., DRUG
     ABUSE; and work to develop aircraft crash injury prevention
     systems will be shown under XII. A. 3., IMPROVE AVIATION
     SAFETY. Also exclude that work which aplies to non-
     military situations or environments as well, such as
     heat, cold, altitude, deep-diving, radar, lasers and
     aircraft accelerations.

6.   NUCLEAR WEAPONS EFFECTS

     Includes research to assure maximum survivability against
     attack and minimizes vulnerability of forces when penetrating
     enemy defenses.

     The work shown here does not apply primarily to another
     objective or sub-objective of the MILITARY objective.
     Exclude that nuclear effects research which is conducted
     primarily to resolve specific problems such as nuclear
     weapon-carri!.ng missiles survivability and combat fighter
     survivability. (See VIII. A., DETER ATTACK and VIII. C.,
     COMBAT CAPABILITY).

     Also exclude research on nuclear effects on military
     personnel. (See VIII. D. 5., BIOMEDICINE WITH EXCLUSIVE
     MILITARY APPLICATIONS).

7.   CHEMICAL/BIOLOCGICAL    WEAPONS

     Encompasses research on chemical or biological weapons to
     improve the capability to defend against or deter such an
     attack. This includes research into means of warning
     against attack and delivering these weapons if deterrence
     fails.

     Exclude research oriented toward medical research into the
     development of vaccines, prophylactic and other therapeutic
     drugs and other protective measures.  (See VIII. D. 5.,
     BIOMEDICINE WITH EXCLUSIVE MILITARY APPLICATIONS).

8.   WEATHER MODIFICATION

     Includes all research conducted to develop weather as a

                            -7-
destructive force. The research shown here has the
                                                    pri-
mary purpose of creating difficulties or causing
                                                 damage
or harm to an enemy force by modifying the weather
                                                   which
affects an enemy force.

Exclude research which has an exclusive military prp.ose
that is reflected e!sewhere in MILITARY and which
                                                  is con-
ducted to improve the effectiveness of troops, weapons
and equipment. This sort of research would be shown
elsewhere in MILITARY.

Also exclude research which has the potential to contribute
to civilian applications. For example, exclude fog
                                                    dis-
persion or lightning modifications. (See III. D. 2.,
CLIMATE STUDY AND WEATHER MODIFICATION).




                -88-
      IX,   NATURAL RESOURCES




xx-
                                NATURAL RESOURCES


                                                                             PAGE

A.   Forests ...............                             . ......             89
B.   Land. .             . .. .    . . . . . .. . . . ........                90
C.   Minerals. .               . . . . . .    . . . . .. . . . . . .90
     1. Improve Means of Locating and Assessing Mineral
         Sources ..............                        .........         .    90
     2. Improve Mineral Extraction and Recovery Techniques. ..                90
     3. Improve Mineral Processing Techniques . .. . . . .                    91
     4. Improve Techniques for Reusing and Recycling
         Materials or Products Made from Minerals. . . . . . . .             91
     5. Improve Mineral Supply/Demand Analysis . . .. . . . .                91
D.   Recreation.                 .   . . . . . . . . . .. .       . . ....   91
E.   Water . . .                    ..........................               92
F.   Wildlife. .           . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .      92




                                4-k-   3
IX.   NATURAL RESOURCES

           Encompasses research on improving the means of assessing, pro-

      tecting, managing, extracting, processing, marketing, using and re-

      using resources which exist naturally and can be used for man's

      advantage.     Specifically included here are water; minerals; forests

      and related resou:ces; land resources like grassland and rangeland;

      wildlife; and recreation opportunities.

            Exclude primarily pollution-oriented research which is conducted

      to identify pollutant effects, understand pollutant processes and

      abate or control pollution that may affect     he resources shown here

      (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT).

      A.   FORESTS

           Includes research to improve the means and methods of assessing,
           protecting, managing, processing, utilizing, distributing and
           marketing forest and related resources and products. Also in-
           cludes research to develop new or improved uses of these re-
           sources. The following work exemplifies the research which
           should be shown here:
             Increase timber supply;
             Improve management of trees and timber;
             Eliminate or control destructive insects and diseases;
             Improve means of evaluating forest resources;
             Improve management of fvzest watersheds;
             Increase utilization of fore:t products and forest or
             milling residues;
             Improve economics and marketing of forest resources; and
             Improve technology to utilize wood and paper wastes.

           Exclude research conducted to improve food and agricultural
           production, processing, and related activities (See IV., FOOD,
           FIBER AND OTHER AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS).
           Exclude research related to reducing and fighting forest. fires
           (See III. D. 3., DISASTER AND NATURAL HAZARDS SUTDIES AND CON-
           TROL), forest wildlife and forest recreation (See WILDLIFE and
           RECREATION below, respectively).


                                    -89-
B.   LAND

     7'cludes research to assess, protect and manage non-foragable
        Isslands, rangelands, tundra and similar resources. For ex-
     ample, efforts to improve reclamation methods after strip mining
     or other disturbances will be shown here.

     Exclude research related to forest products (see above) and/or
     research to protect, manage and improve the quality of soil used
     in food production (See IV. B., IMPROVE PRODUCTION).
     Exclude research o.i land use planning which will be shown through-
     out the structure where it applies.

C.   MINERALS

     Includes research to improve the means and technology used ia
     locating, assessing, extracting, processing and recycling min-
     erals. This includes minerals which are on or under the ocean
     floor.

     Exclude metallurgy research (See X. H., MATERIALS).
     Exclude research related to energy producing minerals such as
     oil, gas, coal and uranium (See II., ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND CON-
     SERVATION).
     Exclude research related to minerals which is conducted because
     of environmental considerations, for example, to reduce pollution
     which results from iron ore processing. (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL
     QUALITY IMP'     'IT).
     Exclude            lated to mining safety (See XIII. F., SAFETY).

         1.   IMPROVE MEANS OF LOCATING AND ASSESSING MINERAL SOURCES

              Includes research to improve the methods and technology
              used in locating and assessing mineral resources. Work
              to be shown here is exemplified by efforts to enhance
              mineral alteration halos.

        2.    IMPROVE MINERAL EXTRACTION AND RECOVERY TECHNIQUES

              Includes research to increase the effectiveness and ef-
              ficiency of mining techniques. Research to be shown here
              is exemplified by efforts to:
                Maximize recovery of irreplaceable resources;
                Improve fragmentation, materials handling and ground
                control;
                Improve water handling and control technology used in
                mining;

                             -90-
               Develop advanced, highly mechanized and automated mining
               systems;
               Improve the use of explosives in mining;
               Improve mine layouts, undercutting and ore removal;
               and
               Prevent subsidence and improve fill techniques.

              Exclude research to improve means of reclaiming land which
              has been strip mined (see LAND above).

        3.    IMPROVE MINERAL PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

              Includes research to improve the methods used in processing
              minerals which have been extracted from the earth. This
              entry is exemplified by research to recover minerals from
              ore grades of progressively lower grades, to increase
              understanding of and technology for materials substituc-
              ability, and to improve waste handling and disposal.

        4.    IMPROVE TECHNIQUES FOR REUSING AND RECYCLING MATERIALS
              OR PRODUCTS MADE FROM MINERALS

              Includes research on improving methods of recovering and
              recycling mineral products.

         5.   IMPROVE MINERAL SUPPLY/DEMAND ANALYSIS
                                                                of
              Includes research conducted to increase knowledge
              mineral information-related activities.

D.   RECREATION
                                                                   re-
     Includes research to increase and improve the use of natural
                                       This entry is exemplified  by
     sources for recreation purposes.
     research to:
       Improve resource management practices;
                                                                  and
       Increase understanding of the use of forests, open spaces
       parks as recreation environments; and
       Identify and coordinate better the various uses of forests.

     Exclude research related to wildlife which is shown below.
     Exclude research to resolve water quality problems that result
                                                                AND
     from increased recreational use. (See III. C. 2., CONTROL
     ABATE POLLUTANTS/WATER).




                               -91-
E.   WATER

     Includes research to improve the resource assessment, develop-
     ment, planning, conservation and management of estuaries, water-
     sheds and fresh water. Also includes research to improve methods
     used to onvert saline or brackish water to fresh water. In
     this analysis, snow and ice are considered water sources. This
     entry specifically includes efforts to increase the water sup-
     ply for residential, municipal or industrial purposes. In ad-
     dition, marine plants which are not used for food are included
     here. The following work exemplifies the research to be shown
     here:
       Develop means of reuse and recycling of water;
       Improve water resources planning, policymaking, management,
       financing, operation, and regulation;
       Protect fresh water from overdraft;
       Improve the efficiency of water use;
       Improve means of measuring and predicting snow accumulation
       and melt;
       Increase useful conversion of snow and ice;
       Improve seawater desalting systems which use membranes;
       Improve systems which recover fresh water from brackish
       water; and
       Study saline water conversion methods for applicability to
       geothermal brines.

     Exclude research to improve means of irrigation.   (See IV. B.,
     IMPROVE PRODUCTION).

     Exclude research related to water quality and conversely water
     pollution such as the adverse impacts of thermal discharges,
     general degradation of fresh water by pollutants and soil run-
     off.  (See pertinent entries in III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IM-
     PROVEMENT).

     Exclude research to increase understanding of the processes and
     characteristics of oceans, estuaries and inland water bodies (See
     X. K., OCEANOGRAPHIC SCIENCES).

     Exclude research related to marine animal life (See WILDLIFE be-
     low).

F.   WILDLIFE

     Includes research to assess, maintain and increase diversity and
     productivity of wildlife and marine animals, to develop and implement


                            -92-
recovery plans for endangered species and develop effective
means of controlling undesirable wildlife. Also includes
                                                          re-
search related to sport fisheries. Work to be included here
                                                              is
exemplified by research to:
  Develop better means for enabling salmon to bypass dams on
  rivers like the Columbia;
  Develop more effective means of increasing the Bald Eagle
  population; and
  Develop means of dispersing, distributing or eliminating huge
  starling and grackle flocks.

Exclude research to determine the effects of environmental
                                                            con-
taminants on wildlife, especially on fishery resources (See
                                                             III.
A., IDENTIFY POLLUTANT EFFECTS).




                       -93-
X.   SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BASE




                                   ~-3..
                                   SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BASE



                                                                                            PAGE
 A.     Astronomy . . . . .     . . . . . .                                 .94
         i. Our Solar System                             ..       * *. **.*
        2. Stars and Stellar Evolution .                 .
                                                                                             95
                                                                                             95
        3. Stellar Systems and Motions . .
                                                      . . . . . . . . . .                    95
        4. Galactic and Extragalactic Astronomy
                                                                          . . . . .          96
        5. Astronomical nstrumentation and
                                                       Development           .      .        96
B.      Atmospheric Sciences                                                                 96
C.      Biology .........                    ......
D.      Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                    97
E.                                                          . .. . .      .           .     101
        Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                     . . .          . .              . .    103
F.      Engineering . . . . . . . .          . . . . .              .    .104
G.     Geological Sciences . . . . . . . .
                                                     . . . . ....                           105
H.     Miterials *    ....  .          .....                .....                 .         106
I·     Mathematical Sciences                    . . .       .
 J.    Measurement and Standards Technology
                                                                                 .          107
                                                            ..                 .      .     110
 K.    Oceanographic Sciences     .  . .      . . . .                   .        .
                                                         .                                 110
 L,    Physics .     . .   . . . . . .                  . . . . . . .               . .    112
 M.    Psychology . . . . . . . .        *. . .         . ..                . . . .        112
N.    Science Information Technology .            . . .. . . . . . . . .
      Science Policy, Management Technology                                                13
                                                       and Other
      Special Prog,:ams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           114
P.    Social Sciences .................   . . . . . . . ....                        .      114
Q.    Surveying, Mapping, Charting and Geodesy
                                                          .        . . .. . . .            115
R.    Telecommunications . . . . . . . . .
                                                     . . . . . . . . . .                   11




                                              1 3-
X.   SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BASE

            For the purpose of this analysis the goal of strengthening the nation's

            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BASE is defined to include the following:

            --Those activities which are undertaken to enhance understanding

            of any scientific and technological subject and which are not

            directed primarily toward any other objective in the balance of

            the structure;

            --Those activities which are undertaken to apply knowledge to

            produce and/or demonstrate the feasibility of new concepts,

            designs and products and which cannot be said to be   learly

            diiected to any single objective in the balance of the structure

            but which have equal potential payoffs in two or more objectives;

            and

            --Those activities which are undertaken to develop the basis for

            broad national science policy decisions.

            Specific examples of items to be either included in or excluded

     from the disciplines within SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BASE may be found

     within each scope note.



       A.    ASTRONOMY

            Encompasses research to promote a better understanding of our
             solar system; to tbtter understand the physical structure and
             evolution of stars; to understand the characteristics of stellar
             aggregations with small dimensions as compared with the galaxy;
             and to increase our knowledge of the interstellar medium, the
             Milky Way Galaxy, extragalactic objects and the evolution and
             structure of the Universe. A separate entry, ASTRONOMICAL


                                     -94-
  INSTRUMENTATION AND DEVELOPMENT,
                                    is provided for research to
  improve the instrumentation used
                                    in astronomical observations
 if this or improved instrumentation
                                       applies to more than one
 sub-heading under ASTROMONY.
                                If it applies exclusively to one
 sub-heading, it should be shown
                                   there. Facilities and nstru-
 mentation funding which supports
                                    astronomy will be treated as
 an overhead item in accordance with
                                     the GUIDELINES FOR PREPA-
 RATION.

 1.     OUR SOLAR SYSTEM

       Encompasses research to promote
                                        a better understanding of
       the several components of our
                                      solar system including the
       sun; planets and satelites; asteroids,
       interplanetary medium; and the          comets and the
                                       origin and evolution- f the
       solar system.

       Exclude studies of the sun's features
                                             which ae shared with
       many other stars as opposed to
                                      those studies which relate
       mainly to the sun itself.

2.     STARS AND STELLAR EVOLUTION

       Encompasses research to improve
                                        the understanding of the
       physical structure and evolution
                                         of stars. All stellar
      electromagnetic radiations (X-rays,
                                            ultraviolet, visible,
       infrared and radio waves) are
                                     observed
      cludes research to study stellar         and studied. In-
                                         births, stellar composition,
      atmospheric and internal structure
                                           of stars, stellar evolu-
       tion and stability at all evolutionary
                                               phases, stellar
      deaths, and cataloging of the
                                     properties of stars.
      Exclude solar and binary star
                                     research.   (See X. A. 3.,
      STELLAR SYSTEMS AND MOTIONS.)

3.    STELLAR SYSTEMS AND MOTIONS

       Eucompasses research to understand
                                            the characteristics of
       stellar aggregations with dimensions
                                              small compared with
       the galaxy, especially as those
                                        characteristics are re-
      vealed by stellar motions including
                                             dynamic coupling. In-
      cludes research to study precise
      of the positions, motions and      observations  and catalogs
                                     parallaxes of stars; stellar
      associations and clusters; and
                                       dynamics of small systems.




                           -95-
4.   GALACTIC AND EXTRAGALACTIC ASTRONOMY

     Encompasses research to increase knowledge and understanding
     of the interstellar medium, the Milky Way Galaxy, extragalactic
     objects and the evolution and structure of the Universe. In-
     cludes research to study cosmology, extragalactic objects, Milky
     Way G&laxy, interstellar medium, radio sources, high energy
     astrophysics, and cataloging of galaxy properties.

5.   ASTRONOMICAL INSTRUMENTATION AND DEVELOPMENT

     Encompasses research to imorove the instruments used in making
     astronomical observations. This instrumentation development
     includes research on the feasibility of new, promising tech-
     niques, application of new technologies to astronomical use,
     design and construction of new instruments, and improvement
     of existing instruments.

     Exclude instrumentation research and development which applies
     exclusively to one sub-heading within ASTRONOMY and show i:
     there.

B.   ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES

     The purpose of the research shown here is to provide a funda-
     mental understanding and knowledge of the physical and chemical
     properties, the composition, behavior and processes of the
     planetary atmospheres of the solar system. Includes research
     on the problems of the mesosphere and thermosphere including
     the ionosphere, and studies of such phenomena as airglow,
     aurorae, magnetic fields and radiatiol belts. Also includes
     solar-terrestrial research which studies the highest extents
     of the earth's atmosphere and the near-earth space environment
     in order to:   understand the sun's transmittal of plasmas,
     radiant energy, and fields into space; study interactions of
     the sun's particles, fields and radiation with earth's atmo-
     sphere; understand coupling processes between the magnetosphere
     and ionosphere; and use the earth's magnetosphere to observe
     fundamental plasma processes. The following work exemplifies
     the type of research to be shown here:
        Remote sensing techniques to study physical and chemical
        processes at various atmospheric heights;
        Study ionized components with radar;
        Study ultraviulet radiation charged particle interactions;
        Assess all phenomena associated directly with luminescence
        in the high anosphere;


                            -96-
        Study temperature, pressure, density, turbulence and other
        dynamic and kinetic properties of the upper atmosphere;
        Study earth and solar atmospheres' influence on magnetic
        fields;
        Investigate atmospheric plasma instabilities; and
        Study relation between suai's magnetic field and communication
        black outs on Earth.

C.   BIOLOGY

     Encompasses research to increase the understanding of life and
     living matter in all its forms and phenomena, both terrestrial
     and extraterrestrial, except biological oceanography (See X. K.,
     OCEANOGRAPHIC SCIENCES.) All research and development related
     to biology for which the primary purpose is directed toward
     annther major objective in this structure should be shown there.
     For example, studies of the contribution of genetic traits to
     such diseases as tuberculosis, arthritis, or kidney disease
     should be reported under the specific disease category in the
     HEALTH objective. Specific exclusions are identified below.
     Biology is divided below into smaller components for definitional
     purposes only.

     Cellular Biology: This section aims to understand the role of
      the cell in biological functions. Research is focused on the
      cell as the fundamental organizational unit of living organisms.
     It involves the analysis of cellular phenomena at the molecular
     and subcellular levels and involves the use of a wide range
     of viruses, bacteria, algae, protozoa, fungi, and higher plant
     and animal cells. Phenomena for which understanding is     ught
     are:   fertilization; cell division, intercellular interactions;
     the nature, replication, transmission, and expression of genetic
     material; growth and development; the development, organization,
     structure, and function of cell organelles; differentiation
     and acquisition of specialized cell function; and aging. The
     major elements of cellular biology .re described further in
     the paragraphs below.

         Developmental Biology focuses on mechanisms that underlie
         cell differentiation and the changes that occur in organisms
         as they pass fom the embryonic to the adult state. The
         goals of research in this segment are to increase our
         understanding in such areas as fertilization; control of
         molecular, cellular, and tissue interactions by genetic
         and epigenetic regulartory mechanisms; mechanisms of cell
         division and cell movement; differentiation of organelles;
         tultrastructural morphology of cells and the development of

                            -97-
    specialized cell functions.

    Genetic Biology concentrates on understanding the organization,
    transmission, and functioning of the hereditary information.
    This includes the molecular analysis and organization of
    genetic material; its replication, recombina ion, and al-
    teration; and its translation into various rtll components.
    Emphasis is placed on studies of the genetic control of
    cellular functions. Studies are carried out with viruses,
    bacteria, and other microorganisms, as well as on higher
    plant and animal cells.

    Human Cell Biology fosters work in mammalian (particularly
    human) cell research with special emphasis on problems
    that require multidiscipliaary coordinated effort for
    solution. Thp specific aim of this group of research is
    to increase our understanding of molecular organization
    and structure of chromosomes and membranes, and also the
    molecular aspects of intracellular regulation. Such re-
    search requires support of facilities for growing cells
    in culture on a mass scale and the development of cell
    culture and microchemical analysis technology.

Exclude research and development which is performed to con-
tribute to the elucidation of causes, cures, diagnoses, and
methods of preventing human diseases (See V. A., DISEASES AND
INJURIES.)

Ecology and Population Biology: Research in this group is re-
sponsible for promoting an understanding of the attributes of
associations of organisms as they occur naturally, as well as
those of distinct kinds of plants and animals. This section is
further described in the paragraphs below.

    Systematic Biology xamines the affinities of similar species
    of organisms and pecies groups in terms of differentiation,
    identification and their probable modes of evolutionary
    origin and development. The aim of such research is to
    encourage descriptive and evolutionary studies (including
    population genetics) utilizing theoretical and experimental
    methods for a wide spectrum of organisms. It includes
    pinjects designed to sample endangered biotas and provide
    baseline descriptive accounts focused on imp_.ving basic
    environmental studies. This section also includes re-
    search on the forms of life existing in previous geological
    periods (paleontology.)


                       -98-
     Ecology is concerned with the interrelationships among
     organisms, and between organisms and their nonliving en-
     vironment. Organisms occur in nature as population of
     distinct species of plants and animals within biotic as-
     semblages of definable geographic extent. Their ecological
     relationships may be studied at several levels of com-
     plexity; individual organisms in their abiotic environment,
     populations, communities and ecosystems. The purpose
     here is to promote research on the interactions of or-
     ganisms within various terrestrial and in-land water eco-
     systems.

     Ecosystem Studies are concerned with the comprehensive
     description of ecosystem structure, the ordering of pro-
     cesses, responses of ecosystems to manipulation or stress,
     and meaningful simulation and analysis of characteristics.
     The basic thrust is oriented toward understanding patterns
     of organization and dynamics of function in ecosystems.
     Because ecosystems are integrated wholes, it is necessary
     to maintain parity among component processes and population
     with respect to depth of understanding. Emphasis is placed
     on increasing the types of ecosystems under investigation,
     studying important ecosystem processes, and developing
     more realistic and efficient simulations and analyses.

     Biological research resources insure the availability of
     resources that are national in scope and considered es-
     sential for the conduct of biological research, such as
     field-research facilities, systematic research collections,
     living-organism stock centers, and data banking.

Exclude the biological aspects of research projects whose pri-
mary objective is the prevention and control of agricultural
diseases (See IV. B., IMPROVE PRODUCTION or IV. E., IPROVE
SAFETY), water pollution and pesticide effects (See III. EN-
VIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT), and forest and water resources
(See IX., NATURAL RESOURCES.)

Biochemistry and Physiology: This group of research is concerned
with functional mechanisms operating at three biological lev-
els--molecular, metabolir, and integrative. The objective of
research at the molecular level is to identify and characterize
the chemical properties and complex interactions of the molecules
involved in biological function. The objective at t!.a metabolic
level is to investigate the pathways and regulation of the pro-
cesses involved in the building up and destruction of protoplasm.


                       -99-
The integrative level objective is to study the hormonal and
neural mechanisms which underlie the functional states of or-
ganisms and their adaptive behavior. Living organisms, in
particular multicellular plants and animals, must have a means
of transporting materials between their different parts as
well as a means of relaying messages so that the different
parts and functions operate in a coordinated fashion. Under-
standing a given function ultimately depends upon elucidating
the reactions of its chemical components, identifying the bases
of their functional states, and resolving the regulatory mech-
anisms by which a given process is integrated to function in
the organism as a whole. The biochemistry and physiology sec-
tion is further described in the paragraphs below.

     Biochemistry is concerned primarily with the chemical
     properties and interactions of purified molecrls and
     complexes of molecules involved in biological function.
     It aims at understanding a given reaction in molecular
     terms, and how cell structures achieve the high degree of
     internal molecular order that allowe them to carry out
     sequential and coordinated chemical reactions.

     Biophysics promotes investigations of molecular systems
     at the interface of the biological and physical sciences.
     Emphasis is oriented toward solving the structure of en-
     zymes, nucleic acids and other micromolecules, and analyzing
     changes that occur during the functional state in physio-
     chemical terms.

     Regulatory Biclogy promotes research on those processes by
     which cells, tissues, and organisms are regulated from
     birth to death. This research effort focuses on the bal-
     ance and regulation of physiological processes essential
     for survival in the varied internal and external environ-
     ments.  It includes also the role of hormones in regulating
     and cormnunication roles.

     Metabolic Biology is concerned with those chemical changes
     in which energy is created or used by biological reactions.
     This includes the synthesis of new material for the re-
     pair of cells, or for growth, or the formation of special-
     ized cell products and also the catabolic processes in-
     volved in the destruction of cell materials. The aim of
     this research is to understand bioenergetic processes such
     as photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation, transport pro-
     cesses by which materials are moved across and distributed
     within cells, and nutrition.

                       -100-
                 Neurobiology has a relatively narrow focus upon the nervous
                 system and its integrative functions. That includes environ-
                 mental stimuli, their reception by sense organs, processing
                 by the central nervous system, the resulting effect on
                 other body organs, and the consequent behavior of the or-
                 ganisms and a range of methods extending from morphological
                 to biochemical.

                 Psychobiology supports a broad spectrum of research in ex-
                 perimental psychology and ethology. It focuses on sensory
                 and perceptual processes, learning, memory, thinking and
                 problem solving, motivation, genetic and environmental
                 effects on behavior, and laboratory and field studies of
                 early experience, imprinting, orientation, reproductive
                 behavior, and the social and communicative behavior of
                 animals.

          Exclude research to study non-biological molecular processes
          (See X. D., CHEMISTRY), human behavior and psychological phe-
          nomena (See X. P., SOCIAL SCIENCES or X. M., PSYCHOLOGY), ma-
          ipulation and control of experimental procedures (See X. E.,
          COMPUTERS), and the development of new instrumentation with
          broad applications (See X. F., ENGINEERING). Also excluded
          is research which is performed to contribute to the elucidation
          of causes, cures, diagnoses, and methods of preventing human
          diseases (See V. A., DISEASES AND INJURIES).

D.   CHEMISIRY

     Encompasses research to provide a fundamental understanding of the
     synthesis, tructure, properties and mutual interconversion of sub-
     stances. More specifically includes research into the sub-fields of
     chemistry below.

     Synthetic Organic and Natural Product Chemistry: The study of syn-
     thetic methodology and chemistry of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocar-
     bons (both substituted and unsubstituted by functional groups),
     heterocyclic compounds, organophosphorous, organosulfur and organ-
     osilicon compounds. Also, the isolation, characterization and syn-
     thesis of naturally occurring substances.

     Synthetic Inorganic and Organometallic Chemistry: The study of the
     synthesis, characterization and chemistry of compounds whose properties
     are determined predominantly by elements other than carbon. Depending
     upon the bonding arrangements of the constituent elements the com-
     pounds are generally classified in one of the following categories--
     inorganic; coordination; organometallic; or organometalloid.
                                  -101-
Structural hemistry:    Studies of the molecular structure of solids,
gases, liquids, and solutions using a variety of spectroscopic and
diffraction techniques.   These techniques must be capable of supplying
data concerning the geometrical relationships between the atoms in a
molecule.

Quantum Chemistry:  Studies in quantum and balance theory including
quantum mechanical calculations of wave functions, energy levels,
transition moments, and other atomic and molecular properties. In-
cludes experimental (mostly molecular beam) and theoretical research
on scattering phenomena with emphasis on collision cross sections,
chemical reaction rates, potential energy surfaces, and intermolecular
forces. Electronic spectroscopy, optical pumping, and electron spin
resonance are used to provide information about energy levels and
electron distributions in molecules. Also includes the chemistry of
excited states, studies in energy trarsfer, fluorescence, nonradiative
processes, and chemiluminescence, and research on laser development.

Chemical Dynamics: Dynamics is concerned with research on mechanisms
and kinetics of chemical transformations. The reactions of neutral
molecules, radicals, and ions, in gruund and excited states, and in
condensed or gas phases are included. Photochemistry, theoretical
studies on reaction rates, mechanistic studies of biochemical trans-
formations and radiation chemistry, and studies to generalize and
predict chemical phenomena are also included.

Chemical Analysis: Chemical analysis involves sampling, separation,
and determination of the composition of matter. Projects range from
trace level characterization to ultra pure sample research and in-
volve both macroscopic and microscopic studies. Primary areas of
focus include separation science; electroanalytical chemistry;
emission absorption, electron and mass spectrometry; trace analysis,
microscopy, thermal and data acquisition methods, interpretation
and control.

Nuclear Chemistry: Studies of nuclear reactions, nuclear spectroscopy
and structure and radiochemistry.

Chemical Thermodynamics: Studies to understand thermodynamic and
other equilibrium properties of bulk matter. Includes work to develop
principles and acquire data on chemical change energetics; improve
understanding of phase changes; study structure and dynamics of liq-
uids; study solid-gas and solid-liquid iterfaces; and acquire and
analyze equilibrium and thermodynamic data on high temperature inor-
ganic vapor species. Also includes work in colloid chemistry which
studies the properties of surfaces including research in heterogenous


                             -102-
     catalysis, physisorption and chemisorption, molecular beam stulies of
     surfaces, auger spectroscopy, surface states, surface traaspor :, and
     surface tensions.

     Exclude research to examine:  Chemical properties and processes of
     seawater, large lakes, and related aqueous solutions; naturally oc-
     curring and man-made compounds in oceans, lakes and related water
     bodies; biogeochemical processes in natural waters; and chemical
     aspects of oceanatmospheric interactions from this section. (See
     X. K., OCEANOGRAPHIC SCIENCES).

     Exclude studies to understand the earth's chemistry, composition,
     age, and mineral origins, and the chemical processes that shape the
     earth. (See X. G., GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES).

     Exclude research to understand the chemical properties and inter-
     actions of molecules involved in biological function.  (See X. C.,
     BIOLOGY).

     Exclude research to understand scientific nd engineering principles
     underlying the chemical processes used in various "process industries"
     such as polymer, glass, pharmaceutical, a d paper industries. (See
     X. F., ENGINEERING).

     Exclude studies to understand the chemistry of chrystalline solids,
     amorphous maerials, semi-ordered liquids and cryogenic liquids and
     research in the preparation, characterization, and physical and
     chemical properties of polymers, (See X. H., MATERIALS).

     Exclude Solid State chemistry research which includes the study of
     amorphous solids, glasses, and crystal chemistry. (See X. H.,
     MATERIALS).

E.   COMPUTERS

     Encompasses research directed toward the development of advanced com-
     puter systems and formulation of policies to deal with the technological
     aspects of the computer's impact on society. Includes research to:
     develop new techniques and design approaches for operating systems
     software, programming languages, compilers, program verification
     techniques and analysis of algorithms; develop advanced computer
     hardware design and development leading to the enhancement of capacity,
     reliability and usability; develop computer network including specif-
     ically applicable communication system considerations; and analyze
     problems of secure systems and controlled ccess to data bases to
     provide a basis for needed regulation.



                                 -103-
     Exclude research which is primarily directed toward advancing the use
     of computer technology in a particular discipline, objective or prob-
     lem as outlined elsewhere in this structure. Such research should
     be included with the appropriate discipline, objective or problem.

F.   ENGINEERING

     The purpose of this research is to improve the understanding of en-
     gineering principals and methodologies. Engineering is concerned
     with the application of knowledge in the design and creation of
     structures, systems, processes and devices. Engineering research
     provides improved understanding of the fundamental principles in-
     volved in these engineering activities and also produces general
     methodologies applicable to broad classes of engineering problems.
     Each component of engineering research comprising this section yields
     general information useful for engineering activities in a range of
     various applications. Engineering research is performed in many
     different disciplines. This research includes but is not limited to
     work in the categories below.

     Chemical Processes Used i-   Process Industries:   Petroleum, metallurgy,
     cement, food.

     Mechanics: Response of materials and structures to stress loading,
     dynamics and vibrations of machinery and structures, interaction of
     constructed systems with natural environments (soil mechanics and
     geological effects associated with foundations in the earth, struc-
     tural stress due to wind or water waves), fluid flow and related
     phenomena (including turbulence, acoustics, hydrology, flows in
     porous media such as soils).

     Elec'orical and Optical Phenomena: Electronic circuits and devices,
     information storage, processing and transmission, optical transmission
     and reception, laser devices for local and remote sensing.

     Systems Analysis and Control: Methodology 'iseful for analysis, design,
     and control of large interacting systems.

     Exclude and show where appropriate engineering research projects aimed
     at any one of the objectives elsewhere in the overall structure.
     For example, exclude research oncerned with design of a particular
     system, structure, process, or device which will improve a specific
     natural resource use, develop a new energy source, or improve a trars-
     portation system. (See IX., NATURAL RESOURCES; IT., ENERGY DEVELOP-
     MENT AND CONSERVATION; or XI,., TRANSPORTATION; respectively). The
     following work exemplifies the type of research to exclude from this
     section:

                                   -104-
      Develop specific sensing and pattern analysis devices to measure
      crop yields or detect pest and bacterial effects (See IV., FOOD,
      FIBER, AND OTHER AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS);
      Develop remote sensing equipment to detect a particular scarce
      mineral or energy source (See IX., NATURAL RESOURCES or II., ENERGY
      DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION);
      Use an engineering technique for health services delivery (See V..
      HEALTH); and
       Develop a ship traffic control system (See XII. D., MARINE).

G.   GEOLOGICAL SCIENCEL

     Encompasses research to provide man with a fundamental understanding
     and knowledge of the earth, the structure and composition of its rocks
     and the processes which form and modify these rocks. For convenience,
     studies of planetary and lunar rocks are included in this section.
     In addition, that part of hydrological cycle that deals with water on
     and in the continental crust are included here. More specifically
     this objective includes research in the areas of interest below.

     Geology: Includes research whose primary purpose is to increase the
     understanding of the rocks of the earth's crust, its land forms, and
     the processes that have formed and are continually modifying them.
     Research pertinent t testing the Plate Tectonics theory should be
     shown here. The following work illus rates the kind of research to
     be shown here:
       Field investigations of geometrical configuration of folds, faults,
       related rock structures, distribution of rock strata, and
       minerological composition of rock bodies;
       Laboratory simulation of natural geological processes such as stream
       erosion, sedimentation, shoreline dynamics, and glacial flow mechanics;
       Stratigraphic studies to obtain eata on the changing climates of the
       past; and
       Floral and faunal content of sedimentary rocks.

     Geochemistry: Includes research on the earth's chemistry, the com-
     position, age, and origin of its minerals, and the nature of chem-
     ical processes that have shaped and are shaping it. Chemical changes
     and processes in mineral structure and systems, as they relate to
     the Plate Tectonics theory are shown here. The following research
     exemplifies the type of work to be shown here:
       Absolute (radioisotope) ages of rocks and specific minerals;
       Temperatures prevailing during past geological events;
       Chemical character of rock masses and evolutionary history of those
       bodies;
       Physical-chemical conditions under which natural materials were


                                  -105-
       formed; and
       Chemical nature of other bodies in our solar system t ru study
       of extra-terrestrial samples.

     Geophysics:  Includes physical properties of the solid earth, such &as
     studies to determine the earth's dimensions, its magnetic, electrical
     and gravitational fields, and its dynamic processes. Studies of
     physical changes and processes as they relate to the Plate Tectonics
     theory should be reported here. The following research exemplifies
     the kind of work to be shown here:
       Material behavior under high temperatures and pressures which exist
       deep in the earth;
       Paleomagnetic reconstruction of continental positions;
       The earth's magnetic fieldincluding its origin and reversals;
       Determine physical properties of earth materials in temperature and
       pressure regions of earth's interior; and
       Gravity and heat flow studies to better understand plate movements.
     Exclude seismology research conducted primarily to understand the
     physical basis of earthquakes cr to improve earthquake prediction and
     prevention. Also exclude research on other natural hazards such as
     volcanoes and landslides.  (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT).

     Exclude research which increases the fundamental knowledge in geological
     sciences but which is primarily conducted to accomplish one of the
     specific objectives in the overall structure and show where appropriate.
     For example, exclude research to better understand earth's resources,
     such as mineral deposits.  (See IX., NATURAL RESOURCES).

     Exclude research in geology, geochemistry and geophysics of marine
     areas. (See X. K., OCEANOGRAPHIC SCIENCES).

H.   MATERIALS

      Encompasses research to study the condensed phase including crystalline
     materials, amorphous solids and glasses, and liquids. Special consider-
     ation is given their properties and behavior from the standpoint of
     atomistic, crystallographic, electronic, optical, thermal, mechanical
     properties and in particular of the structure-sensitive relationships.
     A direct result of the quantitative approaches taken in the study of
     materials has been the elucidation of predictive, fundamental mechanisms
     for the physical, chemical, electrical and mechanical processes and
     phenomena that occur in, on, to, and with the condensed phase, The
     results of materials research are often multidirectional and hence
     supportive to more than one objective in the overall structure.

     Includes research to increase our understanding and ability to   xplain,


                                  -106-
      predict, and control physical and chemical properties
                                                            of materials.
      This involves studies of the electronic structure, optical,
                                                                  magnetic,
      structural, transport, and thermal properties of so.ids,
                                                               liquids,
      quantum liquids, thin films, and surfaces, The following
                                                                work ex-
      emplifies the type of research shown here:
        Investigations of the electronic structure of solids;
        The energy, symmetry and lifetime of electronic states
                                                               in solids;
        Modes of motion in solids; and
        Studies on the nonequilibrium phenomena and phase L ansitions
                                                                      in
        solids and liquids.

      Includes research to enhance our capability to provide
                                                              techniques
      for preparing new materials as well as to improve on
                                                            the preparation
      of known materials. Also of interest is the characterization
                                                                     of
      materials as well as studies of bonding, valency and
                                                           associated
      effects, the structure and mobility of defects in solids,
                                                                 catalysts,
      chemisorption, and the amorphous state. Emphasis here
                                                              lies in the
      bulk properties of materials as opposed to chemical systems
                                                                   viewed
      from an atomic or molecular perspective.  (See CHEMISTRY above).
     Includes research to increase our understanding and to
                                                             control the
     behavior and properties of metals, alloys, ceramics,
                                                           composites,
     and polymers. Depending on the material, the following
                                                              typical
     studies are shown here:   transformations, transport phenomena, cor-
     rosion, erosion, abrasion, phase equilibria, strengthening
                                                                 mechanisms,
     fracture, fatigue, crazing, oxidation, solidification,
                                                             sintering,
     vapor deposition, elasticity, plasticity, grain growth,
                                                              etc.
     Exclude and show where appropriate materials research
                                                            which can
     be reported elsewhere in the overall structure. For
                                                           example, exclude
     research which develops knowledge to support performance
                                                               of specific
     implant materials in the huma body and its physiological
                                                                response
     to the implant. (See V., HA~TH).

     Exclude research to improve the means and technology
                                                          of locating,
     extracting, processing and recycling minerals.  (See IX. C., MINERALS).
I.   MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES

     The primary purpose of research shown here is to increase
                                                                the knowledge
     of mathematical sciences by creating new mathematical
                                                           structures and
     studying the relations which exist between them. This
                                                            includes work
     to analyze, generalize, codify, and transform mathematical
                                                                 techniques
     and ideas into tools of wide applicability for the soluticn-
                                                                  of prob-
     lems in the other sciences. The mathematical sciences
                                                            constitute
     one of the most highly structured of all scientific disciplines,
                                                                       but


                                  -107-
has as major subdivisions core ("pure") mathematics, applied mathematics,
statistics, and numerical methods (apart from implementation of algorithmic
aspects on the computer). Includes resear..L Into the subdivisions
of MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES and subareas which compose them as discussed
below.

Classical Analysis: This area considers research in that portion of
analysis which has to do with the older and more traditional tech-
niques. The stimulus for much research in this area is frequently
the application of mathematics to problems of engineering and physics,
hence with differential and integral equations. Subareas include
differential and integral equations, theory of complex variables,
approximation theory, real variable theory, and potential theory.

Modern Analysis: Modern Analysis is in large degree associated with
mathematics developing from the study of abstract spaces, e.g. Hilbert
space. Major subareas are functional analysis, harmonic analysis,
topological groups and group representations, operator theory, and
ergodic theory.

Algebra: This area deals with the properties of formal systems such
as groups, rings, fields, etc., whose genesis lies in attempts to
solve algebraic equations. Included aleo is research in number
theory and algebraic geometry. In short, this program considers
research for which the algebraic structure is not overlaid extensively
with topological or differential structure. Subareas include groups,
rings, fields, linear and multilinear algebras and matrix theory,
algebraic geometry, number theory, combinatories and graph theory,
and category theory and homological algebras.

Topology: Topology is descendent of geometry, and has, roughly,
to do with properties of geometric objects (lines, surfaces, etc.)
which are unaltered by stretching, twisting, or compression without
tearing or cutting. As with much modern mathematics, topology has
recently undergone some interpenetration by both algebra and analysis,
so that some arbitrariness exists in whether certain areas are clas-
sified algebraic topology, and geometric topology.

Foundations: As might be expected from the title, research on the
foundations of mathematics is a highly abstract subject which has to
di with logical processes and to the reduction of logical thought to
the manipulation of symbols. The principle subareas are set theory,
model theory, and recursion theory.

Geometry: Research n Euclidean and projective geometries form only
a small portion of this program. It is dominated by a fusion of


                            -108-
 analysis and algebra with the traditional notions
                                                    of geometry, which
 give rise to differential geometry on the one hand
                                                     and to global
 analysis (study of relations between the geometric
                                                     properties of
 manifolds (surfaces or generalization of surfaces)
                                                     and the analysis
 of partial differential equations on these manifolds.
 clude differential geometry, global analysis, theory    Subareas in-
                                                       of convexity,
 and classical and projective geometry.

 Probability: Probability deals with a priori numerical
                                                           evaluation
 of the relative frequencies with which events, or
                                                    combination of
 events, are predicted to occur under rpetition of
                                                     a set of conditions.
 Modern probability theory is symbiotic with measure
                                                      theory and func-
 tionai analysis, and has been much stimulated by technological
                                                                  prob-
 lems such as arise in information theory and quality
                                                       control, as well
 as by other areas of mathematics such as potential
                                                     theory and partial
 differential equations. Major sub-fields are foundations
                                                             of proba-
 bility theory, distribution theory, probabilistic
                                                    limit theorems,
 stochastic processes, and probabilistic and stochastic
                                                         models.
Statistics:  Statistical theory has to do with the applicatic of
probability theory to the collection, analysis, and
                                                     interpretation
of numberical observational data.   rincipal. areas of research re-
sulting from these operations are foundations of statistics,
                                                               theory
of inference, decision theory, multivariate analysis,
                                                       sequential
analysis, and design of experiments.

Applied Mathematics: Applied mathematics has to do
 to mathematical knowledge which arise in the course with contributions
                                                      of solving prob-
 lems of the physical and social world in which man
                                                     lives. The mathe-
matical problems result from the abstraction of concepts
                                                           of physics,
engineering, biology, economics, and other sciences
                                                      in the
mathematical modela. Only if the research seems productive form of
                                                               of new
concepts in mathematics or of using mathematical techniques
                                                               in a
novel and substantive way to illuminate mathematical
                                                       theories should
it be considered in the applied mathematics subprogram.
                                                           The principal
elements of the program are theory of equations of
                                                    mathematical physics,
engineering, biology, economics, etc.; theory of control,
                                                             information,
and systems; game theory; mathematical programming
                                                    and optimization;
and numerical methods.

Exclude and show under the appropriate objective in
                                                     X., SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY BASE, research primarily directed towards
                                                      applying mathe-
matical techniques to the solution of problems in
                                                  the physical, social,
biological, computer and engineering sciences. Also
                                                      exclude research
to apply mathematics' techniques to a particular problem
                                                          or objective
in the structure other than the SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
                                                        BASE and show
such research under the appropriate objective or problem.
                                                            For example,

                             -109-
     exclude work to develop better statistical tec:niques to analyze ob-
     servational and experimental data in the health fields. (See V.,
     HEALTH).

J.   "AMSbUREMENT   AND STANDARDS TECHNOLOGY

     Encompasses research to provide a consistent and adequate system of
     physical measurements and standards; to improve measurement and stan-
     dard setting procedures; to provide the basis for modern measurements
     and standards; and to advance the state of measurement science re-
     quired by evolving technoiogies and public safety. This includes
     research on measurements ad standards which cannot be assigned or do
     not primarily relate to specific objectives elsewhere in the structure.
     This entry includes research on measurements and standards of basic
     physical units of mass, length, time, temperature, electrical current
     and luminosity intensity together with secondary or derived units
     commonly used, such as electrical voltage, density and pressure.

     Exclude measurement or standard research which is conducted primarily
     to advance or improve a specific objective shown elsewhere in the
     structure. For example, exclude efforts to improve measurement tech-
     nology to the levels needed to achieve the environmental quality
     standards required by law, (See ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT);
     exclude research to improve measurements and standards that pertain
     to consumer products.   (See either XIII. F., SAFETY or II., ENERGY
     DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION); and exclude research' to improve measure-
     ments of biological phenomena. (See X. C., BIOLOGY).

K.   OCEANOGRAPHIC SCIENCES

     The primary purpose of research to be shown here is to increase the
     understanding of oceans and the evolution of ocean basins and marine
     life. Research shown here addresses such objectives Ps increasing
      the knowledge of the ocean's nature, processes, motions and their
     causal forces; understanding seafloor structures and the processes
     that have formed them; determining the nature and distribution of
     marine organisms and ecosystems and understanding their behavior in
     oceanic and estuarine environments. This section includes research
     to increase the understanding of ocean-atmosphere interactions. Also,
     shown here will be research studying the geology, geophysics and geo-
     chemistry of the crust and upper mantle underlying the ocean basins.
     The objectives of this section also apply to research conducted in
     large lakes. For example, this section includes research to nder-
     stand certain chemical processes and physical properties of the Great
     Lakes. Similarly this section's objectives apply to work done for
     oceanographic purposes in estuaries, coastal waters or until the


                                    -110-
water is out of the ocean's influence. Studies on the crust and up-
per mantle under ocean basins as related to Plate Tectonics are
shown here. More specifically, OCEANOGRAPHIC SCIENCES include re-
search discussed below.

Physical Oceanography: The purpose of this research and development
is to increase the understanding of physical properties and processes
which control water circulation in open oceans, near shore areas,
estuaries and large lakes. This section includes research to examine
the physical description and processes of the ocean, geophysical
fluid dynamics, air/sea interactions, and physical processes in
large lakes.

Marine Chemistry: Research and development shown here is conducted
to increase the understanding of chemical processes in lakes, estuaries,
and the ocean. This includes research and development to assess
chemical properties of and reactions occurring in seawater and re-
lated (continental) waters, to examine naturally occurring and man-
made compounds in oceans, lakes, and related (or continental) waters,
and research to examine chemical aspects of ocean-atmosphere and
water-sediment interactions.

Submarine Geology and Geophysics: Research and development shown
here is conducted primarily to increase the knowledge of history of
the ocean and its basins, sediment deposits, marine life, and natural
processes which control this evolutionary history. This section in-
cludes studies to examine how physical, chemical, and biological pro-
cesses form and alter ocean floor and continental margin sediments
and rocks. Also, studies to examine the crust and upper mantle of
the solid earth bentath the ocean basins including studies of Plate
Tectonics and plate interactions.

Biological Oceanography:  Research and development performed to
understand the nature and distribution of ocean life and marine
ecosystems and the interactions between organisms and the marine en-
vironment will be shown here.   his section includes studies to de-
termine how natural marine ecosystems evolve and function and to
develop predictive models for their behavior under natural or man-
induced stresses. It also includes studies to examine the rates and
mechanisms by which organisms, in concert with physical and chemical
processes, maintain and affect the concentrations of metals and
other chemical species in the marine environment.

Exclude research which increases the fundamental knowledge or under-
standing of the oceans but does so for the pursuit of specific ob-
jectives in our structure other than the SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BASE.


                            -11-
     For example, exclude oceanography research studying   the occurrence,
     fate and effects of thermal and other pollutants in   coastal and
     estuarine waters. (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY    IMPROVEMENT).
     Also exclude research on marine food sources.  (See   IV., FOOD, FIBER
     AND OTHER AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS).

L.   PHYSICS

     Encompasses research to increase the knowledge and understanding of
     the fundamental forces and elementary constituents of matter.   In-
     cludes  research on elementary few-body interactions of particles
     and fields, the elementary constituents of all matter, and mani-
     festations of energy, as well as the collective phenomena exhibited
     by large aggregates of matter; the symmetry principles governing
     particle interactions and the determination and ciassification of
     particle properties; fundamental laws of atomic and nuclear structure,
     dy amics and interactions; laws governing matter at the atomic level
     anu at higher levels of aggregations; larger aggregates of molecules
     with long-range coherence and order involving phenomena in the plasma
     and gaseous states over a broad range of conditions and temperatures;
     and the structure of space time, as well as the gravitational inter-
     action.

     Exclude research performed in physics whose primary purpose can be
     applied to another area within the SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BASE. For
     example, exclde work to develop concepts which explain and predict
     the electronic structure, optical, magnetic, structural, transport,
     thermal and other physical properties of solids, liquids, quantum
     liquids, thin films, surfaces and liquid crystals (Solid State Physics).
     (See X. H., MATERIALS). Cosmic ray and black hole studies to under-
     stand sections of the universe are shown in ASTRONOMY above whereas black
     hole studies to understand gravity are shown here.

M.   PSYCHOLOGY

     Encompasses research concerning ehavior, mental processes, and in-
     dividual and group characteristics and abilities. The bases for normal
     and abnormal behavior are specific targets of research in this category.
     Typical research topics include:
       Studies of the emotions, personality, higher mental pro-
       cesses, and learning;
       Research in experimental, comparative, and physiological
       psychology and ethologv;
       Studies of biological and experiential determinants of
       behavior and behavior change;
       Studies involving direct manipulation (anatomical, physio-
        agical, biochemical) of the central nervous system, and


                                   -112-
       the measurement of resulting effects on behavior; and
       Studies of social and cultural phenomena in relation to
       human behavior.

     Otber topics include studies of motivation, cognition, psycholinguistics,
     intelligence, perception, attitudes, communication, psychophysiology,
     the contribution of genetic factors and hormonal functioning to be-
     havior patterns, the biological substrates of sensation and perception,
     behavioral capacity related to brain structure or function, under-
     standing behavioral or sensory processes through neurophysiological
     investigations or studies of artificial intelligence, the contribution
     of behavioral processes to the development of social norms and roles,
     and child behavior.

     Excluded from this category are studies of sociolinguistics, family
     units, and studies for which the primary purpose of the research is
     to examine social interaction and group processes (See X. P., SOCIAL
     SCIENCES). Also excluded is research on specific mental and social
     problems (See V. B., MENTAL HEALTH).

N.   SCIENCE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

     This activity has the broad objectives of developing and demonstrating
     new techniques leading to the establishment of more effective science
     information dissemination services and facilitating national and
     international coordination among scientific and technical information
     activities. More specifically includes research to:
        Improve management of scientific and technical information
       services;
       Establish operational methods that lead to self supporting
       services;
       Create and test the feasibility of advanced information
       networks for retrieval and the production of published
       materials;
       Achieve intersystem compatibility and increased efficiency
       among major systems;
       Increase the accessibility of scientific information to
       wider audiences of users; and
       Improve national and international coordination among
       scientific and technical information services.

     Exclude operational information programs funded to disseminate the
     results of research shown in other portions of the tructure and
     show where appropriate. (See GUIDELINES FOR PREPARATION).




                                  -113-
O.   SCIENCE POLICY, MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY AND OTHER SPECIAL PROGRAMS

     Encompasses studies and operations leading c the development of
     national science policy of   broad nature; activities involved with
     the development of increased capability by state and local govern-
     ment for use of the results of science and technology in decision-
     making; research into incentives for and results of technological
     innovation; general grants for institutional improvement that have no
     central specific objectives; and research into new techniques for
     management including those which lead to improving resource allocation
     and utilization and/or increased understanding of factors affecting
     the performance of individuals and organizations.

     Exclude any activity which can be identified to any other part of
     the structure. For example, exclude studies of food production to
     assess the world situation (See IV., FOOD, FIBER AND OTHER AGRICULTURAL
     PRODUCTS) and exclude studies of energy research and development
     policy issues 'See II., ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION).

P.   SOCIAL SCIENCES

     Encompasses research and development which is directed toward under-
     standing various aspects of society and forms of social activity in-
     cluding the functioning of groups and social institutions and the
     actions of individuals as members of groups. The disciplines as-
     sociated with the social sciences are anthropology, economics, history,
     linguistics, political science, and sociology, among others. The
     content of these disciplines is discussed below.

     Anthropology: Includes studies in the areas of archaeology, culture,
     society and ethnology, and applied anthropology.

     Economics: Includes research on econometrics and economic statistics,
     history of economic thought, international economics. industrial and
     labor economics, macroeconomics, microeconomics, public finance and
     fiscal policy, economic theory, and economic systems and development.

     History: Includes work in the areas of cultural, political, and
     social history, and the history and philosophy of science.

     Linguistics:  Includes research and development on the anthropological-
     archaeological and computational aspects of linguistics and socio-
     linguistics.

     Political Science: Includes research on comparative government, history
     of political ideas, international relations and law, national political and
     legal systems, political theory, and public administration.

                                  -114-
 Sociology: Includes research and development
 historical aspects of organizations, complex on comparative and
                                              organizations, culture
 and social structure, demography, group interactions,
                                                       social problems
 and social welfare, and sociological theory.

 Social Sciences, not elsewhere classified:
                                             Includes research and
 develoment in social sciences and on social
                                              issues not elsewhere clas-
 sified in this structure, and, more specifically,
                                                   research in law
 and in socioeconomic geography. The social
                                             sciences category concerns
 the development of general knowledge about
                                            the functioning of societal
 organizations and institutions.

 Exclude social research which has a principal
                                               objective related pri-
 marily to other sections and topics in this
                                             structure and show where
 appropriate. For example, exclude research
                                             in agricultural economics
 (See IV. D., IMPROVE DISTRIBUTION AND MARKETING).

Exclude research concerning indivdual and
                                          group behavior which is not
oriented toward the functioning of social groups
                                                 and institutions.
(See X. M., PSYCHOLOGY). Exclude research
                                           on various behaviors which
are considered the results of menial diseases
                                              or disorders. (See
V. B., MENTAL HEALTH).

SURVEYING, MAPPING, CHARTING AND GEODESY

Encompasses research to improve the means
                                           of preparing surveys, maps,
 charts and of locating or inventorying resources,
                                                    pollution and so
 forth. It also includes work t improve satellite
                                                     equipment used
for these purposes. More specifically, this
                                              entry includes research
 to improve the techniques and equipment used
                                               in making a drawing or
other representation of all or part of the
                                            earth's surface or of a
part of the sky; in preparing outline maps
                                            which plot geographically
special information, such as weather conditions,
                                                   economic resources
and so forth; in measuring or determining the
                                                shape of the earth or
a large part of its surface or in locating
                                            exactly points on its
surface; in determining the location, form
                                            or boundaries of a tract
of land; and in identifying the nature and
                                            extent of natural nd
economic resources on or near the earth's
                                           surface.
Exclude that surveying, mapping, charting
                                          and geodetic research which
primarily applies to a specific entry in the
                                              overall structure. For
example, exclude research to improve the means
                                                of locating petroleum
resources through aerial surveys. (See II.
                                             A. 1., IMPROVE RESOURCE
ASSESSMENT).



                            -115-
R.   TELECOMMUNICATIONS

     Includes research on the science or technology of communications over
     a distance, such as by cabile, radio, telegraph, telephone, or tele-
     vision. Overall research objectives are to improve understanding of
     the phenomena surrounding telecommunications, and to develop new or
     improved telecommunications systems without respect to a particular
     major objective listed elsewhere in this structure. More specifically
     includes research to: Improve understanding of and develop methods
     to prevent or correct, telecommunications interference; develop new
     or improved methods fcr managing and utilizing the telecommunications
     spectrum; assess the impact of innovative telecommunications systems;
     develop better ways of evaluating telecommunications system performance,
     and improve understanding of, and develop better methods to counter,
     problems in telecommunications security.

     Excludes research on the regulatory aspects of communications (See
     XIII. E., REGULATORY ACTIVITIES). Also excludes telecommunications
     technology research which is performed to contribute to the solution
     of a national problem or the furtherance of a national goal or ob-
     jective. This latter research should be reported under the various
     other major objectives in the structure according to the primary ob-
     jective of the research. For example, exclude research on telecom-
     munications innovations associated with new or improved space vehicles.
     (See XI. B. 2., INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS).
        XI.   SPACE FLICHT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY




! l,-
                     SPACE FLIGHT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY



                                                                      PAGE
A.  Space Transportation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      118
    1. Space Shuttle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                                      118
    2. Spacelab .          . . ..                                     118
    3. Interim Upper Stage/Tug.            . . . . . . . . . . . .    118
    4. Other Space Transportation Systems . . . . . . . . . . .       118
B. Space Flight Equipment Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                                      119
    1. Energy Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
    2. Human Operations in Space. . . ..          .   .. . . . . .     119
        a. Space Life ............                                     119
        b. Life Support and Protective Equipment.           . . . .   120
        c. Bioinstrumentation and Man-Machine Technology. .      .    120
    3. Information and Communications Systems . . . . . . . . .       120
   4. Materials Used in Space Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . .        121
   5. Propulsion Systems .           . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    121
        a. Chemical .        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    121
        b. Electric ............
                                                                      121
        c. Nuclear. .    .         .    . . .    .. .                 122
   6.   Space Vehicle Aerothermodynamics..              . . . . . .   122
   7. Systems and Design Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        122
   8. Vehicle and Satellite Structures .              . . . . . . .   122
   9. Vehicle Guidance and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        123




                                                                      I23
                                                                        -.
XI.    SPACE FLIGHT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY

            Encompasses research to develop operational space transportation

       systems, to improve the equipment used in both manned and unmanned

      space flight, and to enhance the quality and productivity of space-

      based activities.

           Research to increase standardization and reduce the cost of equip-

      ment and components should be shown throughout the structure wherever

      the work pertains.   For example, research to develop the standard

      equipment and components for communications   nd data handling wl

      shown under XI. B. 3., INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS.

           Research conducted in or from space and directed towards another

      objective in the overall structure will be shown under that objective.

      For example, Viking - Mars Orbiter/Lander funding in Fiscal YedAr 1.6

      will be shown under X. A., ASTRONOMY since that project focuses on

      learning about Mars rather than on improving the equipment used in t.

      experiment.   In addition, research which has a clear potential for

      contributing to the solution of non-space national problems, such as

      II., ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION and III., ENVIRONMENTAL

      QUALITY IMPROVEMENT, will be shown under the appropriate entry in

      those objectives.

           Exclude space systems or equipment technology research which is

      conducted for military or national defense purposes (see pertinent

      entries in VIII., MILITARY).


                                     -117-
A.   SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

     Encompasses research conducted to develop distinct and complete
     vehicles or systems for transporting men and equipment through
     space. This research involves the development of transportation
     systems which will be used for future missions that have not
     been fully defined or planned at this time. When a space trans-
     portation system has developed to the point where it is known
     what missions it will support, its costs will be assigned to
     those missions. The work shown here includes the Space Shuttle
     and all other aspects of space transportation systems.

     1.   SPACE SHUTTLE

          This system is being developed to provide economic and
          routine access to space. The reuseable vehicles will
          carry many different types of payloads, will be able to
          retrieve and deploy satellites, to repair and redeploy
          them, to service or update them, to return them to earth
          for refurbishment and to make possible rapid space rescue.
          The Shuttle program involves efforts to develop the Orbiter,
          the reuseable airplane-like vehicle which can be used for
          many purposes in low earth orbital operations; the main
          engine; reuseable solid rocket boosters; the external fuel
          tank; and launch and landing equipment and systems.

     2.   SPACELAB

          Includes studies of engineering cost trades, payload safety,
          payload accommodations, software development, and payload
          operations pertaining to Spacelab which is a payload carrier
          flown to and from space from the Space Shuttle.

     3.   INTERIM UPPER STAGE/TUG

          Includes efforts to develop a system to provide the capa-
          bility to deploy Shuttle launched payloads to high energy
          and escape orbits which are not attainable by the Shuttle
          itself.

     4.   OTHER SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

          Includes research on space transportation systems other
          than those discussed above. Systems shown here also are
          being developed for future missions which have not been
          precisely defined at this time.


                            -118-
B.   SPACE FLIGHT EQUIPMENT ENGINEERING

     Includes research to improve the equipment or systems used in
     both manned and unmanned space flight and to enhance the
     quality and productivity of space-based flights and activities.
     The research shown here is directed at space flight problems
     that do not directly apply to the space transportation systems
     which are shown separately in XI. A., SPACE TRANSPORTATION
     SYSTEMS, above.

     1.   ENERGY SYSTEMS

          Includes research to reduce costs of energy systems used by
          space vehicles while increasing their life, reliability and
          power density.

          Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to:
            Advance energy density of flexible solar arrays;
            Improve component capability, equipment designs and
            circuit techniques to meet future spacecraft needs for
            higher power, longer life and lower costs;
            Develop high efficiency gas turbine conversion system
            for use with isotope heat sources in space to reduce
            costs and conserve fuel;
            Improve high power lasers to provide advances in powex
            generation, conversion and transmission which will be the
            basis of future space capabilities and conceivably earth
            needs; and
            Produce, confine and utilize plasmas for a anced p    er
            and propulsion systems.

          Exclude re e.re: nich has clear potential for contributing
          to non-span. energy problems defined in ENERGY DEVELOPME r
          AND CONSERVATION.

     2.   HUMAN OPERATIONS IN SPACE

          Focuses on work related directly to man's health and surviv-
          ability in space. Medical research done in the unique space
          environment for application on Earth should be classified
          under the appropriate entry in V., HEALTH.

          a.   SPACE LIFE

               Uork to be shown here is exemplified    research to
               conduct medical, behavioral and biolo czal research and
               biomedical experiments to investigate the biological


                             -119-
          and human responses to space flight and enhance man's
          ability to function effectively and safely during
          space flight.

     b.   LIFE SUPPORT AND PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

          Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to
          improve high performance space suits and regenerable
          atmospheric control and improve waste management, water
          reclamation, sampling for medical research and processing.

     c.   BIOINSTRUMENTATION AND MAN-MACHINE TECHNOLOGY

          Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to:
            Develop technology and procedures for measurement f
            physiological, medical and performance responses of
            man and other selected life species living and working
            in the space environment; and
            Develop instrumentation for measurement of cardio-
            vascular, metabolic, musculoskeletal, respiratory and
            other physiological functions for space medical research
            and on board health care delivery systems for crew and
            passengers.

3.   INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS

     Includes research to develop components, systems and tech-
     niques needed for gathering, processing, transmitting and
     reducing data from planetary and earth orbiting spacecraft;
     to improve earth to space, space to earth and space to space
     communications. This research emphasizes improving the means
     of communication with and between space vehicles.

     Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to:
       Create sensor and control devices with problem solving
       capability;
       Create devices which avoid problems caused by time delay
       between Earth and planets and which can operate in a
       hostile environment;
       Provide more effective and economical devices for detect-
       ing, storing and processing information;
       Extend capabilities to handle multiple spacecraft support
       and increase data rates;
       Improve real time control techniques and use of mini-
       computers for Deep Space Network; and


                        -120-
          Increase accuracy of tracking techniques by developing
          laser tracking, atomic frequency timing standards and
          mathematical modelling for mission simulation.

     Exclude research to develop or improve equipment used in
     preparing surveys, maps and charts which identify, measure
     or inventory resources, crops or pollution on earth (see
     X. Q., SURVEYING, MAPPINGC CHARTING AND GEODESY).

4.   MATERIALS USED IN SPACE VEHICLES

     Includes research to provide efficient, stable, long-lived
     materials for the structures, propulsion systems, entry
     bodies and electronic equipment for spacecraft.

     Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to:
       Synthesize new and improved bearings, seals and lubri-
       cants;
       Increase the reliability of heat shield materials; and
       Improve materials resistance to extreme temperatures, such
       as insulations, lubricants and optical materials.

5.   PROPULSION SYSTEMS

     Includes research on chemical, electric and nuclear pro-
     pulsion systems for space vehicles conducting any potential
     mission.

     Exclude exhaust effects and control studies which hould be
     shown under III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT.

     a.    CHEMICAL

           Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to
           provide long-life systems for satellites and space-
           craft by improving reusable H2 -02 systems and provide
           high energy propulsion for difficult space missions.

     b.    ELECTRIC

           Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to
           provide auxiliary electric propulsion for station-
           keeping and attitude control of .ong-life application-
           type satellites.



                         -121-
     c.   NUCLEAR

          Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to
          advance applications of nuclear energy in space,
          achieve efficiencies up to 30% with low operating
          temperatures for thermionic energy conversion; and
          inv,,&sigate the production of fission energy with
          nuclear fuel in the gaseous and plasma state: gas-
          cvLe reactor research.

6.   SPACE VEHICLE AEROTHERMODYNAMICS

     Includes research to improve spacecraft design, safety,
     reliability and assure more efficient aerodynamic operation
     of maximum payloads for earth orbital missions and planetary
     exploration.

     Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to
     improve spacecraft design, safety and reliability related
     to entry problems and resolve problems of high speed entry
     and spacecraft flight in atmospheres of Earth and other
     planets.

7.   SYSTEMS AND DESIGN STUDIES

     Includes research to identify areas for future technological
     focus, examine current technology objectives to ensure appro-
     priateness and payoff and provide necessary technical and
     economic decision base to support selection of future system
     and experimental programs.

     Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to
     determine technology requirements, costs, benefits and
     impacts of advanced space systems based on mission, systems
     and conceptual designs and modify and improve technology
     used on existing projects.

8.   VEHICLE AND SATELLITE STRUCTURES

     Includes research to improve efficiency and reliability
     of space structures, reduce their costs and demonstrate
     feasibility for design applications.

     Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to:
       Increase use of composites for major structural systems
       to improve weight savings;


                         -122-
       Improve pacecraft payload acoustic and vibration ana-
       lysis and test methods to reduce the cost of future
       space systems; and
       Improve vehicle structural design methods such as pro-
       viding fracture capability control and life prediction
       procedures and determining the reliability and efficiency
       of future long-life, weight critical space transportation
       systems.

9.   VEHICLE GUIDANCL iND CONTROL

     Includes research to provide and improve guidance, naviga-
     tion and control technology which will permit reductions
     in vehicle or mi&sion costs while maintaining or improving
     performance standards.

     Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to:
       Advance navigation techniques to minimize propellant
       requirements, increase mission pointing accuracy and
       lower operational costs of planetary exploration;
       Strap down guidance system components consisting of
       inertial sensors and computer technology; and
       Improve techniques for ground-based navigation of planet-
       ary orbiters, landers, swingby and earth orbiter missions.




                      -123-
XII.    TRANSPORTATION




  12-
                               TRANSPORTATION


                                                                            PAGE

A.  Air .       . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           124
    1. Improve Vehicles .....                            ................   124
    2. Improve Aviation Operational Environment and
        Effectiveness .................     ....            .     ..         125
    3. Improve Aviation Safety . . . . . . . . . . .        .. . . .         125
B. Rail. .......      . ..                                                   126
    1. Improve Rail Vehicles .............                                  126
    2. Improve Operational Environment and Effectiveness . .            .   126
    3. Improve Rail Safety ..............                   .     ... .     127
C. Highway .................                      .    .......              127
    1. Improve Vechicles . . . . . . . . . . .        . . .                 127
    2. Improve Operational Environment and Effectiveness . .            .   128
    3. Improve Highway Safety . . . . . . . . . . .          . . . .        128
D. Marine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         . . . . . .        129
   1. Improve Marine Vehicles ................                ..        .   129
   2. Improve Marine Operational Environment and Effectiveness.             129
   3. Improve Marine Safety .       . . . . . . . .     .. . . . . .        130
E. Pipeline. . . . . . . . . . . .       . . . . . . . . . . . . .            30
   1. Improve Pipeline Equipment and Operational Effectiveness.             130
   2. Improve Pipeline Safety .. . . . . . . . . . . .            .. .      131
F. Multi- and Inter-modal. . . . . . . . . . .      .   . . . . . .         131
XII.   TRANSPORTATION

           This objective encompasses research into improving the vehicles (pre-

       sent and future), the operational effectiveness and the safety features

       of all modes of transportation.    Research related to transporting special-

       ized cargoes--such as LNG, oil or gas--is included as is research con-

       ducted in conjunction with military objectives which has a clear potential

       for contribution to civilian transportation.

           Exclude research and development to abate noise, decrease air pollu-

       tion and control pollution from transportation-related spillage (see III.,

       ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT).

            A.   AIR

                 Includes research and development to improve present and future
                 aircraft, aviation operational environment and effectiveness and
                 aviation safety. Work conducted by the Department of Defense
                 which has a clear potential for contribution to civilian avia-
                 tion is included here while work which has exclusively military
                 applications, such as improving an aircraft's missile launching
                 capability, will be excluded (see VIII., MILITARY).

                 Includes work related to long-haul aircraft (radius over 500
                 miles), short-haul ircraft (50 to 500 mile radius) and general
                 aviation aircraft. Aeronautics research will be reported where
                 applicable under the following objectives. For example, work
                 in propulsion and aerodynamics will be included under IMPROVE
                 VEHICLES which encompasses efforts to achieve higher speeds
                 and greater paylosds.

                 I.    IMPROVE VEHICLES (INCLUDES PERTINENT AERONAUTICS RESEARCH)

                       This subobjective focuses on problems internal to the
                       vehicle. It includes, but is not limited o, work to
                       increase the speed, range, capacity or payload; to reduce
                       the cost of construction and operation; to improve the
                       passenger/cargo enviromment; to develop new and more pro-
                       ductive vehicles; and to meet special transportation needs
                       of the elderly and handicapped. However, research conducted


                                         -124-
      on the vehicle specifically to improve the safety of
                                                           the
      passengers and cargo will be excluded (see IMPROVE
                                                         SAFETY,
      below).

2.    IMPROVE AVIATION OPERATIONAL ENVIRGNMENT AND EFFECTIVENESS
      (INCLUDES PERTINENT AERONAUTICS RESEARCH)

      This objective focuses on problems and activities that
                                                              are
      external to the vehicle itself and that relate directly
                                                               to
      the efficiency and operation of the air transportation
                                                              sys-
      tem and the aircraft environment--the terminal and flight
      paths. For example, it includes research to improve con-
     nectivity in the terminals to increase capacity or
                                                         reduce
      trip time; to improve scheduling, accessibility and depend-
     ability; to improve traffic control systems and terminal
     area cperations; to improve cot.munications and navigation
     related to air transportation; to reduce air transportation
     systems costs; to modernize regulations and legislation;
                                                                and
     to enhance commercial development. Research related
                                                           co the
     air operational environment but conducted specifically
                                                             to
     improve the safety of passengers and cargo will be
                                                         shown
     under IMPROVE SAFETY. Exclude research to improve or
     expedite transfer at modal interface (see XII. F., MULTI-
     AND INTER-MODAL, below).

     Report air traffic control as a separate line item and
                                                            as
     a portion of the total for this subobjective.

3.   IMPROVE AVIATION SAFETY

     Includes research undertaken primarily to protect passen-
     gers, operating personnel, cargo and the system from harm
     or destruction from natural or accidental causes.   For
     example, this subobjective includes work to prevent or
     avoid accidents caused by human or vehicle failures or
     hazards associated with fixed installations; develop
     methods and equipment to counteract adverse conditions
                                                              such
     as fog, snow and wake vortices; reduce injury or damage
     incurred in an accident; increase cargo safety; and improve
     search and rescue techniques and equipment for people
                                                             in-
     volved in accidents.  Include here only that communications
     and navigation work which is conducted to improve crash
     avoidance capability.


                       -125-
            Exclude work to increase people and cargo security by
            developing more effective surveillance and control methods
            to prevent criminal acts (see VII., LAW ENFORCEMENT AND
            JUSTICE). Also exclude work which has safety implications,
            such as engine reliability, but which is conducted pri-
            marily to improve the vehicle's performance or efficiency
            (see IMPROVE VEHICLES, above).

B.   RAIL

     includes research directed toward improving transportation sys-
     tems that move on rails. Wcrk shown her,; involves existing and
     future conceptual rail transportation equipment and systems which
     operate on an urban and interurban basis.

     1.     IMPROVE RAIL VEHICLES

            This subobjective focuses n problems internal to the
            vehicle. It includes, but is not limited to, work to in-
            crease the speed, range, capacity or payload; to reduce the
            cost of construction and operation; to improve the passenger/
            cargo environment; to develop new and more productive
            vehicles; and to meet special transportation needs of the
            elderly and handicapped. However, research conducted on
            the vehicle specifically to improve the afety of the pas-
            sengers and cargo will be excluded (see IMPROVE SAFETY,
            below).

     2.     IMPROVE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND EFFECTIVENESS

            This objective focuses on problems and activities that are
            external to the vehicle itself and that relate directly to
            the efficiency and operation of the rail transportation sys-
            tem and the rail environment--stations and pathways. For
            example, it includes research to improve connectivity in
            the terminals to increase capacity or reduce trip time; to
            improve scheduling, accessibility and dependability; to
            improve traffic control systems and terminal area opera-
            tions; to improve commnunications related to rail trans-
            portation; to reduce rail transportation systems costs; to
            modernize regulations and legislation; and to enhance com-
            mercial development. Research related to the rail opera-
            tional environment but conducted specifically to improve
            the safety of passengers and cargo will be shown under
            IMPROVE SAFETY, below. Exclude research to improve or ex-
            pedite transfer at a modal interface (see XI. F., MULTI-
            AND INTER-MODAL, below).


                             -126-
            Report rail traffic control as a separate line item and
            as a portion of the total for this subobjective.

      3,    IMPROVE RAII SAFETY

            Includes research undertaken primarily to protect passen-
           gers, operating personnel, cargo and the system from harm
           or destruction from natural or accidental causes. For
           example, this subobjective includes work to prevent or avoid
           accidents caused by human or vehicle failures or hazards
           associated with fixed installations; develop methods and
           equipment to counteract adverse conditions such as fog and
           snow; reduce injury or damage incurred in an accident;
           increase cargo safety; and improve search and rescue tech-
           aiques and equipment for people involved in accidents.
                                                                    In-
           clude here only that communications research which is con-
           ducted to improve crash avoidance capability.

           Exclude research to increase people and cargo security by
           developing more effective surveillance and control methods
           to prevent criminal acts (see VII., LAW ENFORCEMENT AND
           JUSTICE). Also exclude work which has safety implications,
           such as engine reliability, but which is conducted primarily
           to improve the vehicle's performance or efficiency (see
           IMPROVE VEHICLES, above).

C.   HIGHWAY

     This subobjective includes research which concerns transportation
     vehicles and systems that use highways, streets and roads
                                                               and do
     not require rails or guideways. This includes passenger
                                                               ehicles,
     buses, trucks and other vehicles which use highways and
                                                             which
     operate both within and between urban centers.

     Exclude research on vehicles of this nature which have excluF-
     ively military applications (see VIII., MILITARY).

     1.    IMPROVE   VEHICLES

           This subobjective focuses on problems internal t the vehicle.
           It includes, but is not limited to, work to increase the
           speed, range, capacity or payload; to reduce the cost of
           construction and operation; to improve the passenger/cargo
           environment; to develop new and more productive vehicles;
           and to meet special transportation needs of the elderly
                                                                    and


                                -127-
     handicapped. However, research and development conducted
     on the vehicle specifically to improve the safety of the
     passengers and cargo will be excluded (see IMPROVE SAFETY,
     below). Also exclude research primarily directed to con-
     serve energy used by highway vehicles (see II., ENERGY
     DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION).

2.   IMPROVE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND EFFECTIVENESS

     This objective focuses on problems and activities that are
     external to the vehicle itself and that relate directly to
     the efficiency and operation of the transportation system
     and the highway environment--interchanges ad highways. For
     example, it includes research to improve connectivity in the
     terminals to increase capacity or reduce trip time; to im-
     prove scheduling, accessibility and dependability; to im-
     prove traffic control systems and terminal area operations;
     to promote more efficient traffic flow; to improve communi-
     cations related to highway transportation; to modernize
     regulations and legislation; and to improve highway sur-
     facing techniques. Research related to the highway opera-
     tional environment but conducted specifically to improve the
     safety of passengers and cargo will be shown under IMPROVE
     SAFETY, below. Exclude research to improve or expedite
     transfer at modal interfaces (see XII. F., MULTI- AND INTER-
     MODAL, below).

     Report traffic control as a separate line item and as a
     portion of the total for this subobjective.

3.   IMPROVE HIGHWAY SAFETY

     Includes research undertaken primarily to protect pas-
     sengers, operating personnel, cargo and the system from
     harm or destruction from natural or accidental causes. For
     example, this subobjective includes work to prevent or avoid
     accidents caused by human or vehicle failures or hazards
     Pssociated with fixed installations; develop methods and
     equipment to counteract adverse conditions such as fog and
     snow; reduce injury or damage incurred in an accident;
     increase cargo safety; and improve search and rescue tech-
     niques and equipment such as air bags for people involved
     in accidents. Include here only that communications work
     which is conducted to improve crash avoidance capability.


                       -128-
          Exclude work to ircrease people and cargo security by
          developing more effective surveillance and control methods
          to prevent criminal acts (see VII., LAW ENFORCEMENT AND
          JUSTICE). Also exclude work which has safety implications,
          such as engine reliability, but which is conducted primarily
          to improve the vehicle's performance or efficiency (see
          IMPROVE VEHICLES, above).

D.   MARINE

     Includes transportation research that concerns marine vehicles,
     operational environment and effectiveness, and safety. This
     includes work on existing and future conceptual marine trans-
     portation, equipment and systems that travel on the ocean and
     inland waterways.

     Exclude research on marine vehicles which have exclusively
     military applications, such as destroyers (see VIII., MILITARY).

     1.   IMPROVE MARINE VEHICLES

          This subobjective focuses on problems internal to the
          vehicle. It includes, but is not limited to, work to in-
          crease the speed, range, capacity or payload; to reduce the
          cost of construction and operation; to improve the passenger/
          cargo environment; to develop new and more productive vessels;
          and to meet special transportation needs of the elderly and
          handicapped. However, research and development conducted on
          the vehicle specifically to improve the safety of the pas-
          sengers and cargo will be excilded (see IMPROVE SAFETY, below).

     2.   IMPROVE MARINE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND EFFECTIVENESS

          This objective focuses on problems and activities that are
          external to the vehicle itself and that relate directly to
          the efficiency and operation of the marine transportation
          system and the environment--ports and sea lanes. Fcr example,
          it includes research to improve connectivity in the terminals
          to increase capacity or reduce trip time; to improve schedul-
          ing, accessibility and dependability; to improve traffic con-
          trol systems and terminal area operations; to improve com-
          munications and navigation related to marine transportation;
          to modernize regulations and legislation; to improve fleet
          and cargo flow management and the related shipping opera-
          tions, information systems and communications to maximize
          efficiency; and to enhance commercial development. Research
          related to the marine operational environment but conducted


                           -129-
       specifically to improve the safety of passengers and cargo
       will be shown under IMPROVE SAFETY, below. Exclude re-
       search to iprove or expedite transfer at modal interface
       (see XII. F., MULTI- AND INTER-MODAL. below).

       Report traffic control as a separate line item ar. as a
       portion of the total for this subobjective.

   3. IMPROVE MARINE SAFETY

       Includes research undertaken primarily to protect passengers,
       operating personnel, cargo and the system from harm or de-
       struction from natural or accidental causes. For example,
       this subobjective includes work to prevent or avoid accidents
       caused by human or vehicle failures or hazards associated
       with fixed installations; develop methods and equipment to
       counteract adverse conditions such as fog, snow and high
       seas; reduce injury or damage incurred in an accident; in-
       crease cargo safety; and improve search and rescue techniques
       and equipment for people involved in accidents. Include
       here only that coununications and navigation work which is
       conducted to improve crash avoidance capability.

       Exclud' work to increase people and cargo security by
       developing more effective surveillance and control methods
       to prevent criminal acts (see VII., LAW ENFORCEMENT AND
       JUSTICE). Also exclude work which has safety implications,
       such as engine reliability, but which is conducted pri-
       marily to improve the vehicle's performance or efficiency
       (see IMPROVE VEHICLES, above).

E. PIPELINE

   Includes research and development on existing pipeline trans-
   portation equipment and ystems which carry oil, gas, water and
   any other matexlal and work on future conceptual equipment and
   systems.

   i. IMPROVE PIPELINE EQUIPMENT AND OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS

       Includes all efforts aimed at improving pipeline flow by
       increasing capacity, increasing the speed of material flow,
       improving construction techniques and reducing the costs of
       constructing and operating pipeline. Also includes efforts
       to improve connectivity in terminals or other modal interfaces;


                         -130-
          develop new and more productive pipeline systems; and re-
          duce costs associated with pipelines such as planning, re-
          search and development, investment, acquisition, operating
          and maintenance.

     2.   IMPROVE PIPELINE SAFETY

          Includes all efforts to protect the system and material
          being moved from loss from natural or accidental causes.
          This includes work on both existing and future pipeline
          systems. Specifically, it includes work to prevent accidents
          caused by human failures or hazards associated with the
          terrain through which the pip ine runs, to protect loss
          of cargo by leakage or rupture of pipelines, to locate
          pipeline leaks and to repair leaks or breaks in pipelines.

          Exclude work to evaluate the impact of pipeline construc-
          tion and of potential leaks on the environment surround-
          ing the pipeline (see III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVE-
          MENT).

F.   MULTI- AND INTER-MODAL

     Multi-modal research and development encompasses activities
     which involve or affect more than one mode, such as tunneling,
     telecommunications and transportation systems planning and
     operational analysis as well as vehicles which function in
     more than one mode. Also include specialized activities of
     advanced ground transportation modes, such as vehicle pro-
     pulsion, vehicle suspension, path design, communications and
     command and control technology that involve or affect more
     than one mode or the interchange of two or more modes.

     Inter-modal research and development provides efficient trans-
     fer of passengers and cargo among the various transportation
     modes and efficient conrol through all stages of the trip.

     In addition, nclude all efforts to educe costs associated
     with constructing, operating and maintaining there systems
     and to increase the safety of their use.




                            -131-
XIII.   OTHER




           3/-
XIII.   OTHER

             This objective encompasses research primarily directed toward develop-

        ing techniques and systems to improve the delivery of community services,

        such as sanitation or fire protection; to develop better ways of conduc-

        ting foreign affairs; to improve the efficiency, effectiveness and equity

        of income assistance; to improve management and optimize the use of man-

        power resources; to assess the need for, effectiveness of, and impacL of

        regulatory activities; and to protect and assure occupational and con-

        sumer product safety.

             This objective is limited to that rsearch which cannot be applied

        to other parts of the structure.    For example, research efforts directed

        toward the community service aspects of such objectives as housing (see

        VI., HOU    NG AND COMMUNITY DEVELOf..ENT) or health (sec V., HEALTH)

        are excluded from this objective.

             A.    COMMUNITY SERVICES

                   Encompasses research directed primarily toward improving the
                   efficiency, effectiveness, equity and delivery of services to
                   meet the general needs of the entire public (such as sanitation
                   systems and fire protection) as well as services directed toward
                   more specific needs of definable groups of people (such as child
                   adoption services and foster care). Includes research to deter-
                   mine the different needs f-   ommunity services; develop aiterna-
                   tive approaches to meet theb needs and their effects; develop
                   better means of delivering community services; imprc- . the
                   capabilities of Federal, State and local governments to plan,
                   manage and deliver their programs and services; develop inputs
                   for the demand and supply of community services and social pro-
                   g:.m and policy development; determine costs and benefits of
                   alternative organizations which could cope with problems State
                   and local governments confront; reform State and local organi-
                   zational structures to alleviate such problems as overlapping
                   jurisdictions and authority distribution; provide improved


                                         -132-
     analytical and management tools to State and local governments;
     and improve information flow in local governments.

     Exclude that research which can be applied to other parts of
     the overall structure. For example, exclude research to im-
     prove the availability and quality of health care delivery, a
     community service (see V., HEALTH), and exclude research to
     develop alternative transportation services, also a community
     service (see XII., TRANSPORTATION). Other parts in the overall
     structure which may include aspects of community service re-
     search are VI., HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT; I.,
     EDUCJATION AND TRAINING; VII. LAW ENFORCEMENT AND JUSiICE; XIII.
     C., INCOME ASSISTANC7; and XII, D., MANPOWER.

B.   FOREIGN AFFAIRS

     Includes research to develop better ways of conducting inter-
     national relations through improved foreign aid operations, im-
     proved understanding of international trade and tariffs, refined
     methods for consummating and enforcing international agreements,
     and better methods for formulating U.S. foreign policy. Also
     includes research on the peculiar problems of specific develop-
     ing or less developed countries and studies in which existing
     U.S. technology and research results ae applied to these
     situations or ways to apply it are developed.

     Excludes all research which has a primarily U.S. domestic ob-
     jective. This excluded research will be shown in the other sec-
     tions of this structure which correspond to its primary objec-
     tive. For example, research on cancer or heart disease, unless
     it solely studies the contributing factors which are unique to
     other countries, will be shown under V. A, 4., CANCER or V. A.
     11., HEART AND VASCULAR DISEASES, respectively.

     1.   FOkEIGN AID

          Includes research to improve the effectiveness and the ad-
          ministration and management of U.S. foreign aid operations.
          Also includes research on the specific proble;as of develop-
          ing or less developed countries, such as food, health and nu-
          trition, population planning, education, and economic growth
          and productivity,

          Typical research objectives relating to foreign aid include
          the follow;ing: improve the quality and quantity of food
          production and nutrient value of foods, develop better ways
          of assisting less developed countries in improving the


                           -133-
          health status of the indigent portions of their opulaces;
          increase understanding of the factors affecting population
                                                                   ex-
          planning, including birth and death rates, average life
          pectancy, and cultural, religious, and  moral views of pop-
          ulation planning, and develop methods to influence these
          factors; improve the quality, accessibility, and availability
          of education services; and improve understanding of the
           factors affecting and develop methods to increase economic
          growth and productivity, including such factors as the level
           of science and technology, land use practices, urbanization
           tendencies, natural resource availability and management
           capacity, costs of public goods and services, and human
           welfare and maintenance needs.

     2.   INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS AND FOREIGN POLICY

          Includes research concerning nege ietions and policy form-
          ulations, and methods of enforcing agreements on such inter-
          national issues as arms control and disarmament, strategic
          weapons testing, tariffs aiJ foreign trade, disaster relief,
          technology exchange, and ecc omic growth and development.
          Also includes research to improve the conduct of relations
          between two or more countries, and to develop better methods
          for formulating UoS. foreign policy.
                                                                   to
          Excludes research on the specific methodologies required
          provide foreign aid (see XIII. B. 1., FOREIGN AID).

C.   INCOME ASSISTANCE
                                                                 ef-
     Research shlown here is conducted primarily to improve the
     ficiency, effectiveness  and  equity of various income assistance
     programs such as Income Maintenance, Social Security benefits
     and Unemployment Insurance. Includes research to determine
     the different needs for income assistance, to study alternative
                                                                im-
     approaches to meet these needs and their effects, and to
     prove the delivery  of income  assistance.

                                                                    pro-
     ExcluC and show where appropriate research on programs to
     vide money as a means  of  achieving an overriding  objective
     shown elsewhere in the overall structure.      or example, in
                                                                desig-
     meeting housing objectives programs may provide cash to
     nated recipients to be   used specifically as  a housing allow-
                                                                   and
     ance. Research to develop such a program as an efficient
     effective means  to meet  housing objectives  is excluded from
     here (see VI., f1Ob1ING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT).


                             -134-
D.   MANPOWER

     Encompasses research primlarily directed toward improving the
     utilization and management of manpower resources. This
     includes, but is not limited to, research to improve the
     methods for developing manpower policy; develop solutions to
     unemployment and other manpower malutilizations; improve the
     allocation and productivity of manpower resources; improve
     abilities to assess needs and plan and manage governmental man
     power programs; and improve understanding of various influences
     on the U.S. labor market, including immigrants, illegal entries,
     etc.

     Exclude research to improve programs and methods (such as voca-
     tional training programs) which prepare individuals for specific
     jobs and vocations (see I. D., VOCATIONALT, TRAINING).

     Exclude research directed toward improving methods to provide
     income assistance to the unemployed such as research to im-
     prove unemployment insurance (see XIII. C., INCOME ASSISTANCE).

     Exclude research to develop job opportunities for ex-prisoners
     (see VII. D., CORRECTIONS).

     Exclude research to optimize the management and use of Federal,
     State and local manpower resources in delivering their programs
     and services (see XIII. A., COMMUNITY SERVICES DELIVERY).

E.   REGULATORY ACTIVITIES

     Encompasses research which is conducted primarily to develop
     met?!ods which determine the costs and benefits of governmental
     regulatory activities, to determine the effects of regulation
     and deregulation upon economic productivity, to assess the need
     for regulation, and to increase the social effectiveness of
     regulation.

     Exclude research which studies specific regulatory activities
     of the major objectives presented elsewhere in this structure.
     For example, exclude research to assess the impact on U.S.
     transportation system of deregulating the railroad industry
     (see XII. B., RAIL).

F.   SAFETY

     Encompasses research Conducted to protect and assure personal
     safety in various situations that are not specifically addressed


                             -135-
 elsewhere in the overall structure. For example, this entry
 includes research related to occupational safety and health
 and consumer products safety that is conducted to isolate
 causes of injuries, determine the health effects i work
 environments, identify 1' measure safety threats and control
 or prevent these thre

Exclude research to treat or cure diseases or injuries wh:.rc
result from these threats (see V., HEALTH).

Exclude research to determine, prevent or control the effects
of radioactive pollutants on workers (See II. D. 7., NUCLEAR
SAFETY).

Exclude research to improve safety in different transportation
modes (see XII., TRANSPORTATION).

1.   OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY   ND HEALTH

      Includes research conducted to isolate causes of injuries
     or diseases in the work environment; measure or determine
      the kind and extent of the threat; and in most cases, con-
      trol the act-vity or pollutant so that safety standards
     can be established and worker's health and safety pro-
     tected. A specific example of this includes research to
       'termine threats t:) workers in mines. All aspects of
     mine afety research will be shown here.

     Exclude occupational safety and health research which can
     be applied to a single objective elsewhere in the overall
     structure. For example, exclude research to determine
     radiation effects on nuclear power plant workers, (See
     II. D. 7., NUCLEAR SAFETY).

2.   CONSUMER?'PRODUCTS SAFETY

     Encompasses research on consumer products which is con-
     ducted to develop methods which determine and isolate
     threats to safety caused by consumer products. This re-
     search involves efforts to test and assure the safety of
     consumer products and might lead to the banning or modif-
     cation of harmful products. Includes research on the
     safety of non-food, non-agricultural produ:ts such as
     drugs and patent medicines.

     Exclude research on the safety of food and on-food
     agricultural products (See IV. E., IMPROVE SAFETY).


                        -136-