DOCOMENT RESUME 00053 - A0891545] Need for a Governsent-Wide Budget Classification Structure for Federal Research and Development Information, Appendix IV. PAD-77-4A; B-115398. March 3, 1977. 136 pp. Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. Contact: Program Analysis Div. Budget Function: General Science, Space, and Technology: General Science and Basic Research (251); discellaneous: Financial Managesent and Information Systems (1002). Organization Concerned: Department of Defense; Office of Management and Budget; Department of Health, Education, and welfare; Department of Housing and Urban Development; Mat,..nal eronautics and Space Administration; National Science Foundation. Congressional Relevance: Congress. Autho;ity: ORB Circular -34. A classification structure has been developed by GAO for the purpose of providing Congress ith a method of iewing Federal research and development. The underlying concept is that Federal research and development can be associated with ob3jectives that are defined in terms of solving national problems or accomplishing national goals. Reporting requirements include: each category in the structure is to be taken as exclusive of any other category; all organizational subdivisions that '-ebnitand testify regarding appropriations requests to the Congress should submit te required informaticn; obligations in hundreds ,f thousands of dollars re to be provided for the prior fiscal year, the current fiscal year, and the budget fiscal year; a consolidated presentation will be prepared for the respective research and development activities; and the relationship with ORB reporting will be explained. Twelve subject areas are defined: education and training; energy development and conservation; environmental quality improvement; food, fiber, and other agricultural products; health; housing and community development; law enforcement and justice; mental health and substance abuse; military; natural resources; science and technology; space flight systems technology; transportation; and other, a catch all for community services, foreign policy, income assistance programs, anpower resources programs, assessment of regulatory activities, and occupational and consumer product safety programs. (Author/SS) RZPORT TO THE CONGRESS CD :.n'- BY THE COMPTROLLER GENERAL b, W OF THE UNITED STATES Need For A Government-wide Budget Classification Structure For Federal Research And Development Information-- Appendix IV This appendix accompanies GAO report PAD-77-14. It contains the complete definition and instruction package for the unified classification structure for Federal research and development info mation developed by GAO. PAD-77-14A MA,5J lX3, 1977 C o n t n t s PAGE Preface Guidelines for Preparation of Presentation of Federal Research and Development Funding Using the Unified Objective-Oriented Structure iii Attachment A - Unified Classifi- cation Structure for Federal Research and Development viii Attachment B - Illustration of Overhead Allocation xiv Attachment C - Federal Research and Development Activities xv Attachment D - Federal Research and Development Facilities Activities xvi Scope Notes: I. Education and Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 II. Energy Development and Conservation. . . . . . .. .7 III. Environmental Quality Improvement. . . . . . . . . . 17 IV. Food, Fiber and Other Agricultural Products. .... 26 V. Health. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 34 VI. HouPing and Community Development. . . . . . . . . . 60 VII. Law Enforcement and Justice. . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 VIII. Military. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 IX. Natural Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 X. Science and Technology Base. . . . . . . . . . 94 XI. Space Flight Systems Technology. . . . . . . . . . .117 XII. Transportation . ..... . . ... 124 XIII. Other. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132 -i- PREFACE This classification structure has been developed by GAO for the purpose of providing Congress with a method of viewing Federal research and development funding in a unified manner across the Federal Government. The concept underlying the structure is that Federal research and development can be associated with objectives that are defined in terms of solv- ing national problems or accomplishing national goals. This structure has been developed by GAO pursuant to its responsibilities under the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1970, as amended by Title VIII of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974. The presentation is to provide dollar information in terms of obligations at each level of the structure for each agency and its subdivisions and in total (Government-wide) for the past, current and budget year. This information requirement will supplement existing budget presentations. Accordingly, it is not intended to di- rectly affect the method used by the agencies in presenting their basic budget requests. This document includes general guidelines on how the departments and agencies are to fulfill the requirement, the unified Federal research and development classification struc- ture, and detailed "Scope Notes" which define the content of each category or element of the structure. ii GUIDELINES FOR PREPARATION OF PRESENTATION OF FEDERAL-RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT FUNDING USING THE UNIFIED OBJECTIVE-ORIENTED STRUCTURE PURPOSE In order to provide the Congress with a unified presenta- tion of Federal research and development funding, each agency performing or funding research and development is required to prepare this supplementary presentation of obligational data in accordance with the following guidelines. The presentation is intended to show research and development funds in a cross- cutting manner which identifies specific national objectives rather than agency missions. Accordingly, when preparing a response to this requirement, agencies must use the complete classification structure and accompanying definitions (Scope Notes) which begin on page 1. BACKGROUND This information requirement stems from congressional in- terest in determining and evaluating the Federal commitment to various national research and development objectives. The presentation will cut across agency lines, will facilitate eval- uation and comparison of agencies' research and development ac- tivities and will improve analysis of resource allocation with respect to national priorities. The General Accounting Office has developed the Unified Objective-Oriented Classification Structure for Research and Development (Attachment A), and the complete set of categories and definitions--Scope Notes, which will be used as the basis for providing this information. DEFINITIONS Conduct of Research and Development includes all direct, indirect, incidental or related costs resulting fromn or neces- sary to the actual conduct of research and development funded by the Federal Government. For the purposes of this require- ment, research and development includes scientific and techni- cal information activities which encompass the dissemination of knowledge or data resulting from the conduct of research and development and which present the status, progress or re- sults of research and development. In addition, research and development includes funds for technology utilization pro- grams which encompass those activities devoted to direct in- teraction with State and local government and private organi- zations to assist in the application of Federally developed technology to the solution of their problems. iii Operational activities such as the routine performance of mapping and surveying by traditional techniques, the collec- tion of general purpose statistics and the training of scienti- fic manpower should be excluded from this analysis. The following specific definitions and concepts are to be used in preparing a response to this requirement: -- Research is systematic, intensive study directed to- ward fuller scientific knowledge or understanding of the subject. --Development is systematic use of knowledge and under- standing gained from research, directed toward the production of useful materials, devices, systems or methods, including design and development of proto- types and processes. It excludes quality control, routine product testing and production. -- Research and development facilities consist of facili- ties and fixed equipment, such as reactors, wind tun- nels, optical and radio telescopes, research radars, and the like. Includes acquisition of, construction of, major repairs to, or alterations in structures, works. equipment, facilities, or land, for use in research and development activities at Federal and non-Federal installations. Obligations, as defined in Office of Management and Budget Circular No. A-34, include amounts of orders placed, contracts awarded, services received and similar transactions during a given period that will require payments duLing the same or a future period. The data should include all obligations in- culrred against receipts, corporate income, or other sources, including funds appropriated to the President, that an agency received or expects to receive. For this requirement re- spondents should provide actual obligations for the prior year and estimated obligations for the current year and the budget year. Each agency or subdivision thereof should include in its obligations the amounts allocated or otherwise made available or intended to be made available to other agencies or subdivi- sions for support of research and development. The receiving agencies or subdivisions are not :o report funds allocated or made available to them. The amount shown for each year should reflect obligations for that year regardless of when the funds were originally ap- propriated or received, and regardless of whether they were appropriated, received, or identified in the agency's budget iv specifically for research, development, and research and development facilities. Obligations for work performed in foreign countries for an agency should include all funds available to the agency, including "special foreign currency program appropriations." REPORTING-REQUIREMENTS a. Guidelines. Each category in the structure (whether the highest summary or lowest detailed level) is to be taken as exclusive of any other category. With the exceptions noted in the following paragraphs, a research project will be assigned only to the one category which represents the primary purpose for which the research i unded. The intention here is to present a supplementary display of research and development from the perspective o total fund- ing committed to certain national problem-solving objectives regardless of the performing agency's mission. For the De- partment of Defense (DOD) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which have broad charters to conduct research and devel7oinent to accomplish their missions, work that is conducted excliusively to further that mission will be separate from work that has clear potential to con- tribute directly to solving the national problems identified in the structure (all categories except Military, Science and Technology Base, and Space Flight Systems Technology). DOD and NASA research and development that has a clear potential of directly contributing to national objectives will be included as part of the funding for those categories instead of being shown in Military and Space Flight Systems Technology. For example, DOD and NASA research to reduce aircraft noise will be included in Category III, Environmental Quality Improvement. Other examples are contained in the definitions of each objective found in the attached Scope Notes. In cases where multiple objectives exist for a research project, amounts should be shown in the category that most clearly defines the primary purpose for support (except when choosing between mission and problem-solving o,.jectves). In cases where the objective is to enhance understanding of a subject and there is not clear connection with any particular pr-oem-solving objective, the obligations should be included in Category X, Science and Technology Base. In- dividual units of work may be allocated among two or more mutuall exclusive categories within the structure if the agency believes that this provides a more accurate presenta- tion. Explanatory notes should be used, as appropriate, to v clarify these allocations. In all cases, one part of the structure may not be shown funding entered in In this way the totals for all entries will anywhere else. cent of an agency's research and development add to 100 per- funding. b. Submission level. All organizational (units of a reporting agency, such as a bureau,subdivisions office or service) that submit and testify division, regarding priation requests to the Congress should submit appro- information. Each subdivision's information the required separately and in a consolidated total for will be reported the agency. c. Data to-be-included. Obligations thousands o dollars are to be provided forin hundreds of the prior fiscal year, the current fiscal year and the budget fiscal year. Amounts reported should include operational research and development obligations to support activities performed in Federal laboratories, research centers, and ties that are directly related to research Federal facili- such as weapons test ranges, vehicle launch and development, facilities, and telescopes. The amounts reported should include of Federal employees performing and/or administeringsalaries programs and overhead costs up to and including the management of agency research and development the general detailed cost accounting data is not available,programs. If overhead costs may be allocated to the activities on the basis of numbers of direct positions, direct costs, or by any other method judged appropriate cost per launch, by the agency. In each submission, the method and the total amount allocated selected should be described should be shown after the data presentation (see Attachment B). Funding for research and development facilities struction or acquisition should be shown in con- a separate schedule following the research and development presentation. This schedule includes obligations which can be assigned directly to one entry in the structure must be allocated to the lowest levels and obligations which of the structure. Again, the responding agency would determine the best method for allocation and describe the method selected after the data presentation. It is recognized that the agency's accounting formation systems ay not be able to directly and in- data requested. The amounts used may thereforesupply the where they are not traceable to the agency's be estimated accounting ys- tem. vi d. Preparation of materials. Each aency and its sub- divisions will prepare a consolidated presentation for their respective research and development activities. Examples of the formats which could be used are displayed in Attach- ment C, Analysis of Federal Research and Development Activi- ties and Attachment D, Analysis of Federal Research and Development Facilities Activities. Obligations should be entered for all applicable num- bered or lettered categories in the Scope Notes. NOTE: The Structure, Attachment A on page viii, is presented as a guide and includes only the too three levels of categories. The complete set of categories presented in the Scope Notes beginning on page 1 is to be used in providing this informa- tion. It is not necessary to list the categories and subcate- gories in the stub column for which there are no entries. For example: II. ENERGY DEVELOPMEhL' AND CONSER:ATION A. Petroluem and Natural Gas 1. Improve Extraction and P:ocessing III. ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT C. Control and Abate Pollutants 1. Air 2. Noise e. Relationship to OMB analysis. It is the intention of this requirement to btaain etail on the objectives of tne research and development funding reporled to the Office o? Management and Budget under the requirements of Circular A-11 (July 1976, Sections 44.1-44.3) and additional research and development information discussed above. Since the total amount which an agency reports for this analysis will differ from the amount reported for the OMB report, the difference should be explained in a separate attachment to the submission. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL REFINEMENTS The objective-oriented structure supplied may not be altered for this year's submission. However, should any agency believe that the Scope notes supplied do not indicate appropriate inclusions and/or exclusions within an objective, the agency may Suggest changes to the definitions and/or structure itself in a document which accompanies the required analysis. At its option, the agency may supply as a second analysis, its data in the revised structure it is suggesting. vii ATTACHMENT A~., ATTACHMENT A UNIFIED CLASSIFICATION STRUCTURE FO FEDERAL RESEARC ND DEVEEPihT I. EDUCATION AND TRAINING A. The L.earning Process B. The Relationship between Education/Training and Society C. Education Service Delivery D. Vocational Training II. ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION A. Petroleum and Natural Gas 1. Improve Resource Assessment 2. Improve Extraction and Processing B. Oil Shale 1. Improve Resource Assessment, Exploration and Extraction 2. Improve Upgrading Methods 3. Improve Transmission, Storage and Refining C. Coal 1. Improve Resource Assessment 2. Improve Extraction and Processing 3. Convert Coal to Oil or Gas D. Nuclear Energy 1. Improve Resource Assessment and Recovery 2. Develco Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Technology 3. Develop Light Water Breeder Reactor Technology 4. Develop Alternative Breeder Technologies 5. Develop G&s-Cooled Thermal Reactor Technology 6. Improve Lig;,t Water Reactor Technology 7. Nuclear Safety 8. Develop Fusion Power E. Solar Energy 1. Produce Solar Thermal and Solar Thermal Electrical Energy 2. Develop Photovoltaic Electric Power Systems F. Geothermal Energy 1. Improve Resource Assessment 2. Improve Extraction and Processing 3. Convert Geothermal Resources to Thermal and Electrical Energy G. Alternative Energy Resources 1. Congert Wind Energy to Electricity 2. Improve Fuel Generation from Bioconversion 3. Improve Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion 4. Other (must be specified and described) H. Energy Conservation 1. Increase Electricity Generation Efficiency 2. Improve Energy Storage 3. Improve Electric Power Transmission 4. Reduce Energy Consumption by End-Users I. Energy Systems Study and Analysis - viii - ATTACHMENT A ATTACHMENT A III. ENVIROMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVERENT A. Identify Pollutant Effects 1. Air 2. Water 3. Solid Waste 4. Pesticides 5. Noise 6. Radiation B. UrAerstand Pollution Processes I. Air 2. Water 3. Solid Waste 4. Pesticides S. doise . Radiation C. Control and Abate Pollutants 1. Air 2. Water 3. Solid Waste 4. Pesticides 5. Noise . Understand, Describe, Predict and Affect Weather 1. Regional Environmental Systems and Na'ural Hazards 2. Climate and Weather Study 3. Weather Modification 4. Disaster and latural Hazards Studies and Control IV. FOOD, FIBER AND OTHER AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS A. Identify and Develop New or Underdeveloped Food B. Improve Production and Feed Scarces 1. Improve Crop Production for Food 2. Improve Animal Production for Food 3. Improve Production of Marine Food Souces 4. Improve Production of Non-Food Items 5. Improve Use of Land, Water, Fertilization, Equipment Methods and C. Improve Storage and Processing 1. Improve Storage and Processing of Food Products 2. Improve Storage and Processing D. Improve Distribution and Marketing of Non-Food Products 1. Improve Distribution and Marketing of Food Products 2. Improve Distribution and Marketing of Non-Food Products 3. Improve Consumption E. Improve Safety - ix - ATTACHMENT A ATTACHMENT A V. HEALTH A. Diseases and Injuries 1. The Aging Process--Diseases and Related Conditilns 2. Arthritis and Rheumatism 3. Blood Diseases and Disorders 4. Cancer' 5. Dental Diseases and isorders 6. Diabetes and Other Endocrine Disorders 7. Digestive Diseases 8. Environmentally-Caused Health Disorders 9. Eye and Visual System Disorders 10. Genitourinary System Disorders (ncluding Kidney Disease) 11. Heart and Vascular Diseases (including Stroke) 12. Infectious and Parasitic Diseases (including Allergies not elsewhere classified) 13. Injuries Not Related to Diseases 14. Lung and Respiratory Diseases and Disorders 15. Maternal and Child Health (including Genetics not elsewhere classified, Fertil ty Regulation and Mental Retardation) 16. Metabolic Disorders 17. Musculoskeletal System and Connective Tissue Dlsorders 18. Neurological and Communicative Disorders 19. Nutritional Disorders 20. Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disao.es and Disorders 21. Disease and Injury Base B. Mental nealth 1. Mental Illness and Behavior Disorders 2. Mental Health Aspects of Social Problems 3. Mental Health Base C. Substance Abuse 1. Alcoholism 2. Drug Abuse 3. Abuse of Other Substances D. Health Services Delivery 1. Improve Quality 2. Control and Reduce Cost 3. Improve Accessibility VI. HOUSING AND COMIMUNITY DEVELOPMENT A. Housing 1. Increase- Opportunities 2. Improving Safety and Standards 3. Improving Construction, Delivery and Costs 4. Improving Housing Management 5. Improving Housing Maintenance B. Community Development 1. Preserve and Revitalize Neighborhoods 2. Community Development and Growth - X - ATTACHMENT A ATTACHMENT A VII. LAW ENFORCEMENT AND JUSTICE A. Prevention of Crime (includes a total for drug trafficking) B. aw Enforcement (Includes a total for drug trafficking) C. Adjudication D. Corrections E. Juvenile Justice F. Understanding of Crime G. Justice Technology VIII. MILITARY A. Deter Attack 1. Land-based Missiles 2. Sea-based Missiles 3. Aircraft 4. Deterrent Weapons Development and Protection 5. Command and Control Elements of Nuclear Deterrence 6. Nuclear Deterrence -- General B. Defend Continental United States Against Attack 1. Ballistic Missile Warning 2. Ballistic Missile Defense 3. Air Defense 4. Defend Continental United States -- General C. Combat Capability 1. Land Warfare 2. Air Warfare 3. Ocean Control 4. Combat Capability -- General 5. Theater Nuclear Forces D. Defensewide Applications I. Intelligence Systems 2. Communications, Command and Control 3. Area Navigation Systems 4. Military Personnel Managemer.t and Ulization 5. Biomedicine with Exclusive Military Applications 6. Nuclear Weapons Effects 7. Chemical/Biological Weapons 8. Weather Modifications IX. NATURAL RESOURCES A. Forests B. Land C. Minerals 1. Inprove Means of Locating and Assessing Mineral Sources 2. Improve Mineral Extraction and Recovery Techniques 3. Improve Mineral Processing Techniques 4. Improve Techniques for Reusing and Recycling Matcerials or Products Made from Mnerals 5. Improve Mneral Supply/Demand Analysis - xi - ATTACHMENT A ATTACHMENT A D. Recreation E. Water F. Wildlife X. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BASE A. Astronomy B. Atmospheric Sciences C. Biology D. Chemistry E. Computers F. Engineering G. Geological Sclences H. Materials I. Mathematical Sciences J. Measurement and Standards Technology K. Oceanographic Sciences L. Physics M. Psychology N. Science Information Technology 0. Science Policy, Management Technology and Other Special Programs P. Social Sciences Q. Surveying, Mapping, Charting and Geodesy R. Telecommunications XI. SPACE FLIGHT SYSrEMS TECHNOLOGY A. Space Transportation Systems 1. Space Shuttle 2. Spacelab 3. Interim Upper Stage/Tug 4. Other Space Transportation Systems B. Space Flight Equipment Engineering 1. Energy Systems 2. Human Operations in Space 3. Information and Communication Systems 4. Materials Used in Space Vehicles 5. Propulsion Systems 6. Space Vehicle Aerothermodynamics 7. Systems and Design Studies 8. Vehicle and Satellite Structures 9. Vehicle Guidance and Control XII. TRANSPORTATION A. Air 1. Improve Vehicles 2. Improve Aviation Operational Environment and Effectiveness 3. Improve Aviation Safety ATTACHMENT A ATTACHMENT A B. Rail 1. Improve Rail Vehicles 2. Improve Operational Environment and Effectiveness 3. Improve Rail Safety C. Highway 1. Improve Vehicles 2. Improve Operational Environment and Effectiveness 3. Improve Highway Safety D. Marine 1. Improve Marine Vehicles 2. Improve Marine Operational Environment and Effectiveness 3. Improve Marine Safety E. Pipeline 1. Improve Pipeline Equipment and Operational Effectiveness 2. Improve Pipeline Safety F. Multi- and Inter-modal XIII. OTHER A. Community Services B. Foreign Affairs 1. Foreign Aid 2. International Agreements and Foreign Policy C. Income Assistance D. Manpower E. Regulatory Activities F. Safety 1. Occupational Safety and Health 2. Consumer Products Safety - xiii - ATTACHMENT B ATTACHMENT B ILLUSTRATION OF OVERHEAD ALLOCATION For Bureau A of the Department of Research, administrative and management expenses which cannot be assigned directly to a research category are allocated on the basis of number of direct positions. These allocated amounts are added to the lowest level categories in which the Bureau conducts research. The total amount of administrative and management expenses assigned directly or indirectly through this allocation method are: $412 for FY 1976 115 for the three-month transition period 420 for FY 1977 470 for FY 1978 - xiv - ATTACHMENT C ATTACHMENT C ,-. 30° 0 3 > < ~.4 v E n oo ¢ o o 0 4. ; aX e 4 r..3 0 :;~ :; 1, a: O," , ) u o >o oi -r4 vcn u H 4 H C OW OW, ° Tl o t V- O 0 0 . uz _ 00u 0 co 0_1 > > > > 0) ·r C o C 0H > > 0:~~~ C 00H OJ CO mJ C, 0- o (L VC= 4 W4-JWg ' P 0 -j '- 0 w u,-r4oo 0$. t ° cd r co r4 vi .0 rb 0E- V_§ cd E-4 E 00 0c- cn 0 0a . W . WJ4- &w0-Ho 4oJ4-J00 u P-4 XV E ATTACHMENT D ATTACHMENT D OI- to r-. U) z 44 ..c: U)V3t P a -, 0 FoO- oU 1-4 a > C., 00 k H O. 0 to 4 u 4U $4 c U4 _VEq a Oz ¢ Vs >% uo <0 EU0 U1 :< H 0 w P> · o · noi M¢ Z ac- X @ o OHW .- U) C0 X o ¢ vC X vC g @ U @ C W B D B - 8 ) gc w >u _i a Ai H 0 0b0 00 0 H 2JkU Ci * -1. 4U co W404 > Z ¢ a: ca >%0 -c4 c ia H P.4v- u Ho H0w iW 4i 0 c 0 ZoO Zaii 0114 w 0. U4 A0 cUG1 .0Bu E-4 i-a 0n U)'-4O HmOdooo U) 4I-D0a ) Q. v c- 4 M 01" H * .0 .. I. EDUCATION AND TRAINING EDUCATION AND TRAINING PAGE A. The Learning Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 B. The Relationship Between Education/Training and Society. . 2 C. Education Service Delivery .. . . . . . . . . . . . ... 3 1. Quality of Instruction ................. 3 2. Accessibility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 4 3. Cost Reduction and Control . ............. . 5. 4. Organization and Administration. . . . . . . . . .... 5 D. Vocational Training. .......... . ... ..... 5 I. EWDUCATION AND TRAINING This section includes research to increase underst.:-ding of and to improve all acts and processes of systematic instruction, schooling and training. Also includes research to improve means of imparting skills and knowledge to people at all education levels--pre-school, elementary, secondary, and post-secondary; means of developing gen- eral powers of reasoning and perception; and methods of improving or learning new job-specific vocational skills. Education research includes efforts to --improve knowledge concerning the learning process; --conduct studies of the influences of education on society and of society on education; --improve the quality, accessibility, cost, and organization and administration of education services delivery; and --improve vocational training. Vocational training herein refers only to the skilled occupations, such as the construction trades, clerical functions, or computer programmers. Research to increase understanding of or improve the education and training processes associated with certain highly skilled professions, for which there exist special, post-baccalaureate schools (such as medical, dental, or law schools), will be shown in the first four sec- tions, rather than under the vocational raining entry. It is recognized that some research may be directed toward the special educational and training problems encountered by various persons -1- because of their ethnic origin, limited ability or total lack of ability to speak or understand the English language, physical or mental handi- caps, economic situation, living conditions, limited mental or emotional stability, or their gender. However, responses are to be rendered on the basis of educational processes, as described above, rather than on the basis of suc a targeted approach. A. THE LEARNING PROCESS Includes research to increase understanding of the learning process and to determine why individuals learn at different rates and in different ways. This category will include research directed toward the fundamental cognitive process in reeding, writing, and comprehension, and the relation of this process to learning and instruction. Also included are studies of the foi- lowing factors and their effect on students' motivation, com- petence, performance, and attitude: non-school influences, such as family and community relations; variations in teach- ing methods and school environment, such as open classrooms, highly-structured classrooms, peer tutoring, or instruction outside the classroom; individual student characteristics, such as learning style and attention span; comprehension and reading problems; and sex roles or ethnic group membership. Excludes research on psychological (see X. M., PSYCHOLOGY), mental health (see V. B., MENTAL HEALTH), or behavioral (see X. P., SOCIAL SCIENCES) processes which are not specifically related to understanding the learning process, B. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EDUCATION/TRAINING AND SOCIETY Includes research on the impact cf education and training and changes in educational attainments or skill levels of individuals on society. Also includes research on the influence of societal changes on education and training techniques and systems. Typical objectives of research in this category include the fol- lowing: study the relationship between education and economic opportunity; improve knowledge concerning the capacity of formal education to influence an individual's social behavior and economic future; study the effect of training and education on motivation and morale in work situations; improve understanding -2- of the relationship between education and work, including studies of the interactions between work, school and om- munity activities, the response of the education system to changing needs of the labor market (including the supply of and demand for differing skill types and educational level attainment) and the adequacy of educational preparation for job entry and progression; imrzove understanding of the con- tribution of education to career awareness, in order to .ake wise career choices and to prepare for and obtain jobs; study career choices among adults starting second careers, or those preparing for advanced positions; examine the responsive- ness of education to the career-related needs of individuals; study the capacity of formal education to foster the social in- tegration of human beings; improve understanding of the effects of recent court decisions on various aspects of education, including desegregation, equality of access, and the process of compliance with an externally-imposed order to change; and investigate the legal status of the student, including a student's rights and responsibilities concerning education and educational systems, the effect of deviant behavior in schools, and the process of involuntary expulsion from school. C. EWDCATION SERVICE DELIVERY Includes research to improve understanding of the problems con- fronting educators and others in delivering educational services. Also includes research to develop improved methods of deliver- ing these services. Research in this section is directed to- ward the provision of high quality, accessible, low-cost, and effectively organized and administered education services. Exludes the provision of vocational training and job-specific education services (see I. D., VOCATIONAL TRAINING). 1. QUALITY OF INSTRUCTION Includes research to increase the quality of educational in- struction through improvements in curricula, subject matter, and instructional techniques. Research on curricula improve- went is directed toward the selection and sequencing of course packages presented to students. This research also addresses the need for increased understanding of and improve- ments in the subject matter studied in each course of in- struction and, efforts to improve the effectiveness of in- structional and teaching techniques. -3- Research in this category is exemplified by the following objectives: develop the means to match curricula and subjects taught with the constantly changing needs of society; design curricula which, at a minimum, will pro- vide individuals with fundamental verbal, mathematical, and social abilities (including the skills of reading, writing, comprehension, the use of language, and basic analytical abilities); develop curricula and subject areas which are more responsive to unique educational settings or individual needs of students; improve teacher skills in implementilg new curricula and subject areas; develop better performance criteria to guide administrators in teacher selection; evaluate the fairness and quality of teacher selection procedures; develop methods to close the gap between disparate educational system qualities from area to area; improve standards of measurement to assess the adequacy of educational instruction and stu- dent achievement; identify and study effective educational innovations which were developed through practice rather than as a result of formal research; and identify schools with relatively higher academic achievement, determine why this occurred, and develop ways of replicating this condition in other schools and school systems. 2. ACCESSIBILITY Includes research on ways to enhance the opportunity of in- dividuals to obtain educational instruction. Also includes research on new or better ways of financing education services. The following objectives exemplify research efforts to be included in this section: develop methods of ;ng educa- tion more available to the general populace, including the application of technology (television, computers, audio cassettes, video tapes, and films); study the problems of availability of education services to various socioeconomic groups and develop methods to alleviate these problems; and examine the present methods of financing education ser- vices and the effects of changing those methods. Excludes research on improving the quality of educational curricula, subject matter, and instruction techniques (see I. C. 1., QUALITY OF INSTRUCTIO . -4- 3. COST REWDUCTION AND CONTROL Includes research on ways of providing the same quality and quantity of education services at lower cost or at the same cost level in the face of rising costs elsewhere. Also in- cludes research to impro-e our understanding of and use of productivity concepts in education delivery. The following objectives exemplify research efforts to be reported under this category: study the distribution of ed- ucational costs among households according to percentage of family Income; improve understanding of the historical re- lationship between changes in educational costs and improve- ments in educational attainment; develop new concepts of efficiency in education delivery; examine alternative re- sources and resource mixes to deliver education services; and study the cost ffects of increased or excessive use of private schools over public schools. 4. ORGANIZATON AND ADMINISTRATION Includes research to improve understanding of current edu- cational organization structures and administrative practices and procedures. Also includes research to develop viable alternative methods for organizing and administering educa- tion services delivery. The following objectives are indicative of the research ef- forts to be reported under this category: study alternative structures of education which provide parents, teachers, and administrators more voice in determining he form, content, and style of eucation that is provided in a comuniL or school district (such as the use of education vouchers for student placement); develop better understanding concerning the organization and practice of education, including studies of factors which affect change in education systems; develop better methods to obtain information and provide input to education policy decisions; and improve understanding of the current methods and develop better alternatives for school system organization and management (such as some of the pre- sent experimental schools employing open learning or re- latively unstructured classroom situations). D. VOCATIONAL TRAINING Research in this category is directed toward improving methods of te&ahing individuals a marketable skill to enhance their -5- employability. It differs from the four previous subsections of I., EDUCATION AND TRAINING, in that this subsection covers skill- or j -specific instruction and learning, while the other sections include research on the more general processes of education. Includes research to improve methods for providing the techni- cal skills and associated general knowledge required in various vocations or occupations, which are primarily characterized by, but not limited to, the existence of labor urn4 -- or other specialized representative bodies corresponding to the trades or skills involved in these vocations r occupations (for example, the construction trades). Also includes occupations which, although not strictly organized, likewise require specific skills and education (such as computer programmers or operators). Efforts to be reported under this sectf.on are exemplified by the following objectives: develop ne-w or improve existing occupational fields and associated taining methods; develop or iprove methods of meeting specialized occupational needs; develop ways to create shortcuts for experience as a method of learning or developing job-related skills; improve understanding of the job preparation needs of various groups of people and develop ways to meet these needs; and improve existing or develop new occupational guidance, counseling, and placement services. -6- II. ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION PAGE A. Petroleum and Natural Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . 8 1. Improve Resource Assessment.. and Processing . . . .. 8 2. Improve Extraction B. Oil Shale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1. Improve Resource Assessment, Exploration and Extraction. . . . . ... . . . . . . . .. 9 2. Improve Upgrading Methods .. . . 9 a. Improve In Situ Processing Methods .. . 9 b. Improve Above Ground Processing Methods . . . .. 9 3. Improve Transmission, Storage and Refining. . . . . .. 9 C. Coal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 9 1. Improve Resource Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . 10 10 2. Improve Extraction and Processing . . . . . . . . 10 3. Convert Coal to Oil or Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nuclear Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 D. 1. Improve Resource Assessment and Recovery. . . 11 2. Develop Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Technology. 11 3. Develop Light Water Breeder Reactor Technology .. 11 4. Develop Alternative Breeder Technologies. .11 12 5. Develop Gas-Cooled Thermal Reactor Technology . . . . . 6. Improve Light Water Reactor Technology. . . . . . . 12 7. Nuclear Safety. . . . . . .. .. . . . 12 8. Develop Fusion Power . . . .. . . . . . 12 E. Solar Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1. Produce Solar Thermal and Solar Thermal Electrical Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2. Develop Photovoltaic Electric Power Systems . . . . . . Geothermal Energy .............. . . 14 F. 1. Improve Resource Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Improve Extraction and Processing . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3. Convert Geothermal Resources to Thermal and Electrical Energy .. . . . . . 14 G. Alternative Energy Resources . . . . . . . . . .. 15 1. Convert Wind Energy to Electricity. . . . . . . . . 15 2. Improve Fuel Generation from Bioconversion. . . .. 15 3. Improve Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion . . . . . . . . 15 4. Other (must be specified and described) . . . . . . 15 H. Energy Conservation .................... 15 1. Increase Electricity Generation Efficiency . . . . 15 2. Improve Energy Storage. . . . * . . . . . . . 16 3. Improve Electric Power Transmission . . . . . . . . . . 16 4. Reduce Energy Consumption by End-Users . . . . . . . 16 Energy Systems Study and Analysis . 16 I. . ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION Encompasses research on methods and technologies to increase the domestic supply of energy and energy resources and to promote their efficient utilization. More specifically includes research to: --Develop technologies to increase oil and gas resources re- covery. --Develop techniques and systems to increase coal production and to convert coal to oil and gas. --Develop economical systems and techniques to convert solar radiation into thermal and electrical power. --Develop economical systems and techniques to convert geothermal resources into electrical and thermal energy. --Develop techniques and systems to develop and convert alternative energy resources such as wind and plant biomass into energ}. --Develop the capability to produce energy with all types of nuclear reactors. --Develop new methods and technologies to conserve energy. --Conduct studies and analyses for planning and management of energy systems. These objectives of ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION are subject to environmental constraints. Exclude research directed towards such constraints' interface with ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION objectives. For example, exclude work to improve sulfur removal from coal before combustion in order to control environmental pollution. (See III. C. 1., AIR) -7- A. PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS Research to develop technologies which will increase oil and gas resources recovery is shown here. Includes research :o assess the inventory of and to improve the extraction and processing of oil and gas. Exclude research to liquefy or gasify coal (See IT C. ., AIR if the primary purpose of the work is to redut environ- mental impact. All other coal liquifaction and gasification research is shown in II. C. 3., CONVERT COAL TO OIL OR GAS). 1. IMPROVE RESOURCE ASSESSMENT Research to assess the nation's oil and gas resources in terns of quantity, quality, distribution, and recoverability is shown here. Includes research to develop n information base on distribution and quality of oil and gas deposits and improve ability to assess potential oil and gas recovery from off shore sites. Exclude research to assess the inventory of oil shale resources. (See II. B. 1., IMPROVE RESOURCE ASSESSMENT). 2. IMPROVE EXTRACTION AND PROCESSING Research to improve recovery techniques for gas and oil and increase efficiency in the processing of oil and gas products is shown here. Includes research to develop secondary and tertiary recovery methods and to develop methods to stimulate flow in low permeability areas. Exclude research to improve the extraction and process- ing of oil shale. (See II. B. 2., DEVELOP IN SITU PROCESSING TECHNIQUES.) B. OIL SHALE Encompasses research to maximize oil shale's potential as an energy resource. Includes research to develop or improve -8- efficient methods of exploration, mining, processing, transmission, storage, and refining of oil shale. Exclude research to insure the safety of oil shale mines and facilities. (See XIII. F. 1., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH.) 1. IMPROVE RESOURCE ASSESSMENT, EXPLORATION AND EXTRACTION Encompasses research to assess oil shale resources in terms of quantity, quality, distribution, recover- ability, composition, and characterization ad to improve extraction methods. 2. IMPROVE UPGRADING METHODS Encompasses research to develop or improve efficient methods of upgrading oil shale; in other words, con- verting oil shale into a more useable and more easily refined form. This work is divided into in situ pro- cessing and off-site (above ground) processing. a. IMPROVE IN SITU PROCESSING METHODS Includes research to improve in situ techniques of upgrading oil shale. b. IMPROVE ABOVE GROUND PROCESSING METHODS Includes research to improve the techniques used to upgrade oil shale above ground. 3. IMPROVE TRANSMISSION, STORAGE AND REFINING Encompasses research to improve the techniques involved in transmitting oil shale, storing it and refining it into a higher quality energy resource. C. COAL Encompasses research to assess coal resources, improve the extraction and processing of coal, and to improve coal liquefaction and gasification. Exclude research on coal extraction, processing, and utilization whose primary purpose is to minimize the environmental impact. (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT). For example. exclude research to enhance cleaner coal combustion such ds sulfur removal from coal. (See III. C. 1., AIR). -9- Exclude research to improve electricity generation efficiency with coal such as magnetohydrodynamics, fuel cells, and advanced - systems. (See II. H. 1., INCREASE ELECTRICITY GENERATION Erp :IENCY). 1. IMPROVE RESOURCE ASSESSMENT Includes research to assess the nation's coal resources in terms of quality, quantity, regional distribution and recoverability. 2. IMPROVE EXTRACTION AND PROCESSING Includes research to improve the productivity of coal mining and processing systems. Exclude mining technology research performed to minimize its environmental impact. (See ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT). 3. CONVERT COAL TO OIL AND GAS Encompasses research to improve systems and technologies for converting coal to oil and gas. Includes the liquefaction systems of direct hydrogenation, solvent extraction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction. Includes research on processes to perform high-BTU gasification, low-BTU gasification, and in situ Pnsification. Exclut . -ion and gasification research conducted primarily to -ize the environmental impact. (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL UALirY IMPF.OVEMENT). D. NUCLEAR ENERGY Research to develop the engineering base, qualify materials, develop components and subsystems, and conduct studies to pro- duce energy with all types of nuclear reactors is shown here. Includes research to assess nuclear energy resources. Also includes research performed to insure orker and nuclear reactor safety in nuclear power plants and research to improve the management and disposal of radioactive materials and wastes. This involves research which improves the capability to determine the effects on workers due to radiation exposure which enables the formulation of threshold levels for the workplace. Also involves all research to prevent, control, or abate the escape of radioactive pollutants into the power plant itself or into the general environment. Exclude research on the effects and processes of human exposure to ionizing and nonionizing radiation in the general environment which enables radiation exposure standards for the general - 10 - environment to be set. (See III. A. 6., RADIATION for research on radiation effects and III. B. 6., RADIATION for research on radiation processes.) 1. IMPROVE RESOURCE ASSESSMENT AND RECOVERY Research to evaluate and analyze U.S. uranium ore reserves, potential resources, and production capability; and research on the geology of uranium and thorium and on improved tech- niques to assess, discover, recover, and produce these resources is shown here. Only that work which fits this structure's definition of research and development is shown here. For example, exclude processes to produce reactor products, U-235, feed materials, and procurement of reactor products from this structure unless such material is used in research activities. 2. DEVELOP LIQUID METAL FAST BREEDER REACTOR TECHNOLOGY Encompasses research to develop, demonstrate and improve systems, componentz, and technologies to support the estab- lishment of a commercially viable Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). Exclude research on the safety of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor. (See II. D. 7., NUCLEAR SAFETY). 3. DEVELOP LIGHT WATER BREEDER REACTOR TECHNOLOGY Encompasses research to design, develop, and improve systems, components, and technologies necessary to develop the Light Water Breeder Reactor. Includes research to advance the design, operation and maintenance of pressurized water reactors and reactor plants. Exclude research on the safety of the Light Water Breeder Reactor. (See II. D. 7., NUCLEAR SAFETY). 4. DEVELOP ALTERNATIVE BREEDER TECHNOLOGIES Encompasses research to design, develop and improve systems, components and technologies to develop breeder reactors other than those mentioned previously. More specifically includes research to develop the Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors and the Molten Salt Breeder Reactors. Exclude research on the safety of these breeder reactors. (See II. D. 7., NUCLEAR SAFETY). - 11 - 5. DEVELOP GAS COOLED THERMAL REACTOR TECHNOLOGY Encompasses research to develop and advance the technology of gas cooled thermal reactors so as to achieve higher re- actor coolant outlet temperature, high thermal efficiency, and reliable operation. Includes research to develop very high temperature reactors and a direct cycle program, and research to develop spent fuel recycling technology for the High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR). Exclude research on the safety of gas cooled thermal reactors and the safety of spent fuel recycling processes for the HTGR. (See II. D. 7., NUCLEAR SAFETY). 6. LIGHT WATER REACTOR TECHNOLOGY Includes research to improve the reliability, availability, and capacity of Light Water Reactors (LWR). Also includes research to develop commercially applicable processes, equipment, and systems to recover and recycle plutonium and uranium from spent LWR fuels. Exclude research on the safety of LWR's and the safety of spent fuel recovery and recycling processes for the LWR. (See II. D. 7., NUCLEAR SAFETY). 7. NUCLEAR SAFETY Encompasses research performed to insure worker and nuclear power plant (including reactor) safety and research to im- prove the management and disposal of radioactive materials and wastes. Includes research to improve the determination of effects on workers due to radiation exposure which enables the formulation of standards for the work place. Also includes research to prevent, control, or abate the escape of radioactive pollutants into the power plant itself or into the general environment. Exclude research that is conducted to set radiation standards in the general environment by identifying and measuring the human effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation and to understand radiation pollution processes. (See III. A. 6., RADIATION for research on effects and see III. B. 6., RADIATION for research on processes). 8. DEVELOP FUSION POWER Research to develop the engineering base, qualify materials, develop components, and conduct engineering studies for the design, construction, and operation of prototype, demonstra- tion, and commercial fusion power reactors is shown here. - I - Includes research to investigate, develop and establish the feasibility of laser fusion as a basis for commercial power production. Examples of work shown here include research to: Develop and demonstrate methods to heat and contain high temperature plasmas; and Develop technology base for larger confinement systems. E. SOLAR ENERGY Research to design, develop, and prove practical, reliable, econom- ical systems to convert solar radiation into thermal and electrical power is shown here. Includes research to develop and demonstrate the practicality and desirability of solar heating and cooling systems for buildings and facilities, to provide technology solar thermal energy production and solar thermal electric for power plants, and to develop photovoltaic electric power systems. 1. PRODUCE SOTAR THERMAL AND SOLAR THERMAL ELECTRICAL ENERGY Research developing the technology to produce thermal and thermal electric power from solar radiation is shown here. Includes research to develop solar thermal electric power plants s efficient, economical sources of electricity and research to evaluate solar total energy systems to produce both thermal and electrical energy. Also includes research to support the demonstration of solar heating and cooling systems to achieve widespread use of such systems for all purposes that are economically, socially, and environmentally acceptable. Examples of work shown here include research to: Analyze performance and operational data of solar heating and cooling systems; Perform feasibility determinations and system designs; Reduce technical and financial risk; Document design, construction, and operational experience; Prove the viability and reliability of new concepts and system designs; Develop the central receiver concept for solar thermal elec- tric plants; Develop facilities to test components and subsystems of solar thermal electric plants; and Evaluate solar total energy systems for urban complexes, rural communities, industrial parks, and Federal installations. 2. DEVELOP PHCOTOLTAIC ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS Research to develop efficient, economical photovoltaic elec- tric power systems is shown here. Includes research to: Develop low cost, practical photovoltaic arrays; - 13 - Characterize all subsystems and components of the photo- voltaic electric power systems; Develop processes to fabricate these systems; and Insure continued involvement of potential users. Exclude research to assess the environmental impact of photo- voltaic systems. (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVE- MENT). F. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Encompasses research to develop and prove practical, reliable, technologically feasible and economical methods of producing electrical and thermal energy from geothermal resources. Includes research to explore and assess geothermal resources, to improve extraction and processing, to make mining materials and equip- ment more durable and to improve the conversion of geothermal resources to energy. Also includes the design, construction, and operation of facilities needed to test and solve problems of geothermal energy utilization. 1. IMPROVE RESOURCE ASSESSMENT Encompasses research to asb3ss geothermal resources in terms of quantity, quality, distribution, and recoverability. 2. IMPROVE EXTRACTION AND PROCESSING Encompasses research to improve the extraction and processing of geothermal energy resources. Includes research into drilling technology, reservoir engineering and management, and extrac- tion technology. Includes research to design, construct, and operate facilities needed to test these geothermal resource production systems. More specifically includes research to: Develop high temperature drill bits, downhole replaceable bits, explosive and spark drilling, and water jet drilling; Define expected life of a reservoir; Develop models of two-phase flow in geothermal reservoirs; Determine chemical reactions in a producing reservoir; Improve downhole temperature logging tools; and Develop downhole pumps and alternatives to pumping. 3. CONVERT GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES TO THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL ENERGY Encompasses research to develop, test, and evaluate systems and components for generating electric power and for other purposes such as space heating and cooling with geothermal resources. Work to design, construct and operate facilities to test and demonstrate these systems and components is shown here. Includes research on such power conversion - 14 - systems as the single and multiple stage flash, organic and inorganic binary cycles, hybrid cycles, and total flow devices such as the impulse turbine and the helical screw expander. G. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY RESOURCES 1. CONVERT WIND ENERGY TO ELECTRICITY Research to develop efficient and economical methods to convert wind energy to electricity is shown here. Includes research to determine user requirements, wind potential, and cost and system performance. 2. IMPROVE FUEL GENERATION FROM BIOCONVERSION Research to establish the commercial applicability of pro- ducing plant biomass and converting this biomass (and other wastes) to liquid, gaseous, and solid fuels as iell as thermal and electrical energy is shown here. Includes re- search to improve large-scale plant biomass conversions, to improve waste organic matter utilization such as urban solid wastes, and develop large-scale terrestrial and marine energy farming systems. 3. IMPROVE OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION Develop and demonstrate large-scale floating power plants to convert ocean thermal energy into electricity. Includes research to establish design and criteria for components and subsystems, examine economic feasibility of various ocean thermal concepts, and explore energy conversion and delivery systems. 4. OTHER (Must Be Specified and Described) Research which cannot be shown under the former three objectives of ALTERNATIVE ENERGY RESOURCES is shown here. Each research project shown here must be specified and the project's primary objective must be explained. H. ENERGY CONSERVATION Encompasses research on methods and technologies to conserve energy by improving the efficiency of electricity generation, developing new energy storae systems, increasing energy transmission ef- ficiency, and by reducing end-user's energy consumption. 1. INCREASE ELECTRICITY GENERATION EFFICIENCY Encompasses research to develop higher efficiency technologies for generating electricity, especially with coal. Includes - 15 - research on advanced power systems such as magnetohydrodynamics, fuel cells, and higher temperature and pressure turbine systems which generate more electricity from the same amount of coal. Exclude research whose primary purpose is to lessen the en- vironmental impact of converting coal to energy. (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT). 2. IMPROVE ENERGY STORAGE Research to develop energy storage systems for electrical utility application; to develop storage systems to be used at residential, commercial, and industrial sites; to develop energy storage systems for automotive propulsion systems; and to develop storage systems related to new energy pro- duction means (such as solar and geothermal) is shown here. Includes research in such systems as batteries, hydrogen storage, thermal storage, flywheels, compressed air storage, and magnetic energy storage. 3. IMPROVE ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION Research to develop an increased capacity in ac and dc over- head transmission systems, to ~e.velop underground transmis- sion systems capable of matching future overhead systems, to develop security and control systems for the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity, to identify desirable growth options, and to develop more efficient distribution systems is shown here. 4. REDUCE ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY END-USERS Research to reduce energy utilization by end-users is shown here. Includes research to cut down use in the commercial and reldential sectors. For example, research on energy conserving office buildings and more efficient home appliances is shown here. Also includes research to improve energy consumption efficiency for existing propulsion systems for autos, ships, and airplanes, develop more efficient heat engines that use fossil fuels, and to develop systems to use alternative fuel substitutes for crude oil fuels. I. ENERGI SYSTEMS STUDY AND ANALYSIS Research to provide an understanding of the interrelationships among energy supply and demand options; energy systems analysis and tchnological assessment; input-output analysis of the energy sectors; develop models to forecast impact of various energy research efforts; and otherwise assist in the plannin'g and management of energy systems is shown here. - 16 - III. ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IPROVEMENT _ ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PACE A. Identify Pollutant Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 1. Air . . . . . . ...... 18 2. Water.....18 3. Solid Waste. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 4. Pesticides . ................. 19 5. Noise . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6. Radiation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 B. Understand Pollution Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 1. Air . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2. Water. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3. Solid Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4. Pesticides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5. Noise . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 6. Radiation . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 C. Control and Abate Pollutants . . . .22 1. Air. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2. Water ..... .. 22 3. Solid Waste .. ......... . . . . 23 4. Pesticides.... 23 5. Noise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 D. Understand, Describe, Predict and Affect Weather and Natural Hazards .. . . . . . . . . . . 23 1. Regional Environmental Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2. Climate and Weather Study . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 24 3. Weather Modification ..... 25 4. Disaster and Natural Hazards Studies and Control . 25 a. Earthquakes . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 b, Fire.... 25 1 III. ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT Encompasses research to identify pollutant effects in order to establish standards for regulating them, excluding research to improve treatment and cure of illnesses which result from pollutants; to improve means of identifying and measuring pollution processes; to control and abate all pollutants which adversely affect air, water, land and living things; and to improve the ability to understand, predict and affect weather and natural hazards. Researeh shown here includes all efforts conducted primarily to protect or improve environmental quality. Therefore, research to re- move sulfur from coal before it is converted to electricity, and here- by reduce sulfur dioxide emissions, would be shown here as would work to reduce emissions from automobiles or airplanes. I.. IDENTIFY POLLUTANT EFFECTS Encompasses research to determine the ecological, social, and health effects of environmental pollutants on man, animals (including marine animals), inorganic materials, and plants (including marine plant life) and research tc determine the exposure levels at which these pollutants and their effects become dangerous to the various elements of the environment. Research in this category is general]; directed toward isola- ting pollutants which cause adverse effects, in order to establish standards or tolerance levels for regulatory pur- poses. Furthermore, it usually precedes efforts to improve technological or operational means of controlling and abating pollution or otherwise meeting the above-mentioned standards or tolerance levels. Research on the effects of pesticides and of radiation is also shown here. Exclude research on identifying and measuring pollutants which is conducted to treat or cure an illness or disease that is caused by a pollutant or to develop a personal preventive device (see V. A., DISEASES AND INJURIES). Exclude research -17- on understanding pollution processes or technological or operational methods to control pollutants which are shown elsewhere in III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT. Exclude research on food safety thresholds and standards (see IV., FOOD, FIBER AND OTHER AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS). Also exclude research on occupational safety and health and consumer product safety (see XIII. F., SAFETY). 1. AIR Includes research on the effects of pollutants carried in the air, such as hydrocarbons. Excludes the effects on air from noise, pesticides and radiation and also excludes air pollution resulting from solid wastes (see the following pertinent categories in this section). Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to study epidemiological and toxicological health effects of air pollutants on man and animals and investigate long-term low-level effects of fossil fuel pollutants during energy conversion. 2. WATER Includes research on the effects of pollutants, including thermal pollution, found in fresh and salt water excluding pesticides, radiation and pollution resulting from solid waste. Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to: Study relationship between water quality and disease; Study subsequent geueration effects of tritiated inges- tion; Study birth defects caused by heavy metals; Determine effects of asbestos on aquatic life; Determine methyl mercury effects on central nervous sys- tem of animals; and Assess ecosystem costs of thermal shock from power plant waste heat release and cooling tower blow-down. 3. SOLID WASTE Includes research on the effects of solid waste handling and disposal. Solid waste includes, but is not limited to, animal wastes, crop residues, and municipal solid wastes. This entry specifically includes the effects _. solid waste handling which results in air or water pollution. Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to: Assess public health impact of toxic and athogenic products of solid waste, waste incineration, landfill and ocean dumping operations; -18- Determine the environmental effect of coal, oil, oil shale, uranium and geothermal energy extraction tech- niques; and Assess environmental effects of hydrocarbon and other fuel transport, storage or waste releases during waste disposal. 4. PESTICIDES Includes all research conducted to determine the adverse effects of pesticide use. Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to determine pesticidal effects on particular organs, metabolic reactions, reproduction and behavioral responses and on freshwater and saltwater life. Exclude research to improve treatment for a health problem caused by pesticide use (see V., HEALTH) and research on food safety that relates to pesticides (see IV. E., IMPROVE SAFETY). 5. NOISE Includes all research conducted to determine the effects of noise on man, plants and animals. Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to improve health effects data for noise emissions standards and determine the effect of noise on man's ability to concentrate on a task. Research to determine the effects of aircraft noise should be reported both as a separate item and as a part of the total for this entry. 6. RADIATION Includes research conducted to determine the effects of exposure to radiation in the general environment from any source. More specifically, this includes work to: Measure health effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation exposure; Investigate long-term low-level effects of radioactive pollutants; and Assess environmental effects of radionuclide transport, storage and waste disposal. -19- Exclude research on effects from radiation exposure within nuclear power plants (see II. D. 7., NUCLEAR SAFETY). B. UNDERSTAND POLLUTION PROCESSES Encompasses research to improve the understanding of pollution processes such as transportation and dispersion and to improve the means of identifying, measuring and sampling pollutants. Pollutants resulting from energy conversion and transportation sources are specifically included where appropriate in this entry. This research is an important step leading to the con- trol or abatement of pollution at its source. 1. AIR Includes research to study air pollution processes like dispersion and improve sampling or analytical methods and technology to measure and identify air pollutants. The following work exemplifies research to be shown here: Identify combustion products of fuels, fuel additives and catalytic reactor emissions; Standardize air measurement technologies; Study chemical and physical processes of atmospheric pollutants; Measure and predict dispersion and transportation of air pollutants from fossil energy production; and Characterize and identify emissions (SO, NO, hydrocarbons) from extraction and conversion processes. Exclude research related to air pollution processes of and to means of identifying, measuring and sampling solid waste, pesticide, noise, and radiation pollution. (See below in this entry.) 2. WATER Includes research on the movement, transformation and fate of water pollutants and research to improve the sampling, analytical methods and instrumentation measuring water quality and effluents. Pollutants which result from energy conversion and transportation sources and which adversely affect water are included here. The following work ex- emplifies research to be shown here: Improve measurement and tracing of ocean dumping of pollutants; Analyze, predict and assess sources and magnitude of water pollution such as mining and agriculture; and Assess groundwater pollution. -20- Exclude research related to pollution processes of and identifying, measuring and sampling solid waste, pesticides and radiation pollution. (See below in this entry.) 3. SOLID WASTE Includes research to study pollution processes related to solid wastes and to improve the means of identifying and measuring toxic and pathogenic products of solid waste incineration, landfilling and recycling operations. The following work exemplifies the research to be shown here: Increase understanding of soil transport mechanisms; Determine the fate of heavy metals and other hazardous materials from sludge; and Improve the means of tracing toxic and pathogenic pro- ducts of solid waste. 4. PESTICIDES Includes research to improve methods of identifying and measuring exposure to pesticides and the transportation of pesticides through the environment. All such work on pesticides is shown here regardless of whether the pesticides utimately pollute air or water. This entry is exemplified by research to understand how pesticides move through soil and into the water supply. 5. NOISE Includes research to identify major sources of noise and assess the state-of-the-art of noise technology. Exclude research to determine the effects of noise pollution or to reduce noise pollution (see III. A. 5., for effects re- search and III. C 5., for control technology). Research to improve means of identifying and measuring aircraft noise pollution and to increase understanding of its processes should be reported both as a separate item and as a part of the total for this entry. 6. RADIATION Includes research to improve methods of identifying and measuring ionizing and nonionizing radiation that affects the general environment. For example, it includes research to improve radiation measurement and monitoring from nuclear power plant releases. However, exclude research to improve -21- measuring and monitoring radiation in the work environment such as within a nuclear reactor and show that work in II. D. 7., NUCLEAR SAFETY. C. CONTROL AND ABATE POLLUTANTS Encompasses research to improve the means of preventing, con- trolling or abating pollution. This entry includes efforts to prevent pollution by treating the outputs of processes such as emissions or by changing the form of the inputs of a process such as coal cleaning processes for the purpose of reducing sulfur dioxide emissions. Exclude research to understand pollution processes; identify, measure or sample pollutants; or to identify pollutant effects (see the two subobjectives abov.). Exclude research to prevent or control accidents in nuclear power plants, especially in nuclear reactors, which would cause radiation to contaminate the reactor or plant area and would emit radiation into the general environment (see II. D. Z., NUCLEAR SAFETY). 1. AIR Includes research to improve means of controlling or abating air pollution which results from all sources excluding pol- lution from solid waste, pesticides, noise and radiation. The following work exemplifies research to be shown here: Refine, purify and clean fuels; Develop methods for clean combustion of fuels such as coal gasification or liquefaction research which is con- ducted primarily to reduce or eliminate emissions; Develop fine particulate collection and control devices; and Develop propulsion systems or auxiliary pollution control devices which reduce emissions from means of transportation. 2. WATER Includes research to improve wastewater pollution treatment, control and abatement methods excluding that water pollution caused by solid wastes, pesticides and radiation. This entry focuses on efforts to protect and sustain the quality of water and accordingly includes efforts to control effluents at the source or to purify water which has already been polluted. The following work exemplifies research to be -22- shown here: Control thermal pollution from power plants; Treat and control urban and industrial wastewater; and Remove asbestos from drinking water. Exclude research conducted to increase the water supply (see IX. E., WATER). 3. SOLID WASTE Includes research to control the toxic and pathogenic products of solid wastes incineration and landfilling and develop control techniques and technology for safe disposal of toxic and hazardous solid wastes. The following work exemplifies the research to be shown here: Control the toxic and pathogenic products of solid wastes. Exclude research to improve means of recycling materials in solid waste (see IX. C., MINERALS). 4. PESTICIDES Includes research to control the a verse effects of pesticide use by controlling the harmful agents in the pesticide and by minimizing certain pesticide usage through alternative methods of pest control. 5. NOISE Includes research to improve the technology to control or reduce the impact of major sources of noise. Research shown here pertains to all major sources of noise. In addition, research to reduce aircraft noise should be reported both as a separate item and as a part of the total for this entry. D. UNDERSTAND, DESCRIBE, PREDICT AND AFFECT WEATHER AND NATURAL HAZARDS Includes research to identify and analyze regional environmental problems and to encourage the development of solutions to those problems; to understand and modify severe and destructive weather and to predict natural hazards and reduce the damage they cause. -23- 1. REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS Includes research to improve means of planning and manag- ing regional environments with maximum environmental bene- fits and minimal environmental damage. This work is exemplified by research to define environmental problems unique to a geographic region and study the Arctic and Antarctic environmental systems. 2. CLIMATE AND WEATHER STUDY Includes research to increase understanding of the natural processes which result in climate and weather, to improve means of evaluating the impacts of climate and weather, and to develop improved predictive techniques. More specifically, this research is exemplified by efforts to: Improve fundamental understanding of weather and climatic conditions; Develop inrc ed knowledge concerning the natural hazards of ext. me wind (such as hurricanes or tornadoes), floods, hail, and lightning; Delineate the extent and mechanisms of metropolitan area weather changes; Improve long-term weather prediction; Improve measurement of atmospheric vertical temperature and moisture profiles; Improve the means of collecting global weather data; Study global data on atmospheric circulation models; Gather data on chemical constituents and meteorological parameters of upper atmosphere; and Conduct studies on precipitation processes, turbulence, diffusion and atmospheric surface interactions which will improve means of understanding, observing, describing, or predicting weather and climatic conditions. Weather and climatic condition research generally applies to many objectives in the overall structure; however, all weather research, excluding that on weather modification (see the following entry), will be shown in this category. Excludes that research which is conducted to resist weather problems or threats such as making crops or aircraft more resistant to hail storms or other severe weather (see IV. B. 1., IMPROVE CROP PRODUCTION FOR FOOD, or XII. A., AIR TRANSPORTATION). -24- Also excludes research to study the effects of pollutants on the weather and atmosphere, such as resultant temperature changes (see III. A., IDENTIFY POLLUTANT EFFECTS.). 3. WEATHER MODIFICATION Includes research co improve methods of modifying or alter- ing weather and climatic conditions to mitigate the un- desirable effects of weather or to increase its desirable effects. Also includes research to identify and correct unanticipated or inadvertent effects of weather modifica- tion, as well. as studies of the social and economic effects of these changes in the natural environment. Excludes research on weather modifications which have exclusive applications as destructive forces in support of military objectives (see VIII. D. 8., DEFENSEWIDE APPLI- CATIONS/WEATHER MODIFICATION). 4. DISASTERS AND NATURAL HAZARDS STUDIES AND CONTROL Includes research to imnrove understanding of and to develop improved methods for evaluating and understanding fires and earthquakes and methods for reducing resulting losses in life and property. Also incl es research on the social impact of natural hazards and disasters. Excludes research on improved or new methods of weather modification (see WEATHER MODIFICATION above). Also excludes research on the fundamental process which resultsin weither and climatic conditions and improved ways of predicting and measuring these changes (see CLIMATE AND WEATHER STUDY above). a. EARTHQUAKES Includes, but is not limited to, research to improve earthquake prediction capability, research to improve design and construction methods for earthquake resistant structures, and research on better ways of integrating seismic risk information with land use policies. b. FIRE Includes, but is not limited to, research on fires which occur naturally, primarily forest fires and range fires, in order to improve the means of measuring and controlling them. -25- IV. FOOD, FIBER AND OTHER AGRI- CULTURAL PRODUCTS FOOD, FIBER AND OTHER AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS PAGE A. Identify and Develop New or Underdeveloped . . . . . . . . . Food and Feed Sources. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 B. Improve Production . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . 27 1. Improve Crop Production for Food . . . . . . . . . .. 27 2. Improve Animal Production for Food . . . . . . . . . . . 28 3. Improve Production of Marine Food Sources. . . . .. 29 4. Improve Production of Non-Food Items . . . . . . . .. 29 5. Improve Use of Land, Water, Fertilization, Equipment and Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 29 C. Improve Storage and Processing . .. . . . . . . . . . .. 30 1. Improve Storage and Processing of Food Products . . . . 30 2. Improve Storage and Processing of Non-Food Products. .. 31 D. Improve Distribution and Marketing . . . . . . . . . . _1 1. Improve Distribution and Marketing of Food Products. . 32 2. Improve Distribution and Marketing of Non-Food Products. 32 3. Improve Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . 32 E. Improve Safety. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 I IV. FOOD. FIBER AND OTHER AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS This objective encompasses research primarily directed toward identifying and developing new and underdeveloped food sources; improving the productivity of existing food sources, including ef- forts to improve breeding, feeding, managing and protecting these sources; improving the productivity of non-food agricultural pro- ducts; improving the processing, marketing and distribution of food and non-food products; and reducing the hazards of food and non-food agricultural products to man. Research which is primarily directed toward improving the productivity, utilization and preservation of non-food producing trees is excluded from this objective (See IX. A., FORESTS). Also, research conducted primarily to determine the adverse effects of pesticide use, to improve methods of identifying and measuring exposure to pesticides and the transportation of pesticides through the environment, and to control the adverse effects of pesticide use is excluded (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT). Research directed toward the treatment and nature of nutritional diseases and the general understanding of nutrition and its effect on human health and well-being is excluded (See V. A. 19., NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS). Research to isolate pollutants which cause adverse effects upon livestock, crops and plants in order to establish standards or tolerance levels for regulatory purposes is excluded (See III. A., IDENTIFY POLLUTANT EFFECTS). Research to -26- improve the understanding of pollutiol processes such as trans- rortation and dispersion, including improving the means of dent- ifying, measuring and sampling pollutants is excluded (See III. B., UNDERSTAND POLLUTION PROCESS). Research to increase the knowledge and understanding of climate and weather; to improve means of eval- iating the impacts of climate and weather; and to improve predictive and measurement systems and tools and techniques to perform weether modification is excluded (See III. D. 2., CLIMATE AND WEATHER STUDY; and III. D. 3., WEATHER MODIFICATION). A. IDENTIFY AND DEVELOP NEW OR UNDERDEVELOPED FOOD AND FEED SOURCES This encompasses all research primarily directed toward ident- ifying new and developing previously underdeveloped sources of food for humans including research into the use of oilseeds as sources of food; the use of waste foodstuffs such as carrot tops, pea and potato vines, and plant vines as food sources; the development of improved methods of processing vegetable and non-animal protein into edible foods and feeds; improved methods for processing, distributing and marketing new food products or food products which are now underutilized; and identifying new food from marine sources. B. IMPROVE PRODUCTION Encompasses all research directed toward increasing the pro- duction of food and non-food products whether agricultural, livestock or marine. This includes, but is not limited to, research toward improving breeding, feeding, livestock manage- ment, crop management, disease and pest control; improving nutritional quality; developing new varieties of crops; and developing improved feeds, forages, fertilizers, and fertili- zation and irrigation practices. 1. IMPROVE CROP PRODUCTION FOR FOOD Encompasses all research primarily directed toward increasing -27- the production and quality of crops such as food cereals, grains, fruits, vegetables, edible nuts, sugar crops as well as the honey production of bees and existing oilseed food sources. This includes, but is not limited to, re- search to develop new crop varieties; improve the nutritional value and palatability of crops; make crops more weather, disease, pollution and insect resistant; improve methods of fertilization, including new and improved fertilizers; improve various types and uses of pesticides; develop new and improved methods of weed and disease control; improve the understanding of microbiotics, physiology and genetics of food cereals and grains; develop hybrids; improve ir- rigation aia water management practices as they apply to food crops; improve crop and land management; improve equipment, technology and methodology for planting, main- taining and harvesting crops; increase the photosynthetic efficiency of plants to increase yield; improve pollination; and develop crop varieties which are adaptable to mechanized processing. Research to increase the production and quality of grain sorghums as food is included here. Excludes research into feed cereals and grains (See IV. 2., IMPROVE ANIMAL PRODUCTION FOR FOOD below). 2. IMPROVE ANIMAL PRODUCTION FOR FOOD Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving production and quality of beer cattle, swine, lambs, poultry (including eggs), dairy cattle and milk. This includes, but is not limited to, research to improve breeding methods, including reproductive efficiency and cross breeding; im- prove managing herds and flocks; control disease, parasites and insects; improve animal resistance to disease, pollution and natural hazards; improve means to control predators and protect livestock and poultry from predators; increase the understanding of nutritional needs of livestock, dairy cattle and poultry; increase understanding of factors con- trolling protein synthesis and the production of more meat and less fat; increase understanding of fat metabolism, physiology and genetics of livestock, dairy cattle and poultry; improve the quality and wholesomenesb of meat; and improve dairy management. TlLs category also includes research co increase yields and forage quality from pastures, forages and ranges; improve the use of soil and water resources in forage production; increase the resistance of forages to pests, weather, disease and weeds; improve methods to -28- control pest, weed and disease; improve pasture and range management; improve feeds and feeding practices; and improve the production and quality of livestock, dairy cattle and poultry feed. Exclude research into new or underdeveloped feed sources such as industrial and agricultural waste (See IDENTIFY AND DEVELOP NEW OF, UNDERDEVELOPED FOOD AND FEED SOURCES, above). 3. IMPROVE PRODUCTION OF MARINE FOOD SOURCES Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving the production and quality of fresh and salt water fish, shell- fish and edible vegetation. This includes, but is not limited to, research into breeding, including hatcheries and fish- eries; harvesting practices and regulation; developing new varieties; and improving the nutritional value of fish, shellfish and vegetation. Exclude research into the use of fish, shellfish and veg- etation as feeds and for fertilizer which should be shown in IMPROVE ANIMAL PRODUCTION FOR FOOD and IMPROVE CROP PRO- DUCTION FOR FOOD. Also exclude research into the sport and recreational aspects of marine life (See IX. F., WILDLIFE). 4. IMPROVE PRODUCTION OF NON-FOOD ITEMS Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving the production and processing of non-food agricultural pro- ducts. This includes, but is not limited to, research into cotton, flax, ornamental plants, flowers, turf, shrubs, decorative trees and tobacco. Research into the uses of such products, for example, cottonseeds, as feeds or fertil- izers is excluded and should be shown in IMPROVE ANIMAL PRO- DUCTION FOR FOOD and IMPROVE CROP PRODUCTION FOR FOOD above. Also, research to improve the means and methods of increasing the production of forest resources and products other than fruit and edible-nut-producing trees is excluded (See IX. A., FORESTS). 5. IMPROVE USE OF LAND, WATER, FERTILIZATION, EQUIPMENT AND METHODS Encompasses research on land, water, fertilization, equip- ment and methods that are specifically directed toward pro- duction of food and non-food agriculture but which cannot -29- be assigned to a specific production category in IMPROVE PRODUCTION. More specifically, this includes research which is other- wise unassignable to improve water management and use practices; improve means and methods of managing, using and preserving agricultural and forage lands, including methods for reclaiming lands for agricultural use; create new fertilizers-improve existing fertilizers and the use and application of fertilizers; and improve the production and quality of food and non-food agricultural products through new or improved equipment, methods and management techniques for planting, maintaining and harvesting crops or breeding and feeding livestock and poultry. Exclude research to improve the development, planning, use and conservation of fresh water which is not primarily directed toward improving food and non-food agricultural production. (See IX. E., WATER). Exclude research to protect and manage land which is not primarily directed toward improving food and non-food agricultural production. (See IX. B., LAND). C. IMPROVE STORAGE AND PROCESSING Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving the methods for storing food and non-food items both prior to and after processing, toward improving the transportation of food and non-food items from the producer to processing and from processing to marketing, and toward improving the processing of livestock, sea and raw agricultural products into consumable products. 1. IMPROVE STORAGE AND PROCESSING OF FOOD PRODUCTS Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving the methods for storing food products or inputs to food processing prior to and after processing, but prior to transfer to the marketing and distribution system; improving the trans- porting of food productsfrom the producer to the processor and from the processor to the distributor; and the processing of livestock, sea products and raw agricultrual crops into consumable food products. This includes, but is not limited to, research into methods for maintaining quality during transportation, storage and processing; methods for eliminating -30- livestock and poultry death losses during transportation; size, number and location of storage facilities; improved methods for hancling farm output; methods for reducing or preventing insect damage during storage; methods for using or disposing of waste products from food processing; ways of reducing condemnation losses of livestock and poultry during slaughter; improved methods of packing; and improved processing equipment and technology. Exclude research primarily directed toward reducing or pre- venting the transfer of agents harmful to man through food (See IMPROVE SAFETY, below). Exclude research directed toward the improvement of trans- portation systems, vehicles and safety (See XII., TRANS- PORTATION). Exclude research directed toward pollution abatement. (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT). 2. IMPROVE STORAGE AND PROCESSING OF NON-FOOD PRODUCTS Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving the methods for storing non-food agricultural, sea products and non-food livestock, sea and agricultural by-products (including feeds) prior to and after processing; improving the transportation of non-food products from producer to processor and from processor to distributor; and improving the processing of agricultural and sea products, and live- stock, sea and agricultural by-products into usable non- food products. Exclude research primarily directed toward reducing or pre- venting the hazards to man of non-food products (See IMPROVE SAFETY, below). Exclude research primarily directed toward the improvement of transportation systems, vehicles and safety (See XII., TRANSPORTATION). Exclude research directed toward pollution abatement. (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT). D. IMPROVE DISTRIBUTION AND MARKETING Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving the distribution, marketing and consumption of food and non-food products, including studies of markets, consumption patterns, and distribution systems. Export markets are included in these studies. Exclude research primarily directed toward improving the marketability of a specific item (See IMPROVE PRODUCTION, above). -31- 1. IMPROVE DISTRIBUTION AND MARKETING OF FOOD PRODUCTS Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving the distribution and marketing of livestock, sea and agricultural food products. This includes, but is not limited to, research to improve the understanding of the organization and performance of major commodity markets; improve the understanding of the impact of foreign policy and world trade on agricultural distribution; improve the understanding of export markets; improve the operation and management of commodity markets; improve merchandising methods and techniques; develop new or improved retailing systems; develop methods for reducing marketing costs; improve methods for efficient and equitable food distribution; improve methods for identifying and developing new markets for foods; and improve methods for increasing consumer ac- ceptance of new food products. 2. IMPROVE DISTRIBUTION AND MARKETING OF NON-FOOD PRODUCTS Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving the distribution and marketing of agricultural and sea non-food products and non-food livestock, sea and agricultural by- products (these include feeds). This includes, but is not limited to, research into improving distribution systems; improving methods for identifying and developing new mar- kets; increasing the understanding of export markets; im- proving methods for reducing marketing costs; improving merchandizing methods and techniques; and developing new or improved retailing systems. 3. IMPROVE CONSUMPTION Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving the understanding of consumer needs (nutritional and other- wise), consumption patterns and ways to improve consumption of food and non-food products. This includes, but is not limited to, research into improving the understanding of nutritional requirements, the nutritional composition and value of food used and needed by consumers; methods for improving consumption patterns to improve nutrition received while lowering costs; and improving the understanding of consumption patterns and trends. Exclude research primarily directed toward improving the treatment of nutritional disorders, understanding the -32- nature of nutritional disorders, and the general under- standing of nutrition and its effect upon human health (See V. A. 19., NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS). E. IMPROVE SAFETY Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving the safety of food and non-food (developed from agricultural, sea or livestock sources) products to man. This includes, but is not limited to, research into improved methods for preventing the transmission of animal disease and parasites to man; im- proved methods for preventing pesticides from contaminating foods; improved methods for hazard-free processing; and improved methods for preventing potentially harmful products from being distributed. Exclude research primarily directed toward determining the ad- verse effects of pesticide use, improving methods for identifying and measuring exposure to pesticides, understanding the trans- portation processes of pesticides through the environment, and improving the control of the adverse effects of pesticide use (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT). Research into improving the safety of non-food products which are not derived from agricultural, sea or livestock sources is excluded (See XIII. F. 2., CONSUMER PRODUCTS SAFETY). -33- V. HEALTH HEALTH PAGE A. Diseases and Injuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 1. The Aging Process--Diseases and Related Conditions. . . 36 2. Arthritis and Rheumatism . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3. Blood Diseases and Disorders . .. . . . . . . . . . . 38 4. Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 5. Dental Diseases and Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 6. Diabetes and Other Endocrine Disorders . . . . . . . . 39 7. Digestive Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 8. Environmentally-Caused Health Disorders . . . . . . . . 41 9. Eye and Visual System Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 10. Genitourinary System Disorders (including Kidney Disease) . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 11. Heart and Vascular Diseases (including Stroke). ... 43 12. Infectious and Parasitic Diseases (including Allergies not elsewhere classified) . . . . 44 13. Injuries Not Related to Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . 45 14. Lung and Respiratory Diseases and Disorders . . . . . . 46 15. Maternal and Child Health (including Genetics npt elsewhere classified, Fertility Regulation and Mental Retardation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 16. Metabolic Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 17. Musculoskeletal System and Connective Tissue Disorders ................... 49 18. Neurological and Communicative Disorders. . . . . . . . 49 19. Nutritional Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 20. Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Diseases and Disorders . 51 21. Disease and Injury Base .51 B. Mental Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 1. Mental Illness and Behavior Disorders . . . . . . . . . 53 2. Mental Health Aspects of Social Problems . . . . . . . 54 3. Mental Health Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 C. Substance Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 1, Alcoholism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 2. Drug Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3. Abuse of Other Substances .. . . . . . . 56 D. Health Services Delivery . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 1. Improve Quality .. .57 2. Control and Reduce Cost ............... 58 3. Improve Accessibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 V. HEALTH Includes research to reduce the incidence and adverse human health effects of diseases, injuries, mental illnesses, and social disorders; and encompasses ail research for which the primary purpose is the main- tenance of human health. The health objective is divided into four components, each of which is further divided into more specific subcomponents. The four major elements are: --Diseases and Injuries, --Mental Health, --Substance Abuse, and --Health Services Delivery. The arrangement of these components is indicative of the logic to be followed in reporting research and development funding. All health research should first be viewed from the standpoint of its primary pur- pose. If the primary urpose of the research is related clearly to the categories under Z. A.. DISEASES AND INJURIES, then it should be reported there. Thus, studies of the mental and social aspects of cancer, research into health care or service for cancer victims, and the resources needed to conduct cancer research should be reported under 7. A. 4., CANCER. The same logic applies to those projects which cannot be placed under the disease and injury category. All research relating specifically to mental health and associated social disorders and to substance abuse should be reported under the appropriate category under 7. B., MENTAL -34- HEALTH, and . C., SUBSTANCE ABUSE, respectively. Research into health care, service and delivery which cannot be assigned to specific items under the previous three categories should be placed under the appropriate categories of Y. D., HEALTH SERVICES DELIVERY. A. DISEASES AND INJURIES Encompasses the primarily physical human health problems (dis- eases and injuries) and related conditions or activities. Re- search and development objectives which are included in this section are exemplified by the following statements: Improve understanding of a specific disease's entire process in humans, including advancing the scientific disciplines necessary to facilitate that understanding; Improve knowledge concerning the causes and complications specific diseases and injuries; and Develop improved methods of diagnosing, treating, curing and preventing diseases. The diseases, injuries, and related conditions or activities listed here are defined in terms of the classifications te International Classification of Diseases, Adapted (ICDA,. While the ICDA ws not designed specifically to categorize health-related research, it is a useful guide for identifying the diseases, injuries, and related conditions contained in the categories listed in this structure. It is recognized that there may be initial inconsistencies in attempts to classify health-related research according to the ICDA. There- fore, respondents are requested to identify and explain any problems that are encountered in reporting in accordance with this structure. All research to be reported under this subobjective should first be viewed from the standpoint of its primary purpose. If the primary purpose is related to one of the specific dis- eases or special problems, then all research funding associa- ted with that disease or problem should be reported under the corresponding line item. Examples of these specific diseases and special problems, which cut across body systems, include cancer, arthritis and rheumatism, injuries, environmentally- caused health disorders, maternal and child health, and aging. If the research cannot be attributed to one of the above cate- gories, it then should be classified in terms of the body system -35- to which the research is primarily related. These body sys- tem classifications are aggregations of diseases and related conditions, according to generally accepted divisions of the human anatomy. If the primary purpose of the research is so general or multidisciplinary that it cannot be classified in terms of either diseases or body systems, it should then be shown under DISEASE AND INJURY BASE. Again, for any research which cannot be classified in accordance with the structure as presented, respondents should identify the problem and suggest a heading (not "Other") which would accommodate that effort. Cross-cutting research on topics such as allergies or genetics, to the maximum extent possible, should be reported under the disease or body system to which it primarily applies. Research on allergies not elsewhere categorized will be shown under INFECTIOUS AND PARASITIC DISEASES. Genetic research not attri- butable to a specific disease or body system will be reported under MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH PROBLEMS. The total research effort which is conducted primarily because of a disease, injury or other health-related problem listed herein should be shown under the corresponding category. This may include related mental health, social considerations and associated health services delivery. In addition to the ICDA codes described above, each category under this subobjective also presents a number of "key words." These are short descriptors or subjects of typical research to be included in each category under this subobjective. The key words are not meant to be all-inclusive; rather, they are provided to facilitate respondents' identification of the most appropriate placement for research funding. Respondents are also encouraged to suggest additional key words for possible inclusion in future versions of the structure, if such words would tend to clarify, rather than complicate, the instructions. 1. THE AGING PROCESS--DISEASES AND RELATED CONDITIONS Includes research to improve understanding of the general process and results of aging, including senility, in terms of its biomedical, social and behavioral, and service dslivery aspects. This includes improving understanding of the gradual changes in the structure of any organism that occur with the passage of time, that do not result from disease or gross accidents, and that eventually lead to the increased probability of death as the individual grows older. Excludes research to investigate diseases -36- and disorders which are generally associated with the aging process but which are not exclusively a result of aging. For example, the incidence of cancer, arterio- sclerosis, and arthritis and rheumatism generally are more prevalent at advanced age, but they also affect individuals of other age groups and would therefore be repotted under other corresponding disease groupings. ICDA Codes The specific ICDA code included is senility without mention of psychosis (794). This is extended toward any general research in the aging process. Key Words Aged Aging Maturation Geriatrics Elderly Nursing Homes Gerontology Senescence Senility 2. ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM Includes research concerning all disorders marked by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement of the connective tissues of the body. Excludes research on rheumatoid and arthritic conditions which result from other diseases or disorders, such as a rheumatoid con- dition resulting from tuberculosis. Research on these arthritic or rheumatoid effects will be sh, a under -ne disease and injury line item corresponding to t - erating ccndi'- .. ICDA Cods The ICDA codes included under this category are: Arthritis and Rheumatism, except Rheumatic Fever (710- 718) Key Words Arthritis Marie-Strumpell's Rheumatism Dermatomyositis Disease Still's Disecase Duplay's Syndrome Myalgia Spondylitis Felty's Syndrome Osteoarthritis Torticollis Fibrositis Periarthritis traumatic Arthritis Frozen Shoulder Polyarthritis von Bechterew's Kummell's Disease Pyarthrosis Disease Lumbago Polymyositis Wry Neck -37- 3. BLOOD DISEASES AND DISORDERS Includes all research on diseases and disorders of the blood and blood-forming organs, such as anemias, hemo- philia, and purpura. Excludes cancers of the blood, such as leukemia, and heart and vascular system disorders, both of which are included in other categories under . A., DISEASES AD INJURIES. Also includes research which concerns the provision of adequate blood resources to contribute to human health. An example of such research is the development of blood substitutes. ICDA Codes Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs (280-289). Key Words Anemia Christmas Disease Hypersplenism Blood disease Diseases of spleen Polyeythemia Blood dyscrasia Hemophilia Purpura Thrombocytopenia 4. CANCER Includes all research on the various cancers and non- malignant tumors, regardless of the body system or part of the body in which they are located. studies of the mental and social effects Also includes of cancer, the special problems in delivering health services to cancer patients, and the research resources needed for cancer studies. Cancer research included herein also concerns the effects of the disease on other parts of the body as it spreads from the original site. ICDA Codes Malignant neoplasms of specified sites (140-189); Malignant neoplasms of other and unspecified sites (190-199); Benign and related neoplasms of specified nature (200-228); and Neoplasms of unspecified nature (230-239). _38- Key Words Benign tumor M-lignant tumor Neoplastic growth Cancer Melanoma Neoplastic tumor Hodgkin's disease Myeloma New growth Leukemia Neoplasms Sarcoma Tumor 5. DENTAL DISEASES AND DISORDERS Includes all research on tooth development, tooth decay, diseases of the salivary glands, and other disorders associated with the jaw; and research and development on new or improved dental prosthetics. Excludes the re- mainder of the digestive system (beginning with the pharynx), which is included as a separate category under T. A., DISEASES AND INJURIES. ICDA Codes Diseases of Oral Cavity (520-525, 528, 529); Salivary Glands (527); and Jaws (526). Key Words Dental Abcess Diseases of the Salivary Clands Dental Caries Diseases of the Tongue Dental Nerve Malocclusion Dental Prosthesis Oral Surgery Diseases of the Gums Peridontal and Soft Tissue Diseases Diseases of the Jaw Tooth Decay 6. DIABETES AND OTHER ENDOCRINE DISORDERS Includes all diseases of the thyroid, pituitary, and adrenal glands; diabetes; and a variety of endocrine dis- eases. Excludes diseases of a specifically nutritional cause or deficiency, such as avitaminoses, which are included under . A. 19., NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS. Also ex- cludes dysfunction of ovaries and testes, which are in- cluded under . A. 10., GENITOURINARY SYSTEM DISORDERS. Research conducted primarily to affect diabetes, in terms of studies of the disease itself, related mental and social disorders, health service delivery considerations, and associated research resources, should be reported both as a subtotal and as a part of the total for endocrine disorders. -39- ICDA Codes Diseases of the Thyroid Gland (240-246); and Diseases of other Endocrine Glands (250-258). Key Words Adrenal disease Endocrine diseases Pituitary disease Cystic fibrosis Goiter Thymus disease Diabetes Obesity, endocrine Thyroid disease DIGESTIVE DISEASES Includes all diseases of the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, appendix, abdominal cavity, intestines, peri- toneum, liver, gallbladder and pancreas. Specifically excludes any of the cancers associated with those organs (see . A. 4., CANCER). Also excludes diseases of the oral cavity, salivary glands and jaws, which are to be included under . A. 5., DENTAL DISEASES AND DISORDERS. ICDA Codes Diseases of esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (530-537); Appendicitis (540-543); Hernia of abdominal cavity (550-553); Other diseases cf intestine and peritoneum (560-569); Diseases of liver, gallbladder and pancreas (570-577); and Symptoms referable to upper and lower gastrointestinal tract and abdomen (784-785). This categorization specifically excludes the ICDA categories under diseases of oral cavity, salivary glands, and jaws (520-529). Key Words Anorexia Diseases of Intestines Appendicitis Diseases of Liver Cirrhosis of Liver Diseases of Pancreas Diseases of Esophagus Diseases of Peritoneum Diseases of Gallbladder Dysphagia Flatulence Indigestion Heartburn Jaundice Hematemesis Nausea Hepatitis Peptic Ulcer Hepatomegaly Pylorospasm -40- Hernia of Abdominal Cavity Stomach Diseases Hiccough Stomach Ulcers Vomiting 8. ENVIRONMENTALLY-CAUSED HEALTH DISORDERS Includes research for which the priryv purpose is to develop a treatment or cure for environmentally-caused health disorders, which result from both mat-made and natural hazards. Examples of man-made hazards include air pollution, radiation exposure, poor water quality, and pesticides and chemicals. Two of the natural hazards included herein are exposure and effects of contact with lightning. Specifically excludes research to improve methods of identifying and measuring the effects of pollutants on man, research to improve understanding of pollutant pro- cesses, and work to improve or develop new ways of con- trolling and abating pollutants (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT). ICDA Codes Toxic Effect of Substances Chiefly Nonmedicinal as to Source (980-989); Effects of Radiation (990); Effects of Reduced Temperature and Excessive Dampness (991); Effects of Heat (992); Effects of Air Pressures (993); and Effects of Other External Causes (994): Drowning and Nonfatal Submersion Lightning Hunger, Thirst, Exposure, and Excessive Exertion Motion Sickness Asphyxiation and Strangulation Electrocution and Nonfatal Effects of Electric Current . The research and development identified under these codes is extended to treating and curing general environmental health problems, both natural and man-made. _41- Key Words The key words included under this category are the health effects of the following: Air Pollution Radiation exposure Chemicals Rat Control Noise Pollution Solid Waste Disposal Pesticides Toxic Chemicals Water hygiene 9. EYE AND VISUAL SYSTEM DISORDERS Includes all research on diseases and conditions of the eye including conjunctivitis, cataracts, reflective errors, and diseases of the retina and optic nerves. Also includes research oriented to the overall condition of blindness; however, exclude blindness, as a secondary effect of a particular disease such as syphilis or diabetes (see . A. 12., INFECTIOUS AND PARASITIC DISEASES, Y. A. 6., DIABETES AND OTHER ENDOCRINE DISORDERS, and respectively). ICDA Codes Inflammatory diseases of the eye (360-369) and Other diseases and conditions of the eye (370-379). Key Words Astigmatism Conjunctivitis Eye inflammation Blindness Corneal opacity Glaucoma Cataract Corneoplasty Hyperopia Color blindness Detached retina Myopia Ophthalmia 10. GENITOURINARY SYSTEM DISORDERS (INCLUDING KIDNEY DISEASE) Includes research on the diseases and disorders of the urinary system, male genital organs, and the female genital organs, including breast and ovaries. Specifi- cally excludes any cancers of the various organs involved in this category and any infectious and parasitic dis- eases which affect this region of the body, such as venereal disease. -42- Research on kidney disease should be reported both as a separate item and as a part of the total for this cate- gory. ICDA Codes Nephritis and Nephrosis (580-584); Other Diseases of the Urinary System (590-599); Diseases of Male Genital Organs, (600-607); Diseases of breast, ovary, fallopian tubes, para- metrium, uterus, and other female genital organs (610-629); Symptoms referable to genltourinary system (786); and Abnormal urinary constituents of unspecified cause (789). Key Words Albuminuria Diseases of Breast Diseases of Bladder Diseases of Cervix Diseases of Fallopian tubes Kidney Disease Diseases of Ovary Menopausal Symptoms Diseases of Prostate IEicturition Diseases of Ureter Nephrosis Disorders of Menstruation Nephritis Glycosuria Priapism Hematuria Renal Colic Hemoglobinuria Sterility Vaginismus HEART AND VASCULAR DISEASES (INCLUDING STROKE) Includes research on heart disease, cerebrovascular, dis- ease (stroke), and varijus diseases of the arteries, veins, capillaries, and lymphatic system. Specifically excludes any cancers or other growths of organs or other body parts within the circulatory system. Research on stroke or cerebrovascular disease, in terms of causes of the malady and in terms of its effects, should be reported both as a separate line item witnin this category and as a portion of the total for the category. ICDA Codes Active rheumatic fever (390-392); Chronic rheumatic heart disease (393-398); _43- Hypertensive disease (400-404); Other forms of heart disease (410-429); Cerebrovascular disease (430-438); Other diseases of circulatory system (440-458); Symptoms referable to cardiovascular and lymphatic system (782); and Cardiovascular and lymphatic disorders of presumably psychogenic origin (305.3-305.4). Key Words Aneurysm Coronary disease Hypertension Angina pectoris Dropsy Palpitation Arteriosclerosis Embolism Phlebitis Cardiac Arrest Fainting Rheumatic fever Cerebral hermorrhage Gangrene Tachycardia Cerebrovascular disease Heart disease Thrombosis Chorea Hemorrhoids Varicose Veins 12. INFECTIOUS AND PARASITIC DISEASES (INCLUDING ALLERGIES NOT ELSEWHERE CLASSIFIED) Includes all diseases generally recognized as communi- cable or transmissable, except certain acute respira- toty ifections, influenza, and other localized infections which should be reported under Z. A. 14., LUNG AND RESPIRA- TORY DISEASES AND DISORDERS. Among the diseases included in this category are tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, various venereal diseases, and bacterial diseases such as leprosy, diphtheria, tetanus, and scarlet fever. Research on allergies and allergic reactions, to the maximum extent possible, should be reported under the specific body system disease groupings to which they apply. Any research on allergies not elsewhere classifiable should be reported under this category. ICDA Codes Intestinal infectious diseases (000-009); Tuberculosis (010-019); Facterial diseases (020039); Poliomyelitis and other enterovirus diseases of central ne:rvous system (040-046); Viral diseases (050-079); Rickettsiosis and other arthropod-borne diseases (080-089); Syphilis, venereal diseases, and other spirochetal -44- diseases (100-104); and Infective and parasitic diseases (110-136). Key Words Allergies (not else- Malaria Scarlet fever where classified) Measles Smallpox Bacterial food poisoning Meningitis, infective Syphilis Chickenpox Mumps Tetanus Cholera Mycosis Tuberculosis Cowpox Parasitic disease Typhoid fever Diptheria Plague Typhus Encephalitis Poliomyelitis Venereal disease Hepatitis, infectious Rabies Viral disease Infective disease Rubella Whooping cough Leprosy Salmonella Yellow fever 13. INJURIES NOT RELATED TO DISEASES Includes research on injuries and other deleterious con- ditions of human health, which are not caused by diseases or related problems, such as fractures, sprains, lacera- tions, puncture wounds, trauma, and the adverse effects of medical agents. Excludes certain health problems resulting from the impact of man-made or natural environmental con- ditions, which should be reported under . A. 8., ENVIRON- MENTALLY-CAUSED HEALTH DISORDERS. Also excludes self- afflicted abuse of drugs and similar agents, which is in- cluded as a separate category under . C., SUBSTANCE ABUSE. Research concerning the causes of or circumstances sur- rounding the injuries included within this category should be reported under other major objectives instead of V., HEALTH. For example, research concerning the causes of wounds inflicted in combat situations are specifically excluded from this category (see v . C., COMBAT CAPABILITY), while research to improve diagnosis and treatment of such injuries are included herein. ICDA Codes Fractures, Dislocations, and Sprains (800-848); Intracranial Injuries, exclusing skull fractures (850-854); Internal Injuries (860-869); Lacerations and Open Wounds (870-907); Superficial Injury (910-918); Contusion and Crushing with Intact Skin Surface (920-929); Effects of Foreign Body, entering through Orifice (930-939); _45- Burns (940-949); Spinal Cord and Nerve Injuries 950-959); Adverse Effects of Medical Agents (960-979); Certain Early Complications of Trauma (995); Complications of Surgical Procedures and Medical Care (997-999); and Other and Inspecified Injuries (996). The following ICDA codes are specifically excluded from this rcategory: Toxic Effects of Subs:ances Chiefl Nonmedicinal as to Source (980-989) ad Effects of R&diation (990). These ICDA codes are included under ENVIRONMENTALLY- CAUSED HEALTH DSORDERS. Key Words Accidents Extreme Temperature Adverse Effects of Foreign Bodies Medical Agents Fractures Burns Injuries Concussion Internal Injury Contusion Intracranial Injury Dislocations Sprains Extreme Air Pressure Strains 14. LUNG AND RESPIRATORY DISEASES AND DISORDERS Includes research on diseases of the respiratory system including any of the acute respiratory infections such as influenza, pneumonia, and tonsillitis. Specifically excludes any of the cancers of the various organs involved. ICDA Codes Diseases of upper respiratory tract (460-508); Other diseases of respiratory system (510-519); Symptoms referable to respiratory system (783); and Respiratory disorders of presumably psychogenic origin (305.2). Key Words Abscess of Lung Emphysema Pneumonia Asthma Epistaxsis Pulmonary Congestion Bronchitis Hay Fever Respiratory Infection -46- Bronchopneumonia Hyperventilation Shortness of Breath Conmmon Cold Influenza Sinusitis Cough Laryngitis Stridor Diseases of Lung Pharyngitis Tonsillitis Pleurisy Tracheitis 15. MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH (INCLUDING GENETICS NOT ELSE- WHERE CLASSIFIED, FERTILITY REGULATION, AND MENTAL RETARDATION) Includes research on all conditions of the expectant mother and on other causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality, which is oriented towards the impact of such causes or the surrounding circumstances on the infant. Excludes research directed towards a fetus or specific disease in infant or fetus, which should be reported under the appropriate category for that disease. includes research on the complications in the Also mother of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium which are not specifically related to diseases otherwise listed under HEALTH. Encompasses research concerning population lanning and control, including research into various fertility regula- ticn techniques, such as contraception and sterilization, and the general organization of population planning and control organizations. Specifically excludes operation- al aspect:;, such as program implementation or provision of population planning and control services and devices. Includes research into congenital anomalies such as hydrocephalus, spina bifida, and other physical abnor- malities, in addition to Down's Syndrome and mongolism. Also includes research into developmental disorders, including the biomedical, social, behavioral, and ser- vice delivery considerations of mental retardation. Research on mental retardation should be reported both as a separate line item within this category and as a portion of the total for the category. Includes all genetic research which is not oriented towards another specific disease or injury category. Excludes genetic research oriented toward a specific disease or injury, which should be reported under the corresponding categories in this structure. -47- Includes all research concerning abortion, regardless of the purpose for which the procedure would be per- formed. ICDA Codes Complications of Pregnancy (630-634); Urinary infections and toxemias of pregnancy and the Puerperium (635-639); Abortion (640-645); Complications of the Puerperium (670-678); Congential Anomalies (740-759); Genetic Research not Otherwise Classified; and Certain causes of perinatal morbidity and mortal- ity (760-779). No ICDA codes are specifically oriented towards popu- lation planning and control. Key Words Abortion Hemolytic Disease of Newborn Anemia of Pregnancy Hydrocephalus Anencephalus Intrauterine Devices Birth Injury Labor, Difficult Childbirth Labor, False Cleft Lip Lactation Cleft Palate Mental Retardation Club Foot Mongolism Congenital Anomaly Population Planning and Contraception Control Death in Utero Pregnancy, Complications of Delivery Pregnancy, Ectopic Down's Syndrome Premature Birth Eclampsia Puerperiunm, Complications of Family Planning the Fertility Regulation Spina Bifida Fetal Death Sterilization Genetics (not elsewhere Still-Birth classified) Toxemia Vasectomy 16. METABOLIC DISORDERS Includes research on ali disorders of both anabolic and catabolic processes. Specifically excludes research whose primary purpose is n the area of nutritional dis- erders, a separate category in this structure. Also _48- excludes all research specifically attributable to the endocrine disorders objective. ICDA Codes Other Metabolic Diseases (270-279) Key Words Amino Acids Gout Cystic Fibrosis Metabolism Gargoylism Metabolic Disorders 17. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORDERS Includes research on diseases associated with the musculo- skeletal system and connective tissues of the human body, such as osteomyelitis, bunion, and periostosis. Excludes arthritis and rheumatism, which constitute another disease category within this structure. ICDA Codes Osteomyelitis and other diseases of bone & joint (720-729); Other diseases of musculoskeletal system (730-738); Symptoms referable to limbs and joints (787); and Musculoskeletal disorders of presumably psychogenic origin (305.1). Key Words Arthralgia Diseases of Joints Bone deformaties Diseases of Muscle Bunion Diseases of Tendons Cramp Osteomyelitis Curvature of Spine Periostosls Disease of Connective Prosthetic Devices for functions Tissues of bones and joints 18. NEUROLOGICAL AND COMMUNICATIVE DISORDERS Includes the nflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, various hereditary nervous system diseases, and other such diseases including multiple sclercss and epilepsy. Also includes all research on communicative disorders and on diseases of the ear and the mastoid, including deafness, and mastoiditis. Specifically -49- excludes diseases of the nervous system which are basically infective and parasitic in nature such as infective meningitis or encephalitis (see . A. 12., INFECTIOUS AND PARASITIC DISEASES). ICDA Codes Inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (320-324); Hereditary and familial diseases of the nervous system (330-333); Other diseases of the central nervous system (340-349); Diseases of nerves and peripheral ganglia (350-358); Diseases of the ear and mastoid process (380-389); and Symptoms referable to nervous system and special senses (780-781). It specifically excludes those portions of Category I of the ICDA that refer to disorders of the eye and visual systFm (see I. A. 9., EYE AND VISUAL SYSTEM DISORDERS). Key Words Amnesia Mastoiditis Ataxia, Hereditary Migraine Auditory vertigo Multiple Sclerosis Central Nervous System, Muscular Dystruphy Diseases of the Myotonia Atrophica Cerebral spastic Neuralgia Coma Neuritis Convulsions Oculomotor Disturbance Deaf mut.sm Otitis Externa Deafness Paralysis Ear, Inflanmmation of the Paralysis, Facial Encephalopathy Paralysis, Infantile Eustachian Tube, Disease of Parkinson's Syndrome Hallucinations Photophobia Hearing Impairment Sciatica Tympanum, Disease of Vertigo 19. NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS Includes all research oriented towards the treatment and nature of nutritional diseases and the general understand- ing of nutrition and its effect on human health and well being. Excludes diseases of the oral cavity (see K. A. 5., DENTAL DISEASES AND DISORDERS) and digestive disorders (see V. A. 7., DIGESTIVE DISEASES). -50- ICDA Codes Avitaminosis and Other Nutritional Deficiencies (260-269). Key Words Avitaminosis Nutrition Dietary Research Scurvy Malnrutrition Vitamin Deficiency Mirasmus 20. SKIN AND SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE DIS .SES AND DISORDERS Includes all infections and inflammatory conditions of the skin and subcutaneous tissue including any aller- genic reactions. Specifically excludes all research oriented toward the environmental impact of various sub- stances or natural hazards on skin tissues, which should be reported under . A. 8., ENVIRONMENTALLY-CAUSED DISORDERS. Also excludes research on skin tissues HEALTH associ- ated with roblems of the mother and fetus during pre- gnanc' and childbirth (see . A. 15., MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH). ICDA Codes Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (680-709) and Skin disorders of presumably psychogenic origin (305.0). Key Words Acne Dermatitis Pruritus Boils Diseases of Hair Psoriasis Carbuncle Diseases of Nails Seborrhea Cellulitis Eczema Skin Ulcer Corns Impetigo Sunburn 21. DISEASE AND INJURY BASE To the maximum extent prcticable, disease and injury research should be classified under the dise ,e, injury or related condition which it primarily addresses. If it does not apply to one of the above specific categories or is too multi-directional to be shown above, but is pri- marily disease and injury research, it should be reported under this category. -51- Exclude biology research which is not conducted primarily to understand or resolve problems of human diseases, in- juries and other health conditions (see X. C., BIOLOGY). ICDA Codes With the exception of ICDA ode 794 (Senility), which is included under o. A. 1., THE AGING PROCESS, any health- related problem that would otherwise be included under ICDA codes 790-796 (111-Defired Diseases) should be con- sidered part of this grouping. Codes 780-789 (Symptoms Referable to Systems or Organs) are excluded from tb4 s category and should be allocated to the specific disease or injury categories to whirh they apply. Kev Words Key words generally do not apply Lo DISEASE AND INJURY BASE, which is characterized by multi-directional health research. B. MENTAL HEALTH Includes human mental disorders and diseases and related social and behavioral problems. Research included herein will have the following objectives: improve understanding of the causes and complications of mental disorders and diseases and related social problems; and develop improved methods of diagnosing, treating, curing, and preventing mental diseases and disorders. This subobjective also includes research conducted primarily to increase our understanding of problem behavior which could result in or involves financial or physical harm or threats of harm gainst others or the commiss'on of statute-defined crime , and more specifically, includes studies of the individual behavior which may underlie the commission of a crime. Also included are multi-directional or cross-cutting studies of mental problems and related social disorders. Exclude research on the development and improvement of methods to deter, prevent, or control crime (see GP., LAW ENFORCEMENT AN4D JUSTICE). Also exclude general psvc!ological or behavioral research (See X. M., PSYCHOLOGY or .X, P., C)C'AL SCIENCES, respectively). -52- . MENTAL ILLNESS AND BEHAVIOR DISORDERS This work focuses on individual behavior and mental pro- blems. It involves the diagnosis, description, etiology, treatment and preven .on of mental and psychiatric pro- blems and the delivery of services to the mentally ill. These problems include mental, psychiatric, psychological, and behavioral disorders, and biological and psychosocial mechanisms related to them, irrespective of research sub- ject. Such disorders include organic brain syndromes, particularly those associated with chronic or functional psychoses, depression, schizophrenia, suicide, neuroses, psychosomatic and psychophysiological disorders and character and personality disorders. Also included are major facets of psychopathology: anxiety, stress re- actions, impulsive violence, hostility, and reactions to interpersonal adjustment and coping problems. Explorations of related biological and psychosocial mechanisms include studies of both abnormal and normal functioning, in which the primary purpose is to delineate the relationships of such functioning to abnormal be- havior, or to develop normal baseline data. Also included are therapeutic interventions such as psychopharmacology, sychotherapy, behavioral interven- tion, nd other forms of psychosocial treatment. Psycho- pharmacological studies cover such areas as the predic- tion of the individual's response to therapeutic drug treatment, the influence of patient or other cha.acteris- tics on this response, the development of better sycho. tropic drugs, the development of improved drug screening methods, and improvement of our understanding of the mechanisms of pyschoactive drug actions on a physiological, biochemical, pharmacological, gnetic, toxicologic, or behavioral level. (This excludes research directed pri- marily toward understanding, diagnosing, treating, curing and preventing drug at , which is included in this structure under SubstanLP Abuse.) Psychotherapy includes developing and refining psychological treatment examin- ing the patient-clinician interactions, and assessing treatment outcome. Behavioral intervention encompasses primarily studies of non-surgical behavior modification, learning and training in problem situations, and bio- feedback methods such as the evelopment of individual self-control of hypertension. Other psychosocial treat- ments include group therapy, milieu therapy, mental -53- health crisis intervention, comr.unity programs for the mentally ill, and rehabilitation programs. Also included are studies of mental health service de- livery approaches. Included are studies of the organiza- tion, functioning and effectiveness of community mental health centers, the use of paraprofessionals n the de- livery of mental health services, the financing of mental health services, the developme:nt and evaluation of special approaches such as mental heal,:h crisis intervention, and partial hospitalization programs. Exclude mental disorders associated with the aging pro- cess (see r. A. 1. THE AGING PROCESS). Exclude studies of mental retardation (see Y. A. 15., MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH). Exclude research directed primarily toward understanding, diagnosing, treating, curing and preventing the abuse of substances, including drugs and alcohol (see X. C., SUBSTANCE ABUSE). 2. MENTAL HEALTH ASPECTS OF SOCIAL ROBLEMS Includes research on the effects of social problems, processes, and conditions beyond the contrcl of the individual which impact on mental illnesses. Research in this area will focus on the contribution of these factors to individual mental disorders and diseases. Such .-cial problems and conditions include individual virl.,t behavior, antisocial behavior, sex-role develop- ment, minority group membership and ethnicity, institu- tional racism, urban problems including the impact of urban institutions ad social structures on mental health, work ana unemployment, technological change, and social and physical environments. Examples of research topics included herein are the relation between mental problems and criminal, delinquent, and other deviant behavior; and law and mental health interactions, such as the issues of pretrial competency, exculpatory insanity, and the right to treatment. Exclude research on deterrents to criminal acts, such as the development or improvement o crowd control -54- techniques and statistical studies of the incidence and patterns of crime (see PV1n., LAW ENFORCEMENT AND JUSTICE). Also exclude studies of the contribution of substance abuse to social problems (see . C., SUBSTANCE ABUSE). 3. MENTAL HEALTH BASE Mental health research should be placed under the above two categories, as much as possible. If the primary objectives of any given research effort does not apply to the first two categories or is multi-directional in terms of research objectives, but is primarily mental health research, it should be reported under this category. Exclude research which addresses fundamental psyLnolog- ical or social functioning, but is not directly related to mental problems (see . M., PSYCHOLOGY or X. P., SOCIAL SCIENCES) . C. SUBSTANCE ABUSE Includes research on all aspects of the problems associated with abuse of drugs, alcohol, and other substances, such as compounds containing aspirin, nicotine, or caffeine. Abuse herein refers to the misapplication, misuse, use for a wrong purpose or end, or excessive use of the above substances, including the u of medicinal agents for non-medicinal purposes. Objectives commoul to substance abuse research efforts typi- cally include the following: improve understanding of the chemistry of abused substances and the biochemical reactions of individuals to these substances; investigate psychological and epidemiological factors influencing substance abuse; and develop improved method' for diagnosing, treating, curing, and preventing sub. rance abuse, including better ways to deliver associated health services. Excludes research on the criminal actions of substance abusers and on preventive measures, such as criminal sanctions and seizures of illegal substances (see sfl., LAW ENFORCEMENT AND JUSTICE). 1. ALCOHOLISM Includes studies of alcohol, alcoholism, and alcohol abuse. In-luded are studies of the biological effects of -55- alcohol on central nervous system functions, metabolic processes, liver function, cardiac function, and hemato- logy and circulation. Animal models of alcohol addiction are also included. Studies of the behavioral correlates of alcohol include psychological and emotional states associated with types of drinking episodes (e.g., memory functions, dysphoria, anxiety, depression, and work per- formance); and studies of the etiology, diagnosis, treat- ment and rehabilitation (including detoxification, be- havioral intervention, motivation for treatment, and out- come criteria development), prevention, and consequences of alcoholism are included. Research on social environ- ments leading to alcoholism, beverage con'rol laws, and societal response to alcoholism is also included. 2. DRUG ABUSE Includes research on opiates (e.g., heroin), marihuana, hallucinogens (e.g., LSD), stimulants (e.g., amphetamines, cocaine), and depressants (arbiturates). Studies concern biological, psychological and sociocultural problems, and include consideration of epidemiology and incidence of drug abuse, diagnosis and etiology, psychosocial charac- teristics of drug abusers, treatment (including narcotic antagonists, methadone maintenance, behavioral interven- tions, and psychological and social supportive therapies), and prevention. Also relevant are studies of drug abuse from a broad social perspective, including attitudes about drugs and drug abuse, and legal and correctional issues. 3. ABUSE OF OTHER SUBSTANCES Includes research on the abuse of substances other than alcohol or drugs (see X. C. 2., DRUG ABUSE, for the types of drugs included in that section). Examples of abused substances included in this category are excessive amounts of food and compounds containing such agents as aspirin, nicotine, or caffeine. D. HEALTH SERVICES DELIVERY The primary purpose cf research shown here is to improve existing or develop new methods and systems wiich will pro- vide accessible, high quality and reL3onably priced health care delivery. Thir section consists of lower levels of aggregation ba ed u on the purpose for which the research is being conducted, not by the means by which that purpose -56- is being accomplished. Therefore, HEALTH SERVICES DELIVERY research directed towards such means as health service organization and management; the development, introduction, coordination, use and productivity of manpower and other resources; and statistical and data systems development, but research into such means will be classified by its pri- mary purpose. For example, research to lower the costs of delivering health services by improving the productivity of health manpower is shown under . D. 2., CONTROL AND REDUCE COST. Thus, manpower research will be reported throughout this section based upon the primary purpose of the manpower research. Research which has a primary purpose of affecting the health service delivery associated with a specific entry in any of the first three sections of Y., HEALTH, should be shown in those sections. For example, research to improve mental health care delivery specifically will be shown in Y. B., MENTAL HEALTH, rather than in this section. 1. IMPROVE QUALITY The purpose of the research shown here is to maintain and improve the quality of health care delivery. This section includes research on health service organiza- tion and management, on health service delivery resources (including manpower nd plant resources) and on data and statistical systems whose primary purpose is to maintain or improve quality of health service delivery. Research to develop or assess the impact of financing methods --hose primary purpose is to improve quality will be shown here. The following research objectives exemplify the type of work to be shown here: devise mcthods to measure quality of health care delivery including development of health status indicators; identify what is to be measured, such as important elements of the health care process, re- lationships of that process to resources and their organi- zation, etc., design mechanisms to control the perform- ance of various types of providers; compare alternative approaches to control and improve the quality f health services; and measure impact on quality of various changes in the structure and organization of health care delivery systems. -57- 2. CONTROL AND REDUCE COST The primary purpose of research shown here is to control or reduce the cost of health care delivery to the con- sumer. This inc -des research into health services organization and ,gement, such as the improvement of health maintena.._ organizations; the introduction, development, coordination, use and productivity of - sources (including manpower); and data and statistical systems whose primary purpose is to control or reduce costs. Research to develop or assess che impact of financing methods and reimbursement schemes whose pri- mary purpose is to control or reduce costs will be shown here. The following research objectives exemplify the type of work to be shown here: study work patterns of doctors and nurses which might result in economies; substitute different types of resources and alternative resource mix to deliver health services; examine effects of consumer preferences on the price of medical care; assess the im- pact on cost of alternative methods of capital finan.cing; examine impact on costs of various reimbursement schemes and direct and indirect subsidies; and examine cost effects from cver-use of health services due to new or improved financing methods (such as national health insurance). 3. IMPROVE ACCESSIBILITY The primary purpose of research here is to improve the accessibility and availability of health services to con- sumers. Research into resource development, utilization and management, health service organization and manage- ment, and methods of educating the public about health problems and wys to counter them wili be shown here. Research which has a primary r;rpose of alleviating inequities of access to health services among various socioeconomic groups and geographic areas will be shown here. Work to develop or improve alternative modes of insurance (including national health insurance), payment and reimbursement and other financing schemes whose pri- mary purpose is to improve the accessibility of health service or research to assess the impact of such financ- ing methods on the accessibility of health service will be shown here. -58- Research concerning the development of a system of national health insurance will be reported as a separate subtotal and will be included in the total for . D. 3., IMPROVE ACCESSIBILITY. The following research objectives exemplify the type of work to be shown here: examine barriers to preventative health services uses; develop regional forms of heaith service delivery organization to improve availability; communication techniques such as remote satellite clinics and "picture-phones" to improve accessability; examine effects on accessibility of hospital mergers; evaluate medical centers' impact on health service delivery; and examine effects on availability of financing methods that do not pay essential costs to the provider. Exclude research into financing methods which are primarily oriented toward improving the quality or reducing or con- trolling the cost of health service delivery. Such re- search should be shown in the appropriate section in this objective (either r. D. 1., IMPROVE QUALITY. or . D. 2., CONTROL AND REDUCE COST). -59 VI. HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT I. ' , HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT iAGE A. Housing . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 1. Increase Opportunities . . .. . . . .. .... 61 2. Improving Safety and Standards . . . . . . .... 62 3. Improving Construction, Delivery and Costs. . . . . . 63 4. Improving Housing Management . .. . . . . . . . . . . 63 5. Improving Housing Maintenance. . . . . . .... 64 B. Community Development . . . .. . . . . . . . . 64 1. Preserve and Revitalize Neighborhoods. . . . . . 64 2. Community Development and Growth . .. . . . . . . . 65 C~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 6 VI. HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT Encompasses research and development which will: --Increase housing opportunities for those Americans with limited access to housing; --Improve safety and standards to protect building owners and occupants; --Improve construction and delivery of housing so as to reduce its cost; --Improve housing management (particularly public housing); --Improve housing maintenance processes; --Improve neighborhood preservation and revitalization; --Understand the foiees of growth and development; and --Develop strategies for those activities (such as taxation mechanisms and land use control techniques) which cn shape the direction and quality of growth and development. These objectives apply where appropriate to rural as well as urban growth and development. Exclude research to minimize Lhe adverse effects which housing, community and area development might have on the general environment (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT). Exclude research to improve the capability, efficiency and ef- fectiveness of state and local governments in planning, managing and delivering their programs and services which are not specifically related to housing or community development. Such research is shown where appropriate in XIII., OTHER. Exclude research to develop systems and technologies which will - 60 - provide and utilize energy more efficiently and effectively (See TI., ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION). A. HOUSING Encompasses research to develop programs which increase housing opportunities for those Americans with limited access to housing; research to improve safety and standards to protect building owners and occupants; research to improve construction and de- livery of housing so as to reduce its costs; research to im- prove housing management (particularly public housing); and research to improve the housing maintenance processes. 1. INCREASING OPPORTUNITIES Encompasses research to increase the understanding of the causes of inadequate housing and to increase housing op- portunities for those Americans with limited access to ade- quate housing due to such problems as insufficient income, ~ discriminatory housing practices, and housing requirements of special-user groups such as the aged and disabled. Also includes research to assess consumer needs and their inter- face with the housing market. The areas discussed below will assist in determining what research is shown here. Provide Monetary Assistance To Enable People To Secure Adequate Housirg: Ecompasses research to examine and under- stand people's inability to afford adequate housing and re- search to develop and test programs which enable people to afford adequate housing including direct cash assistance as well as other forms of subsidies. Examples of work shown here include research to determine how families are using their housing subsidy, how the housing market reacts to housing allowances, and how housing allowance programs can be better administered. Eliminate Discrimination In The Housing Market: Encompass-s research to improve understanding of discriminatory pract - in the housing market; inprove methods of complying with equal opportunity statutes and regulations; and develop and test techiques to poi!iete equal opportunity and fair housing practices. Examples cilude research to study discri :nation in real estate broker and salesperson examination ant iiensin, and develop equal opportunity housing practices in rural areas. Address The Needs Of Special-User Crups: Encompasses re- search directed toward understanding and meeting ousing requirements which are peculiar and unique to sp _ial-user groups. An example is research to develop prcpe ty tax re- lief measures geared specifically for the elderly. Housing Markets And Consumer Education: Encompasses research to improve the consumers understanding of an interaction -8i1- with the housing market so as to increase their capability to acquire adequate housing. Includes research to examine consumers' attitudes toward the housing market. 2. IMPROVING SAFETY AND STANDARDS Encompasses research to achieve safer buildings including research to develop new methods, materials and technologies to construct safer buildings, research to promote the adoption and application of these new technologies, ai.d research to determine safety standards for the buildings and their com- ponents. Exclude research to develop technical reports, operating procedures and practical methods (such as architectural and structural security innovations, streetlighting, and alarm systems) which will prevent and reduce crime in housing de- velopments and surrounding neighborhoods (See VII. A., PRE- VENTION OF CRIME). The areas discussed below will assist in determining what type of research is shown here. Fire Safety: Encompasses research to incrEase the fire safety of buildings. Includes research to develop new methods, materials and technologies; to promote the adoption of new fire safety technologies; to develop methods for comprehen- sive fire safety system analysis; and research to develop standards for firp safety systems which will increase the fire safety of buildings. Examples include resce ch to test the flammability of housing material; to test smoke and flame spread, and to develop smoke detection devices. Reduce The Hazard Of Lead-Based Paint Poisoning: Encompasses research to understand the nature and extent of lead-based paint poisoning and develop methods for its detection and elimination. Exclude research directed toward improved methods of treating lead-based paint poisonings (See V. A. 13., INJURIES NOT RELATED TO DISEASES). Disaster Housing research: Encompasses research on programs to improve temporary housing for disaster victims and im- prove buildings' resistance to inatural disaster forces (including improving building design standards related to disaster resistance). Exclude research to understand or control natural disasters (See III. D.4., DISASTER AND NATURAL HAZARDS STUDIES AND CONTROL). mv.. 7. Increase Safety Of Buildings: Encompasses research to develop new methods, materials and tennology which increases the safety of buildings; research to develop performance criteria, standards, and test methods by which housing systems or materials may be evaluated and used by local code officials, architects, engineers, etc.; and research to promote the adoption and application of new technology in the market. Examples include research to develop guidelines minimizing building failure risk, improving str"utural tests for building components, work to reduce the danger of gas explosion and studies on mobile home safety. 3. IMPROVING CONSTRUCTION, DELIVERY AND COSTS Encompasses research to develop and demonstrate the latest methods amd materials by which houses and buildings can be built at a lower cost and/or a higher quality; research to determine the feasibility of improved construction techniques; research to increase material and natural resources' con- servation in housing construction and operation; research to improve the understanding of factors affecting housing financing, production and supply; and research to increase savings in non-construction costs such as acquisition costs. Examples of work shown here include research to improve all weather construction methods, study new piping material and structural adhesives, and develop new masonry water proofing methods; research on new framing and sheathing methods which result in lumber savings; and investigations into rural housing financing and studies of land parcel recordings in order to reduce closing costs. Exclude research performed primarily to develop and demon- strate construction methods which increase the safety of buildings. (See VI. A. 2., IMPROVING SAFETY AND STANDARDS). Exclude research to increase energy corervation in housing construction and operation (See II. H., ENERGY CONSERVATION). 4. IMPROVING HOUSIN MANAGEMENT Encolapasses research to improve the efficiency and effective- nesj of housing management. Primarily includes research directed toward improving multi-family housing management, particularly public housing. This involves research to im- prove local housing authorities (LHA's) ability to manage low rent housing. -63- 5. IMPROVE HOUSING MAINTENANCE Encompasses research to promote the maintenance and re- habilitiation of basically sound but currently obsolete housing of all types for occupancy by all income groups. Research here focuses mainly on problems and restraints to the individual property owner as compared to problems of the entire community (See VI. B. 1., PRESERVE AND RE- VITALIZE NEItBORHOODS). Examples of research to show here are studies to understand present maintenance and rehabili- tation processes and studies to determine better alternatives if any to these processes. B. ZOMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT Encompasses research to improve the preservation and revitaliza- tion of neighborhoods, t understand the forces of growth nd development, and to develop strategies for those activities (such as taxation mechanisms and land use control techniques) which car. shape the direction and quality of growth and develop- ment. These objectives include where applicable research directed toward rural as well as urban growth and development. 1. PRESERVE AND REVITALIZE NEIGHBORHOODS Encompasses research to determine the appropriate public and private actions to prevent neighborhood decline; esearch to revitalize advanced decay areas; and to prevent decline where neighborhood instability is influenced by undisposed vacant properties. The areas discussed below will assist in determining what types of research to show here. Preservation Analysis and Demcnstration: Encompasses re- search to develop an understanding of the causes and pro- cesses of decline; to develop means which identify neigh- borhoods susceptible to decline and preservation activities; to identify those activities which can reverse the decline prccess and promote the preservation process; and demonstrate local actions which have been successful in neighborhoods. Revitalize Neighborhoods: Encompasses research to develop and promote the adoption and application of successful re- vitalization programs. Acquired Properties Disposition: Research to develop ad- ditional techniques to dispose of HUD acquired properties without promoting a decline in neighborhood value. Includes _64- research to design and test methods to prevent, cure, and treat defaults and foreclosures and thus reduce the drain on mortgage insurance funds. 2. COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ND GROWTH Encompasses research to understand the forces of growth and development and to develop strategies for those activities (such as taxation mechanisms and land use control techniques} which can shape the direction and quality of growth and de- velopment. This objective includes where applicable rural as well as urban g.owth and development. The areas discussed below will assist in determining what type of research to show here. Community Growth Research: Includes research to strengthen community strategies for growth and development as related to the economic feasibility of development program implementation and program effects n the community's economic base. An example is research to increase awareness and understanding of how local government can and doe.; affect local econumic development. New Communities Research: Research to increase understanding of nets coa,:iitie s a mechanism for development and growth. Includes research to maintain the viability of existing new communities. Taxation Mechanisms; Research to develop efficient and equitable taxing mechanisms which can be used to further State and local development and management strategies. Land Use Control Techniques: Include research to develop land use control techniques as effective and equitable tools or community development and growth. _65- VII, IAW ENFORCEMENT AND JUSTICE -! l I LAW ENFORCEMENT AND JUSTICE PACE A. Prevention of Crime (includes a total for drug trafficking) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 66 B. Law Enforcement (includes a tot;al for drug trafficking). .. 67 C. Adjudication ...................... . 67 D. Corrections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 67 E. Juvenile Justice ...................... 68 F. Understanding of Crime . . . . . . . .......... 68 G. Justice Technology ..................... 68 VII. LAW ENFORCEMENT AND JUSTICE Incl des all research primarily directed toward improving the prevention or deterrence of criminal acts, the detec- tion end investigation of crimes, the search for and app-3- hension of suspects, the trial and sentencing of criminal offenders, and the incarceration and rehabilitation of criminal off:rnders. Research into individual criminal behavior and research into the prevention and treatment of drug buse and alcoholism is excluded from this objective (See V. B., MENTAL HEALTH and V. C., SUBSTANCE ABUSE). A. PREVENTION OF CRIME Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving society's ability to prevent or deter crime whether through the use of equipment, personnel information or other means. This includes research into architectural and structural security innovations, stieetlighting, alarms or alarm sys- tems, effective uses of available police forces, changing community attitudes to reduce the incidence of crime; surveillance techniques and controls to prevent or deter criminal acts directed toward persons and cargoes of domestic and international transportation systems (hijacks); improvements in communications techniques intended to improve the preventative capabilities of police forces; methods for reducing "crimes of opportunity"; police com- munity relations activities; and training of police and other persons in prevention techniques. Research which is directed toward the prevention of alcoholism and drug abuse is excluded from this subobjective (See V. C., SUBSTANCE ABUSE). However, research into new or improved methods for preventing trafficking in illicit drugs is included and should be reported as a separate amount and as part of the total for PREVENI.' OF CRIME. Exclude from this subobjective that research which is primarily directed toward prevention or deterring the delinquency of and crimes by juveniles (See JUVENILE JUSTICE, below). _66- B. LAW ENFORCEMENT Encompasses all research directed toward improving tne detection, identification and apprehension of persons sus- pected of committing a crime. Includes rsearch into methods of dentifying, acquiring, preserring and analyz- ing evidential matter, new types of evidential matter such as individualization of physiological fluids, investigative methods and techniques, the use of communications to increase police effectiveness and aid in suspect identification and apprehension. That research which is primarily directed toward the detection, identification and apprehension of persons suspected of trafficking in illicit drugs should be reported as a separate amount and as part of the total for LAW ENFORCEMENT. Exclude from this category research primarily directed toward detection, identification and apprehension of juveniles suspected of crime and research directed toward enforcing delinquency laws (See JUVENILE JUSTICE, below). C. ADJUDICATION Encompasses research into all aspects of the idic'.al process from the point following the arrest of a suspect to the sen- tencing of the convicted ofende. Includes research into the operations of the court system, new or improved methods of processing criminals, the conduct of trials, the pre- paration and prosecutiun of cases, alternative sentences, the functions and handling of juries, the training of judges and other judicial personnel, and the increased participation of victims and witnesses in the adjudication process. Exclude from this subobjective research which is primarily directed toward improving the judicial processes for juvenile offenders (bee JUVENILE JUSTICE, below). D. CORRECTIONS Encompasses research into the post-conviction handling of a criminal offender including research into probation, parole, recidivism, alternative correctional institutions, work- study programs, early-release, alternatives to incarceration, halfway houses, rehabilitation programs for prisoners, prison environments and characteristics, post-incarceration assis- tance to former convicts, and deinstitutionalizatiot; of offenders. Research dealing with the teatment of drug addicts and alcoholics which is directed toward curing addic- tion is exluded from this subobjective (See V. C., _67- SUBSTANCE ABUSE). Also, research primarily directed toward the post-convi-'lon handling of juvenile offenders is excluded from this subobjective (See JUVENILE JUSTICE, below). E. JUVENILE JUSTICE Encompasses all rese,.rch primarily directed toward improving the prevention or deterrence of delinquency and crimes com- mitted by juveniles, the enforcement of laws as i. relates to juveniles, and judicial process for juvenile suspects, the post-conviction handling of juvenile offenders, and the under- standing of juvenile crime and delinquency. Research directed toward the treatment of juvenile drug addicts and alcoholics which is directed toward curing addiction is excluded from this subobjective (See V. C., SUBSTANCE ABUSE). However, that re- search which i directed toward the prevention, and the detection, identification and apprehension of juveniles suspected of traf- ficking in illicit drugs should be reported as a separate amount and as pazr of the total for JUVENILE USrICE. F. UNDERSTANDING OF CRIME Encompasses research primarily directed toward improving the knowledge about and understanding of crime and criminal phenomenon which cannot e assigned to one of the other subobjectives. Included would be research :nto the incidence of a motivation for homicide in correctional institutions and studies of organired crime. Exclude research directed toward individual criminal behavior (See V. B., MENTAL HEALTH). Also exclude research directed toward the understanding of juvenile crime and de- linquency (See JUVENILE JUSTICE, above). G. JUSTICE TECHNOLOGY Encompasses research dire' ed toward the equipment, conmmunica- tions, information systems, weapons, vehicles, clothing, facili- ties and management and personnel techniques used by police and other law enforcement personnel which cannot be assigned to the other subobjectives. _68. VIII. MILITARY 68 t I MILITARY PAGE A. Deter Attack . . . . ....... ..... . . 69 1. Land-based Missiles ............. .. 70 2. Sea-based Missiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 3. Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 4. Deterrent Weapons Development and Protectior . . . . . . 71 5. Command and Control Elements of Nuclear Deterrence . . 72 6. Nuclear Deterrence-General . . ...... . 73 B. Defend Continental United States Against Attack . . . .. 73 1. Ballistic Missile Warning.. . . . . . . . . . 73 2. Ballistic Missile Defense . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 73 3. Air Defense . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 4. Defend Continental United States-General . . . . . . . . 74 C. Combat Capability . ........ . . 74 1. Land Warfare . . . ................... 75 a. Battlefield Surveillance . . ........ . 75 b. Close Combat ................... 76 c. Fire Support .. ..... . 76 d. Field Army ir Defense . ........... . 76 e. Land Warfare Intelligence, Reconnaissance, and Electro-lic Warfare . ........... . 76 f. Land Warfare Logistics . ........... . 77 g. Land Warfare Communications, Command and Control . . 77 h. Land Warfare-General . . .. . 77 2. Air Warfare . ....... .. . . . . 78 a. Air Superiority . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 78 b. Deep StriKe-Interdiction . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 79 c. Air Defense Suppression . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 79 d. Air Reconnaissance and Intelligence . . .. . . . . 79 e. Air Warfare Logistics . . . . ........ 79 f. Air Warfa.e Communication, Command, and Control. . . 80 g. Air Warfare-General. . ........... .. 80 3. Ocean Control . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 80 a. Ocean Surveillance . .. ....... ..... 80 b. Fleet Offense . . . . . . ..... 81 c. Fleet Air Defense . . .. 81 d. Fleet Anti-submarine Warfare (ASW) . . . . . . . . . 81 e. Naval Mine Warfare ............... 82 f. Ocean Control Logistics . .. . . . . . . . . . . 82 g. Ocean Control Coammunications, Command and Control. . 82 h. Ocean Control-General . .. . . . . . . . . . .. 82 4. Combat Capability-general. . ... . . . . . . . 83 5. Theater Nuclear Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 D. Defensewide Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 1. Intelligence Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 MILITARY (Continued) PAGE 2. Communications, Comnand and Control . . . . . . . . . . . 85 3. Area Navigation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 85 4. Military Personnel Management and Utilization . . . .. 86 5. Biomedicine with Exclusive Military Applications . .. 86 6. Nuclear Weapons Effects ................. 87 7. Chemical/Biological Weapons . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 87 8. Weather Modification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 VIII. MILITARY Encompasses research to improve the systems, technology, equipment and operations that perform exclusively military objectives. More specifically, MILITARY includes research to improve the capability of deterring nuclear attack or failing this, allows effective and appropriate retaliation; defending the continental United States against attack; and conducting combaL, primarily non-nuclear, activities. The funding for ?,partment of Defense research which also has potential to contribute to solving national problems, as defined in the balance of this overall structure, should be included un- der the appropriate non-military category. As examples, research to reduce the noise of military jet engines would be shown under III. C. 5., NOISE; research to improve the means of immunizing soldiers against malaria would be shown under V. A. 12., INFECTIOUS AND PARASITIC DISEASES; and research to increase the energy efficiency and reduce the energy consumption of most naval vessels will be shown under II. H. 4., REDUCE ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY END-USERS. A. DETER ATTACK The objective here is to develop, maintain and control a nuclear strike capability which will prevent or deter nuclear attack or coercion by threat of nuclear attack on the United States or its allies, and failing this, allows effective and appropriate retaliation. Research in this objective focuses on the TRIAD of delivery systems: land-based missiles, sea-based missiles and aircraft; their control and related nuclear weapons de- velopment. -69- Excude research on weapons systems that i not conducted primarily to strengthen nuclear deterrence capability. How- ever, research conducted primarily to improve an aircraft's capability to deliver nuclear weapons will be shown here re- gardless of its ability to deliver non-nuclear weapons also. 1. LAND-BASED MISSILES This category focuses on research which pertains to im- proving and insuring the quality, survivability, penetra- tion capability and flexibility of the force. Includes research and development to improve reentry vehicles for land-based missiles only. Exclude research to provide site defense (See VIII. B., DEFEND CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES AGAINST ATTACK) and to improv, reentry vehicles for sea-based missiles (See SEA-BASED MISSILES below). The following specific goals exemplify the kind of work which will be shown under this category: Upgrade hardness of silos; Increase yield to weight ratio of present reentry vehicles; Demonstrate capability to carry more reentry vehicles on present and future generations of land-based missiles; Develop alternate basing modes; Improve reentry vehicles materials; Obtain very high accuracies for reentry vehicles; Develop terminal guidance technique with all-weather c pability; Develop light penetration aids; Improve maneuvering capability of reentry vehicles; and Improve weapon delivery y using advanced targeting techniques; 2. SEA-BASED MISSILES This objective includes research to maintain the survivability of ballistic missile submarines and the effectiveness of the missiles they launch and their reentry vehicle systems. Examples of specific goals which comprise this category: r-zvide longer range missiles; Increase available operating areas for missile launch platforms; Maintain survivability of older submarines by improving their sonar and navigation subsystems; -70- Develop new, smaller, less costly SBNs; Develop higher power long-life reactor cres necs,a for increased ship speed and siae, simpler operating and maintenance requirements and increased reli.biJ.- ity and maintainability of reacto pnt concepts; Conduct conceptual design studies of ut'lear propulsion, plants for potential application in ftte ballistic. missile submarines; Explore threats and countermeasures fo~ SSBNs; Upgrade and advance SSBN-launched reentry vehicle flexibility, survivability, accuracy and penetration capability; Determine phenomena contributing to svstew:s vulnerabil- ity and develop countermeasures to e.i::v capabilities; and Develop and improve cruise missiles wch can be launched from standard size torpedo tuba or surface ships. Exclude research and development on cruise missiles used in non-nuclear deterrent situations. 3. AIRCRAFT This objective includes research to improve the survivability, payload, bombing accuracy, speed and penetration capabilities of aircraft which can deliver nuclear weapons and conse- quently deter nuclear attack. Examples of specLfic goals which comprise this category: Increase pre-launch survivability by improving reaction time, speed and hardness; Provid a weapons platform to launch cruise missiles, SRAMs and gravity bombs; Improve bomber defense weapons; Improve design and performance characteristics of new tankers , nich assure adequate refueling support; Enhance bomber penetration by ECM, self-defens. systems warning sensors and active defense weaponry; and Develop and improve cruise missiles which can be launched from aircraft and which carry nuclear weapons. 4. DETERRENT WEAPONS DEVELOPMENT AND PROTECTION Includes research to improve the production of nuclear materials used in weapons manufacture; the development and test of specific weapons eeded by DoD; and the capability to detect, locate and identify nuclear detonations. -71- This objective also includes research to understand better laser-induced and electron beam-induced implosion fusion with applications for weapons simulation and modelling and to improve means of controlling and protecting nuclear materials. Include here only that research and development which has military applications exclusively. Examples of specific goals which comprise this category: Improve means of isotope separation techniques which apply only to nuclear weapons develop.nent; Assure design integrity of weapons n development status and provide firm basis for future weapons development by continuously gathering information, Participate in surface-based and satellite-based sensor programs to improve means of detecting nuclear deton- ations; Improve weapons effects simulation and physics modelling by use of laser and electron beam-induced implosion fusions; and Define threats, develop guard and response force struc- tures, review safeguards systems, develop and analyze concepts and improve engineering development to protect and control nuclear materials and weapons. Exclude research related to nuclear materials and processes that pertain to both civilian and military objectives. Also exclude from the entire research and development structure obligations for the production of nuclear weapons as approved by the President and the surveillance of com- pleted nuclear weapons required to meet military needs. This is not research funding. 5. COMMAND AND CONTROL ELEMENTS OF NUCLEAR DETERRENCE Includes research to provide reliable, survivable and secure systems to insure that nuclear deterrence forces are immediately responsive to political and military decisions to maintain deterrent credibility and provide confidence in ability to respond flexibly. Examples of specific goals which comprise this category: Increase survivability, reliability and security in command and control systems; Improve means of supporting decision-making and executing retaliatory strike orders after absorbing a massive attack which could include selected strategic targets; Evaluate viability of communications systems in presence of interference from high altitude nuclear detonations; and Improve the survivability of related satellites. -72- 6. NUCLEAR DETERRENCE-GENERAL Encompasses researnh development and technology which primarily applies to efforts to deter nuclear attack but which cannot be assigned to a specific sub-objective of that category or which can be assigned to two or more sub-,bjectives equally. For example, electronics, navi- gation or nuclear weapons effects research which relates to both land and sea-based missiles will be shown here. B. DEFEND CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES AGAINST ATTACK This objective focuses on research to improve warning, attack assessment and defense systems or capabilities related to intercontinental attacks launched at the Continental United States. It includes both ballistic missile and aircraft at- tacks. Also specifically included here is research related to satellites which are used to idcitify, provide warning of or defend against intercontinental attacks. 1. BALLISTIC MISSILE WARNING This research focuses on improving defensive techniques and equipment needed to protect key U.S. systems from at- tack. It includes research to improve warning anJ ident- ification capability and increase reliability and sur- vivability of these systems. Includes research on satel- lite systems to detect rocket launches and to detect, track and identify flying objects and to improve the survivability of satellites used for these purposes. Examples of specific goals which comprise this category: Provide warning coverage aginst new threats; Reduce vulnerability of warning system to direct attack and electronic countermeasures; Enhance the quality of information received from combination of warning sensors to characterize better the nature of attack; Demonstrate feasibility of near realtime ground-based capability to detect and track objects; and Increase systems resistance to degradation by weapons effects. 2. BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE This objective includes research to improve, consistent with existing Treaties, araa and site ballistic missile -73- defense (BMD) systems and technical capdbilities in BMD to insure the existence of a second strike capability. Examples of specific goals which contribute to this ob- jective: Provide lower cost defense of ICBM sites than Safeguard can provide; Reduce costs and increase performance and reliability of sensor systems, computer software and irtrceptorn; Incorporate new technology into current systems; and Provide technology base for design and development of new systems. 3. AIR DEFENSE This objective focuses on research to improve means of detecting and destroying air breathing vehicles attacking the United States. Examples of specific goals directed toward this objective are: Improve warning capability to detect penetratore, for example, radars and sea.rs; Improve means of identifying unknown penetrators and restrict unchallenged overflight of U.S. air space; Develop Over-the-Horizon Backscatter radar; Develop single integrated surveillance system; and Improve SAM capability and dvelop new air defense inter- ceptor. 4. DEFEND CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES-GENERAL Encompasses research development and technology which primarily apply to improving the capability for defending the continental United States against attack b. which cannot be assigned to a specific sub-objective of that category or which can be assigned to two or more sub-objectives equally. For example, weapons or communications research that benefits both ballistic missile and air defense should be shown here. C. COMBAT CAPABILITY Encompasses research to provide systems and equipment which enable forces to deploy, maneuver, defend and esupply them- selves, and engage an enemy force. Work shown here relates to combat activity conducted on land, in the air and on or under water. COMBAT CAPABILITY includes, wherever appropriate, research on the environment or weather which relates directly and exclusively to defensive or offensive combat activities. -74- Research which has clear potential to contribute to solving national problems, as well as military objectives, should bo included under the appropriate national problem. For example, research to improve all weather take-off and landing systems and traffic control systems will be shown under II. A. 2., IMPROVE AVIATION OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND EFFECTIVENESS and research to reduce discharge of wastes from ships will be shown under III. C. 2., WATER. 1. LAND WARFARE Research to provide our land forces with the capability of defending land areas against foreign non-nuclear aggres- sion or establish control over land areas. All logistics research whose primary purpose is to support land warfare objectives will be shown in VIII. C. 1. f., LAND WARFARE LOGISTICS. Communications Command and Control research which can be applied entirely to a specific -ategory with- in LAND WARFARE will be shown accordingly. mmunications Command and Control research which applies equally to two or more categories in LAND WARFARE should be shown in VIII. C. 1. g., LAND WARFARE COMMUNICATIONS, COMMAND AND CONTROL. Research which has progressed far enough to identify LAND WARFARE as its primary purpose but cannot be applied to any of the LAND WARFARE objectives should be shown in VIII. C. 1. h,, LAND WARFARE-GENERAL. Examples of work to show in LAND WAPF/RE include research. to develop counter- systems to armor, artillery, and air threats; increase survivability and effectiveness of attack helicopters and Close-Air-Support (CAS) aircraft; increase survivability, mobility, and firepower of tanks and infantry combat ve- hicles; increase capability to destroy hard point targets; ir rease anti-tank missile survivability against counter- a sures; and improve systems' capability to perform in night and adverse weather conditions. a. BATTLEFIELD SURVEILLANCE Encompasses research to develop systems to provide timely, accurate information on the location, ident- ification, and movement of enemy forces in the combat area. Includes research to: improve surveillance be- yond the line-of-sight; identify the type of enemy target; improve means of locating enemy artillery and -75- mortar; and increase systems' capability to perform in difficult and obstructing geography nd adverse weather. b. CLOSE COMBAT Encompasses research to develop the capability for in- fantry and armor t destroy enemy equipment, personnel, andr will to fight, to defend positions, and to gain ground. Includes research to: improve tanks' gun armamnents, survivability, mobility, and night fighting capability; improve mine detection and neutralization; and develop one-man machine guns, light-weight mortars, and light anti-tank weapons to improve infantryman's combat capability. c. FIRE SUPPORT Encompasses research to develop systems c- equipment to provide ground gaining forces with close and on- tinuous fire, to deliver counter-battery fire, and to fire on targets in areas of interest. Includes re- search to: increase weapon effectiveness against hard point targets; increase fire support systems' surviv- ability and night and adverse weather capabilities; increase cannon artillery range; automate artillery data's transmission, receipt, ad computation; increase survivability and effectiveness of Close-Air-Support (CAS) aircraft; and improve ocean vessel systems that de;-.er fire support for land warfare. d. FIELD ARMY AIR DEFENSE Encompasses research to develop systems and equipment to limit enemy air first-strike effectiveness against air bases, air defenses, command and control functions, troop concentrations, special ammunition support points and depots. Includes research to: provide medium-to- high, low-to-medium, and low altitude air defense; de- velop high portability air defense systems; and improve air defense gun systems. e. LANjI WARFARE INTELLIGENCE, RECONNAISSANCE, AND ELECTRONIC WARFARE Encompasses research to devdop electronic systems and technology as an element of combat power in land warfare. -76- Includes research to develop systems that detect, identify, and locate enemy forces in non-combat areas and under all weather conditions and to provide the ground commander protection through a full range of countermeasures. Examples of wsork shown here incluCe research to: develop penetration aids and counter- measures to hostile ground based and airborne weapons; improve mapping, charting, and geodetic position-lo- cation systems for field support; and reduce our forces vulnerability to electronic warfare. f. LAND WARFARE LOGISTICS Encompasses research whose primary purpose is to im- prove equipment procurement, supply, and maintenance; improve personnel movement; and provide facilities in support of one or several of the above LAND WARFARE objectives. Includes work to: improve aerial de- livery of supplies to isolated units with nemy con- tact; provide over-the-track support of forces ashore; provide rapid and positive identification of mass casualties; and provide offshore support of amphibious assault and subsequent operations ashore to reduce the size, nxumber, and vulnerability of logistic facilities ashore. g. LAND WARFARE COMMUNICATIONS, COMMAND AND CONtROL Communications Command and Control research which ap- plies or supports equally more than one category in LAND WARFARE or which has progressed far enough to identify LAND WARFARE as its primary purpose but can- not be applied to any of the LAND WARFARE categories should be shown here. Communications Command and Con- trol research which can be specifically applied to a single category within LAND WARFARE should be shown in that category. h. LAND WARFARE-GENERAL Encompasses research which has progressed far enough to identify Land Warfare as its primary purpose but cannot be applied to primarily one LAND WARFARE category. -77- 2. AIR WARFARE Encompasses research that provides the capability to de- fend and/or establish control of the air by dominating air battle over the forward edge of the battle area (FEBA), striking targets deep in enemy territory, and developing countermeasures to enemy air defense systems. All logistics research whose primary supports one or more AIR WARFARE purpose applies or objectives is shown in VIII. C. 2. e, AIP. WARFARE LOGISTICS. Command and Control research which Communications can be applied entire- ly to a secific objective within AIR WARFARE should be shown as such. Communications Command and Control re- search which applies or supports equally two or more ob- jectives in AIR WARFARE is shown in VIII. C. 2. , AIR WARFARE COEMMUNICATIONS, COMMAND AND CONTROL. Research which has progressed WARFARE as its primary purpose far enough to identify AIR but cannot be applied primarily to one AIR WARFARE category is shown in VIII. C. 2. g., AIR WARFARE-GENERLL. Exclude research on those air systems which perform LAND WARFARE objectives. For example, exclude research to improve Close-Air-Support aircraft. (See VIII. C. 1. c., FIRE SUPPORT.) Exclude research which has definite applications and benefits to objectives in the overall structure other than MILITARY. For example, exclude heavy lift helicopter technology (See XII. A. 1., IMPROVE VEHICLES). a. AIR SUPERIORITY Encompasses research to provide systems enabling U.S. to gain and maintain dominance in air battle over the forward edge of the battle area and enemy territory. Includes research to provide air combat maneuvering training to our pilots against dissimilar aircraft; and improve short range air-to-air missiles, cannon systems, ammunitions, and anti-radiation mis- siles. -78- b. DEEP STRIKE/INTERDICTION Encompasses research which provides the capability to destroy highly defended targets (such as shelters, runways, and command centers) beyond the forward edge of the battle area and in the enemy's heartland under day/night and adverse weather conditions. Includes research to develop: munitions targets, cluster munitions for for use against hard area targets, land and shallow water mines, and anti-personnel fuel-air explosives. c. AIR DEFENSE SUPPRESSION Encompasses research to provide systems and technology which will locate, degrade, and/or destroy enemy air defense sstem from beyond cludes research to develop their lethal range. In- high-speed missiles to des- troy SAM's nd enemy radar and self-protection systems against SAM's for strike aircraft. d. AIR RECONNAISSANCE AND INTELLIGENCE Encompasses research to develop systems and technologies to detect, locate, classify and in order to achieve AIR WARFARE identify enemy forces objectives. Includes systems and techniques to correlate, disseminate, and display this information for immediate operational use. Includes work to: develop and surveillance capability;an all-weather reconnaissance provide real-time target information to strike elements; develop processing, dissemination, and display systems to information; and provide information provide correlated on enemy targets and threat activity. Exclude reconnaissance and intelligence research directed towards LAND WARFARE objectives, (See VIII. C. 1., LAND WARFARE). e. AIR WARFARE LOGISTICS Encompasses logistics research whose is to improve equipment procurement, primary purpose maintenance, personnel movement, supply, and and provide facilities in support of one or several of the above AIR WARFARE objectives. -79- f. AIR WARFARE COMMUNICATION, COMMAND, AND CONTROL Encompasses Communications Command and Control research which applies or supports equally more than one ob- jective in AIR WARFARE or which has progressed far enough to identify AIR WARFARE as its primary purpose but cannot be applied to any of the AIR WARFARE ob- jectives That research which can be specifically applied to a single objective within-AIR WARFARE should be shown under that objective. g. AIR WARFARE-GENERAL Encompasses research W: . has progressed far enough to identify AIR WARFARP .s its primary purpose but cannot be applied primarily to one AIR WARFARE ob- jective. 3. OCEAN CONTROL Encompasses research to enable naval forces to provide freedom and protection of sea lanes for material supply to U.S. industrial and defense needs and resupply during a war and provide a fle-ible naval response in crisis sit- uations. Logistics research whose primary purpose is to support OCEAN CONTROL objectives is shown in VIII. C. 3. f., OCEAN CONTROL LOGISTICS. Communications Command and Con- trol research which applies equally to two or more objectives in OCEAN CONTROL is shown in VIII. C. 3. g., OCEAN CONTROL COMMUNICATIONS, COMMAND AND CONTROL, Communications, Command and Control research which can be applied entirely to a specific objective within OCEAN CONTROL should be shown as such. Research which has progressed far enough to identify OCEAN CONTROL as its primary purpose but cannot be applied to any of the OCEAN CONTROL objectives is shown in VIII. C. 3. h., OCEAN CONTROL-GENERAL. a. OCEAN SURVEILLANCE Encompoasses research to develop systems and methods to ackire, correlate and provide data on the deploy- ment, location, and type of major combatants (includ- ing enemy submarines and Ballistic Missile Submarines) and to provide surveillance of any ocean waters in -80- which the Navy performs il:s missions. Includes re- search to: improve si-nal, information processing, localization and tracking systems; improve system performance in all environments; and develop mobile/ deployable systems. b. FLEET OFFENSE Encompasses research to improve and develop weapons to increase the Navy's capability and survivability in performing the following missions: destroy enemy ships; inhibit enemy commercial and military traffic movement through blockades; conduct tactical strikes against land targets (if such attacks are conducted to achieve or support objectives in LAND WARFARE, show research in support of these attacks in VIII. C. 1., LAND WARFARE); and support troops ashore. In- cludes only that research on submarines, surface com- batants and aircraft weapon systems intended to destroy ships. Research on other parts of the fleet's offensive capability are shown in other sections of OCEAN CONTROL based upon their primary purpose. Exclude research on launched weapons intended for use against shore tar- gets. Exclude research to improve amphibious assaults. (See VIII. C. 1. b., CLOSE COMBAT) c. FLEET AIR DEFENSE Encompasses research directed toward area defense weap- on systems to defend high value ships and self defense wealon systems for short-range defense of ships in which they are installed. Area defense systems r- search is conducted to provide the naval forces wth a capability of reducing attacking air threat to levels which can be defended by individual ship self deftnse systems. Self defense systems research is directed towards developing the capability to defend against a few anti-ship air threats delivered in a short time interval. d. FLEET ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE (ASW) Encompasses researcL to provide the capability to protect naval forces and material shipped by sea trans- port from hostile submarines. Examples of work to show here include systems to offset countermeasures and systems to improve kill probability. -dl- Exclude research to improve location, tracking, and other surveillance type systems for submarines. (See VIII. C. 3. a., OCEAN SURVEILLANCE). e. NAVAL MINE WARFARE Encompasses research to improve mine systems perfornance in offensive and defensive roles. Includes mine research to provide the exact level of attrition in (and only in) the intended area with reliability, target selectivity, and resistance to anticipated countermeasures; improve the detection, localization, and neutralization of hostile mining operations; and improve delivery platform destruc- tion, area neutralization (mine sweeping), individual mine locations and neutralization (mine hunting), and individual ship protection measures. Exclude countermeasures against mine delivery vehicles. Such work is shown in the section whose purpose is to locate and destroy such vehicles. f. OCEAN CONTROL LOGISTICS Encompasscs logistics research whose primary purpose is to improve equipment procurement,supply, and maintenance, per- sonnel movement, and provide facilities in support of one or several of the above OCEAN CONTROL objectives. For example, research to improve underway replenishment of combatant ships is shown here. g. OCEAN CONTROL COMMUNICATIONS, COMMAND AND CONTROL Encompasses Communications, Command, and Control research which applies or supports equally more than one objective in OCEAN CONTROL or which has progressed far enough to ide.tify OCEAN CONTROL as its primary ptrpose but which cannot be specifically applied to any of the OCEAN CONTROL objectives. That Commnunications, Command and Control research which can be specifically applied to a single objective within OCEAN CONTROL should be shown under that objective. h. OCEAN CONTROL-GENERAL Encompasses research which hs progressed far enough to identify OCEAN CONTROL as its primary purpose but cannot be applied primarily to one OCEAN CONTROL objective. -82- 4. COMBAT CAPABILITY-GENERAL Encompasses research which has progressed far enough to identify COMBAT CAPABILITY as its primary purpose but can- not be applied primarily to a COMBAT CAPABILITY objective. Also includes research which applies to, supports, or performs equally nLre 'han one objective in COMBAT CAPABILITY, has wide applicability and cannot be entirely alied to a single objective within COMBAT CAPABILITY. For ex- ample, includes logistical systems to improve equipment maintenance or work to increase communication systems service speed which supports more han one objective within COMBAr CAPABILITY. More specifically, includes research to improve aircraft carriers which launch air- craft that perform LAND WARFARE, AIR WARFARE, and/or OCEAN CONTROL objectives. 5. THEATER NUCLEAR FORCES Conventional forces are primarily used to co.nter conventional aggression. But circumstances worse than those for which conventional forces are planned could warrant the use of Theater Nuclear Forces (TNF) in conjunction with conventional forces. Research shown here is to develop the capability of limited but effective TNF use in the immediate battle area and a capability for a range of limited attacks against fixed theater-wide targets. Includes work to pro- vide TNF with: minimal vulnerability to attark, advantages over conventional force alternatives; capability for flex- ible, limited, selective, effective attacks without exces- sive collateral damage; and security against unauthorized use. D. DEFENSEWIDE APPLiCATIONS To the maximum. extent practicable, research which has exclusively military applications will be classified under DETER ATTACK, DEFEND CONTINENTIAL UNITED STATES AGAINST ATTACK and COMBAT CAPABILITY. If research does not apply primarily to one of those categories but is exclusively military research, it should be reported here. In addition, DEFENSEWIDE APPLICATIONS includes military research which is conducted to meet two or more military objectives equally. As examples, research to improve sensing devices deployed to gather intelligence to facilitate air warfare would be shown urder VIII. C. 2., AIR JWARFARE while intelligence gathering research and development -83- which applies equally to DETER ATTACK and COMBAT CAPABILITY will be snown here. This objective includes research to improve defensewide com- munications, develop more acurate navigation and position- fixing systems, improve support for current users of intel- ligence, study nuclear effects, improve military personnel management and esolve biomedical problems that apply solely to military personnel. Exclude research which has clear potential for civilian con- tribution as well as military contribution (See notes under MILITARY). Such research would be shown elsewhere in the structure. 1. INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS Includes research conducted to improve the means and methods of collecting, analyzing and disseminating information about potential threats to the security of the U.S. and its aread forces. Includes work to give longer lead time in crisis warnings to field commanders so they can deploy their forces; expard technical collection to cope with sophisticated target envirotment and monitor detente treaties; provide better information to the analyst more quickly; and improvE intelligence presentation to user. Specific examples include work to: develop programs which determine enemy force capabilities; develop systems to correlate and automate data support and information dis- semination; improve systems to monitor deployment and operation of threat forces; and systems to provide threat data and projections to support weapons development. Exclude that work on intelligence which can be assigned solely to a specific weapon system and show such work un- der the objective with which the weapon system is ident- ified. In addition, exclude intelligence work which can be applied entirely to a specific objective/sub--obective in the Military structure. For example, exclude research on intelligence to increase survivability of our Missile Attack Warning system which would be shown under DEFEND CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES AGAINST ATTACK/BALLISTIC MISSILE WARNING. -84- 2. COMMUNICATIONS, COMMAND AND CONTROL Research to improve the performance, effectiveness and security of defense-wide Communication, Command and Control systems is shown here. Includes work to: Provide interoperabilty of cryptographic and voice pro- cessing equipment; Provide end-to-end security; Improve voice quality and intelligibility and eliminate or reduce manual interface; Increase ability to restore DCS trunks and extend long- haul service into remote areas; Provide long-haul switched digital networks for high- speed, real-time, secure, computer-to-computer and com- puter-to-remote terminal communications; and Improve fixed-plant switched control increased relia- bility and speed. Exclude io~rk which can be applied entirely to a specific objectivw/sub-objective in the MILITARY structure. For example, exclude research on communications systems directed towards land warfare purposes and show it in the appropriate subheading of VIII. C. 1.; LAND WARFARE or if the work applies equally to more than two of those subheadings, show it in VIII. C. 1. g., LAND WARFARE COMMUNICATIONS, COMMAND, AND CONTROL. 3. AREA NAVIGATION SYSTEMS Include researcn to develop accurate and survivable navi- gation and position-fixing systems which have equal -?- plication to wo or more objectives in the MILITARY struc- ture. Specifically includes work in the areas of navi- gation and position-fixing, mapping, and charting, and work to support that ordnance delivery which cannot be applied to military objectives other than DEFENSEWIDE APPLICATIONS. For example, navigation research to support ordnance delivery which applies equally to bombers in nuclear deterrence and ships in ocean control would be shown here. Also exclude navigation research which does not have exclusively military applications and which can be ap- plied to civilian situations. Exclude research which can be applied to specific ob- jectives within the MILITARY structure. For example, -85- exclude, navigation research which improves nuclear weap- on delivery to improve nuclear deterrence capability. (See T'III, A DETER ATTACK). Anothier example is navigation systems research to improve the effectiveness of air deep strikes. (See VIII. C. 2., AIR WARFARE). 4. MILITARY PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION Encompasses research to achieve maximum effective use of military manpower. Includes research on new and better ways of maintaining and improving the performance of military personnel; to develop new and better ways to access, classify, train, sustain and manage careers of an adequate number of servicemen and women; to improve decisionmaking capability; to reduce life-cycle cost of weapon system ownership by reducing personnel and train- ing costs; and to develop training devices and simulators. Exclude research on post-miliLary careers - veterans employment. (See XIII. D., MANPOWER). 5. BIOMEDICINE WITH EXCLUSIVE MILITARY APPLICATIONS Includes research to find better ways to maintain and sustain performance in adverse circumstances or treat injuries which only result from military operations such as minefields, high velocity fragmentation weapons, anti- aircraft missiles, chemical or biological weaponF, nuclear weapons effects on personnel and combat stress. Also includes efforts to provide standards and criteria for exposure to those specific environmental hazards which adversely and exclusively affect military personnel; to improve protective design in equipment, systems and mis- sion operations, such as aircraft armaments, diverse combat situations and submarines; to improve man-machine and man- mission assignment criteria for use in systems, equip- ment and mission design and utilization. Furthermore, those health activities which have exclusively military applications, such as personnel armor and the development of deep submergence biomedical equipment and techniques, will be shown here. However, biomedical research which does not apply exclusively to military environments will be excluded and shown under -86- the appropriate sub-category of HEALTH or other objectives in the overall structure. For example, infectious disease research will be shown in V. A. 12., INFECTIOUS AND PARASITIC DISEASES; alcoholism or drug abuse research will be shown under V. C. 1., ALCHOLOISM, or V. C. 2., DRUG ABUSE; and work to develop aircraft crash injury prevention systems will be shown under XII. A. 3., IMPROVE AVIATION SAFETY. Also exclude that work which aplies to non- military situations or environments as well, such as heat, cold, altitude, deep-diving, radar, lasers and aircraft accelerations. 6. NUCLEAR WEAPONS EFFECTS Includes research to assure maximum survivability against attack and minimizes vulnerability of forces when penetrating enemy defenses. The work shown here does not apply primarily to another objective or sub-objective of the MILITARY objective. Exclude that nuclear effects research which is conducted primarily to resolve specific problems such as nuclear weapon-carri!.ng missiles survivability and combat fighter survivability. (See VIII. A., DETER ATTACK and VIII. C., COMBAT CAPABILITY). Also exclude research on nuclear effects on military personnel. (See VIII. D. 5., BIOMEDICINE WITH EXCLUSIVE MILITARY APPLICATIONS). 7. CHEMICAL/BIOLOCGICAL WEAPONS Encompasses research on chemical or biological weapons to improve the capability to defend against or deter such an attack. This includes research into means of warning against attack and delivering these weapons if deterrence fails. Exclude research oriented toward medical research into the development of vaccines, prophylactic and other therapeutic drugs and other protective measures. (See VIII. D. 5., BIOMEDICINE WITH EXCLUSIVE MILITARY APPLICATIONS). 8. WEATHER MODIFICATION Includes all research conducted to develop weather as a -7- destructive force. The research shown here has the pri- mary purpose of creating difficulties or causing damage or harm to an enemy force by modifying the weather which affects an enemy force. Exclude research which has an exclusive military prp.ose that is reflected e!sewhere in MILITARY and which is con- ducted to improve the effectiveness of troops, weapons and equipment. This sort of research would be shown elsewhere in MILITARY. Also exclude research which has the potential to contribute to civilian applications. For example, exclude fog dis- persion or lightning modifications. (See III. D. 2., CLIMATE STUDY AND WEATHER MODIFICATION). -88- IX, NATURAL RESOURCES xx- NATURAL RESOURCES PAGE A. Forests ............... . ...... 89 B. Land. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . ........ 90 C. Minerals. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .90 1. Improve Means of Locating and Assessing Mineral Sources .............. ......... . 90 2. Improve Mineral Extraction and Recovery Techniques. .. 90 3. Improve Mineral Processing Techniques . .. . . . . 91 4. Improve Techniques for Reusing and Recycling Materials or Products Made from Minerals. . . . . . . . 91 5. Improve Mineral Supply/Demand Analysis . . .. . . . . 91 D. Recreation. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .... 91 E. Water . . . .......................... 92 F. Wildlife. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 92 4-k- 3 IX. NATURAL RESOURCES Encompasses research on improving the means of assessing, pro- tecting, managing, extracting, processing, marketing, using and re- using resources which exist naturally and can be used for man's advantage. Specifically included here are water; minerals; forests and related resou:ces; land resources like grassland and rangeland; wildlife; and recreation opportunities. Exclude primarily pollution-oriented research which is conducted to identify pollutant effects, understand pollutant processes and abate or control pollution that may affect he resources shown here (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT). A. FORESTS Includes research to improve the means and methods of assessing, protecting, managing, processing, utilizing, distributing and marketing forest and related resources and products. Also in- cludes research to develop new or improved uses of these re- sources. The following work exemplifies the research which should be shown here: Increase timber supply; Improve management of trees and timber; Eliminate or control destructive insects and diseases; Improve means of evaluating forest resources; Improve management of fvzest watersheds; Increase utilization of fore:t products and forest or milling residues; Improve economics and marketing of forest resources; and Improve technology to utilize wood and paper wastes. Exclude research conducted to improve food and agricultural production, processing, and related activities (See IV., FOOD, FIBER AND OTHER AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS). Exclude research related to reducing and fighting forest. fires (See III. D. 3., DISASTER AND NATURAL HAZARDS SUTDIES AND CON- TROL), forest wildlife and forest recreation (See WILDLIFE and RECREATION below, respectively). -89- B. LAND 7'cludes research to assess, protect and manage non-foragable Isslands, rangelands, tundra and similar resources. For ex- ample, efforts to improve reclamation methods after strip mining or other disturbances will be shown here. Exclude research related to forest products (see above) and/or research to protect, manage and improve the quality of soil used in food production (See IV. B., IMPROVE PRODUCTION). Exclude research o.i land use planning which will be shown through- out the structure where it applies. C. MINERALS Includes research to improve the means and technology used ia locating, assessing, extracting, processing and recycling min- erals. This includes minerals which are on or under the ocean floor. Exclude metallurgy research (See X. H., MATERIALS). Exclude research related to energy producing minerals such as oil, gas, coal and uranium (See II., ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND CON- SERVATION). Exclude research related to minerals which is conducted because of environmental considerations, for example, to reduce pollution which results from iron ore processing. (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMP' 'IT). Exclude lated to mining safety (See XIII. F., SAFETY). 1. IMPROVE MEANS OF LOCATING AND ASSESSING MINERAL SOURCES Includes research to improve the methods and technology used in locating and assessing mineral resources. Work to be shown here is exemplified by efforts to enhance mineral alteration halos. 2. IMPROVE MINERAL EXTRACTION AND RECOVERY TECHNIQUES Includes research to increase the effectiveness and ef- ficiency of mining techniques. Research to be shown here is exemplified by efforts to: Maximize recovery of irreplaceable resources; Improve fragmentation, materials handling and ground control; Improve water handling and control technology used in mining; -90- Develop advanced, highly mechanized and automated mining systems; Improve the use of explosives in mining; Improve mine layouts, undercutting and ore removal; and Prevent subsidence and improve fill techniques. Exclude research to improve means of reclaiming land which has been strip mined (see LAND above). 3. IMPROVE MINERAL PROCESSING TECHNIQUES Includes research to improve the methods used in processing minerals which have been extracted from the earth. This entry is exemplified by research to recover minerals from ore grades of progressively lower grades, to increase understanding of and technology for materials substituc- ability, and to improve waste handling and disposal. 4. IMPROVE TECHNIQUES FOR REUSING AND RECYCLING MATERIALS OR PRODUCTS MADE FROM MINERALS Includes research on improving methods of recovering and recycling mineral products. 5. IMPROVE MINERAL SUPPLY/DEMAND ANALYSIS of Includes research conducted to increase knowledge mineral information-related activities. D. RECREATION re- Includes research to increase and improve the use of natural This entry is exemplified by sources for recreation purposes. research to: Improve resource management practices; and Increase understanding of the use of forests, open spaces parks as recreation environments; and Identify and coordinate better the various uses of forests. Exclude research related to wildlife which is shown below. Exclude research to resolve water quality problems that result AND from increased recreational use. (See III. C. 2., CONTROL ABATE POLLUTANTS/WATER). -91- E. WATER Includes research to improve the resource assessment, develop- ment, planning, conservation and management of estuaries, water- sheds and fresh water. Also includes research to improve methods used to onvert saline or brackish water to fresh water. In this analysis, snow and ice are considered water sources. This entry specifically includes efforts to increase the water sup- ply for residential, municipal or industrial purposes. In ad- dition, marine plants which are not used for food are included here. The following work exemplifies the research to be shown here: Develop means of reuse and recycling of water; Improve water resources planning, policymaking, management, financing, operation, and regulation; Protect fresh water from overdraft; Improve the efficiency of water use; Improve means of measuring and predicting snow accumulation and melt; Increase useful conversion of snow and ice; Improve seawater desalting systems which use membranes; Improve systems which recover fresh water from brackish water; and Study saline water conversion methods for applicability to geothermal brines. Exclude research to improve means of irrigation. (See IV. B., IMPROVE PRODUCTION). Exclude research related to water quality and conversely water pollution such as the adverse impacts of thermal discharges, general degradation of fresh water by pollutants and soil run- off. (See pertinent entries in III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IM- PROVEMENT). Exclude research to increase understanding of the processes and characteristics of oceans, estuaries and inland water bodies (See X. K., OCEANOGRAPHIC SCIENCES). Exclude research related to marine animal life (See WILDLIFE be- low). F. WILDLIFE Includes research to assess, maintain and increase diversity and productivity of wildlife and marine animals, to develop and implement -92- recovery plans for endangered species and develop effective means of controlling undesirable wildlife. Also includes re- search related to sport fisheries. Work to be included here is exemplified by research to: Develop better means for enabling salmon to bypass dams on rivers like the Columbia; Develop more effective means of increasing the Bald Eagle population; and Develop means of dispersing, distributing or eliminating huge starling and grackle flocks. Exclude research to determine the effects of environmental con- taminants on wildlife, especially on fishery resources (See III. A., IDENTIFY POLLUTANT EFFECTS). -93- X. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BASE ~-3.. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BASE PAGE A. Astronomy . . . . . . . . . . . .94 i. Our Solar System .. * *. **.* 2. Stars and Stellar Evolution . . 95 95 3. Stellar Systems and Motions . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 4. Galactic and Extragalactic Astronomy . . . . . 96 5. Astronomical nstrumentation and Development . . 96 B. Atmospheric Sciences 96 C. Biology ......... ...... D. Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 E. . .. . . . . 101 Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 F. Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 G. Geological Sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 105 H. Miterials * .... . ..... ..... . 106 I· Mathematical Sciences . . . . J. Measurement and Standards Technology . 107 .. . . 110 K. Oceanographic Sciences . . . . . . . . . . 110 L, Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 M. Psychology . . . . . . . . *. . . . .. . . . . 112 N. Science Information Technology . . . .. . . . . . . . . Science Policy, Management Technology 13 and Other Special Prog,:ams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 P. Social Sciences ................. . . . . . . . .... . 114 Q. Surveying, Mapping, Charting and Geodesy . . . .. . . . 115 R. Telecommunications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1 3- X. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BASE For the purpose of this analysis the goal of strengthening the nation's SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BASE is defined to include the following: --Those activities which are undertaken to enhance understanding of any scientific and technological subject and which are not directed primarily toward any other objective in the balance of the structure; --Those activities which are undertaken to apply knowledge to produce and/or demonstrate the feasibility of new concepts, designs and products and which cannot be said to be learly diiected to any single objective in the balance of the structure but which have equal potential payoffs in two or more objectives; and --Those activities which are undertaken to develop the basis for broad national science policy decisions. Specific examples of items to be either included in or excluded from the disciplines within SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BASE may be found within each scope note. A. ASTRONOMY Encompasses research to promote a better understanding of our solar system; to tbtter understand the physical structure and evolution of stars; to understand the characteristics of stellar aggregations with small dimensions as compared with the galaxy; and to increase our knowledge of the interstellar medium, the Milky Way Galaxy, extragalactic objects and the evolution and structure of the Universe. A separate entry, ASTRONOMICAL -94- INSTRUMENTATION AND DEVELOPMENT, is provided for research to improve the instrumentation used in astronomical observations if this or improved instrumentation applies to more than one sub-heading under ASTROMONY. If it applies exclusively to one sub-heading, it should be shown there. Facilities and nstru- mentation funding which supports astronomy will be treated as an overhead item in accordance with the GUIDELINES FOR PREPA- RATION. 1. OUR SOLAR SYSTEM Encompasses research to promote a better understanding of the several components of our solar system including the sun; planets and satelites; asteroids, interplanetary medium; and the comets and the origin and evolution- f the solar system. Exclude studies of the sun's features which ae shared with many other stars as opposed to those studies which relate mainly to the sun itself. 2. STARS AND STELLAR EVOLUTION Encompasses research to improve the understanding of the physical structure and evolution of stars. All stellar electromagnetic radiations (X-rays, ultraviolet, visible, infrared and radio waves) are observed cludes research to study stellar and studied. In- births, stellar composition, atmospheric and internal structure of stars, stellar evolu- tion and stability at all evolutionary phases, stellar deaths, and cataloging of the properties of stars. Exclude solar and binary star research. (See X. A. 3., STELLAR SYSTEMS AND MOTIONS.) 3. STELLAR SYSTEMS AND MOTIONS Eucompasses research to understand the characteristics of stellar aggregations with dimensions small compared with the galaxy, especially as those characteristics are re- vealed by stellar motions including dynamic coupling. In- cludes research to study precise of the positions, motions and observations and catalogs parallaxes of stars; stellar associations and clusters; and dynamics of small systems. -95- 4. GALACTIC AND EXTRAGALACTIC ASTRONOMY Encompasses research to increase knowledge and understanding of the interstellar medium, the Milky Way Galaxy, extragalactic objects and the evolution and structure of the Universe. In- cludes research to study cosmology, extragalactic objects, Milky Way G&laxy, interstellar medium, radio sources, high energy astrophysics, and cataloging of galaxy properties. 5. ASTRONOMICAL INSTRUMENTATION AND DEVELOPMENT Encompasses research to imorove the instruments used in making astronomical observations. This instrumentation development includes research on the feasibility of new, promising tech- niques, application of new technologies to astronomical use, design and construction of new instruments, and improvement of existing instruments. Exclude instrumentation research and development which applies exclusively to one sub-heading within ASTRONOMY and show i: there. B. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES The purpose of the research shown here is to provide a funda- mental understanding and knowledge of the physical and chemical properties, the composition, behavior and processes of the planetary atmospheres of the solar system. Includes research on the problems of the mesosphere and thermosphere including the ionosphere, and studies of such phenomena as airglow, aurorae, magnetic fields and radiatiol belts. Also includes solar-terrestrial research which studies the highest extents of the earth's atmosphere and the near-earth space environment in order to: understand the sun's transmittal of plasmas, radiant energy, and fields into space; study interactions of the sun's particles, fields and radiation with earth's atmo- sphere; understand coupling processes between the magnetosphere and ionosphere; and use the earth's magnetosphere to observe fundamental plasma processes. The following work exemplifies the type of research to be shown here: Remote sensing techniques to study physical and chemical processes at various atmospheric heights; Study ionized components with radar; Study ultraviulet radiation charged particle interactions; Assess all phenomena associated directly with luminescence in the high anosphere; -96- Study temperature, pressure, density, turbulence and other dynamic and kinetic properties of the upper atmosphere; Study earth and solar atmospheres' influence on magnetic fields; Investigate atmospheric plasma instabilities; and Study relation between suai's magnetic field and communication black outs on Earth. C. BIOLOGY Encompasses research to increase the understanding of life and living matter in all its forms and phenomena, both terrestrial and extraterrestrial, except biological oceanography (See X. K., OCEANOGRAPHIC SCIENCES.) All research and development related to biology for which the primary purpose is directed toward annther major objective in this structure should be shown there. For example, studies of the contribution of genetic traits to such diseases as tuberculosis, arthritis, or kidney disease should be reported under the specific disease category in the HEALTH objective. Specific exclusions are identified below. Biology is divided below into smaller components for definitional purposes only. Cellular Biology: This section aims to understand the role of the cell in biological functions. Research is focused on the cell as the fundamental organizational unit of living organisms. It involves the analysis of cellular phenomena at the molecular and subcellular levels and involves the use of a wide range of viruses, bacteria, algae, protozoa, fungi, and higher plant and animal cells. Phenomena for which understanding is ught are: fertilization; cell division, intercellular interactions; the nature, replication, transmission, and expression of genetic material; growth and development; the development, organization, structure, and function of cell organelles; differentiation and acquisition of specialized cell function; and aging. The major elements of cellular biology .re described further in the paragraphs below. Developmental Biology focuses on mechanisms that underlie cell differentiation and the changes that occur in organisms as they pass fom the embryonic to the adult state. The goals of research in this segment are to increase our understanding in such areas as fertilization; control of molecular, cellular, and tissue interactions by genetic and epigenetic regulartory mechanisms; mechanisms of cell division and cell movement; differentiation of organelles; tultrastructural morphology of cells and the development of -97- specialized cell functions. Genetic Biology concentrates on understanding the organization, transmission, and functioning of the hereditary information. This includes the molecular analysis and organization of genetic material; its replication, recombina ion, and al- teration; and its translation into various rtll components. Emphasis is placed on studies of the genetic control of cellular functions. Studies are carried out with viruses, bacteria, and other microorganisms, as well as on higher plant and animal cells. Human Cell Biology fosters work in mammalian (particularly human) cell research with special emphasis on problems that require multidiscipliaary coordinated effort for solution. Thp specific aim of this group of research is to increase our understanding of molecular organization and structure of chromosomes and membranes, and also the molecular aspects of intracellular regulation. Such re- search requires support of facilities for growing cells in culture on a mass scale and the development of cell culture and microchemical analysis technology. Exclude research and development which is performed to con- tribute to the elucidation of causes, cures, diagnoses, and methods of preventing human diseases (See V. A., DISEASES AND INJURIES.) Ecology and Population Biology: Research in this group is re- sponsible for promoting an understanding of the attributes of associations of organisms as they occur naturally, as well as those of distinct kinds of plants and animals. This section is further described in the paragraphs below. Systematic Biology xamines the affinities of similar species of organisms and pecies groups in terms of differentiation, identification and their probable modes of evolutionary origin and development. The aim of such research is to encourage descriptive and evolutionary studies (including population genetics) utilizing theoretical and experimental methods for a wide spectrum of organisms. It includes pinjects designed to sample endangered biotas and provide baseline descriptive accounts focused on imp_.ving basic environmental studies. This section also includes re- search on the forms of life existing in previous geological periods (paleontology.) -98- Ecology is concerned with the interrelationships among organisms, and between organisms and their nonliving en- vironment. Organisms occur in nature as population of distinct species of plants and animals within biotic as- semblages of definable geographic extent. Their ecological relationships may be studied at several levels of com- plexity; individual organisms in their abiotic environment, populations, communities and ecosystems. The purpose here is to promote research on the interactions of or- ganisms within various terrestrial and in-land water eco- systems. Ecosystem Studies are concerned with the comprehensive description of ecosystem structure, the ordering of pro- cesses, responses of ecosystems to manipulation or stress, and meaningful simulation and analysis of characteristics. The basic thrust is oriented toward understanding patterns of organization and dynamics of function in ecosystems. Because ecosystems are integrated wholes, it is necessary to maintain parity among component processes and population with respect to depth of understanding. Emphasis is placed on increasing the types of ecosystems under investigation, studying important ecosystem processes, and developing more realistic and efficient simulations and analyses. Biological research resources insure the availability of resources that are national in scope and considered es- sential for the conduct of biological research, such as field-research facilities, systematic research collections, living-organism stock centers, and data banking. Exclude the biological aspects of research projects whose pri- mary objective is the prevention and control of agricultural diseases (See IV. B., IMPROVE PRODUCTION or IV. E., IPROVE SAFETY), water pollution and pesticide effects (See III. EN- VIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT), and forest and water resources (See IX., NATURAL RESOURCES.) Biochemistry and Physiology: This group of research is concerned with functional mechanisms operating at three biological lev- els--molecular, metabolir, and integrative. The objective of research at the molecular level is to identify and characterize the chemical properties and complex interactions of the molecules involved in biological function. The objective at t!.a metabolic level is to investigate the pathways and regulation of the pro- cesses involved in the building up and destruction of protoplasm. -99- The integrative level objective is to study the hormonal and neural mechanisms which underlie the functional states of or- ganisms and their adaptive behavior. Living organisms, in particular multicellular plants and animals, must have a means of transporting materials between their different parts as well as a means of relaying messages so that the different parts and functions operate in a coordinated fashion. Under- standing a given function ultimately depends upon elucidating the reactions of its chemical components, identifying the bases of their functional states, and resolving the regulatory mech- anisms by which a given process is integrated to function in the organism as a whole. The biochemistry and physiology sec- tion is further described in the paragraphs below. Biochemistry is concerned primarily with the chemical properties and interactions of purified molecrls and complexes of molecules involved in biological function. It aims at understanding a given reaction in molecular terms, and how cell structures achieve the high degree of internal molecular order that allowe them to carry out sequential and coordinated chemical reactions. Biophysics promotes investigations of molecular systems at the interface of the biological and physical sciences. Emphasis is oriented toward solving the structure of en- zymes, nucleic acids and other micromolecules, and analyzing changes that occur during the functional state in physio- chemical terms. Regulatory Biclogy promotes research on those processes by which cells, tissues, and organisms are regulated from birth to death. This research effort focuses on the bal- ance and regulation of physiological processes essential for survival in the varied internal and external environ- ments. It includes also the role of hormones in regulating and cormnunication roles. Metabolic Biology is concerned with those chemical changes in which energy is created or used by biological reactions. This includes the synthesis of new material for the re- pair of cells, or for growth, or the formation of special- ized cell products and also the catabolic processes in- volved in the destruction of cell materials. The aim of this research is to understand bioenergetic processes such as photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation, transport pro- cesses by which materials are moved across and distributed within cells, and nutrition. -100- Neurobiology has a relatively narrow focus upon the nervous system and its integrative functions. That includes environ- mental stimuli, their reception by sense organs, processing by the central nervous system, the resulting effect on other body organs, and the consequent behavior of the or- ganisms and a range of methods extending from morphological to biochemical. Psychobiology supports a broad spectrum of research in ex- perimental psychology and ethology. It focuses on sensory and perceptual processes, learning, memory, thinking and problem solving, motivation, genetic and environmental effects on behavior, and laboratory and field studies of early experience, imprinting, orientation, reproductive behavior, and the social and communicative behavior of animals. Exclude research to study non-biological molecular processes (See X. D., CHEMISTRY), human behavior and psychological phe- nomena (See X. P., SOCIAL SCIENCES or X. M., PSYCHOLOGY), ma- ipulation and control of experimental procedures (See X. E., COMPUTERS), and the development of new instrumentation with broad applications (See X. F., ENGINEERING). Also excluded is research which is performed to contribute to the elucidation of causes, cures, diagnoses, and methods of preventing human diseases (See V. A., DISEASES AND INJURIES). D. CHEMISIRY Encompasses research to provide a fundamental understanding of the synthesis, tructure, properties and mutual interconversion of sub- stances. More specifically includes research into the sub-fields of chemistry below. Synthetic Organic and Natural Product Chemistry: The study of syn- thetic methodology and chemistry of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocar- bons (both substituted and unsubstituted by functional groups), heterocyclic compounds, organophosphorous, organosulfur and organ- osilicon compounds. Also, the isolation, characterization and syn- thesis of naturally occurring substances. Synthetic Inorganic and Organometallic Chemistry: The study of the synthesis, characterization and chemistry of compounds whose properties are determined predominantly by elements other than carbon. Depending upon the bonding arrangements of the constituent elements the com- pounds are generally classified in one of the following categories-- inorganic; coordination; organometallic; or organometalloid. -101- Structural hemistry: Studies of the molecular structure of solids, gases, liquids, and solutions using a variety of spectroscopic and diffraction techniques. These techniques must be capable of supplying data concerning the geometrical relationships between the atoms in a molecule. Quantum Chemistry: Studies in quantum and balance theory including quantum mechanical calculations of wave functions, energy levels, transition moments, and other atomic and molecular properties. In- cludes experimental (mostly molecular beam) and theoretical research on scattering phenomena with emphasis on collision cross sections, chemical reaction rates, potential energy surfaces, and intermolecular forces. Electronic spectroscopy, optical pumping, and electron spin resonance are used to provide information about energy levels and electron distributions in molecules. Also includes the chemistry of excited states, studies in energy trarsfer, fluorescence, nonradiative processes, and chemiluminescence, and research on laser development. Chemical Dynamics: Dynamics is concerned with research on mechanisms and kinetics of chemical transformations. The reactions of neutral molecules, radicals, and ions, in gruund and excited states, and in condensed or gas phases are included. Photochemistry, theoretical studies on reaction rates, mechanistic studies of biochemical trans- formations and radiation chemistry, and studies to generalize and predict chemical phenomena are also included. Chemical Analysis: Chemical analysis involves sampling, separation, and determination of the composition of matter. Projects range from trace level characterization to ultra pure sample research and in- volve both macroscopic and microscopic studies. Primary areas of focus include separation science; electroanalytical chemistry; emission absorption, electron and mass spectrometry; trace analysis, microscopy, thermal and data acquisition methods, interpretation and control. Nuclear Chemistry: Studies of nuclear reactions, nuclear spectroscopy and structure and radiochemistry. Chemical Thermodynamics: Studies to understand thermodynamic and other equilibrium properties of bulk matter. Includes work to develop principles and acquire data on chemical change energetics; improve understanding of phase changes; study structure and dynamics of liq- uids; study solid-gas and solid-liquid iterfaces; and acquire and analyze equilibrium and thermodynamic data on high temperature inor- ganic vapor species. Also includes work in colloid chemistry which studies the properties of surfaces including research in heterogenous -102- catalysis, physisorption and chemisorption, molecular beam stulies of surfaces, auger spectroscopy, surface states, surface traaspor :, and surface tensions. Exclude research to examine: Chemical properties and processes of seawater, large lakes, and related aqueous solutions; naturally oc- curring and man-made compounds in oceans, lakes and related water bodies; biogeochemical processes in natural waters; and chemical aspects of oceanatmospheric interactions from this section. (See X. K., OCEANOGRAPHIC SCIENCES). Exclude studies to understand the earth's chemistry, composition, age, and mineral origins, and the chemical processes that shape the earth. (See X. G., GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES). Exclude research to understand the chemical properties and inter- actions of molecules involved in biological function. (See X. C., BIOLOGY). Exclude research to understand scientific nd engineering principles underlying the chemical processes used in various "process industries" such as polymer, glass, pharmaceutical, a d paper industries. (See X. F., ENGINEERING). Exclude studies to understand the chemistry of chrystalline solids, amorphous maerials, semi-ordered liquids and cryogenic liquids and research in the preparation, characterization, and physical and chemical properties of polymers, (See X. H., MATERIALS). Exclude Solid State chemistry research which includes the study of amorphous solids, glasses, and crystal chemistry. (See X. H., MATERIALS). E. COMPUTERS Encompasses research directed toward the development of advanced com- puter systems and formulation of policies to deal with the technological aspects of the computer's impact on society. Includes research to: develop new techniques and design approaches for operating systems software, programming languages, compilers, program verification techniques and analysis of algorithms; develop advanced computer hardware design and development leading to the enhancement of capacity, reliability and usability; develop computer network including specif- ically applicable communication system considerations; and analyze problems of secure systems and controlled ccess to data bases to provide a basis for needed regulation. -103- Exclude research which is primarily directed toward advancing the use of computer technology in a particular discipline, objective or prob- lem as outlined elsewhere in this structure. Such research should be included with the appropriate discipline, objective or problem. F. ENGINEERING The purpose of this research is to improve the understanding of en- gineering principals and methodologies. Engineering is concerned with the application of knowledge in the design and creation of structures, systems, processes and devices. Engineering research provides improved understanding of the fundamental principles in- volved in these engineering activities and also produces general methodologies applicable to broad classes of engineering problems. Each component of engineering research comprising this section yields general information useful for engineering activities in a range of various applications. Engineering research is performed in many different disciplines. This research includes but is not limited to work in the categories below. Chemical Processes Used i- Process Industries: Petroleum, metallurgy, cement, food. Mechanics: Response of materials and structures to stress loading, dynamics and vibrations of machinery and structures, interaction of constructed systems with natural environments (soil mechanics and geological effects associated with foundations in the earth, struc- tural stress due to wind or water waves), fluid flow and related phenomena (including turbulence, acoustics, hydrology, flows in porous media such as soils). Elec'orical and Optical Phenomena: Electronic circuits and devices, information storage, processing and transmission, optical transmission and reception, laser devices for local and remote sensing. Systems Analysis and Control: Methodology 'iseful for analysis, design, and control of large interacting systems. Exclude and show where appropriate engineering research projects aimed at any one of the objectives elsewhere in the overall structure. For example, exclude research oncerned with design of a particular system, structure, process, or device which will improve a specific natural resource use, develop a new energy source, or improve a trars- portation system. (See IX., NATURAL RESOURCES; IT., ENERGY DEVELOP- MENT AND CONSERVATION; or XI,., TRANSPORTATION; respectively). The following work exemplifies the type of research to exclude from this section: -104- Develop specific sensing and pattern analysis devices to measure crop yields or detect pest and bacterial effects (See IV., FOOD, FIBER, AND OTHER AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS); Develop remote sensing equipment to detect a particular scarce mineral or energy source (See IX., NATURAL RESOURCES or II., ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION); Use an engineering technique for health services delivery (See V.. HEALTH); and Develop a ship traffic control system (See XII. D., MARINE). G. GEOLOGICAL SCIENCEL Encompasses research to provide man with a fundamental understanding and knowledge of the earth, the structure and composition of its rocks and the processes which form and modify these rocks. For convenience, studies of planetary and lunar rocks are included in this section. In addition, that part of hydrological cycle that deals with water on and in the continental crust are included here. More specifically this objective includes research in the areas of interest below. Geology: Includes research whose primary purpose is to increase the understanding of the rocks of the earth's crust, its land forms, and the processes that have formed and are continually modifying them. Research pertinent t testing the Plate Tectonics theory should be shown here. The following work illus rates the kind of research to be shown here: Field investigations of geometrical configuration of folds, faults, related rock structures, distribution of rock strata, and minerological composition of rock bodies; Laboratory simulation of natural geological processes such as stream erosion, sedimentation, shoreline dynamics, and glacial flow mechanics; Stratigraphic studies to obtain eata on the changing climates of the past; and Floral and faunal content of sedimentary rocks. Geochemistry: Includes research on the earth's chemistry, the com- position, age, and origin of its minerals, and the nature of chem- ical processes that have shaped and are shaping it. Chemical changes and processes in mineral structure and systems, as they relate to the Plate Tectonics theory are shown here. The following research exemplifies the type of work to be shown here: Absolute (radioisotope) ages of rocks and specific minerals; Temperatures prevailing during past geological events; Chemical character of rock masses and evolutionary history of those bodies; Physical-chemical conditions under which natural materials were -105- formed; and Chemical nature of other bodies in our solar system t ru study of extra-terrestrial samples. Geophysics: Includes physical properties of the solid earth, such &as studies to determine the earth's dimensions, its magnetic, electrical and gravitational fields, and its dynamic processes. Studies of physical changes and processes as they relate to the Plate Tectonics theory should be reported here. The following research exemplifies the kind of work to be shown here: Material behavior under high temperatures and pressures which exist deep in the earth; Paleomagnetic reconstruction of continental positions; The earth's magnetic fieldincluding its origin and reversals; Determine physical properties of earth materials in temperature and pressure regions of earth's interior; and Gravity and heat flow studies to better understand plate movements. Exclude seismology research conducted primarily to understand the physical basis of earthquakes cr to improve earthquake prediction and prevention. Also exclude research on other natural hazards such as volcanoes and landslides. (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT). Exclude research which increases the fundamental knowledge in geological sciences but which is primarily conducted to accomplish one of the specific objectives in the overall structure and show where appropriate. For example, exclude research to better understand earth's resources, such as mineral deposits. (See IX., NATURAL RESOURCES). Exclude research in geology, geochemistry and geophysics of marine areas. (See X. K., OCEANOGRAPHIC SCIENCES). H. MATERIALS Encompasses research to study the condensed phase including crystalline materials, amorphous solids and glasses, and liquids. Special consider- ation is given their properties and behavior from the standpoint of atomistic, crystallographic, electronic, optical, thermal, mechanical properties and in particular of the structure-sensitive relationships. A direct result of the quantitative approaches taken in the study of materials has been the elucidation of predictive, fundamental mechanisms for the physical, chemical, electrical and mechanical processes and phenomena that occur in, on, to, and with the condensed phase, The results of materials research are often multidirectional and hence supportive to more than one objective in the overall structure. Includes research to increase our understanding and ability to xplain, -106- predict, and control physical and chemical properties of materials. This involves studies of the electronic structure, optical, magnetic, structural, transport, and thermal properties of so.ids, liquids, quantum liquids, thin films, and surfaces, The following work ex- emplifies the type of research shown here: Investigations of the electronic structure of solids; The energy, symmetry and lifetime of electronic states in solids; Modes of motion in solids; and Studies on the nonequilibrium phenomena and phase L ansitions in solids and liquids. Includes research to enhance our capability to provide techniques for preparing new materials as well as to improve on the preparation of known materials. Also of interest is the characterization of materials as well as studies of bonding, valency and associated effects, the structure and mobility of defects in solids, catalysts, chemisorption, and the amorphous state. Emphasis here lies in the bulk properties of materials as opposed to chemical systems viewed from an atomic or molecular perspective. (See CHEMISTRY above). Includes research to increase our understanding and to control the behavior and properties of metals, alloys, ceramics, composites, and polymers. Depending on the material, the following typical studies are shown here: transformations, transport phenomena, cor- rosion, erosion, abrasion, phase equilibria, strengthening mechanisms, fracture, fatigue, crazing, oxidation, solidification, sintering, vapor deposition, elasticity, plasticity, grain growth, etc. Exclude and show where appropriate materials research which can be reported elsewhere in the overall structure. For example, exclude research which develops knowledge to support performance of specific implant materials in the huma body and its physiological response to the implant. (See V., HA~TH). Exclude research to improve the means and technology of locating, extracting, processing and recycling minerals. (See IX. C., MINERALS). I. MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES The primary purpose of research shown here is to increase the knowledge of mathematical sciences by creating new mathematical structures and studying the relations which exist between them. This includes work to analyze, generalize, codify, and transform mathematical techniques and ideas into tools of wide applicability for the soluticn- of prob- lems in the other sciences. The mathematical sciences constitute one of the most highly structured of all scientific disciplines, but -107- has as major subdivisions core ("pure") mathematics, applied mathematics, statistics, and numerical methods (apart from implementation of algorithmic aspects on the computer). Includes resear..L Into the subdivisions of MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES and subareas which compose them as discussed below. Classical Analysis: This area considers research in that portion of analysis which has to do with the older and more traditional tech- niques. The stimulus for much research in this area is frequently the application of mathematics to problems of engineering and physics, hence with differential and integral equations. Subareas include differential and integral equations, theory of complex variables, approximation theory, real variable theory, and potential theory. Modern Analysis: Modern Analysis is in large degree associated with mathematics developing from the study of abstract spaces, e.g. Hilbert space. Major subareas are functional analysis, harmonic analysis, topological groups and group representations, operator theory, and ergodic theory. Algebra: This area deals with the properties of formal systems such as groups, rings, fields, etc., whose genesis lies in attempts to solve algebraic equations. Included aleo is research in number theory and algebraic geometry. In short, this program considers research for which the algebraic structure is not overlaid extensively with topological or differential structure. Subareas include groups, rings, fields, linear and multilinear algebras and matrix theory, algebraic geometry, number theory, combinatories and graph theory, and category theory and homological algebras. Topology: Topology is descendent of geometry, and has, roughly, to do with properties of geometric objects (lines, surfaces, etc.) which are unaltered by stretching, twisting, or compression without tearing or cutting. As with much modern mathematics, topology has recently undergone some interpenetration by both algebra and analysis, so that some arbitrariness exists in whether certain areas are clas- sified algebraic topology, and geometric topology. Foundations: As might be expected from the title, research on the foundations of mathematics is a highly abstract subject which has to di with logical processes and to the reduction of logical thought to the manipulation of symbols. The principle subareas are set theory, model theory, and recursion theory. Geometry: Research n Euclidean and projective geometries form only a small portion of this program. It is dominated by a fusion of -108- analysis and algebra with the traditional notions of geometry, which give rise to differential geometry on the one hand and to global analysis (study of relations between the geometric properties of manifolds (surfaces or generalization of surfaces) and the analysis of partial differential equations on these manifolds. clude differential geometry, global analysis, theory Subareas in- of convexity, and classical and projective geometry. Probability: Probability deals with a priori numerical evaluation of the relative frequencies with which events, or combination of events, are predicted to occur under rpetition of a set of conditions. Modern probability theory is symbiotic with measure theory and func- tionai analysis, and has been much stimulated by technological prob- lems such as arise in information theory and quality control, as well as by other areas of mathematics such as potential theory and partial differential equations. Major sub-fields are foundations of proba- bility theory, distribution theory, probabilistic limit theorems, stochastic processes, and probabilistic and stochastic models. Statistics: Statistical theory has to do with the applicatic of probability theory to the collection, analysis, and interpretation of numberical observational data. rincipal. areas of research re- sulting from these operations are foundations of statistics, theory of inference, decision theory, multivariate analysis, sequential analysis, and design of experiments. Applied Mathematics: Applied mathematics has to do to mathematical knowledge which arise in the course with contributions of solving prob- lems of the physical and social world in which man lives. The mathe- matical problems result from the abstraction of concepts of physics, engineering, biology, economics, and other sciences in the mathematical modela. Only if the research seems productive form of of new concepts in mathematics or of using mathematical techniques in a novel and substantive way to illuminate mathematical theories should it be considered in the applied mathematics subprogram. The principal elements of the program are theory of equations of mathematical physics, engineering, biology, economics, etc.; theory of control, information, and systems; game theory; mathematical programming and optimization; and numerical methods. Exclude and show under the appropriate objective in X., SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BASE, research primarily directed towards applying mathe- matical techniques to the solution of problems in the physical, social, biological, computer and engineering sciences. Also exclude research to apply mathematics' techniques to a particular problem or objective in the structure other than the SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BASE and show such research under the appropriate objective or problem. For example, -109- exclude work to develop better statistical tec:niques to analyze ob- servational and experimental data in the health fields. (See V., HEALTH). J. "AMSbUREMENT AND STANDARDS TECHNOLOGY Encompasses research to provide a consistent and adequate system of physical measurements and standards; to improve measurement and stan- dard setting procedures; to provide the basis for modern measurements and standards; and to advance the state of measurement science re- quired by evolving technoiogies and public safety. This includes research on measurements ad standards which cannot be assigned or do not primarily relate to specific objectives elsewhere in the structure. This entry includes research on measurements and standards of basic physical units of mass, length, time, temperature, electrical current and luminosity intensity together with secondary or derived units commonly used, such as electrical voltage, density and pressure. Exclude measurement or standard research which is conducted primarily to advance or improve a specific objective shown elsewhere in the structure. For example, exclude efforts to improve measurement tech- nology to the levels needed to achieve the environmental quality standards required by law, (See ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT); exclude research to improve measurements and standards that pertain to consumer products. (See either XIII. F., SAFETY or II., ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION); and exclude research' to improve measure- ments of biological phenomena. (See X. C., BIOLOGY). K. OCEANOGRAPHIC SCIENCES The primary purpose of research to be shown here is to increase the understanding of oceans and the evolution of ocean basins and marine life. Research shown here addresses such objectives Ps increasing the knowledge of the ocean's nature, processes, motions and their causal forces; understanding seafloor structures and the processes that have formed them; determining the nature and distribution of marine organisms and ecosystems and understanding their behavior in oceanic and estuarine environments. This section includes research to increase the understanding of ocean-atmosphere interactions. Also, shown here will be research studying the geology, geophysics and geo- chemistry of the crust and upper mantle underlying the ocean basins. The objectives of this section also apply to research conducted in large lakes. For example, this section includes research to nder- stand certain chemical processes and physical properties of the Great Lakes. Similarly this section's objectives apply to work done for oceanographic purposes in estuaries, coastal waters or until the -110- water is out of the ocean's influence. Studies on the crust and up- per mantle under ocean basins as related to Plate Tectonics are shown here. More specifically, OCEANOGRAPHIC SCIENCES include re- search discussed below. Physical Oceanography: The purpose of this research and development is to increase the understanding of physical properties and processes which control water circulation in open oceans, near shore areas, estuaries and large lakes. This section includes research to examine the physical description and processes of the ocean, geophysical fluid dynamics, air/sea interactions, and physical processes in large lakes. Marine Chemistry: Research and development shown here is conducted to increase the understanding of chemical processes in lakes, estuaries, and the ocean. This includes research and development to assess chemical properties of and reactions occurring in seawater and re- lated (continental) waters, to examine naturally occurring and man- made compounds in oceans, lakes, and related (or continental) waters, and research to examine chemical aspects of ocean-atmosphere and water-sediment interactions. Submarine Geology and Geophysics: Research and development shown here is conducted primarily to increase the knowledge of history of the ocean and its basins, sediment deposits, marine life, and natural processes which control this evolutionary history. This section in- cludes studies to examine how physical, chemical, and biological pro- cesses form and alter ocean floor and continental margin sediments and rocks. Also, studies to examine the crust and upper mantle of the solid earth bentath the ocean basins including studies of Plate Tectonics and plate interactions. Biological Oceanography: Research and development performed to understand the nature and distribution of ocean life and marine ecosystems and the interactions between organisms and the marine en- vironment will be shown here. his section includes studies to de- termine how natural marine ecosystems evolve and function and to develop predictive models for their behavior under natural or man- induced stresses. It also includes studies to examine the rates and mechanisms by which organisms, in concert with physical and chemical processes, maintain and affect the concentrations of metals and other chemical species in the marine environment. Exclude research which increases the fundamental knowledge or under- standing of the oceans but does so for the pursuit of specific ob- jectives in our structure other than the SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BASE. -11- For example, exclude oceanography research studying the occurrence, fate and effects of thermal and other pollutants in coastal and estuarine waters. (See III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT). Also exclude research on marine food sources. (See IV., FOOD, FIBER AND OTHER AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS). L. PHYSICS Encompasses research to increase the knowledge and understanding of the fundamental forces and elementary constituents of matter. In- cludes research on elementary few-body interactions of particles and fields, the elementary constituents of all matter, and mani- festations of energy, as well as the collective phenomena exhibited by large aggregates of matter; the symmetry principles governing particle interactions and the determination and ciassification of particle properties; fundamental laws of atomic and nuclear structure, dy amics and interactions; laws governing matter at the atomic level anu at higher levels of aggregations; larger aggregates of molecules with long-range coherence and order involving phenomena in the plasma and gaseous states over a broad range of conditions and temperatures; and the structure of space time, as well as the gravitational inter- action. Exclude research performed in physics whose primary purpose can be applied to another area within the SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BASE. For example, exclde work to develop concepts which explain and predict the electronic structure, optical, magnetic, structural, transport, thermal and other physical properties of solids, liquids, quantum liquids, thin films, surfaces and liquid crystals (Solid State Physics). (See X. H., MATERIALS). Cosmic ray and black hole studies to under- stand sections of the universe are shown in ASTRONOMY above whereas black hole studies to understand gravity are shown here. M. PSYCHOLOGY Encompasses research concerning ehavior, mental processes, and in- dividual and group characteristics and abilities. The bases for normal and abnormal behavior are specific targets of research in this category. Typical research topics include: Studies of the emotions, personality, higher mental pro- cesses, and learning; Research in experimental, comparative, and physiological psychology and ethologv; Studies of biological and experiential determinants of behavior and behavior change; Studies involving direct manipulation (anatomical, physio- agical, biochemical) of the central nervous system, and -112- the measurement of resulting effects on behavior; and Studies of social and cultural phenomena in relation to human behavior. Otber topics include studies of motivation, cognition, psycholinguistics, intelligence, perception, attitudes, communication, psychophysiology, the contribution of genetic factors and hormonal functioning to be- havior patterns, the biological substrates of sensation and perception, behavioral capacity related to brain structure or function, under- standing behavioral or sensory processes through neurophysiological investigations or studies of artificial intelligence, the contribution of behavioral processes to the development of social norms and roles, and child behavior. Excluded from this category are studies of sociolinguistics, family units, and studies for which the primary purpose of the research is to examine social interaction and group processes (See X. P., SOCIAL SCIENCES). Also excluded is research on specific mental and social problems (See V. B., MENTAL HEALTH). N. SCIENCE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY This activity has the broad objectives of developing and demonstrating new techniques leading to the establishment of more effective science information dissemination services and facilitating national and international coordination among scientific and technical information activities. More specifically includes research to: Improve management of scientific and technical information services; Establish operational methods that lead to self supporting services; Create and test the feasibility of advanced information networks for retrieval and the production of published materials; Achieve intersystem compatibility and increased efficiency among major systems; Increase the accessibility of scientific information to wider audiences of users; and Improve national and international coordination among scientific and technical information services. Exclude operational information programs funded to disseminate the results of research shown in other portions of the tructure and show where appropriate. (See GUIDELINES FOR PREPARATION). -113- O. SCIENCE POLICY, MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY AND OTHER SPECIAL PROGRAMS Encompasses studies and operations leading c the development of national science policy of broad nature; activities involved with the development of increased capability by state and local govern- ment for use of the results of science and technology in decision- making; research into incentives for and results of technological innovation; general grants for institutional improvement that have no central specific objectives; and research into new techniques for management including those which lead to improving resource allocation and utilization and/or increased understanding of factors affecting the performance of individuals and organizations. Exclude any activity which can be identified to any other part of the structure. For example, exclude studies of food production to assess the world situation (See IV., FOOD, FIBER AND OTHER AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS) and exclude studies of energy research and development policy issues 'See II., ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION). P. SOCIAL SCIENCES Encompasses research and development which is directed toward under- standing various aspects of society and forms of social activity in- cluding the functioning of groups and social institutions and the actions of individuals as members of groups. The disciplines as- sociated with the social sciences are anthropology, economics, history, linguistics, political science, and sociology, among others. The content of these disciplines is discussed below. Anthropology: Includes studies in the areas of archaeology, culture, society and ethnology, and applied anthropology. Economics: Includes research on econometrics and economic statistics, history of economic thought, international economics. industrial and labor economics, macroeconomics, microeconomics, public finance and fiscal policy, economic theory, and economic systems and development. History: Includes work in the areas of cultural, political, and social history, and the history and philosophy of science. Linguistics: Includes research and development on the anthropological- archaeological and computational aspects of linguistics and socio- linguistics. Political Science: Includes research on comparative government, history of political ideas, international relations and law, national political and legal systems, political theory, and public administration. -114- Sociology: Includes research and development historical aspects of organizations, complex on comparative and organizations, culture and social structure, demography, group interactions, social problems and social welfare, and sociological theory. Social Sciences, not elsewhere classified: Includes research and develoment in social sciences and on social issues not elsewhere clas- sified in this structure, and, more specifically, research in law and in socioeconomic geography. The social sciences category concerns the development of general knowledge about the functioning of societal organizations and institutions. Exclude social research which has a principal objective related pri- marily to other sections and topics in this structure and show where appropriate. For example, exclude research in agricultural economics (See IV. D., IMPROVE DISTRIBUTION AND MARKETING). Exclude research concerning indivdual and group behavior which is not oriented toward the functioning of social groups and institutions. (See X. M., PSYCHOLOGY). Exclude research on various behaviors which are considered the results of menial diseases or disorders. (See V. B., MENTAL HEALTH). SURVEYING, MAPPING, CHARTING AND GEODESY Encompasses research to improve the means of preparing surveys, maps, charts and of locating or inventorying resources, pollution and so forth. It also includes work t improve satellite equipment used for these purposes. More specifically, this entry includes research to improve the techniques and equipment used in making a drawing or other representation of all or part of the earth's surface or of a part of the sky; in preparing outline maps which plot geographically special information, such as weather conditions, economic resources and so forth; in measuring or determining the shape of the earth or a large part of its surface or in locating exactly points on its surface; in determining the location, form or boundaries of a tract of land; and in identifying the nature and extent of natural nd economic resources on or near the earth's surface. Exclude that surveying, mapping, charting and geodetic research which primarily applies to a specific entry in the overall structure. For example, exclude research to improve the means of locating petroleum resources through aerial surveys. (See II. A. 1., IMPROVE RESOURCE ASSESSMENT). -115- R. TELECOMMUNICATIONS Includes research on the science or technology of communications over a distance, such as by cabile, radio, telegraph, telephone, or tele- vision. Overall research objectives are to improve understanding of the phenomena surrounding telecommunications, and to develop new or improved telecommunications systems without respect to a particular major objective listed elsewhere in this structure. More specifically includes research to: Improve understanding of and develop methods to prevent or correct, telecommunications interference; develop new or improved methods fcr managing and utilizing the telecommunications spectrum; assess the impact of innovative telecommunications systems; develop better ways of evaluating telecommunications system performance, and improve understanding of, and develop better methods to counter, problems in telecommunications security. Excludes research on the regulatory aspects of communications (See XIII. E., REGULATORY ACTIVITIES). Also excludes telecommunications technology research which is performed to contribute to the solution of a national problem or the furtherance of a national goal or ob- jective. This latter research should be reported under the various other major objectives in the structure according to the primary ob- jective of the research. For example, exclude research on telecom- munications innovations associated with new or improved space vehicles. (See XI. B. 2., INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS). XI. SPACE FLICHT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY ! l,- SPACE FLIGHT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY PAGE A. Space Transportation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 1. Space Shuttle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 2. Spacelab . . . .. 118 3. Interim Upper Stage/Tug. . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 4. Other Space Transportation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . 118 B. Space Flight Equipment Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 1. Energy Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119 2. Human Operations in Space. . . .. . .. . . . . . 119 a. Space Life ............ 119 b. Life Support and Protective Equipment. . . . . 120 c. Bioinstrumentation and Man-Machine Technology. . . 120 3. Information and Communications Systems . . . . . . . . . 120 4. Materials Used in Space Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 5. Propulsion Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 a. Chemical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 b. Electric ............ 121 c. Nuclear. . . . . . . .. . 122 6. Space Vehicle Aerothermodynamics.. . . . . . . 122 7. Systems and Design Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 8. Vehicle and Satellite Structures . . . . . . . . 122 9. Vehicle Guidance and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 I23 -. XI. SPACE FLIGHT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY Encompasses research to develop operational space transportation systems, to improve the equipment used in both manned and unmanned space flight, and to enhance the quality and productivity of space- based activities. Research to increase standardization and reduce the cost of equip- ment and components should be shown throughout the structure wherever the work pertains. For example, research to develop the standard equipment and components for communications nd data handling wl shown under XI. B. 3., INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS. Research conducted in or from space and directed towards another objective in the overall structure will be shown under that objective. For example, Viking - Mars Orbiter/Lander funding in Fiscal YedAr 1.6 will be shown under X. A., ASTRONOMY since that project focuses on learning about Mars rather than on improving the equipment used in t. experiment. In addition, research which has a clear potential for contributing to the solution of non-space national problems, such as II., ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION and III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT, will be shown under the appropriate entry in those objectives. Exclude space systems or equipment technology research which is conducted for military or national defense purposes (see pertinent entries in VIII., MILITARY). -117- A. SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS Encompasses research conducted to develop distinct and complete vehicles or systems for transporting men and equipment through space. This research involves the development of transportation systems which will be used for future missions that have not been fully defined or planned at this time. When a space trans- portation system has developed to the point where it is known what missions it will support, its costs will be assigned to those missions. The work shown here includes the Space Shuttle and all other aspects of space transportation systems. 1. SPACE SHUTTLE This system is being developed to provide economic and routine access to space. The reuseable vehicles will carry many different types of payloads, will be able to retrieve and deploy satellites, to repair and redeploy them, to service or update them, to return them to earth for refurbishment and to make possible rapid space rescue. The Shuttle program involves efforts to develop the Orbiter, the reuseable airplane-like vehicle which can be used for many purposes in low earth orbital operations; the main engine; reuseable solid rocket boosters; the external fuel tank; and launch and landing equipment and systems. 2. SPACELAB Includes studies of engineering cost trades, payload safety, payload accommodations, software development, and payload operations pertaining to Spacelab which is a payload carrier flown to and from space from the Space Shuttle. 3. INTERIM UPPER STAGE/TUG Includes efforts to develop a system to provide the capa- bility to deploy Shuttle launched payloads to high energy and escape orbits which are not attainable by the Shuttle itself. 4. OTHER SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS Includes research on space transportation systems other than those discussed above. Systems shown here also are being developed for future missions which have not been precisely defined at this time. -118- B. SPACE FLIGHT EQUIPMENT ENGINEERING Includes research to improve the equipment or systems used in both manned and unmanned space flight and to enhance the quality and productivity of space-based flights and activities. The research shown here is directed at space flight problems that do not directly apply to the space transportation systems which are shown separately in XI. A., SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, above. 1. ENERGY SYSTEMS Includes research to reduce costs of energy systems used by space vehicles while increasing their life, reliability and power density. Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to: Advance energy density of flexible solar arrays; Improve component capability, equipment designs and circuit techniques to meet future spacecraft needs for higher power, longer life and lower costs; Develop high efficiency gas turbine conversion system for use with isotope heat sources in space to reduce costs and conserve fuel; Improve high power lasers to provide advances in powex generation, conversion and transmission which will be the basis of future space capabilities and conceivably earth needs; and Produce, confine and utilize plasmas for a anced p er and propulsion systems. Exclude re e.re: nich has clear potential for contributing to non-span. energy problems defined in ENERGY DEVELOPME r AND CONSERVATION. 2. HUMAN OPERATIONS IN SPACE Focuses on work related directly to man's health and surviv- ability in space. Medical research done in the unique space environment for application on Earth should be classified under the appropriate entry in V., HEALTH. a. SPACE LIFE Uork to be shown here is exemplified research to conduct medical, behavioral and biolo czal research and biomedical experiments to investigate the biological -119- and human responses to space flight and enhance man's ability to function effectively and safely during space flight. b. LIFE SUPPORT AND PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to improve high performance space suits and regenerable atmospheric control and improve waste management, water reclamation, sampling for medical research and processing. c. BIOINSTRUMENTATION AND MAN-MACHINE TECHNOLOGY Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to: Develop technology and procedures for measurement f physiological, medical and performance responses of man and other selected life species living and working in the space environment; and Develop instrumentation for measurement of cardio- vascular, metabolic, musculoskeletal, respiratory and other physiological functions for space medical research and on board health care delivery systems for crew and passengers. 3. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS Includes research to develop components, systems and tech- niques needed for gathering, processing, transmitting and reducing data from planetary and earth orbiting spacecraft; to improve earth to space, space to earth and space to space communications. This research emphasizes improving the means of communication with and between space vehicles. Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to: Create sensor and control devices with problem solving capability; Create devices which avoid problems caused by time delay between Earth and planets and which can operate in a hostile environment; Provide more effective and economical devices for detect- ing, storing and processing information; Extend capabilities to handle multiple spacecraft support and increase data rates; Improve real time control techniques and use of mini- computers for Deep Space Network; and -120- Increase accuracy of tracking techniques by developing laser tracking, atomic frequency timing standards and mathematical modelling for mission simulation. Exclude research to develop or improve equipment used in preparing surveys, maps and charts which identify, measure or inventory resources, crops or pollution on earth (see X. Q., SURVEYING, MAPPINGC CHARTING AND GEODESY). 4. MATERIALS USED IN SPACE VEHICLES Includes research to provide efficient, stable, long-lived materials for the structures, propulsion systems, entry bodies and electronic equipment for spacecraft. Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to: Synthesize new and improved bearings, seals and lubri- cants; Increase the reliability of heat shield materials; and Improve materials resistance to extreme temperatures, such as insulations, lubricants and optical materials. 5. PROPULSION SYSTEMS Includes research on chemical, electric and nuclear pro- pulsion systems for space vehicles conducting any potential mission. Exclude exhaust effects and control studies which hould be shown under III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT. a. CHEMICAL Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to provide long-life systems for satellites and space- craft by improving reusable H2 -02 systems and provide high energy propulsion for difficult space missions. b. ELECTRIC Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to provide auxiliary electric propulsion for station- keeping and attitude control of .ong-life application- type satellites. -121- c. NUCLEAR Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to advance applications of nuclear energy in space, achieve efficiencies up to 30% with low operating temperatures for thermionic energy conversion; and inv,,&sigate the production of fission energy with nuclear fuel in the gaseous and plasma state: gas- cvLe reactor research. 6. SPACE VEHICLE AEROTHERMODYNAMICS Includes research to improve spacecraft design, safety, reliability and assure more efficient aerodynamic operation of maximum payloads for earth orbital missions and planetary exploration. Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to improve spacecraft design, safety and reliability related to entry problems and resolve problems of high speed entry and spacecraft flight in atmospheres of Earth and other planets. 7. SYSTEMS AND DESIGN STUDIES Includes research to identify areas for future technological focus, examine current technology objectives to ensure appro- priateness and payoff and provide necessary technical and economic decision base to support selection of future system and experimental programs. Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to determine technology requirements, costs, benefits and impacts of advanced space systems based on mission, systems and conceptual designs and modify and improve technology used on existing projects. 8. VEHICLE AND SATELLITE STRUCTURES Includes research to improve efficiency and reliability of space structures, reduce their costs and demonstrate feasibility for design applications. Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to: Increase use of composites for major structural systems to improve weight savings; -122- Improve pacecraft payload acoustic and vibration ana- lysis and test methods to reduce the cost of future space systems; and Improve vehicle structural design methods such as pro- viding fracture capability control and life prediction procedures and determining the reliability and efficiency of future long-life, weight critical space transportation systems. 9. VEHICLE GUIDANCL iND CONTROL Includes research to provide and improve guidance, naviga- tion and control technology which will permit reductions in vehicle or mi&sion costs while maintaining or improving performance standards. Work to be shown here is exemplified by research to: Advance navigation techniques to minimize propellant requirements, increase mission pointing accuracy and lower operational costs of planetary exploration; Strap down guidance system components consisting of inertial sensors and computer technology; and Improve techniques for ground-based navigation of planet- ary orbiters, landers, swingby and earth orbiter missions. -123- XII. TRANSPORTATION 12- TRANSPORTATION PAGE A. Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 1. Improve Vehicles ..... ................ 124 2. Improve Aviation Operational Environment and Effectiveness ................. .... . .. 125 3. Improve Aviation Safety . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 125 B. Rail. ....... . .. 126 1. Improve Rail Vehicles ............. 126 2. Improve Operational Environment and Effectiveness . . . 126 3. Improve Rail Safety .............. . ... . 127 C. Highway ................. . ....... 127 1. Improve Vechicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 2. Improve Operational Environment and Effectiveness . . . 128 3. Improve Highway Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 D. Marine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 1. Improve Marine Vehicles ................ .. . 129 2. Improve Marine Operational Environment and Effectiveness. 129 3. Improve Marine Safety . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 130 E. Pipeline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 1. Improve Pipeline Equipment and Operational Effectiveness. 130 2. Improve Pipeline Safety .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 131 F. Multi- and Inter-modal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 XII. TRANSPORTATION This objective encompasses research into improving the vehicles (pre- sent and future), the operational effectiveness and the safety features of all modes of transportation. Research related to transporting special- ized cargoes--such as LNG, oil or gas--is included as is research con- ducted in conjunction with military objectives which has a clear potential for contribution to civilian transportation. Exclude research and development to abate noise, decrease air pollu- tion and control pollution from transportation-related spillage (see III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT). A. AIR Includes research and development to improve present and future aircraft, aviation operational environment and effectiveness and aviation safety. Work conducted by the Department of Defense which has a clear potential for contribution to civilian avia- tion is included here while work which has exclusively military applications, such as improving an aircraft's missile launching capability, will be excluded (see VIII., MILITARY). Includes work related to long-haul aircraft (radius over 500 miles), short-haul ircraft (50 to 500 mile radius) and general aviation aircraft. Aeronautics research will be reported where applicable under the following objectives. For example, work in propulsion and aerodynamics will be included under IMPROVE VEHICLES which encompasses efforts to achieve higher speeds and greater paylosds. I. IMPROVE VEHICLES (INCLUDES PERTINENT AERONAUTICS RESEARCH) This subobjective focuses on problems internal to the vehicle. It includes, but is not limited o, work to increase the speed, range, capacity or payload; to reduce the cost of construction and operation; to improve the passenger/cargo enviromment; to develop new and more pro- ductive vehicles; and to meet special transportation needs of the elderly and handicapped. However, research conducted -124- on the vehicle specifically to improve the safety of the passengers and cargo will be excluded (see IMPROVE SAFETY, below). 2. IMPROVE AVIATION OPERATIONAL ENVIRGNMENT AND EFFECTIVENESS (INCLUDES PERTINENT AERONAUTICS RESEARCH) This objective focuses on problems and activities that are external to the vehicle itself and that relate directly to the efficiency and operation of the air transportation sys- tem and the aircraft environment--the terminal and flight paths. For example, it includes research to improve con- nectivity in the terminals to increase capacity or reduce trip time; to improve scheduling, accessibility and depend- ability; to improve traffic control systems and terminal area cperations; to improve cot.munications and navigation related to air transportation; to reduce air transportation systems costs; to modernize regulations and legislation; and to enhance commercial development. Research related co the air operational environment but conducted specifically to improve the safety of passengers and cargo will be shown under IMPROVE SAFETY. Exclude research to improve or expedite transfer at modal interface (see XII. F., MULTI- AND INTER-MODAL, below). Report air traffic control as a separate line item and as a portion of the total for this subobjective. 3. IMPROVE AVIATION SAFETY Includes research undertaken primarily to protect passen- gers, operating personnel, cargo and the system from harm or destruction from natural or accidental causes. For example, this subobjective includes work to prevent or avoid accidents caused by human or vehicle failures or hazards associated with fixed installations; develop methods and equipment to counteract adverse conditions such as fog, snow and wake vortices; reduce injury or damage incurred in an accident; increase cargo safety; and improve search and rescue techniques and equipment for people in- volved in accidents. Include here only that communications and navigation work which is conducted to improve crash avoidance capability. -125- Exclude work to increase people and cargo security by developing more effective surveillance and control methods to prevent criminal acts (see VII., LAW ENFORCEMENT AND JUSTICE). Also exclude work which has safety implications, such as engine reliability, but which is conducted pri- marily to improve the vehicle's performance or efficiency (see IMPROVE VEHICLES, above). B. RAIL includes research directed toward improving transportation sys- tems that move on rails. Wcrk shown her,; involves existing and future conceptual rail transportation equipment and systems which operate on an urban and interurban basis. 1. IMPROVE RAIL VEHICLES This subobjective focuses n problems internal to the vehicle. It includes, but is not limited to, work to in- crease the speed, range, capacity or payload; to reduce the cost of construction and operation; to improve the passenger/ cargo environment; to develop new and more productive vehicles; and to meet special transportation needs of the elderly and handicapped. However, research conducted on the vehicle specifically to improve the afety of the pas- sengers and cargo will be excluded (see IMPROVE SAFETY, below). 2. IMPROVE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND EFFECTIVENESS This objective focuses on problems and activities that are external to the vehicle itself and that relate directly to the efficiency and operation of the rail transportation sys- tem and the rail environment--stations and pathways. For example, it includes research to improve connectivity in the terminals to increase capacity or reduce trip time; to improve scheduling, accessibility and dependability; to improve traffic control systems and terminal area opera- tions; to improve commnunications related to rail trans- portation; to reduce rail transportation systems costs; to modernize regulations and legislation; and to enhance com- mercial development. Research related to the rail opera- tional environment but conducted specifically to improve the safety of passengers and cargo will be shown under IMPROVE SAFETY, below. Exclude research to improve or ex- pedite transfer at a modal interface (see XI. F., MULTI- AND INTER-MODAL, below). -126- Report rail traffic control as a separate line item and as a portion of the total for this subobjective. 3, IMPROVE RAII SAFETY Includes research undertaken primarily to protect passen- gers, operating personnel, cargo and the system from harm or destruction from natural or accidental causes. For example, this subobjective includes work to prevent or avoid accidents caused by human or vehicle failures or hazards associated with fixed installations; develop methods and equipment to counteract adverse conditions such as fog and snow; reduce injury or damage incurred in an accident; increase cargo safety; and improve search and rescue tech- aiques and equipment for people involved in accidents. In- clude here only that communications research which is con- ducted to improve crash avoidance capability. Exclude research to increase people and cargo security by developing more effective surveillance and control methods to prevent criminal acts (see VII., LAW ENFORCEMENT AND JUSTICE). Also exclude work which has safety implications, such as engine reliability, but which is conducted primarily to improve the vehicle's performance or efficiency (see IMPROVE VEHICLES, above). C. HIGHWAY This subobjective includes research which concerns transportation vehicles and systems that use highways, streets and roads and do not require rails or guideways. This includes passenger ehicles, buses, trucks and other vehicles which use highways and which operate both within and between urban centers. Exclude research on vehicles of this nature which have excluF- ively military applications (see VIII., MILITARY). 1. IMPROVE VEHICLES This subobjective focuses on problems internal t the vehicle. It includes, but is not limited to, work to increase the speed, range, capacity or payload; to reduce the cost of construction and operation; to improve the passenger/cargo environment; to develop new and more productive vehicles; and to meet special transportation needs of the elderly and -127- handicapped. However, research and development conducted on the vehicle specifically to improve the safety of the passengers and cargo will be excluded (see IMPROVE SAFETY, below). Also exclude research primarily directed to con- serve energy used by highway vehicles (see II., ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION). 2. IMPROVE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND EFFECTIVENESS This objective focuses on problems and activities that are external to the vehicle itself and that relate directly to the efficiency and operation of the transportation system and the highway environment--interchanges ad highways. For example, it includes research to improve connectivity in the terminals to increase capacity or reduce trip time; to im- prove scheduling, accessibility and dependability; to im- prove traffic control systems and terminal area operations; to promote more efficient traffic flow; to improve communi- cations related to highway transportation; to modernize regulations and legislation; and to improve highway sur- facing techniques. Research related to the highway opera- tional environment but conducted specifically to improve the safety of passengers and cargo will be shown under IMPROVE SAFETY, below. Exclude research to improve or expedite transfer at modal interfaces (see XII. F., MULTI- AND INTER- MODAL, below). Report traffic control as a separate line item and as a portion of the total for this subobjective. 3. IMPROVE HIGHWAY SAFETY Includes research undertaken primarily to protect pas- sengers, operating personnel, cargo and the system from harm or destruction from natural or accidental causes. For example, this subobjective includes work to prevent or avoid accidents caused by human or vehicle failures or hazards Pssociated with fixed installations; develop methods and equipment to counteract adverse conditions such as fog and snow; reduce injury or damage incurred in an accident; increase cargo safety; and improve search and rescue tech- niques and equipment such as air bags for people involved in accidents. Include here only that communications work which is conducted to improve crash avoidance capability. -128- Exclude work to ircrease people and cargo security by developing more effective surveillance and control methods to prevent criminal acts (see VII., LAW ENFORCEMENT AND JUSTICE). Also exclude work which has safety implications, such as engine reliability, but which is conducted primarily to improve the vehicle's performance or efficiency (see IMPROVE VEHICLES, above). D. MARINE Includes transportation research that concerns marine vehicles, operational environment and effectiveness, and safety. This includes work on existing and future conceptual marine trans- portation, equipment and systems that travel on the ocean and inland waterways. Exclude research on marine vehicles which have exclusively military applications, such as destroyers (see VIII., MILITARY). 1. IMPROVE MARINE VEHICLES This subobjective focuses on problems internal to the vehicle. It includes, but is not limited to, work to in- crease the speed, range, capacity or payload; to reduce the cost of construction and operation; to improve the passenger/ cargo environment; to develop new and more productive vessels; and to meet special transportation needs of the elderly and handicapped. However, research and development conducted on the vehicle specifically to improve the safety of the pas- sengers and cargo will be excilded (see IMPROVE SAFETY, below). 2. IMPROVE MARINE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND EFFECTIVENESS This objective focuses on problems and activities that are external to the vehicle itself and that relate directly to the efficiency and operation of the marine transportation system and the environment--ports and sea lanes. Fcr example, it includes research to improve connectivity in the terminals to increase capacity or reduce trip time; to improve schedul- ing, accessibility and dependability; to improve traffic con- trol systems and terminal area operations; to improve com- munications and navigation related to marine transportation; to modernize regulations and legislation; to improve fleet and cargo flow management and the related shipping opera- tions, information systems and communications to maximize efficiency; and to enhance commercial development. Research related to the marine operational environment but conducted -129- specifically to improve the safety of passengers and cargo will be shown under IMPROVE SAFETY, below. Exclude re- search to iprove or expedite transfer at modal interface (see XII. F., MULTI- AND INTER-MODAL. below). Report traffic control as a separate line item ar. as a portion of the total for this subobjective. 3. IMPROVE MARINE SAFETY Includes research undertaken primarily to protect passengers, operating personnel, cargo and the system from harm or de- struction from natural or accidental causes. For example, this subobjective includes work to prevent or avoid accidents caused by human or vehicle failures or hazards associated with fixed installations; develop methods and equipment to counteract adverse conditions such as fog, snow and high seas; reduce injury or damage incurred in an accident; in- crease cargo safety; and improve search and rescue techniques and equipment for people involved in accidents. Include here only that coununications and navigation work which is conducted to improve crash avoidance capability. Exclud' work to increase people and cargo security by developing more effective surveillance and control methods to prevent criminal acts (see VII., LAW ENFORCEMENT AND JUSTICE). Also exclude work which has safety implications, such as engine reliability, but which is conducted pri- marily to improve the vehicle's performance or efficiency (see IMPROVE VEHICLES, above). E. PIPELINE Includes research and development on existing pipeline trans- portation equipment and ystems which carry oil, gas, water and any other matexlal and work on future conceptual equipment and systems. i. IMPROVE PIPELINE EQUIPMENT AND OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS Includes all efforts aimed at improving pipeline flow by increasing capacity, increasing the speed of material flow, improving construction techniques and reducing the costs of constructing and operating pipeline. Also includes efforts to improve connectivity in terminals or other modal interfaces; -130- develop new and more productive pipeline systems; and re- duce costs associated with pipelines such as planning, re- search and development, investment, acquisition, operating and maintenance. 2. IMPROVE PIPELINE SAFETY Includes all efforts to protect the system and material being moved from loss from natural or accidental causes. This includes work on both existing and future pipeline systems. Specifically, it includes work to prevent accidents caused by human failures or hazards associated with the terrain through which the pip ine runs, to protect loss of cargo by leakage or rupture of pipelines, to locate pipeline leaks and to repair leaks or breaks in pipelines. Exclude work to evaluate the impact of pipeline construc- tion and of potential leaks on the environment surround- ing the pipeline (see III., ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVE- MENT). F. MULTI- AND INTER-MODAL Multi-modal research and development encompasses activities which involve or affect more than one mode, such as tunneling, telecommunications and transportation systems planning and operational analysis as well as vehicles which function in more than one mode. Also include specialized activities of advanced ground transportation modes, such as vehicle pro- pulsion, vehicle suspension, path design, communications and command and control technology that involve or affect more than one mode or the interchange of two or more modes. Inter-modal research and development provides efficient trans- fer of passengers and cargo among the various transportation modes and efficient conrol through all stages of the trip. In addition, nclude all efforts to educe costs associated with constructing, operating and maintaining there systems and to increase the safety of their use. -131- XIII. OTHER 3/- XIII. OTHER This objective encompasses research primarily directed toward develop- ing techniques and systems to improve the delivery of community services, such as sanitation or fire protection; to develop better ways of conduc- ting foreign affairs; to improve the efficiency, effectiveness and equity of income assistance; to improve management and optimize the use of man- power resources; to assess the need for, effectiveness of, and impacL of regulatory activities; and to protect and assure occupational and con- sumer product safety. This objective is limited to that rsearch which cannot be applied to other parts of the structure. For example, research efforts directed toward the community service aspects of such objectives as housing (see VI., HOU NG AND COMMUNITY DEVELOf..ENT) or health (sec V., HEALTH) are excluded from this objective. A. COMMUNITY SERVICES Encompasses research directed primarily toward improving the efficiency, effectiveness, equity and delivery of services to meet the general needs of the entire public (such as sanitation systems and fire protection) as well as services directed toward more specific needs of definable groups of people (such as child adoption services and foster care). Includes research to deter- mine the different needs f- ommunity services; develop aiterna- tive approaches to meet theb needs and their effects; develop better means of delivering community services; imprc- . the capabilities of Federal, State and local governments to plan, manage and deliver their programs and services; develop inputs for the demand and supply of community services and social pro- g:.m and policy development; determine costs and benefits of alternative organizations which could cope with problems State and local governments confront; reform State and local organi- zational structures to alleviate such problems as overlapping jurisdictions and authority distribution; provide improved -132- analytical and management tools to State and local governments; and improve information flow in local governments. Exclude that research which can be applied to other parts of the overall structure. For example, exclude research to im- prove the availability and quality of health care delivery, a community service (see V., HEALTH), and exclude research to develop alternative transportation services, also a community service (see XII., TRANSPORTATION). Other parts in the overall structure which may include aspects of community service re- search are VI., HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT; I., EDUCJATION AND TRAINING; VII. LAW ENFORCEMENT AND JUSiICE; XIII. C., INCOME ASSISTANC7; and XII, D., MANPOWER. B. FOREIGN AFFAIRS Includes research to develop better ways of conducting inter- national relations through improved foreign aid operations, im- proved understanding of international trade and tariffs, refined methods for consummating and enforcing international agreements, and better methods for formulating U.S. foreign policy. Also includes research on the peculiar problems of specific develop- ing or less developed countries and studies in which existing U.S. technology and research results ae applied to these situations or ways to apply it are developed. Excludes all research which has a primarily U.S. domestic ob- jective. This excluded research will be shown in the other sec- tions of this structure which correspond to its primary objec- tive. For example, research on cancer or heart disease, unless it solely studies the contributing factors which are unique to other countries, will be shown under V. A, 4., CANCER or V. A. 11., HEART AND VASCULAR DISEASES, respectively. 1. FOkEIGN AID Includes research to improve the effectiveness and the ad- ministration and management of U.S. foreign aid operations. Also includes research on the specific proble;as of develop- ing or less developed countries, such as food, health and nu- trition, population planning, education, and economic growth and productivity, Typical research objectives relating to foreign aid include the follow;ing: improve the quality and quantity of food production and nutrient value of foods, develop better ways of assisting less developed countries in improving the -133- health status of the indigent portions of their opulaces; increase understanding of the factors affecting population ex- planning, including birth and death rates, average life pectancy, and cultural, religious, and moral views of pop- ulation planning, and develop methods to influence these factors; improve the quality, accessibility, and availability of education services; and improve understanding of the factors affecting and develop methods to increase economic growth and productivity, including such factors as the level of science and technology, land use practices, urbanization tendencies, natural resource availability and management capacity, costs of public goods and services, and human welfare and maintenance needs. 2. INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS AND FOREIGN POLICY Includes research concerning nege ietions and policy form- ulations, and methods of enforcing agreements on such inter- national issues as arms control and disarmament, strategic weapons testing, tariffs aiJ foreign trade, disaster relief, technology exchange, and ecc omic growth and development. Also includes research to improve the conduct of relations between two or more countries, and to develop better methods for formulating UoS. foreign policy. to Excludes research on the specific methodologies required provide foreign aid (see XIII. B. 1., FOREIGN AID). C. INCOME ASSISTANCE ef- Research shlown here is conducted primarily to improve the ficiency, effectiveness and equity of various income assistance programs such as Income Maintenance, Social Security benefits and Unemployment Insurance. Includes research to determine the different needs for income assistance, to study alternative im- approaches to meet these needs and their effects, and to prove the delivery of income assistance. pro- ExcluC and show where appropriate research on programs to vide money as a means of achieving an overriding objective shown elsewhere in the overall structure. or example, in desig- meeting housing objectives programs may provide cash to nated recipients to be used specifically as a housing allow- and ance. Research to develop such a program as an efficient effective means to meet housing objectives is excluded from here (see VI., f1Ob1ING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT). -134- D. MANPOWER Encompasses research primlarily directed toward improving the utilization and management of manpower resources. This includes, but is not limited to, research to improve the methods for developing manpower policy; develop solutions to unemployment and other manpower malutilizations; improve the allocation and productivity of manpower resources; improve abilities to assess needs and plan and manage governmental man power programs; and improve understanding of various influences on the U.S. labor market, including immigrants, illegal entries, etc. Exclude research to improve programs and methods (such as voca- tional training programs) which prepare individuals for specific jobs and vocations (see I. D., VOCATIONALT, TRAINING). Exclude research directed toward improving methods to provide income assistance to the unemployed such as research to im- prove unemployment insurance (see XIII. C., INCOME ASSISTANCE). Exclude research to develop job opportunities for ex-prisoners (see VII. D., CORRECTIONS). Exclude research to optimize the management and use of Federal, State and local manpower resources in delivering their programs and services (see XIII. A., COMMUNITY SERVICES DELIVERY). E. REGULATORY ACTIVITIES Encompasses research which is conducted primarily to develop met?!ods which determine the costs and benefits of governmental regulatory activities, to determine the effects of regulation and deregulation upon economic productivity, to assess the need for regulation, and to increase the social effectiveness of regulation. Exclude research which studies specific regulatory activities of the major objectives presented elsewhere in this structure. For example, exclude research to assess the impact on U.S. transportation system of deregulating the railroad industry (see XII. B., RAIL). F. SAFETY Encompasses research Conducted to protect and assure personal safety in various situations that are not specifically addressed -135- elsewhere in the overall structure. For example, this entry includes research related to occupational safety and health and consumer products safety that is conducted to isolate causes of injuries, determine the health effects i work environments, identify 1' measure safety threats and control or prevent these thre Exclude research to treat or cure diseases or injuries wh:.rc result from these threats (see V., HEALTH). Exclude research to determine, prevent or control the effects of radioactive pollutants on workers (See II. D. 7., NUCLEAR SAFETY). Exclude research to improve safety in different transportation modes (see XII., TRANSPORTATION). 1. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY ND HEALTH Includes research conducted to isolate causes of injuries or diseases in the work environment; measure or determine the kind and extent of the threat; and in most cases, con- trol the act-vity or pollutant so that safety standards can be established and worker's health and safety pro- tected. A specific example of this includes research to 'termine threats t:) workers in mines. All aspects of mine afety research will be shown here. Exclude occupational safety and health research which can be applied to a single objective elsewhere in the overall structure. For example, exclude research to determine radiation effects on nuclear power plant workers, (See II. D. 7., NUCLEAR SAFETY). 2. CONSUMER?'PRODUCTS SAFETY Encompasses research on consumer products which is con- ducted to develop methods which determine and isolate threats to safety caused by consumer products. This re- search involves efforts to test and assure the safety of consumer products and might lead to the banning or modif- cation of harmful products. Includes research on the safety of non-food, non-agricultural produ:ts such as drugs and patent medicines. Exclude research on the safety of food and on-food agricultural products (See IV. E., IMPROVE SAFETY). -136-
Need for a Government-Wide Budget Classification Structure for Federal Research and Development Information, Appendix IV
Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1977-03-03.
Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)