oversight

Plant Germplasm: A Data Collection Framework and Questionnaire

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1990-10-10.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                                                                                                                                                                                                        v
                             *,.                  . .. .”   - -.-...-.tlnilvcl           St.atw
                                                                      -.......-._.-- _.._...___            (;1&1ucbral
                                                                                             - ..-.-. - ..-_-._-              Awourrt
                                                                                                                               “..“*“.,“,l----.l--..-l.ilkg
                                                                                                                  ._.-..“.“.___.                       ---...-----Ot’l‘iw   -.---.-.       -------.--       .




                                                                          PLANT GERMPLASM
                                                                         A Data Collection
                                                                         Framework and
                                                                         Questionnaire

                                                                                                                                                                                  ._-




                                                                                                                                                                        Illllllll~llR
                                                                                                                                                                            142420




     ~-_-___--~              .-.....- __.-..   --.--.--      _.....^ -.I_---”                                                                                                          -
I’
/    (;AO/l’ISMI)-!)I-T,I~                                                volII11l(~ 2
)
              --..--




-   ---   -
       United States
‘GAO   General Accounting Office
       Washington, D.C. 20548

       Program Evaluation and
       Methodology Division

       B-240699

       October lo,1990

       The Honorable Clayton K. Yeutter
       Secretary of Agriculture

       Dear Secretary Yeutter:

       This is the second of two volumes of our report examining the manage-
       ment of germplasm stores and the National Plant Germplasm System.
       The report presents our design and demonstration of a new method for
       obtaining more and complete information relevant to improving the
       management of the system.

       This volume provides technical details on a data collection framework
       and a questionnaire we designed to obtain information about germplasm
       resources from plant scientists in the United States and foreign coun-
       tries. Volume one of the report, entitled ,Plant Germplasm: Improving
       Data for Management Decisions, presents an overview of the Agricul-
       tural Research Service’s efforts to obtain data for decisionmaking rela-
       tive to germplasm; an explanation of our objectives, scope, and
       methodology; results of our demonstration of the new method; and con-
       clusions and a recommendation.

       This volume will be distributed to those who receive the first volume,
       and it will be made available to others who request it.

       Sincerely yours,




       Eleanor Chelimsky
       Assistant Comptroller General




       Page 1               GAO/PEMIMldB   Plant Germplasm   Framework   and Questionnaire
contents



Appendix I                                                                                                          4
A Frmework       to Guide   Analyses of Survey Responses                                                            4
                            Framework Components                                                                    5
Data Collection
Appendix II
Survey Concerning
Plant Genetic
Resources
Bibliography




                            Abbreviations
             Y
                            ARS       Agricultural Research Service
                            NPGS      National Plant Germplasm System
                            USDA      US. Department of Agriculture


                            Page 2              GAO/PEMD-Sl-5B   Plant Germplasm   F’ramework   and Questionnaire
Y




    Page 3   GAO/PEMD-91.5B   Plant Germplasm   Framework   and Questionnaire
Appendix I

A F’mmeworkto Guide Data Collection                                                                          ’


                     This framework presents categories of conditions and activities that
                     affect long-term survival of crops and their associated germplasm for
                     which uniform information can be obtained about many different crops.
                     The information sources are (1) a survey of the opinions and activities
                     of plant scientists who work with crops and germplasm, (2) germplasm
                     managers’ knowledge of collections, and (3) statistics that (if available)
                     help describe the status of crops and germplasm resources. Together,
                     these would represent a “snapshot” of the status of each crop surveyed.

                     The analyses suggested by the framework components below focus on
                     the information obtained from the survey of plant scientists and indi-
                     cate the quality (availability, completeness, and accuracy) of requested
                     information for different crops, This could help germplasm managers
                     identify gaps in information; trends in germplasm acquisition, preserva-
                     tion, and use; and types of information that are difficult or impossible to
                     obtain.


                     The framework presents examples of analyses of responses to the
Analyses of Survey   survey questions presented in appendix II. Response frequencies, mean,
Responses            median, or percentage responses, correlation, or other statistics can be
                     applied to describe the data as applicable. The framework presents sug-
                     gested ways to combine responses from separate questions or parts of
                     questions for an individual crop, species, or genus. Undoubtedly, dif-
                     ferent or additional combinations would be of interest to the analyst,
                     depending on the crop surveyed and specific management needs.

                     When these comprehensive data are obtained for a wide range of crops,
                     additional levels of analyses should be applied to compare needs and
                     conditions among crops. Over the long term, the data base of informa-
                     tion can be updated as additional crops are surveyed or resurveyed and
                     accessed to identify changes in conditions or trends. For example, the
                     Agricultural Research Service (ARS) might strive to deemphasize some
                     areas where the data indicate a strong effort by others, or it might
                     attempt to coordinate with others to maximize the dissemination of
                     information and minimize’duplication of effort.

                     For many of the analyses presented in the framework, differences in
                     opinions or level of activity among groups of scientists who use germ-
                     plasm in their breeding or research efforts can be determined by strati-
                     fying the groups in various ways, using survey questions 3 through
                     12-for example, length of time working with the crop; membership in



                     Page 4                GAO/PEMD-9ldB   Plant Germplasm   Framework   and Questionnaire
                                    Appendix I
                                    A Framework   to Guide Data Collection




                                    particular organizations; public sector, university, or private sector
                                    researcher; or education level and field of study.

                                    Survey responses obtained from several of the survey questions can be
                                    analyzed to obtain scientists’ opinions about the relative importance of
                                    emphasizing various germplasm management activities. By gaining the
                                    opinions of scientists who are users of the resource, ARS could broaden
                                    its view of the status of various crops with respect to the need for
                                    emphasis among the activities involved in maintaining and using germ-
                                    plasm resources.

                                    Survey questions 29,48,53, and 74 provide scientists’ opinions of the
                                    relative importance of emphasizing genetic resource management activi-
                                    ties grouped in the areas of acquisition, preservation, description, and
                                    crop improvement, which includes breeding, enhancement, and
                                    research. Opinions from question 80 can be analyzed to obtain measures
                                    of the differences in emphasis that should be given to six genetic
                                    resource management and use activities relative to one another.

                                    Responses can be stratified by groups of scientists with different areas
                                    of interest or affiliation, such as public versus private sector orientation.
                                    For example, agreement might exist about the need for emphasis regard-
                                    less of stratification. However, breeders working with a particular crop
                                    may not agree on which crop improvement activities should be empha-
                                    sized, indicating that more in-depth review of the status of those activi-
                                    ties may be needed for the crop.


                                    Each framework component is followed by the applicable survey ques-
Framework                           tion numbers in appendix II, suggested analyses, and other information
Components                          that should be collected and analyzed to describe the component.


I. Amount of Stored
Germplasm (Acquisition)
A. Identification of Criteria for   In reviewing ARScriteria for decisions about what germplasm to acquire,
Acquisition and Storage of Plant    decisionmakers could evaluate criteria cited as important to the scien-
Germplasm                           tists who work with the crop’s germplasm and assess recent and
                 *                  planned collection efforts of others to identify duplication of effort, pri-
                                    mary sources of funding for collections, and whether coordination with
                                    others’ collection efforts is possible.



                                    Page 5                      GAO/PEMD-9lIB   Plant Gennplasm   Framework   and Questionnaire
                                      ZII.
                                        c
                                  Appendix I
                                  A lbmework   to Guide Data Collection




                                  Q13 provides the extent to which scientists use various methods to
                                  obtain germplasm, such as exploration or requests from the National
                                  Plant Germplasm System (NPGS).

                                  Q14, Q17, and Ql8 indicate how many exploration trips have been con-
                                  ducted and are planned, the locations of collection efforts, and funding
                                  sources for planned trips.

                                  Q28 provides the factors that are most important in influencing scien-
                                  tists’ decisions to acquire genetic resources, and Q22 provides the cate-
                                  gories of genetic resources they requested.

                                  Criteria for acquiring germplasm may also involve knowledge of collec-
                                  tions that contain germplasm thought to be of value to NPGS. Q41 and
                                  Q42 provide the number of scientists who believe they have unique
                                  accessions that would be of value to NPGS and whether they have offered
                                  the accessions to NPGS. Comparison of these responses indicates how
                                  much valuable germplasm may not be offered to the system.

                                  Q43 provides respondents’ opinions of why offered accessions were not
                                  accepted. Perceived reasons for nonacceptance could help ARS communi-
                                  cate with scientists about criteria for accepting germplasm into NPGS.

                                  Q29 provides respondents’ opinions on the extent to which seven acqui-
                                  sition activities should be emphasized to facilitate germplasm manage-
                                  ment. This information provides a means for ARS to review its own
                                  priority-setting from the standpoint of a wide range of scientists
                                  working with the genus, species, crop, and so on.

B. Reliable Inventory of Stored   Presumably, ARScurators have knowledge of inventories for their own
Accessions, Which Include         collections. However, more-complete information about collections held
Cultivars in Current Use,         by other components of NPGS, and those outside NES, might help set pri-
Obsolete Cukivars, Special        orities for whether to increase the size of NPGS inventories.
Genetic Stocks, Traditional
Cultivars (Landraces), and Wild   Q39 provides information on the number of accessions in each gene pool
and Weedy Speciesor Relatives     held in scientists’ collections. Also, column 4 provides the number of
of Cultivated Varieties           accessions the scientists sent to others in the last 5 years, another indi-
                                  cation of which types of germplasm are being exchanged and used.

                                  Q31 and Q32 (amount of resources held in gene banks) can be analyzed
                Y                 by gene pool to determine scientists’ degree of satisfaction with the
                                  quality (accuracy and completeness) of information available on the
                                  amount of germplasm existing in gene banks and specific sources of the


                                  Page 6                      GAO/PEMD-Ol-BB   Plant Germplasm   Framework   and Questionnaire
                                Appendix I
                                A Framework   to Guide Data Collection




                                information. This analysis can identify generally which sources are con-
                                sidered most reliable or in which gene pools the information is consid-
                                ered most or least complete and accurate.

                                Q22 column 1, for example, can be used to determine the numbers of
                                accessions in each gene pool that respondents requested. Q2 1 indicates
                                from which sources respondents requested germplasm. With this infor-
                                mation, ARSmight assess how many scientists do not request germplasm
                                from them in any gene pool or, conversely, in which gene pools for the
                                crop scientists are requesting ms germplasm.

C. Number of Accessions in      ARSshould review statistics on percentage of plant introduction station
Working Collections That Are    accessions that are stored long-term at the National Seed Storage
Backed Up at a Long-Term        Laboratory.
Facility
                                In addition to learning of the amount of NPGSgermplasm stored long
                                term, ARScould determine what percentage of others’ collections for the
                                crop are probably guarded against loss by storage at a long-term facility
                                through responses to Q39 column 3. In addition, Q41 and Q42 ask about
                                unique germplasm that scientists may have offered to NPGS.These ques-
                                tions could give an indication of whether potentially valuable germ-
                                plasm is in long-term storage.

D. Degree of Access to New      A profile of scientists’ access to sources of germplasm can be determined
Sources of Germplasm and        through analysis of Q15, which provides the number of times respon-
Programmed Collection Efforts   dents have attempted to acquire germplasm through exploration in the
                                last 3 years, and &IS, which provides the number of times attempts
                                were unsuccessful and why. Q14 identifies locations where scientists
                                have apparently gained access.

                                Q24, Q26, Q26, and Q27 indicate the extent to which collected germ-
                                plasm has been placed in quarantine, how long it has remained there,
                                whether scientists have had access to the germplasm, and whether
                                scientists’ work has been hindered as a result of the genetic resources’
                                being in quarantine.

                                Ql8 can identify duplication in trips planned or funded to the same loca-
                                tions for different crops, to allow for possible coordination.

                                Also, Q14 and Ql8 provide the locations where scientists have collected
                                and plan to collect and Q19 where they believe collection should occur.
                                Such information could supplement ARSdata on the extent locations
                                have been accessed or where information might exist outside ARSon


                                Page 7                      GAO/PEMD-OldB   Plant Germplasm   Framework   and Questionnaire
                                     Appendix I
                                     A Framework   to Guide Data Collection




                                     potential acquisition sites. Also, ARScould identify where private or
                                     other funding is already arranged for collection and could save all or
                                     part of the cost of collection if opportunities for coordination are
                                     possible.

E. Degree of Access to               Q23 rows 1,2,3, and 4 provide the frequency with which respondents
Information About &rmplasm           encountered problems with information about accessions they received
                                     and the extent the problems hindered their work.

                                     QSOindicates the reasons respondents do not request descriptive infor-
                                     mation from sources of germplasm, such as inaccessible data bases or
                                     belief that existing information is not complete or accurate. Q5 1 pro-
                                     vides the types of germplasm information most important to scientists’
                                     work and whether the information is hard or impossible to obtain.


II. Endangered Geographic
Sites of Origin
A. Knowledge of World Locations      Statistics should be obtained by the U.S. Department of Agriculture
Where Traditional Cultivars          (USDA),the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, or other
(Landraces) and Wild and Weedy       sources. ARSshould use the following information as part of an effort to
Species or Relatives of Cultivated   identify and access locations where germplasm collection may be a high
Varieties Are Declining              priority. Q28 row 2 (in the great or very-great importance columns) indi-
                                     cates the number of scientists whose decisions to acquire genetic
                                     resources were influenced by knowledge of sites where wild and weedy
                                     species or traditional varieties are in danger of loss. Row 8 indicates
                                     that the ability to gain access to collection sites influenced decisions. For
                                     these respondents, Q14 and Q18 provide locations where exploration
                                     might have taken place or is planned. Q29 row 1, compared to other
                                     rows, could indicate scientists’ opinions about the importance of
                                     acquiring endangered genetic resources for the crop versus other crops.

B. Number of Declining Species       Statistics should be obtained by ARS,the International Board for Plant
or Cultivars                         Genetic Resources, or other sources.

                                     Q31 (amount of resources declining) provides scientists’ degree of satis-
                                     faction with the accuracy and credibility of information they obtained
                                     on the amount of genetic resources that are in decline, by category of
                                     genetic resource. Q32 provides scientists’ degree of satisfaction with the
                                     information from specific sources- for example, NPGS,international
                                     research centers, or individual scientists.



                                     Page 8                       GAO/PEMDBl-SB   Plant Germplasm   Framework   and Questionnaire
                                    Appendix I
                                    A F’ramework   to Guide Data Collection




C. Acres of Traditional Cultivars   Statistics should be obtained by ARS,the International Board for Plant
and Wild and Weedy Relatives        Genetic Resources, or others to identify the extent of loss of genetic
That Are Lost From Natural and      resources from encroaching industrialization, and other factors.
Societal Pressures


III. Condition of Stored
Germplasm (Preservation)
A. Probable Viability of            Knowledge of the general condition of the germplasm that scientists
Accessions Upon Receipt or Prior    received from various sources for a particular crop would be useful in
to Storage                          assessing the overall differences among the viability of collections.

                                    Q23 rows 6 and 7 provide the frequency with which scientists received
                                    germplasm with low viability or insufficient seed quantity and the
                                    extent to which these problems hindered their work. Row 1 indicates
                                    how often data on germination rates were not provided with the
                                    material.

B, Probable Viability of            It is possible that many accessions from individuals’ collections are dis-
Accessions Being Held in Storage    tributed to other scientists (Q39 rows 1 and 4), and depending on the
                                    level of maintenance of these collections, breeders and researchers may
                                    not be exchanging high-quality material. ARSmight determine that for a
                                    particular crop more attention is needed to ensure that NPGSis ade-
                                    quately preserving germplasm and that high-quality material is avail-
                                    able to users.

                                    Q44 identifies percentages of various forms of germplasm such as seed,
                                    clones, or in vitro culture stored in scientists’ collections. Q45 provides
                                    the types of storage conditions scientists report they are regulating for
                                    their collections and Q46 the maintenance activities they usually
                                    perform.

                                    Q46 rows 1 and 2, in particular, can be tabulated to determine how
                                    many of these scientists usually germinate seed prior to and after
                                    placing it in storage.

                                    QSl row 7 provides the level of importance scientists place on getting
                                    health and viability information on accessions and whether the informa-
                                    tion is hard or impossible to obtain.




                                    Page 9                        GAO/PEMD-91-6B   Plant Germplasm   Framework   and 6jueetionnaire
                                   Appendix I
                                   A Framework   to Guide Data Collection




C. Adequacy of Regeneration,       Q46 frequencies for all rows indicate which maintenance activities
Grow-Out, and Germination          scientists perform on their collections, and Q47 indicates which stan-
Testing Procedures and             dards, if any, they follow.
Standards Used to Maintain the
Integrity of the Accessions
D. Adequacy of Conditions          937 helps identify scientists who keep germplasm for particular periods
Necessary to Preserve and          of time, and Q45 can indicate whether the scientists regulate or record
Maintain Stored Accessions of      storage conditions.
Germplasm
                                   For scientists who regulate or record conditions, ARS could compare fre-
                                   quencies of Q47 row 1 (no standards applied to germplasm mainte-
                                   nance) with rows 2 through 6 to determine the proportion of scientists
                                   who hold collections and are following preservation standards and
                                   which standards they are following.

E. Identification and Control of   In assessing the potential vulnerability of germplasm held in collections,
Pathogens (Fungal, Bacteria,       it is important to know how much emphasis scientists are placing on the
Nematodes), Viruses, Insects, or   identification and control of pests or disease. Q45 rows 5 and 7 indicate
Rodents in Stored Accessions       how many scientists include control of disease, insects, and rodents in
                                   their germplasm maintenance activities. Also, Q46 row 5 indicates the
                                   extent to which scientists test for or treat viruses and pathogens.

                                   Q66 frequencies for rows 5,6, and 8 indicate how many scientists focus
                                   their research objectives on identifying resistance to pathogens, pests,
                                   or other environmental stresses or deterioration in stored accessions.

                                   Q48 row 4, when compared with other rows, indicates the extent to
                                   which scientists believe detecting and treating diseases and insects in
                                   storage should be emphasized as part of the preservation activities for a
                                   particular crop.


IV. Status of Description of
Stored Germplasm
(Evaluation)
A. Type of Descriptive             We are defining descriptive information as the results of germplasm
Information on Germplasm That      evaluations and passport and other taxonomic information and other-
Is Important and Available to      wise describing preserved genetic resources. We believe that AB should
Germplasm Users                    be aware of the needs of scientists who work with germplasm, including
                                   what types of descriptive information are most important to their work.


                                   Page 10                     GAO/PEMPOldB   Plant Germplasm   Framework   and Questionnaire
                              Appendix I
                              A Framework   to Guide Data Collection




                              ARS decisions on setting priorities among crops for various activities
                              could be assisted and supported by knowledge of what scientists think is
                              most important.

                              Q51 provides the relative importance of various types of information
                              describing germplasm to scientists’ work and whether the information
                              was hard or impossible to obtain.

                              Q63 provides scientists’ opinions, by crop, on the extent to which five
                              germplasm description activities should be emphasized.

                              Q23 rows 2,3, and 4 indicate how often scientists received incorrect
                              data or descriptions or no description on the germplasm they requested
                              and the extent the problems hindered their work.

                              Q52 provides scientists with suggestions of the additional types of
                              descriptive information that might assist them.

B. Type and Availability of   Evaluation results obtained from scientists who request germplasm may
Germplasm Evaluation Data     be useful to ARS and may reduce duplicative effort. ARS could identify
Produced by Germplasm Users   how much data are available and accessible, whether scientists are
                              sending their evaluation results to requesters, and why they do not
                              comply with such requests.

                              Q66 row 9 and other selected rows can provide the number of scientists
                              who emphasize evaluation of gene bank accessions or identification of
                              traits or gene mapping as objectives in their breeding or research pro-
                              grams. Q54 provides the approximate number of accessions evaluated
                              by scientists during the past 3 years. Questions 55-58 indicate whether
                              the resulting data are recorded, available, and easily retrieved.

                              Q60 provides the percentage of time scientists have been asked to send
                              evaluation results back to the provider of germplasm. Q61 provides the
                              percentage of time they provided the requested data, and Q62 indicates
                              the reasons they did not provide the data.


V. Emphasis in Research       A degree of knowledge on the research and breeding objectives scien-
and Breeding Programs         tists emphasize most and their rationale for the emphasis can help ARS
                              set priorities for enhancement, evaluation, and breeding efforts in a
(Including Enhancement)       manner that responds to scientists’ needs, if appropriate.




                              Page 11                      GAO/PEMDBl-BB   Plant Germplasm   Pramework   and Questionnaire
                                                                                                                                     L
                                   Appendix I
                                   A Framework   to Guide Data Collection




A. Level of Production (in Area,   Statistics should be obtained by         ARS,   the International Board for Plant
Weight, or Volume) and Value (in   Genetic Resources, or others.
DolIars) of Commercial Varieties

B. Level of Effort in Breeding     Q63 provides data on full-time-equivalent staff working on the crop or
and Research Programs              genus. This information could be stratified by public or private sector.
                                   Q64 provides estimates of funding received for breeding and research,
                                   and Q66 provides the percentage of funding supplied by various
                                   sources.

                                   The amount and sources of funding and full-time-equivalent staff could
                                   help ARS identify gaps (or overinvestment) in effort among crops, thus
                                   helping direct limited ARS funds to crops needing the most attention.

                                   ARScould compare among crops, for example, the percentage of total
                                   full-time-equivalent staff dedicated to breeding and research for a crop
                                   (Q63). The percentage of such staff dedicated to particular areas of
                                   emphasis could reveal trends in the type of research being done, and the
                                   specific objectives from Q66 could provide more detail on the differ-
                                   ences in emphasis among crops.

C. Degree of Emphasis on           Several rows in Q66-for example, 7,8, and g-indicate breeding or
Collecting and Preserving          research objectives that involve preserving or evaluating stored germ-
Germplasm in Coqjunction With      plasm. ARS could compare among crops the proportion of scientists who
Breeding and Research              indicate these objectives are emphasized to a great or very great extent.

                                   Percentage of full-time-equivalent staff (Q63) or total funding (Q64)
                                   invested in crop improvement, preservation efforts, or basic research
                                   can be compared among crops. Such staff or funding levels could be
                                   compared with the number of accessions scientists used in their efforts
                                   (Q68) to further assess trends in the use of genetic resources among
                                   crops. For example, for the top quartile of full-time-equivalent effort in
                                   one crop, the number of accessions requested (Q22) or used (Q68) in a
                                   given gene pool might also be high, while for another crop in the same
                                   quartile, use may be very low, indicating that for whatever reason
                                   germplasm is not needed or is not being requested.

D. Type and Cost of Breeding       The level of effort (Q63) can be compared with levels of production and
and Research Focused on High       commercial values of crops. This could result in assessing the extent to
Production or High Value           which level of effort is correlated with the economic value of the crop
Cultivars Versus Those of Lower    but could also indicate where gaps in research or breeding objectives
Commercial Value                   appear to exist (Q66) or could identify efforts that ARSbelieves are inap-
                                   propriately low or high for the value of the crop or other factors. This


                                   Page 12                      GAO/PEMD-91-SB     Plant Germplasm   Framework   and Questionnaire
                                 Appendix I
                                 A Framework   to Guide Data CMlection




                                 could provide some support for adjusting funding levels for research,
                                 enhancement, or breeding efforts.

                                 The number of Q67 responses (in the great or very-great extent col-
                                 umns) indicates the factors that most influenced scientists’ decisions to
                                 develop and conduct research or breeding efforts. Differences in the fac-
                                 tors that are important among crops of higher and lower commercial
                                 value might indicate areas of concern about potential vulnerability of
                                 the crops or trends in economic, social, or political factors affecting
                                 direction of breeding and research efforts.

E. Level of Government and       Private and public sector full-time-equivalent staff and funding directed
Private Funding or Full-Time-    to various crops can be compared with the extent of requests for germ-
Ek@valent Staff Invested in      plasm (Q22) and with use of germplasm from gene pools 1,2, and 3
Developing Various Types of      (Q68) in the breeding or research programs. This could help AR+9make
Plant Germplasm                  decisions about which crops should be given attention in acquisition or
                                 enhancement or where it believes the use of wild germplasm should be
                                 encouraged.

F. Influence of Yearly Demand    Statistics on demand for hybrid seed and numbers of cultivars produced
for Hybrid Seed or Ability to    should be obtained by USDA, International Board for Plant Genetic
Produce Cultivars                Resources, or others.

                                 With the statistics and the overall results of Q67, row 7, the importance
                                 of current and potential demand for hybrids, and row 8, importance of
                                 production of cultivars as factors in decisions to develop or conduct pro-
                                 grams, can be compared among crops.

G. Influence of Amount of        Statistics on amount of domestic use and export of crops should be
Domestic Use Versus Export of    obtained from USDA, International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, or
the Crops                        others.

                                 With the statistics and the overall results for Q67, a comparison can be
                                 made between crops from row 9, the importance of domestic consump-
                                 tion, and row 10, the importance of demand for export to other coun-
                                 tries, as factors in decisions to develop or conduct programs.

H. Influence of Number of Uses   Statistics on the number of uses for the crops should be obtained by
for the Cultivars (e.g., Food,   USDA, International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, or others.
Forage, Fiber, IQel)
                                 With the statistics and the overall results for Q67, a comparison can be
                                 made between crops on the importance of row 11, on current and poten-
                                 tial uses for the crop, and row 12, on the importance of pressure from


                                 Page 13                     GAO/PEMD-91~5B   Plant Germplasm   Framework   and Questionmxire
                                  Appendix I
                                  A Framework   to Guide Data Ckdlectlon




                                  crop producers or end user groups in influencing scientists’ decisions to
                                  develop or conduct their program.

I. Changes in Research Emphasis   Scientists’ survey responses will help identify the extent to which
From Development or Use of        advanced techniques (biotechnology tools) are used in breeding and
Advanced (Biotechnology)          research programs and whether their use is influencing program objec-
Techniques                        tives or the type of genetic resources used by respondents.

                                  ARScould determine the percentage of scientists using advanced (bio-
                                  technology) techniques in their breeding and research programs. Q76
                                  provides the extent to which each of seven techniques is used and the
                                  extent to which the techniques have changed the respondents’ breeding
                                  or research emphasis.

                                  Q66 row 14 indicates how many scientists have research objectives
                                  focused on the improvement of biotechnology techniques.

                                  Q77 provides the extent to which scientists expect the techniques to
                                  change the emphasis or objectives of their efforts. For respondents who
                                  report, for example, that a particular technique is expected to change
                                  their breeding or research efforts, Q66 column 1 can be compared to
                                  column 2 to determine significant changes expected in the next 3 years.

                                  Q78 and Q79 indicate whether the use of biotechnology is causing
                                  increases or decreases in the amount and type of germplasm used in the
                                  three gene pools. For scientists who report a change, and who say they
                                  are using germplasm from gene pools 2 and 3 in their breeding or
                                  research (Q68), their breeding and research objectives from Q66 can be
                                  evaluated to better understand how advanced techniques are influ-
                                  encing use of wild germplasm and how the techniques are being incorpo-
                                  rated into breeding and research efforts.


VI. Susceptibility of
Cultivars to Disease,Pests,
and the Environment
A. Total Number of Cultivars      Statistics should be obtained by         USDA,   International Board for Plant
Planted Annually in the United    Genetic Resources, and others.
States and Worldwde




                                  Page 14                     GAO/PEMD-91-SB   Plant Germplasm   Framework   and Questionnaire
                                 Appendix I
                                 A F’nunework   to Guide Data Collection




B. Total Acres (or Hectares or   Statistics should be obtained by               AR&    the International Board for Plant
Metric Tons) of Cultivars Lost   Genetic Resources, and others.
Annually From Disease, Pests,
and the Environment              To analyze the availability and quality of information about the culti-
                                 vars being lost (or genetic resources being lost from all gene pools), ARS
                                 could compare scientists’ opinions about information they have
                                 obtained. A comparison among crops could indicate where more atten-
                                 tion is needed to develop better information.

                                 Q3 1 (amount of resources declining) provides scientists’ degree of satis-
                                 faction with the accuracy and credibility of information they obtain on
                                 the amount of resources declining in the three gene pools, Q32 provides
                                 satisfaction with the information obtained from various sources.

C. Amount and Type of Ongoing    Using the overall results of research and breeding objectives in Q66, ARS
Research on Known Stresses for   could determine the number of great and very-great extent responses
Which Traits for Resistance or   for rows 6 and 6. This indicates level of emphasis in breeding and
Immunity Have Not Been Found     research programs in identifying traits for resistance to known diseases
                                 and pests and for greater adaptation to environmental stresses. This
                                 information could be compared with full-time-equivalent staff reported
                                 by those respondents.

                                 ARScould also determine how many scientists are to a great extent con-
                                 ducting their research or breeding programs because of pests, diseases,
                                 or environmental stresses that endanger crops (Q67 rows 2 and 4).

                                 Q70 provides a list of specific resistance traits for which scientists are
                                 currently searching and can be compared with Q73, a list of specific
                                 resistance traits they believe need greater emphasis as research priori-
                                 ties. From this, important traits may be identified that are receiving
                                 little or no attention. In addition, Q72 indicates the extent to which
                                 respondents believe descriptors listed by major organizations include
                                 those that should be priorities.


VII. Size of Genetic Base        The size of the genetic base of commercial crops has been described in
                                 terms of acreage planted with few varieties of a crop, a condition that
                                 could potentially cause widespread loss of the crop if one or more of the
                                 varieties fell susceptible to a new disease or pest.

                                 Analyses of survey results in this category are intended to describe
                                 breeders’ and researchers’ efforts in the acquisition and use of germ-
                                 plasm from gene pools 1,2, and 3, to identify trends in breeding and


                                 Page 15                      GAO/PEMD-91-6s          Plant Germplaem   Fhmework   and Queetionnaire



                                                                  I
                                                              :                 !.

                                                                           ‘,
                                   Appendix I
                                   A Pramework   to Guide Data Collection




                                   research objectives that ARS decisionmakers believe focus on identifying
                                   new sources of diversity or could potentially expand the base of com-
                                   mercial crops.

A. Extent of Use of Germplasm      Q22 for all rows (the three gene pools) provides the number of acces-
From Gene Pools 1,2, and 3 by      sions requested and received in the past 3 years and the number used
Plant Breeders and Researchers     currently and planned in the next 3 years (Q68).

                                   Q39 columns 1 and 2 for all rows provides the number of unique and
                                   duplicated accessions in scientists’ collections, and column 4 provides
                                   the number of accessions they distributed to others in the past 3 years.

                                   Q66 row 11 provides the emphasis scientists place on identifying new
                                   sources of genetic variation as the objective in their breeding and
                                   research programs. Also, the objectives in Q66 can be crosstabulated
                                   with Q68 to obtain the extent to which they use wild germplasm in their
                                   efforts.

                                   Q68, indicating a great extent of use or planned use of wild germplasm
                                   in breeding or research efforts, can be crosstabulated with Q63, the full-
                                   time-equivalent staff effort, or Q64, the level of funding to develop
                                   trends in the relative size of efforts that incorporate wild germplasm.

B. Number of Cultivars in          Statistics on estimated numbers of these different types of genetic
Current Use, Obsolete Cultivars,   resources in the genus or species should be obtained, if available. The
Special Genetic Stocks,            following analyses attempt to discern scientists’ experiences with the
Traditional Cultivars              accuracy and credibility of information they have obtained.
(Landraces), and Wild and
Weedy Speciesor Relatives of       Q30, Q31, and Q32 (amount of resources in existence) provide an indica-
Cultivated Varieties Existing      tion of how many scientists working with the crop have obtained infor-
Worldwide                          mation on the number of genetic resources that exist in each gene pool
                                   and their level of satisfaction with the accuracy and credibility of the
                                   information as well as with various sources of the information. Q33 pro-
                                   vides the reasons why respondents did not obtain the information.

C. Amount of Diversity Present     Information on the amount of diversity believed to be inherent in a
in Cultivars in Current Use,       genus or species should be included in decisions whether to invest in
Obsolete Cultivars, Special        additional acquisition versus other activities needed in managing a crop.
Genetic Stocks, Traditional        Knowing the extent to which breeders and researchers cite lack of diver-
Cultivars (Landraces) and Wild     sity in the genus as an important factor in their decisions to acquire
and Weedy Species or Relatives     germplasm compared to other factors, or the extent to which measuring
of Cultivated Varieties Existing   diversity is an important objective of their work, could have implica-
Worldwide                          tions for ARS’Sown decisions on how to invest time and money.


                                   Page 16                      GAO/PEMD-Bl-5B   Plant Germplasm   Framework   and Questionnaire
                            Appendix I
                            A F’ramework   to Guide Data Collection




                            Q34 row 1 provides scientists’ estimates of the number of subspecies,
                            races, and varieties that exist in the cultivated and wild states.

                            Q28 rows l-5, for example, if particularly emphasized for a crop, might
                            indicate that lack of diversity is an important influence over users’
                            acquisition of genetic resources.

                            Responsesfor Q66 rows that .could potentially result in measures of
                            diversity-for     example, rows 5,6,9, 10, 11, and 12-can be crosstabu-
                            lated with full-time-equivalent staff (Q63) or funding (Q64) to determine
                            trends in levels of effort emphasizing these research objectives versus
                            others.

D. Amount of Diversity in   In evaluating the need to increase the diversity in particular collections,
Existing Collections        decisionmakers should be assisted by knowledge of the diversity
                            believed to be contained in collections held by scientists at universities
                            and private industry. ARScould, for example, assess differences among
                            crops in the importance scientists place on obtaining a description of the
                            expected diversity in accessions they receive and the difficulty experi-
                            enced in obtaining such information.

                            Q34 row 2 provides opinions on the number of subspecies, races, and
                            varieties in the cultivated and wild states represented in gene banks,
                            and Q36 provides scientists’ opinions on the percentage of existing
                            diversity represented in gene banks.

                            Q39 column 1 provides the number of accessions in each gene pool con-
                            tained in scientists’ own collections, and Q40 provides estimates of the
                            percentage of existing diversity believed to be represented in those col-
                            lections. This could allow comparison among crops of estimated levels of
                            diversity overall in collections to assess whether lack of diversity in col-
                            lections should be a criterion for acquisition decisions.

                            QSl row 8 provides an indication of the importance to scientists of
                            information on the extent of expected diversity in accessions received
                            and whether scientists have found such information hard or impossible
                            to obtain.




                            Page 17                      GAO/PEMD-9ldB   Plant Germplasm   Pramework   and Questionnaire
                                                                                                                                            ,
Appe ndix II

Survey ConcerningPlot Genetic&sources



                                               UnhedStatesGeneralAccountingOmce

                   n                           Survey ConcerningPlant Genetic Resources




                   INTRODUCTION

                   This survey is bdng sentto you aspart of an effon to obtain a statusof the preservationanduseof specitlc genetic
                   ~csourcesfrom the perspectiveof scicntlstswho usethe resourcesin their crop improvementandotherresearchefforts.
                   At this time, we are asking for your opinions aboutthe availability and reliability of informationfor one crop, species,
                   or genuswhich is specifiedin the survey. We are also askingfor your opinionsaboutlevels of emphasisyou believe
                   shouldbe placedon various genetictusourcemanagementactivities. Theseresponses,obtahud from a wide rangeof
                   geneticresourceusersandcombinedwith other genetic nsource managementinformationor statistics,can help gauge
                   the mlatlve vulncmbility of genctlc tusources.

                   You are askedto respondbasedon your overail professionalknowledgeandexperiencewith the specifiedcrop. genus,
                   or species,applying the most giobai view of genetictusouru needspossible. The survey Is being sentto plant
                   scientists,world-wide, In many disciplines and with differing interests. It wiil be implementedfor many crops,to
                   adat the U.S. Departmentof Agriculture in obtaining uniform and comparableinformationfor usein genetictusource
                   managementdeclslomnaking.

                   The survey is comprehensive,covering the areasof plant geneticresourceacquisition,preservation,description,and
                   crop hnpmvementand research.Completingthe survey shouldtake about 1 l/2 to 2 hoursof your time. Someof the
                   survey questionspettaln to your rquests for geneticresourcemated& your objectivesand rationalefor your work
                   unphasis, and the size andtype of any genetictusourcecollectionsyou maintain.For suchquestions,pleaseestimate
                   numbersof accessions,or percents,if possibleand try not to spenda lot of time consuitingtucordsfor detailed
                   hrfotmation. Also, pleasekeep in mhtd that this survey instrumentwiil be usedto obtain informationaboutmany
                   different types of crops,andtherefore,someresponsechoicesmay not seemapplicable for every crop.

                   pleaseMum the completedsurvey in the enclosedpm-addressedenvelopewithin 2 weeksof receipt. If you have any
                   .rue&~, pkM cd ___________---_---______________________-.

                   BACKGROUND                                                     2. Have you worked with Genusin the last 5 years?
                                                                                     (Check one)
                   This sectionprovidesinformation aboutrespondentsto
                   facilitate analysisby respondentgroupings,andto assist            1. 0 Yes (Continuewith the remainder of the
                   with futnm hnplemcntationof the survey.                                   questionnaire.)
                                                                                     2. 0    No (Stop. Please return questionnaire In rhe
                   1. Pleaselist the plant generayou have worked with                        enclosed envelope.)
                      (e.g., researched.maintainedor beenresponsiblefor)
                      during the past 5 years.
                                                                                  Note: For the remainder of the questionnaire, please
                                                                                        consider only Genuswhen nnswerlng questions.




               Y

                                                                              1




                                 Page 18                           GAO/PEMD-Bl-5B           Plant Germplasm Framework        and Que&.ionnaire
.


                   Appendix   II
                   Survey Concerning Pla.nt Genetic lbourcee




    3. For bow many yearshave you wor&edwith Genrrst               6. At what type of organizationdo you currently
         (Check one.)                                                 conductthe major portion of your work’? (Checkrhe
                                                                       one thatbest describes your organlsation.)
         1.0      2 yearsor less
         2. 0     Over2to4years                                         1. 0 Public agency
         3. [ZI   Over 4 to 8 yeam                                     2. Cl Privatecompany
         4. 0     Over 8 to 16 years                                   3. Cl University
         5. 0     Over 16to 32 years
         6. 0     Over 32 years                                        4. 0 Non-profit foundation
                                                                       5. 0 Do not conductwork at an organization
    4. How many subcategoriesof the spxifled genus,                         (retired.or useplant geneticnxources for a
       species. of crop have you worked with extensively in                 hobby or avocation)
       the past 5 years?(Llsr the number ofsubcategories
         you have worked with for each species. Since levels           6. 0 Other (specify)
         oftaxonomy, temhologyfor       class(flcatkm, and
         opinions about terminology dfler among crops,
         please circle the term below, that you believe best
         describes the subcategories:)

    SUBSPECIES RACE VARIETY
                                                                   7. Is this organizationbasedin the U.S., or in another
                                                                      country or is it internatIonal (Check one.)

                               Number01                               1. 0 U.S. based
                              aubcategorlea                           2. 0 NonU.S. based
         Speolesname(s)        workedwiIh
    1.                                                                3. Cl lntemadonal
    2.
                                                                   8. What is your currentpositionWe with the
    3.                                                                organizationabove?
    4.
    5.
    6.

    5. In what country and stateof province are you
       working?




                                                               2




                   Page 19                         GAO/PmBl-SB            Plant Germplasm       Phutwwork     and Quaetionnaire
             Appendix II
             Survey Cbnceming     Plant Genetic l&sources




9. Which of the followlng disciplinesdo you considerto       10. What is the highestlevel of educationthat you have
   be your nmt impdrtant Reldsof study or activities             atined? (Check one.)
   at this time? (Check up to four choices)
                                                                1. 0    Lessthan 4 yearsof college
    1. 0 Agticulturaleconomy                                    2. 0    Bachelor’sdegreeor equivalent
    2. 0 Agronomy/soilscience                                   3. 0    Master’sdegreeor equivalent
                                                                4. 0    Doctoral degreeor equivalent
    3. c] Biochemistry
                                                                5. 0    Postdoctoralstudyor equivalent
    4. 0 Botany                                                 6. 0    Other (specify)
    5. 0 Biology (molecularor cellular)
    6. 0 Cytogenetics
    7. 0 Ecology                                             11. Of which of the following committeesor
                                                                 organizationsam you currently a member7(Check all
    8. c] Srttomology                                           that apply.)
    9. 0 Geoetics                                                 1. 0 U.S. Crop Advisory Committee(CAC)
    10.   q Nut&ion                                               2. 0 U.S. Technical Advisory Committee(TAC)
                                                                  3. 0 U.S. National Plant GermplasmCommittee
    11.   q Hotticuhum                                                  mc)
    12.   q Plant breeding                                        4. 0 U.S. National Plant GeneticResourcesBoard
                                                                        OIJPGW
    13. 0 Plant pathology/virology                                5. 0 Any InternationalBoard for Plant Genetic
                                                                        Resources(IBPGR) Committee
    14. 0 Plant physiology
                                                                  6. 0 ConservationGroups
    15.   q Taxonomy                                              7. q Crop specific associations
    16. 0 Curator                                                 8. 0 Agricultural or horticultural associations
                                                                  9. Cl Otherprofessionalassociations
    17.   q Researchdirector                                     10. 0 Amateurcrop or plant orientedassociations
    18. 0 Other(spec@)                                           11.0 Botanical gardens
                                                                 12. q Other(speclfy)



                                                                 13. 0 None




                                                         3




              Page 20                        GAO/PEMD-91.FIB           Plant Germplasm    Framework      and Questionnaire
    .

.
                     Appendix II
                     Survey Concemlng      Plant Genetic Reeources




        12. During the last year aboutwhat percentof your Ume
           was agentwolldng with Genus,other crops,and
           other activitles? Wxcnrs should tootalJOO.)
            1.           % Direct work with Genus
            2.           % Direct work with other crops
            3.           % Administrative, management,
                           support,andother activities not
                           directly relatedto Genusor other
                           crops




                                                                4




                     Page 21                         GAO/PEMD-91IB   Plant Gennplaam   Pramework   and Questionnaire
                Appendix      II
                Survey Concerning Plfmt Genetic Resources




    ACQUISITION OF GENUS PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES

    ‘IlUs sectlonprovidesinformationthat can help geneticresourcemanagersassessthe needsof geneticresourceusers,
    andmake decisionsaboutacquiring msoumes.

    13. Pleaaeindicate the extent. if at all. to which you useeachof the following methodsto acquireplant genetic
        resources?(Check one column for each row)




       2. Personaltdps (not associatedwith a formally




    Plant Exploration Tripe

    14. PleaseUstthe locationsfrom which, in the past five years,you obtainedGenusgeneticresourcesthroughplant
        exploration tips plannedby you or people you know, (By location we meancountry andregion, state,or
        province). If you have not obtainedgenetic nsourcesin this manner,write NONE.

    LoeaUonaof wild and weedy geneticresources




    Locationsof cultivated geneeicresources




                                                             5


Y




                Page 22                          GAO/PEMD-91.BB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire
    .

.
                        Appendix II
                        Survey Concerning Plant Genetic Reeourcee




            111.In the pastthreeyears,have you attempted to acquireGenusgeneticresourcesthroughplant exploration trips
               Umtged by yourdslfor people you know? (Check one.)
                1. 0 Yes              (Numberof attempts)
                2. 0   No (GO TO QlLES7’JON 17)

            16. How many Umes,if at all, have you beenunable to acquiregeneticresourcesfrom plant exploration trips cited in
                question 1Sfor eachof the following masons?(Wrire 0 ifnone).
                                                                         Number
                                                                         of Times
                                                                         Unableto
                           Reason8For InabIlityto Acquire                Acquire
               1. Host country nstricUons
               2. Inability to identify appropriatechannelsor make
                  contacta
               Lack of hndlng provlded for exploration
               3. Fundingwas denied
               4. Exploration proposalwas accepted;no funding
                  was available
               5. Exploration proposalwas not accepted;fundlng
                  was available
               6. Other (spedfu




            17. Do you plan to acquireGenus plant geneticresourcesthroughplant exploration trips arrangedby yourself,or
                people you know, in the next 3 years?(Check one.)
               1. 0    Yes
               2.0     No (GO TO QUESTlON 19)




                                                                     6

        Y




                       Page 28                         GAO/PEMD-Bl-5B         Plant Cermplaam    Fhmework      md Questionmxire
                                                                                                                         ,
            Appendix    II
            Snrvey Concerning Plant Genetic Resources




                                                                                                                     -

18. Pleaseprovide htfonttatl~naboutthe location, number,and fundingof the abovetrips. (W&e rhe location, number
    @trip8 planned, wtd numberjlutded in the appropriate columns. Check no basis to judge, if appropriate.)
                                               Trlpa
                                          Planned/Funded                     Source(s) of Fundlng




19. From what areasof the world (country and region,state,or province) da you believe Genus geneticresourcesare
    undempresentedIn colkctions, and shouldbe collectedregardlessof whethera trip is plannedto collect there?
    Also, which species.subspecies,varieties.or races,etc. shouldbe collected? (Please list any locutions rhut you
   believe should be considered.)

    World locatlons for collectlon                        Resourcesthat should be collected from each location
   1.




             Page 24                          GAO/PEMD-gldB         Plant Germplasm Framework and Questiomxaire
.



                   Appendix II
                   Snrvey Cmcerning       Plant Oenetic R4murcee




        Experf@nccrWith, end Oplnlons About Requesting and Obtaining Genus Genetic Resources

        20. Have you rcqucstedor obtainedGenusgeneticresourcesfrom any individual or organizationin the past 3 years?
           (Check one.)

           1. 0 Yes
           2. 0 No (GO TO QUESTIoN 24)

        21. III the past 3 years,which categoriesof Genus genedcresourcesdid you request.and from what sourcesdid you
            requestthem? (Indicateyour answer by checking the appropriate box in the row column matrix. Leave blank if
           you did not request a resource from a Jpecflc source.)




           2. Obsolete cultivan
           3. TradItional vtieties (landraces)
           Gene pool 2



               using conventionalmethodsbut with a

           Gene pool 3
           6. BIological speciesthat can be crossed
              only by useof advancedtechniques I               I        I    I    I     I     I    I
           Other                             -    --
           7. Special geneticstocks
           8. Breedingpopulations
           9. Other (specify)




                                                                    8
    Y




                   Page 25                             GAO/PEMD=I)l-5B      Plant Germplasm   Framework   and Questionnaire
          Survey C~ncernlng           Plant Genetic Remurces




22. Pleaseeslimatcthe numberof accessionsor samplesin eachcategoryof geneticresourcethat you requestedor
    receivedIn the p& 3 yearsfrom any of the sourcesin question21. (W&e the number or leuve blank (fnone).

                                                 Accesslonr



    Categoriesof Plant Genetb
           Resources
   Gene pool 1
   1, Cultlvars In currentuse
   2. Obsoletecultlvars           I

   3. Traditional varieties
      (landraces)

   4. Mstant relativesof
      cultivated varieties that
      form fenlle hybrids
   5. Blologlcal speciesthat
      can be crossedusing
      conventionalmethods
      but with a high level of
      sterllitv

   6. Blologlcal speciesthat
       can be crossedonly by
       useof advanced
       tecMoues                   I          I        I




                                                              9




          Page 26                                GAO/PEMD91-5B    Plant Germplasm   Framework   and Questionnaire
            Appendix II
            Survey Concerning      Plant Genetic Resources




23. Indicatebelow how often, if at all, you encounteredthe following problemswith the -Ions     you -ted.
    Also Indicatethe &tent. if at all, the problem hinderedyour work. (Check one cohmn under each hed@for   each

                                                                 Dftan       II                        I




           ProblemsEncountered
    1. Data on germinationrateswere
       not provided




       omvided
   11. No geneticresourcesprovided
   12. Other(specify)



24. Have any geneticresourcesyou obtainedbeenplacedin quarantine?(Check one.)
   1. Cl Yes
   2. 0 No (GO TO QUESTIOh’28)




                                                       10




             Page 27
            Appendix II
            Survey tbwmlng         Plant Genetic l&sources




25. To what extent, If at all. have you had accessto your geneticresourceswhile they wen in quarantine?(Checkone.)
    I. •i Little or no extent
    2. Cl Someextent
    3.0 Moderateextent
    4. Cl Ofeat extent
    5. 0 Very gnat extent

26. pleaseestimatethe averagetime in monthsand yearsthat your geneticresourceshave remainedin quarantine.
    Montha            Years


27. To what extent, if at all, hasthe quarantinetime period hinderedyour work? (Check one.)
    1. El Little or no extent
   2. Cl Someextent
   3.0 Modem extent
   4. q Greatextent
   5. q Verygreat extent




                                                         11




            Page 29                          GAO/PEMD-9ldB         Plant Germplasm      Framework   and Questionnaire
.


                Appendix II
                Survey Cimeerning       Plant Genetic Resources




    Factora Influencing Genus Acquisition

    28. In tbe past3 years,how important,if at all, were the following factorsin intlucncing your decisionswhetheror Mt
        to acquireparticular geneticresources?(Wearecheck rhe appropriare columnfor each of the factors Usted below.)




                      FactorslnfluencinpDe&ions                     /     (1) /     (2) /   (3) /    (4)
        1. Genetic resourcesstoredin collectionsdo not
            containtraits neededfor researchor plant
            breeding
       2.   Knowledgeof siteswherewild and weedy
            speciesor traditional varieties are in dangerof
            loss                                                II            I
                                                                              I
                                                                                        I
                                                                                        I
                                                                                                II         II
       3.   Diversity stomdin collectionsworld-wide is          1             I         I       I
            insufficient to assuI(: survival of specieswithin
            the genus
       4.   Researchresultsmeasuringalleiic freuuencies
            indicatea lack of diversity-in the genus            !             I         !       !          !
       5.   Overall wncem Forgeneticuniformity of crops
       6.   Availability of resourceswell adaptedto
            particularenvironments
       7.   Commercialinterestin the crop                       I             I         I                  I
       8.   Ability- to -nain accessto collection sites         I            I          I
                                                                                               I           I

       9.   USA’s ngulations, practices,or changesin
            wlicv that inhibit the imoortationof genetic
            ksoukes
       10. Countries’(otherthanthe USA) mgulations,
           practicesor changesin policy that inhibit the
           exportationof geneticresources
       11. USA Crop Advisory Committee
           recommendationto-collectgeneticresources                           I         I      I
       12. Availability of resourcesto conductcollection        1                                          I
           expeditions                                                       I          I      I           I
       13. Scientific curiositvldiscoverv                       II            I         I       I          I

       14. Availability of facilities to storeandmaintain
           collectedresources
       15. Other (specifi)




                                                                     12




                Page 29                           GAO/PEMD-Ol-SB                  Plant Germplasm    Fhunework   and Questio~~&~
             Append& II
             Survey Concerning    Plant Genetic lbeource!s




29. To what extent, if at all, do you believe the fohowing acquisitionactivities andeventsricedto be cmphaaixedto
    facilitate the overall managementof Genusplant geneticresources?(Please check one column for each row)




                   Aquisition
   1. Acquiring endangeredgenetic
      resourceswhetheror not their potential
      18known
   2. Acquiring geneticnsoutcesthat am
      constdemdto be potentially usefulin
      dant breeding
   3. Acquiring gene& msoutce8of
      tmknownpotenttatwhetheror not they
      ate endangered
   4. hnpmving quarantineprocedUE8and
      regulationsto facilitate aquiaition
   5. Eliminattng politicaJbarriersthat
      hhuier collectton                                tti
   6. Developing arrangementsfor
      minimizing patentrestrictionsin
      considerationof acce88to genetic


           for collecting andrecordingaccessions




Oplnlonr About Availablllty and Accuracy of Information Concerning Genus Genetic Reeourcer In Exietence

30. Have you obtahud any informationPromany source,including your own research,aboutthe amountof Genus
    geneticresourcesthat exist in the cultivated or wild stateor in genebanks,or aboutthe amountthat are declining
    due to humanand otherpressures?(Consider the range of species, subspecies, races, varieries, efc.). (Check one.)
    1. 0     Yes
   2. 0      No (GO TO QUESTIOA 33)




                                                             13




             Page 30                       GAO/PEMDOldB           Plant Germplasm     Ikunework     and Questionnaire
.


                    Appendix    II
                    Survey Concerning Plant Genetic Iiemurces




        31. For eachof the 6 g?neticIcBOUrcC   categodeslisted below, how satisfiedwere you with the overall accUracyand
            complctcnes8of tn!bnnadonobtained? Answer for (1) informattonon the amountof geneticr~4OUrCe8        existing in
            the cultivated andwild BtaW,(2) infonation on the amountof geneticnsoumesheld in gene.banka,and(3)
            informationon the amountof geneticresourcesthat are decllnlng due to humanandotherpressures.(Check no
            basfs to judge lfyou have not obtained @formation about a spec@c resource category ,or you do not have enough
            Itformarion w rare qualily).
                                                    Amount of Roeourcre Amount of Ro8ourcor AmOuMof Rowufc@a
                                                       in ExittenCe      Hold in Gone bank8




                    Soumes
           Gene 11001  1
            1, Cuitivars in current
               II&?
           2. Obsoletecultivars
           3. Traditional varieties
               (landraces)
           Gene woi 2
           4. Distant relativesof
               cultivated varieties
               that foamfertile
               hybrids
           II. Bioiogkai species
               that can be crossed
               using conventional
               methodsbut with a
               blah level of stediity
           Gene pool 3
           6. Biological specie8
               that can be crossed
               only by useof
               advancedtechniques




                                                                 14

    Y




                    Page 81                          GAO/PEBlDM-6B         Plant Qennplasm      FtanmvorkandQu~tio~
           Appendix II
           Survey Concerning      Plant Genetic Resources




32. For eachof the IO information 8ourcesor provider8 listed below, how satlsfkd were you witi the overall
    accuracyandcompletenessof informationobtained? A8 with the previousquestion.answerfor (I) informationon
    the amountof genetlcresourcesexisttng in the cultlvated and wlld state,(2) Informationon the amountof genetic
    resourcesheld in genebanks,and(3) informationon the amountof geneticresource8that aredeclining due to
    humanandotherpressures.(Check no basis to judge lfyou have not obtained i@ormatlon from a spec#lc source
   or you do )MI have enough Idonnatlon to rate quality.)
                                           Amount 01Reoourco~ Amount of Re8ourcrr Amount of Reeourceo
                                                                                            Rew~~r~eo




   3. U.S. Crop
       Advisory
       Committee(CAC)
   4. Individual U.S.
       scientists
   5. Your own research
   6. lntemational Board
       for PlantGenetic
       Resources
       (IBPGR)
   7. Individual
       scientistsfrom
       countriesother
       than the USA
   8. lntemational
       ResearchCenters,
       e.g. ICRISAT,
       CLMMYT
   9. Scientific/technical
       publications
   10. Other(specfi)




                                                            15




           Page 32                          GAO/PEMD-914B        Plant Germplasm     Framework    and Questionnaire
.



                 Appendix II
                 Survey Cancernlng     Plant Genetic Besources




    33. In instanceswhen you have not obtainedinformation           35. Considerthe total amountof geneticdiversity that
        on the amountan&declineof geneticresources,                     exists in eachcategoryof Genusgeneticresource.If
        which of the following reasonsdescribewhy not?                  you can.pleaseestimate the percent of each
        (Check all char apply.)                                         category total that you believe is representedin gene
                                                                        banks. If you feel that you do not have enough
       1. q Did not requestinformation                                  informationto even make an intelligent guess,check
       2. q Informationis not needed                                    no basisto judge.
       3. c]Informationprobably doesnot exist
       4. 17Informationis not accessible
       5. 0 Informationis not accurateor complete
            enoughto be useful
       6. 0 Other(specify)
                                                                       2. Obsoletecultivars            I       %(
                                                                       3. Traditional varieties                 I         i

    34. Basedon informationyou have obtainedand/oryour
        bestprofessionalopinion, pleaseestimatethe number
                                                                       zGize-j#
                                                                       4. Distant relativesof
        of Genus8ubspWie.9,    races,or VarietieS,etc. that
        exist in the cultivated andwild state,worldwide, and              cultivated varietiesthat
        the numberheld in genebanks.                                      form fertile hybrids
                                                                       5. Biological speciesthat
        I.               Number in existence                              can be crossedusing
                                                                          conventionalmethodsbut
        2.               Number held in genebanks                         with a high level of
                                                                          steriiitv
        3. 0 No basisto judge




                                                               16




                 Page 33                        GAO/PEMD-9ldB             Plant Germplasm         Framework   and Questionnaire
                                                                                                               .
            Appendix If
            Survey Coneem          Plant Genetic Reaourcee




PRESERVATION         OF GENUS PLANT GENETIC
RESOURCES

‘IWe sectionIs intendedto provide a profile of on-going
preservationactivities performedby public andprivate
sectorplant scientistsin conjunctionwith their breeding
or nscarch programs,andto help Idendfy collections
containingmetcrial hclieved to be importantto the U.S.
NatIonalPlant CktmplasmSystem.

Characterlstlcs   of Your Collections

36. Do you have responsibility for the preservationor
    maintenanceof any Genus nsources?(Check one.)
    1. Cl Yes
    2. 0 No. (GO TO QCESTION48)

37. In generalfor how many yearsdo you intend to
    preserveor maintain your geneticresources?(Check
    one.)

    I.0     Lcssthanlyear
    2. Cl   I to 10 years
    3. cl   11to2oycars
    4. Cl   21 to 30 years
    5. Cl   31 to 40 years
    6. q    Over 40 yean

38. Who owns the geneticnsourcesyou preserveor
    maintain?(Check all thar apply.)
    1. 0 College or University
    2. 0 Private organizationat which you work
    3. Cl U.S. or stategovernmentalorganizationor
          agency
    4. Cl Governmentalorganizationor agencyof a
          country other than tbe United States
    5. q Non-profit organizationor agency
    6. 0 Yourscll
    7. q Other (specify)




                                                          17




            Page 34                        GAO/PEMD-Sl-SB      Plant Germplaam   Framework   and Queationnak
.



               Survey fhwerning        Plant Genetic Resources




    39. We would like to get someidea of the size of the Genusgeneticresourcescdlecti~tt~ you refer to in question36.
       and the extent thatmaterial is distributedto others. About how many different accessionsor samplesof materlat
       do you have?Whatpercentof thoseare duplicatedat your facility, and what percenthavebeenplacedin long tctm
       back-upstorage(e.g., at the National SeedStorageLaboratory)? Also, abouthow many accessionsor samplesof
       material, if any. have you sentto other scientistsin the past 3 years? Leave the spaces blank (fyou have no
       accesslons In a category, and check no basis to judge if you do not have enough lqfomwtlan w estimate numbers
       andpercents.
                                                                AccralIon         Prewrvod and Dlmrlbutod


                                                    ~~~
           Categoriesof GeneticReaourcea /            (1)   /    (2)       /      0)    /   (4)   /   (5)
       Gene pool 1                                                                          ::’        ,I
                                                I
       1. Cultivars in currentuse                           I          %               %I         I
       2. Obsoleteculdvars                      I           I          %               %(         I
       3. Traditional varieties flandraces)     1                      %I              %I
       Gene pool 2                              I
       4. Distant relativesof cultivated                    I              I            I
          varieties that form fertile’hybrlds               !          %               %(
       5. Biological speciesthat can be
          crossedusing conventional
          methodsbut with high level of         I           I              I            I
          sterility
       Gene ~013




       9. Other(specify)




                                                                18




               Page 36                              GAO/PEMD-91-SB             Plant Germplasm    Fhmework   and Questionnaire
                 Appendix II
                 Survey Concerning      Plant Genetic lb3ourcea




    40. If you campleaseestimatethe percentof existing           43. If accessionswere not accepted,why not? (Check all
        diversity for GcnliJ you believe Is representedin the        that apply.)
        collection describedin question397 By existing
        divetatty, we meanthat which is representedin all            1. 0 All accessionswere.accepted
        cultivated and wild types world-wide. (1fyou can’t           2. 0 Resourceswere.duplicates
       provide an estimate check no basis to judge)
                                                                     3. [7 Resourceswere thoughtto be in poor
        1.              Percentof existing diversity                       condition
                                                                     4. 0 Recipientcould not storeor maintain
        2. 0 No basisto judge
                                                                     5. 0 Inadequatedescription
    41. Do you have uniqueaccessionsin your collection               6. 0 Resourceswere not consistentwith mcipicnt’s
        that would be of value to the U.S. National Plant                  mission
        OotmplasmSystem?(Check one.)                                 7. Cl Other (specfi)
       1. 0   Yes
       2. 0   Pmbably yes
       3. 0   Undecided                                              8. 0 No reasongiven for non-acceptance
       4. 0   Ptobably no (GO TO QUEST1OAr
                                         44)
                                                                 44. Whatpercentof your Genusgeneticresourcesare
       5. 0   No (GO TO QUESTION44)                                  preservedor maintainedin the following form(s)? (
                                                                     Esdmates are good enough).
    42. About how many of the possibly unique accessions
        wcte offeredto the U.S. National Plant Germplasm             Percent
        Systemin the past3 years;how many were accepted?
        Esttmate the numbers offered and accepted, or check          1.           %Seed
        na basis IOjudge.
                                                                     2.           9%Pollen
        1.              Numberoffered
                                                                     3.           % Clones/vegetativeptopagules
        2.              Numberaccepted
                                                                     4.           % DNA (geneticsequences)library
        3. 0 No basisto judge
                                                                     5.           96 In-vitm culture

                                                                     6.           96Other (specify)




                                                                19

Y




                Page 36                           GAO/PEMD-Ql-SB          Plant Germplasm    Framework    and Questionnaire
             Appendix II
             Survey Concerning       Plant Genetic Resources




45. For genetictesourcesyou preserveor maintain in any          47. Which of the following standardsfor preservation if
    form, which of thefollowing conditions,if any, are              any, do you apply in maintainingyour genetic
    usually regulatedand/orrecorded?(Checkany                       resources?(Check all thatapply.)
    conditions you regulate, and any for which records
    are kept).                                                     1. q No standardsapplied
                                                                   2. 0 fntemationalBoardfor Plant Genetic
                                                                        Resources(IBWR) recommendedstandards
                                                                   3. 0 Standardsusedby, or recommendedby the
       Types of Condttions / (1) /w                                     U.S. Departmentof Agriculture or National
                                                                        SeedStorageLaboratory
    1. Temoeratute               I
                                                                   4. 0 Standatdsestablishedby the lnsdtudonor
                                                                        industry with which you work
    3. Packagingmaterials                                          5.0 Your personalstandards
                                                                   6. 0 Other (specfy)



   6. Atmosphere(e.g.,
       co21                    I      I     I
   7. Controlof
       insects/rodents         I     I      I
   8. Light quality and
       intensity               I     I      I
   9. Length of time in
       StO*l@                  I     I      I
   10. Other(specify)
                               I     I      I



16. Which of the following maintenanceactivities, if
    any, do you usually perform? (Check all that apply.)

   1. 0   Germinateseedprior to placing it in storage
   2. 0   Conductsubsequentgerminationtests
   3. 0   Grow out seedto replenishcollection(s)
   4. 0   RegeneratedOna resources
   5. 0   Test or treat for virusesandpathogens
   6. 0   Noneof the above




                                                           20




             Page 37                            GAO/PEMD-91-SB          Plant Germplasm      Framework     and Questionnaire
48. To what extent, If at all, do you believe the following preservation aetivides shouldbe amphaalmd to faellltate
    the wad mana@mentof ffrnur geneticresources?(Checkone columnfor each row to lndicatc tha extent of
    anphasls or nabah        loludgd.




                 Praaawatbn Actknb8                          / 11)/ (2) / (3) / (4) / (6) / (6)
   1. Dwelophg new pmservatkmtechlques (e.g.,
      dme culture,oryopnsenation, etc.)
   2. lnemuing rhosize and/orimproving the quality
      of ax&Inn storagefacilities or elonal
       mmallo&
         .~~             -                               I
                                                         I
                                                                  I
                                                                  I
                                                                        I
                                                                        I
                                                                              I
                                                                              I
                                                                                    I
                                                                                    I
                                                                                          I
                                                                                          I
                                                                                                  I
   3. lmrwln8 plowout eondltionsor strategies            I                    I     I     I      I
   4. Detectingandtreatingdiseasesand inseetsin
      amrage




                                                             21




               Page 80                      GAO/PJMIWl-SB             Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire
               Appendix II
               Survey Concerning    PIant Genetic Re8ources




    DESCRIPTION      OF GENUS GENETIC RESOURCES


     fhis sectionprovidesinformationto genetic resource
    managersaboutthe descriptionsof storedgenetic
    resourcesthat are imponant to scientistswho usethe
    resources,andaboutthe availability andusefulnessof
    descriptiveinformation.

    49. Have you requestedany type of descriptive
        WonnatIon aboutGenusgeneticresources,from any
        sourceor provider, within the past5 years?(Check
       One.)

        1. Cl Yes (CONTINUE)
       2.0     No (CONTINUE’)

    50. In instanceswhen you have not requesteddescriptive
        information,which of the following reasonsdescribe
        why not? (Check all that apply.)
       1. 0 Descriptionsof geneticresourceaccessions
            am not impottant to my work andare not
            needed(GO TO QUESTION 53)



       2. Cl Do not believe informationexists
       3. 0 Informationis difficult to obtain becauseof
             inaccessibledatabases
       4. 0 Believe existing informationis not complete
             or accurate
       5. c] Believe informationwould not be relevantto
             currentwork
       6. 0 Other(specify)




                                                             22
Y




               Page 39                      GAO/PEMD-9MB          Plant Germplasm   Framework   and Questionnaire
               Appendix II
               Survey Concerning       Plant Genetic Resources




    5 1. How important,if at all, are eachof the following kinds of geneticnsourcesinformationto your wodt? Also,
         indicate if accurate’orcompleteinformationis hard to get, or if informationis impossibleto get. (For level of
        bnportance check only one of the columns numbered l-5 or no basis to judge for each row).
                                                             I        l.Lwd af lmearirnca            Ii 2.Accwa          1




       2. Commonname(s)                        11111111                                                   I
       3. Donor/collector                 ~1       I I                I     I     I
       4. Accuratelocation of collection
           site, altirude,latitude, 1OngiNdC.
           etc.
       5. Conditionsat collection site (e.g.,
           climate, soil, pests)
       6. PCdiJJme/~CnCtiC     history
       7. Health/viabiiity
       8. Extent of expecteddiversity in
           eachaccessionreceived
       9. Nutritional needsof plants
       10. Phenologicaltraits (e.g.,seedcoat
           color or life cycle)
       11. Physicaltraits suchas leaf size,
           growth habit, bud size and shape)
       12. Known genetictraits for resistance
           to disease,pests,or enviromnental
           stresses;mineral tolerance;yield;
           and adaptation,etc.
       13. Crossability with commercial
           cultivars
       14. Descriptionof usesof commercial
           culuvars
       15. Humanor animal nutritional
           information(e.g.,protein level, oil
           content)




                                                                 23

Y




               Page 40                           GAO/PEMDQl-BB            Plant Gexmplasm    Framework        and Questionnaire
             Appendix II
             Survey Concerning      Plant Genetic Resources




52. Pleaselist addidonaltypes of descriptiveinformationthat, if available, would assistyou in your work.




53. To what extent, if at all, do you believe the following description activities shouldbe emphasizedto facilitate the
    overall managementof Genusplant geneticresources?(Check one columnfor each activfry listed.)




    1. f%htatmg accessionsfor individual

   2. Mapping genesin storedaccessions
   3. Ehminating unnecessaryduplicate
      accessions


   5. Providing descriptiveinformation,
      including background,taxonomy,and
      oediame.data                      I                 I        I        I         I        I        I



                                                 IIIIIII
   6. Other (specify)




54. Consideryour own researchandbreedingefforts during the past 3 years. For abouthow many accessionshave you
    generateddescriptiveand/orevaluationinformation7Estimates are good enough.
                        (Number of accessions)(IF NONE, GO TO QUESTION 60)

55. Is this descriptiveand/orevaluationinformationrecordedin any manner?(Check one.)
    1. [II Yes (CONTINUE)
   2. 0   No (GO TO QUESTlON 60)




                                                           24




             Page 41                           GAO/PEMD-91-IB          Plant Germplasm     Framework        and Questionnaire
                  Appendix II
                  Survey Concerning   Plant Genetic Rawurcce




    56. Which of the following methodsare usedto                   60. In general,over the past3 years,in aboutwhat
        mtain/ncord Udsififormalion?(Check all rhat apply.)            prccnt of the instanceshave providers(peoplewho
                                                                       sentyou Genusgeneticresources)askedyou to send
       I. 0 ManuaVmechanlcalfiles                                      back your evaluationdata?(Answer for both
                                                                       VSDAIARS as well as for other prodders)
       2. Cl Computcrixedtiles
       3. 0 Publications                                                1.              % of USDAIARS askingfor
                                                                                        evaluationdata
    57. To what extent, if at all, is this information                 2.               % of othersaskingfor evaluation
        organized,crossindexed,andlabeled for easeof                                    data
        access?(Place a check mark in the appropriate                                   (IF BOTH ARE 0 %, GO TO
       column.)                                                                         QUESTION 63)

                                                                   61. About how often, if at all, did you provide the
                                                                       requested data?




       1. Manual or
          mechanical
       2. Computerized
       3. Publication

    58. Is your manualor computerizedinformationusually
        avaIlable to others?(Check one.)
       1. 0    Yes
       2. Cl Oenerally yes
       3.   q As often yesas no
       4. Cl Generally no
       5.0     No

    59. How long do you plan to retain your manualor
        computerizedinformation?(Check one.)
        1.0 Lcssthanlyear
       2. 0 1 to 3 years
       3. 0 4 to 6 years
       4. q 7 to 9 years
       5. 0 More than9 years




                                                              25

Y




                  Page 42                       GAO/PEMD-91-5B               Plant Germplasm    Framework     and Questio~M~
        Appendix II
        Survey Concswning Plant Genetic Berourcer




62. Which. if any, of the following masonsmadeit
    difficult for you tdprovide the requested
    information?(Check all that apply.)
    I. 0    All requestedinformationwas provided
    2. 0     Did not evaluatensources
    3. 0    No conclusiveresultswere obtained
    4. q    Prlmadly negativeresultswere obtainedfrom
            scncning for spcclfic traits
    S. Cl   Informationwasproprietary
    6. 0    Not our policy to returninformation
    7. 0    Did not have time
    8. 0    Too Costly
    9. 0    Felt informationwas alreadyreadily available
   10. 0    Informationwasdifficult to copy, extract,
            format or send
   11. Cl   Other(spcc@)




                                                           26




        Page 48                          GAO/PEMD-B14iB         Plant G@mn~laem Fr8mfmd   md ~eetto~
                                                                                                              .


              Appendix II
              Survey Concerning       Plant Genetic Resources




GENUS CROP IMPROVEMENT AND RESEARCH

This sectionprovidesa statusof ongoingefforts involving the useof Genus geneticresources,including tiding and
staff levels, the primary focusof programs,andextent of useof geneticresources.

63. How many Ml-time equivalentstaff doesyour entire organization,or do you personallyhave working on Genus
    breedingand/orresearch?(By full-time equivalentwe meanthe sumof all full-time andpan-time staff hours
    convertedlo representan equivalentnumberof full-dme staff.) Also, aboutwhatpercentof the total FTEs is
    dedicatedprimarily to eachof the broad ateasof emphasislisted below? (Answerfor your organizatfon, your own
   area of responsibility, or both as appropriate for your situ&on.   Percents should total 100.)

    63a. Your OrganlzPtion’s Staff              (Total numberof iitll-time equivalentemployees)
    Percent
    of FTEs           Primary Emphasis
    1,           %    Improving cropsto enhancecommercialvalues
    2.           %      Improving preservadontechniquesor conditions
    3.           %      Developing or improving geneticmanipulationor other advanced(biotechnology)techniques
    4,           %    Basic research
    5.           %      Other (specifu)


      100%            Total
    6. 0              No basisto judge


    63b. Your Staff               (Total numberof full-time equivalentemployees)
    Percent
    of FTES           Primary Emphasis
    1.-          %      Improving cropsto enhancecommercialvalues
    2. -%               Improving preservationtechniquesor conditions
    3*           %      Developing or improving geneticmanipulationor other advanced(biotechnology)techniques
    4.           %      Basic research
    5. -%               Other(specify)


         100%           Total
    6. 0                No basisto judge



                                                           21




              Page 44                          GAO/PEMD-91.II3        Plant Germplasm kamework      and Questionnaire
.


               Appendix II
               Survey Concerning     Plant Genetic Resounxs




    64. Pleaseestimatethe,total amountof funding that your organizationor you have receivedfor G~nur br&ing and/or
        researchpmgram(8)in the past 3 years. (If your budget is aggregated to include other crops and WCSplerrrc
       4mate how much went for Genus.)
        1. Organization’sprogramS
        2. Your programS
        3. c] No basisto judge (GO TO QUESTKJPf66)




                                                         28




               Page 45                        GAO/PEMD-Bl-SB       Plant GermpLasm Framework        and Questionnaire
                                                                                                                           I
            Appendix II
            Survey Concerning Plant Genetic l&sources




65. Appmxhnately wh?t percentof this funding was pmvlded by the following soumes?(FM In the blanks with the
   appropriate percents for your organization atior your area of responsslbllity, as appropriate. Percents should
   total 100. If you don’t have access to this information, check no basis w judge.)



    I-Organlzatlon’s
    Program                   2.Your Program        Sourceof Funding

   01.            %                       %         Internationalsources(e.g., FAO. IBPGR.)

   02.            %                       %         Governmentsourcesin counttiesotherthan the.USA

   03.            %                       %         LJSDAESRScompetitive grants

   04.            %                       %         All other USDA funds

   05.            %                       %         Other federalagencies(e.g., U.S. AID)

   06.            %                       %         Stateagencies/StateExperiment Stations

   07.            %                       46        Universities

   08.            %                       %         FoundationSeedRoyalty AssociationsK!mpbnpmvement
                                                    Foundations

   09.            %                       %         Private industry

   IO.            %                       %         private foundations(e.g.,RockefellerFoundation,Ford
                                                    Foundation,etc.)

   11.            %                       %         Crop specific associations

   12.            %                       %         Useror membershipfees

   13.            %                       %         Other(specifi)


     100%                       lCO%                Total
   14. •I                    No basisto judge




                                                        29




            Page 46                            GAO/PEMLbBl-SB        Plant Germplasm    Framework      and Questionnaire
.                 Appendix II
                  Survey Concerning      Plant Genetic Resources




    6Ci. PleaseIndicatethe,extent,if at all. your Genus breedingand/orresearchefforts currently emphasizethe following
       objectives. Also, lttdicate the extent. if at all. you bellcve your efforts will be directedtowardtheseobjectivesin
       the next Wee years. (Check one column for each heading)




       Commercial emphasis
       1. Increasingyields or production
       2. Enhancingnutidonal valuesof crops I            I     I      I      I         I      I       I       (       I       I
       3. Expandingcommercialusesof crops
       4. Intpmving pmductprocessingor
          storaactechnlaucs
       Search for reslstance
       5. Identifying traits for resistanceto
          known diseases,pests,etc., that have
          not yet beenfound in genetic
          rcsoitrccsfor this crop-
       6. Identifying traits for gmater
          adaptationto environmentalor
          physical stresses




                                                                                 --....,1   --.   -.-....
                                                                                                   :, ----..r:----.,y :, :y
       Other research                           1.
       10. Mapping genesnot yet identified
           with any known traits
       11. Identifying new sourcesof genetic
           variation within or outsidethe genus
       12. Studying populationgenetics
       13. Studyof hostplant/parasite
           interaction
       14. Improving geneticmanipulation
           (biotechnology)techniquesfor
           btceding and/orresearch              I       I      I      I      I
       15. Other research(specify)



                                                              30




                                                                                                                                         J




                 Page 47                           GAO/PEMD-916B          Plant Germplasm           Framework        and Questionnaire
                                                                                                                            .

                                                                                                                                       .
                     Appendix II
                     Swey    Concerning    Plant Genetic Resources




    r-

         67. Pleaseindicate the,extent,if at ali, eachof the following reasonsinfluenceddecisionsto develop,conductand/or
             participatein your durrentbreedingand/orresearchpmgrams?(Checkone columnfor each row)
                                                                                   Extent naronr   lnlluenced dOolSlonS



                 Reasonsfor Br0edinQorResearchProprams          /        (1) /    (2) /   (3) /    (4) /   (s) /     @I
            1. High economicvalue of crop
            2. EnvimnmentaJstressesareendangeringcrops
            3. Changesin land usepatterns
            4. Pestsor diseasesam endangeringcrops
            5. Requiredby fundingsourceor researchleader
            6. Scientific interest/discovery
            7. Currentand/orpotentialdemandfor hybrids
            8. Productionof cultivars
            9. Amount of domesticconsumption
            10. Demandfor exmtt to other counuies
            11. Currentandpotential numberof usesfor the
                crop (e.g., food, fiber, forage,fuel)
            12. pressurefrom the crop produceror end user
                itmuos
            13. Increaseduseof alternativefarming products
            14. Low input sustainableagriculture(LISA)
            15. Other(specify)




                                                                    31

Y




                     Page 48                         GAO/PEMDBl-BB               Plant Germplasm    Framework      and Questionnaire
                      Appendix   II
                      Survey Concerning Plant Genetic Resources




    68. About how many diffetent accessions,samples,etc.              70. PleaselndlcatespeclfIcresistancetraits for which
        am you cumntly using in your breedingor research                  you    are searchingor checkinformationis proprietary.
        efforts? About how many do you plan to usein the
        next 3 years? Pleaseestimatethesenumbersfor each                   1.
        of the geneticresourcecategories.(If none,enter0).
                                                      Use in
               Categoriesof Genetic         yrt       ;y,;
                     Resources
        Gene    pool 1
        1. Cultivars in currentuse
        2. Obsoletecultivate              I       I
        3. Traditional varieties,                                         2. Cl Informationis pmprletiuy
             (landraces)
        Gene pool 2                                                   7 1. Werethe traits or descriptorsyou searchedfor
        4. Distant relativesof                                             recommendedby a major advisoryorganizationsuch
             cultivated varieties that                                     as a U.S. Crop Advisory Committee,the Intemadonal
             form fenile hybrids                                           Boardfor Plant GeneticResources;etc.7(Check one.J
        S. Biological speciesthat                                        1.0      No
             can be crossedusing
             conventionalmethodsbut                                      2. 0     Yes
             wlth high level of sterility                                3. 0     Proprietaryinformation
        Gene   pool    3                                                 4. 0     No basisto judge
       6. Biological speciesthat
          can be crossedonly by                                       72. We would like to know to what extent, if at all, you
          useof advanced                                                  believe the descriptorsfor resistancerecommended
          techniques                                                      by major advisoryorgtmlzatlonsIncludethe traits
       Other                                                              that you believe shouldbe researchpriorities7 (Check
                                                                         one.)
       7. Special genedcstocks
                                                                         1. cl    To little or no extent
                                                                         2. 0     To someextent
                                                                         3. 0     To a moderateextent
                                                                         4. 0     To a great extent
    49. Are you currently searchingfor traits for resistanceto
        specific stresses(e.g., specificdisease,pest,etc.) in            5. 0     To a very greatextent
       Genus? (Check one.)
                                                                         6. 0 No basisto judge
        1. Cl Yes (CONTINUE)
       2.0     No (GO TO QUESTION72)




                                                                 32

Y




                      Page 49                         GAO/PEMD-91-SB Plant Germplasm                Framework    and Questionnaire
             Appendix II
             Snrvey Concerning      Plant Genetic Reeom




73. What, if any. rpccijic resistance trpita do you believe
    need#materemphasisas researchpriorities. (wrlre
    none (f twna, or check i#ormatlon b proprietary.)

    1.




    2. 0 btfomuuion is proprietary

74. To what axtent, if at all, do you believe the following research,crop improvement,or cnhanccmentacUvitler
    shouldbe cmphasixedto facilitate the overall managementof Genur plant geneticnsources? (Check one coltttnn
   for each actlvity).




                           Acmy                               /    (1) /    (2)   /   (3) /   (4)   /   (6) /   (6) /
   1. Identifying andmappinggenes
   2. Developing msiatanceto stresses
      (envlmnmental,diseases,insects,pesticides,
      NC.)
   3. Identifying traits for, and/orimproving
      commercialqualities of crops
   4. Improving or developing advanced
      @iotachnology)techniques,suchas molecular
      genetics,cell tissueculture,genemapping,etc.
   5. Transferringcharactedsticsfrom non-adapted
      geneticresourcesto adaptedtypes (pm-breeding,
      enhancement)
   6. Developing new usesfor undomesticatedgenetic
      lesourccs
   7. Other(spcc(fy)




                                                              33




            Page SO                           GAO/PEMD91-LIB               Plant Germplasm      Framework       and Questioxmah
Impact of Advanced (Biotechnology) Techniques on Breeding and Reseerch

7%hib# lh6 pw 5 year%have you usedany advanced(biotechnology)techniquesin your bnading or research
    propnms Wh6lB~IJWJ gerlCtiCIWourccswere involved7 (Check one.)
    1. a Yu (CONTINUE)
   2.0     No (Go TO QUESTION 80 AND THE DEFINITIONS ON PAGE 37).

76. plsus indlcrtc the extent, If at all. you have usedthe following advanced(biotechnology)techniquesdudng the
    put 5 yeam. Also, indicatethe extent, if af all, the useof eachtechniquehaschangedthe emphasisor objectivesof
    your bmedingor researchaffofons     up to the pnsent time. (Check one column under each heading for each row).




   5. mrnicrl rvnthcsisof nucleic adds or gene
         aynthe6is-
   6. Protoplut fusion
   7. wid6em6ses
   8. ouw (SPCCUL)




                                                        34




             P*ge 61                         GAO/PEMD-91-SB Plant Germplasm kamework                and Questionnaire
             Appendix II
             Snmey Concerning     Plant Genetic Besources




77. Pleaseindicate the,extent,if at all, you expect the advanced(biotechnology)techniquesto changeUKJemphasisor
    objectivesof yourbreeding and/orresearchefforts in the foreseeablefuture. (Checkone columnw&r each
    heading for each row.)




78. Is the useof theseadvancedtechniqueschanging,to any extent, the amountor types of geneticnsourcesyou use
    in your breedingor researcheffom? (Check one.)
   1.0    Yes(COhTlNCJhJ
   2. 0   No (CO TO QUESTION 80 AND THE DEFINITIONS ON PAGE 37)




             Page 52                        GAO/PEMD-91-5B       Plant Germplasm     Pramework     and Que&ionnaire
           Appendix II
           Survey Concerning       Plant Genetic Besources




79. lndlcate whetheruseof advanced@iotechnology)techniquesis caus@ an increase.decrease,or no changein your
    useof geneticrestimes in eachcategory.(Check one column for each rm.)




   1. Cultivafs in curtent use
   2. Obsoletecultivan         I
   3. Traditional varieties
      (landraces)              I      I    I     I




   5. Biological spiciesthat
      can be crossedusing
      conventionalmethods
      but with high level of

   Gene pool 3
   6. Biological speciesthat
      can be crossedonly by
      useof advanced
      techniques




                                                     36




           Page 53                         GAO/PEMDBl-SB     Plant Germplasm    Framework    and Questionnaire
                                                                                                                       ,
            Appendix II
            Survey Concerning     Plant Genetic Reeoureee




DEFINITIONS     OF PLANT GENETIC RESOURCE MANAGEMENT                    ACTIVITIES

We want to know if opinionsaboutplacing emphasison patticular genedcresourceactivities, provided by scientists
who usethe resources,can help geneticresourcemanagersidentify differencesin needsamongcropsor genera. Please
hmliiarlze yourself with the following deflnitlons before contlnulng to question 80.

ACQUISITION: Collecting additionalplant geneticresourcesfrom centersof diversity andother world locations,as
well asthroughexchangewith other scientistsor genebanks.

PRESERVATION         - Storing andmaintainingplant geneticresourcesin genebank~IWUUOM throughoutthe world In
orderto assumthat (1) a diversesupply of plant genetic resourcesis available to breedersand researchers,and (2)
sufficientdiversity exists in genebanksto assurethe long-termsurvival of cultivated crop species.

DESCRIPTION     - Identifying and accuratelydescribingplant geneticresources(especiallythosestoredin collections
throughoutthe world) by developingaccuratepassportdocumentationandevaluating for descriptors.

ENHANCEMENT          - Transferringcharacteristicshorn non-adaptedgeneticresourcesto adaptedtypes (pm-breeding)
so that scientistscan moreeasily usethe characteristicsto improve cultivated cmps.

BREEDING - Developing new plant varieties or improving existing varieties (especiallycommercialcrops)using
tradidonal methodsof crossingvarieties (i.e. not usingmodemmoleculargeneticstechnologiesto transfergenesfrom
one vadety to another).

BIOTECHNOLOGY        - Developing and applying advancedtechniquesto identify andmanipulategenes,or improve
storagetechnologiesfor plant geneticresources.




                                                       37




            Page 64                         GAO/PEMD-Bl-5B       Plant Germplasm     Framework     and Questionnaire
    I   .



f




                         Appendix II
                         Survey Concerning       Plant Genetic Resources




            80. Basedon your kno,wledgeandexperience,pleaserate the relative importanceof emphasizingthe major activiUes.
                definedabove,to dte overall impmvementof Genusgenetic resoumepnservation anduse. Do this by considering
                eachpair combinationof the six major activities listed in the fifteen rows below. On eachmw. pleasecomparethe
                two acttvittesdesignatedActivity A andActivity B (e.g.,descriptionI pnsetvation). Pleasenotethat nhte columns
                am arrangedso that you may checkone column for eachmw to indicate which activity is more important,   or that
                they are equal in importance. We realize that somechoicesmay be easywhile othersmay be very difficult. But
               regardless,be sureto rate eachcombinationpair becausewe cannotmakean accurateassessmentuntessa9 I5
               pairs am rated.

            Please check the m&We column (5) lf you believe the two actlvitles should be emphasized equally for the overall
            improvement of Genusgenetic resource management. If you believe Activity A Is more important rhanActivtty 8.
            check one of the columns to the left of center w indicate how much more important A is over B, or Ifyou belleve
            Activity B is more important than Activity A, check one of the columns to the right of center to lndlcate how much more
            important B is over A.




            2. DescriptionI Breeding       I          I     I      I     I     I      I     I     I      I
            3. EnhancementI Preservation
            I. Acquisition I Description
            i. PtosetvationI Biotechnology
            o. Bneding I Enhancement
            7. BiotechnologyI Breeding
            8. DescriptionI Pteservation
            9. EnhancementI Acquisition               I            I     I     I      I     I I
            10. Acquisition I Breeding     I                I
            11. PreservationI Acquisition       I I                      I                  I I
            12. BreedingI Preservadon
            13. BiotechnologyI Enhancement 1          1     1      1     1     1      1     1     1      1
            14. DescriptionI Biotechnology            I     I            I            I     I I
            15. EnhancementI Description   1                       I




                                                                       38




                        Page 66                           GAO/PEMD-91.BB Plant Gennplaam              Framework     and Questionnaire
                                                                                                                           .
             Appendix II
             Survey Cmcernlng Plant Genetic Resources




                                                                                                                               1
8I. If you have any commentsor qualificationson any of         83. To assistus with furtherdevelopmentof
    the questionsaskedor on any questionswe should                 questionnairerespondentlista, pleaseprovide the
    have askedbut dld not, pleasemakethesestatcmcnts               namesandaddressesof up to threeusel~of Genus
    ln the spacebelow. We would like to hear horn you.             geneticresources,who do work dmllar to your own
    (Atkxh additional sheets ifnecessary)




                                                           Thank you.
82. In order for us to discussthe questionnairewith you
    andto follow-up on responses,if necessary,please
    provide the following infonnation:
    Your telephonenumber:
    Bestday of the week for us to call you:


    Best time of the day for us to call you:




                                                          39




             Page 66                           GAO/PEMD-914B          Plant Germplasm     Framework    and Questionnaire
Bibliography


               Beckmann, J, S., and M. Soller. “Restriction Fragment Length
               Polymorphisms in Plant Genetic Improvement,” no. 1607-E, 1985 series.
               Oxford Surveys of Plant Molecular Biology. Agricultural Research
               Organization, Volcani Centre, Hebrew University, Bet Danan, Israel: n.d.

               Brooks, Howard J., and Grant Vest. “Public Programs on Genetics and
               Breeding of Horticultural Crops in the United States.” HortScience, ‘20:5
               (October 1985), 826-30.

               Brown, A. H, D., et al. The Use of Plant Genetic Resources. Melbourne,
               Australia: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

               Brown, William L. “Genetic Diversity and Genetic Vulnerability-An
               Appraisal.” Economic Botany, 37: 1(1983), 4-l 2.

               Buttel, Frederick H., and Jill Belsky. “Biotechnology, Plant Breeding,
               and Intellectual Property: Social and Ethical Dimensions.” Science and
               Technology: Human Values, vol. 12, issue I, pp. 31-49. Cambridge, Mass.:
               Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the President and Fellows of
               Harvard College, Winter 1987.

               Center for Plant Conservation Conference Plan. The Genetics of Rare
               Plant Conservation: A Conference on Integrated Strategies for Conserva-
               tion and Management. Jamaica Plains, Mass.: July 22, 1988.

               Commission on Plant Genetic Resources. “Implications of New Biotech-
               nologies for the International Undertaking.” Provisional Agenda. Rome,
               Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, April
               1989.

               Committee on Biosciences Research in Agriculture. New Directions for
               Biosciences Research in Agriculture. Washington, D.C.: National
               Academy Press, 1985.

               Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research and Interna-
               tional Board for Plant Genetic Resources. Partners in Conservation:
               Plant Genetic Resources and the CGIAR System. Rome, Italy: Interna-
               tional Board for Plant Genetic Resources, n.d.

               Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. Genetic Engineering in
               Food and Agriculture, no. 110. Ames, Iowa: September 1986.




               Page 67              GAO/PEMD-91.SB   Plant Germplasm   Premework   and Questionnaire
Bibliography




Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. Plant Germplasm Pres-
ervation and Utilization in U.S. Agriculture, no. 106. Ames, Iowa:
November 1985.

Day, P. R. “Crop Improvement: Breeding and Genetic Engineering.” Phil-
osophical Transactions Royal Society, London, 310 (1985), 47-52.

Day, P. R. “Future Trends in Plant Breeding.” Biotechnology and Its
Application to Agriculture, Monograph No. 32, pp. 25-31, Croydon, Eng.:
BCPC Publications, 1985.

Diversity, issue 15. Washington, D.C.: Genetic Resources Communica-
tions Systems, Inc., 1988.

Diversity, issue 16. Washington, DC.: Genetic Resources Communica-
tions Systems, Inc., 1988.

Duvick, Donald N. “Genetic Diversity in Major Farm Crops on the Farm
and in Reserve.” Economic Botany, 38:2 (1984), 161-78.

Elkington, John. Double Dividends? US. Biotechnology and Third World
Development, WRI Papers No. 2. Washington, DC.: World Resources
Institute, 1986.

Frey, K. J. “Genes From Wild Relatives for Improving Plants.” Proceed-
ings of the Fourth International SABRAO Congress. Bangi, Selangor,
Malaysia: 1983.

Frey, K. J. “Presidential Address: the Unifying Force in Agronomy-
Biotechnology.” Agronomy Journal, 77 (March-April 1985), 187-89.

Goodman, Billy. “From Russia With Love.” Discover, May 1990, pp. 63-
65.

Gould, Fred. “Evolutionary Biology and Genetically Engineered Crops.”
Bioscience, 38: 1 (January 1988), 26-33.

Hoyt, Erich. Conserving the Wild Relatives of Crops. Rome, Italy: Inter-
national Board for Plant Genetic Resources, International Union for Con-
servation of Nature and Natural Resources, World Wide Fund for
Nature, 1988.




Page 58              GAO/PEMD-Ol-SB   Plant Germplasm   Pramework   and Questionnaire
.
    Bibliography




    International Board for Plant Genetic Resources. Crop Genetic
    Resources: Conservation and Evaluation. London: George Allen and
    Unwin, 1984.

    Joint Council on the Food and Agricultural Sciences. Fiscal Year 1990
    Priorities for Research, Extension, and Higher Education. Washington,
    DC.: June 1988.

    Joint Council on the Food and Agricultural Sciences. Five-Year Plan for
    the Food and Agricultural Sciences: A Report to the Secretary of Agri-
    culture. Washington, DC.: May 1988.

    Keystone Center. Final Report of the Keystone International Dialogue on
    Plant Genetic Resources. Session 1, Ex Situ Conservation of Plant
    Genetic Resources. Keystone, Colo.: August 15-18, 1988.

    Kloppenburg, Jack, Jr. First the Seed: The Political Economy of Plant
    Biotechnology. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

    Kloppenburg, Jack, Jr. “Seeds of Struggle: The Geopolitics of Genetic
    Resources.” Technology Review, February-March 1987, pp. 47-53.

    Lande, Russel. “Genetics and Demography in Biological Conservation.”
    Science, 241 (September 1988), 1455-60.

    McMullen, Neil. “Seeds and World Agricultural Progress.” National Plan-
    ning Association Report, no. 227. Washington, D.C.: National Planning
    Association: 1987.

    “National Plant Germplasm System of the United States.” Plant
    Breeding Reviews, vol. 7. Portland, Ore.: Timber Press, 1989.

    Peeters, John P., and Nick W. Galwey. “Germplasm Collections and
    Breeding in Europe.” Economic Botany, 42:4 (1988), 503-21.

    “Pino to Lead Global Germplasm Study.” Diversity, issue 9 (1986), 4-5.

    Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. “Conservation and Utilization of
    Exotic Germplasm to Improve Varieties.” Report of the 1983 Plant
    Breeding Research Forum. N.p.: 1983.




    Page 69              GAO/PEMD-91.SB   Plant Germplasm   Framework   and Questionnaire
Blbllography




Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. “The Role of Biotechnology in Plant
Breeding.” Report of the 1984 Plant Breeding Research Forum. N-p.:
1984.

Plucknett, Donald L., et al. Gene Banks and the World’s Food. Princeton,
N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1987.

Saaty, Thomas L. The Analytic Hierarchy Process. New York: McGraw-
Hill, 1980.

Saaty, Thomas L., and Luis G. Vargas. The Logic of Priorities: Applica-
tions in Business, Energy, Health, and Transportation. Boston: Kluwer-
Nijhoff, 1982.

Simpson, Glenn. “Saving Variety in the Global Garden.” Insight, July 20,
1987, pp. 56-57.

Strauss, Michael S., Joel I. Cohen, and John A. Pino. “Quantification of
Diversity in Ex-Situ Plant Collections.” Paper at American Association
for the Advancement of Science Symposium, Boston, February 12,1988.

Tadisina, Suresh K., and Vijay Bhasin. “Doctoral Program Selection
Using Pairwise Comparisons.” Research in Higher Education, 30:4
(1989), 403-18.

Troyer, A. F., S. J. Openshaw, and Kilt Knittle. “Measurement of Genetic
Diversity Among Popular Commercial Corn Hybrids.” Crop Science, 28:3
(May-June 1988), 481-86.

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Technologies to Main-
tain Biological Diversity, CI’A-F-300. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government
Printing Office, March 1987.

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Technologies to Main-
tain Biological Diversity, vol. 2, contract papers, part A, papers 1-6 and
8, plant technologies, PB87-139200. Washington, DC.: U.S. Government
Printing Office, December 1986.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. “Solving
Agricultural Problems with Biotechnology,” draft. Washington, D.C.,
November 1989.




Page 60               GAO/PEMD-91-IB   Plant Germplasm   Prameworlc   and Questionnaire
,


    Bibliography




    U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Agricul-
    tural Research Service Program Plan, miscellaneous publication 1429.
    Washington, D.C.: January 1983.

    U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Plant Genetic Resources
    Board. Plant Germplasm: Conservation and Use. Washington, DC.:
    October 1984.

    U.S. General Accounting Office. Better Collection and Maintenance Pro-
    cedures Needed to Help Protect Agriculture’s Germplasm Resources,
    GAO/CED-~~-~. Washington, D.C.: December 4, 1981.

    US. General Accounting Office. Biotechnology: The U.S. Department of
    Agriculture’s Biotechnology Research Efforts, GAO/RCED-~~-~~BR. Wash-
    ington, DC.: October 25, 1985.

    U.S. General Accounting Office. Case Study Evaluations, transfer paper
    9. Washington, DC.: April 1987.

    U.S. General Accounting Office. The Department of Agriculture Can
    Minimize the Risk of Potential Crop Failures, GAO/CED-~~-~. Washington,
    DC.: April 10, 1981.

    Wilkes, Garrison. “Current Status of Crop Plant Germplasm.” CRC Crit-
    ical Reviews in Plant Sciences, I:2 (1982), 133-81.

    Williams, Trevor. “Plant Genetic Resources and Food Security.” Food
    Policy, May 1988, pp. 178-84.

    Witt, Steven C. Biotechnology and Genetic Diversity. San Francisco,
    Calif.: Agricultural Lands Project, 1985.

    Witt, Steven C. QuickBook Genetic Engineering of Plants. San Francisco,
    Calif.: California Agricultural Lands Project, 1982.

    Wolf, Edward C. “Challenges and Priorities in Conserving Biological
    Diversity.” Interciencia, 10:5 (September-October 1985), 236-42.




    Page 01              GAO/PEMD-91.5B   Plant Germplasm   Framework   and Questionnaire
                                                  ll~.l.-l.   .   ..-.   _.-.   -_---        -.--..--            _-..   -.-.___-.-_._   __._-.-_,___-   ll__.-“_-------_I   -....   --_~..   .-   .._~---.   __.
    ~   --..^....   “_-   *I,,,“,.   ““l-..“h..




                                                                                        .-              ---_--
                                                                                        Ortlt~ring               Ir~formii!ithr




i