v *,. . .. .” - -.-...-.tlnilvcl St.atw -.......-._.-- _.._...___ (;1&1ucbral - ..-.-. - ..-_-._- Awourrt “..“*“.,“,l----.l--..-l.ilkg ._.-..“.“.___. ---...-----Ot’l‘iw -.---.-. -------.-- . PLANT GERMPLASM A Data Collection Framework and Questionnaire ._- Illllllll~llR 142420 ~-_-___--~ .-.....- __.-.. --.--.-- _.....^ -.I_---” - I’ / (;AO/l’ISMI)-!)I-T,I~ volII11l(~ 2 ) --..-- - --- - United States ‘GAO General Accounting Office Washington, D.C. 20548 Program Evaluation and Methodology Division B-240699 October lo,1990 The Honorable Clayton K. Yeutter Secretary of Agriculture Dear Secretary Yeutter: This is the second of two volumes of our report examining the manage- ment of germplasm stores and the National Plant Germplasm System. The report presents our design and demonstration of a new method for obtaining more and complete information relevant to improving the management of the system. This volume provides technical details on a data collection framework and a questionnaire we designed to obtain information about germplasm resources from plant scientists in the United States and foreign coun- tries. Volume one of the report, entitled ,Plant Germplasm: Improving Data for Management Decisions, presents an overview of the Agricul- tural Research Service’s efforts to obtain data for decisionmaking rela- tive to germplasm; an explanation of our objectives, scope, and methodology; results of our demonstration of the new method; and con- clusions and a recommendation. This volume will be distributed to those who receive the first volume, and it will be made available to others who request it. Sincerely yours, Eleanor Chelimsky Assistant Comptroller General Page 1 GAO/PEMIMldB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire contents Appendix I 4 A Frmework to Guide Analyses of Survey Responses 4 Framework Components 5 Data Collection Appendix II Survey Concerning Plant Genetic Resources Bibliography Abbreviations Y ARS Agricultural Research Service NPGS National Plant Germplasm System USDA US. Department of Agriculture Page 2 GAO/PEMD-Sl-5B Plant Germplasm F’ramework and Questionnaire Y Page 3 GAO/PEMD-91.5B Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire Appendix I A F’mmeworkto Guide Data Collection ’ This framework presents categories of conditions and activities that affect long-term survival of crops and their associated germplasm for which uniform information can be obtained about many different crops. The information sources are (1) a survey of the opinions and activities of plant scientists who work with crops and germplasm, (2) germplasm managers’ knowledge of collections, and (3) statistics that (if available) help describe the status of crops and germplasm resources. Together, these would represent a “snapshot” of the status of each crop surveyed. The analyses suggested by the framework components below focus on the information obtained from the survey of plant scientists and indi- cate the quality (availability, completeness, and accuracy) of requested information for different crops, This could help germplasm managers identify gaps in information; trends in germplasm acquisition, preserva- tion, and use; and types of information that are difficult or impossible to obtain. The framework presents examples of analyses of responses to the Analyses of Survey survey questions presented in appendix II. Response frequencies, mean, Responses median, or percentage responses, correlation, or other statistics can be applied to describe the data as applicable. The framework presents sug- gested ways to combine responses from separate questions or parts of questions for an individual crop, species, or genus. Undoubtedly, dif- ferent or additional combinations would be of interest to the analyst, depending on the crop surveyed and specific management needs. When these comprehensive data are obtained for a wide range of crops, additional levels of analyses should be applied to compare needs and conditions among crops. Over the long term, the data base of informa- tion can be updated as additional crops are surveyed or resurveyed and accessed to identify changes in conditions or trends. For example, the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) might strive to deemphasize some areas where the data indicate a strong effort by others, or it might attempt to coordinate with others to maximize the dissemination of information and minimize’duplication of effort. For many of the analyses presented in the framework, differences in opinions or level of activity among groups of scientists who use germ- plasm in their breeding or research efforts can be determined by strati- fying the groups in various ways, using survey questions 3 through 12-for example, length of time working with the crop; membership in Page 4 GAO/PEMD-9ldB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire Appendix I A Framework to Guide Data Collection particular organizations; public sector, university, or private sector researcher; or education level and field of study. Survey responses obtained from several of the survey questions can be analyzed to obtain scientists’ opinions about the relative importance of emphasizing various germplasm management activities. By gaining the opinions of scientists who are users of the resource, ARS could broaden its view of the status of various crops with respect to the need for emphasis among the activities involved in maintaining and using germ- plasm resources. Survey questions 29,48,53, and 74 provide scientists’ opinions of the relative importance of emphasizing genetic resource management activi- ties grouped in the areas of acquisition, preservation, description, and crop improvement, which includes breeding, enhancement, and research. Opinions from question 80 can be analyzed to obtain measures of the differences in emphasis that should be given to six genetic resource management and use activities relative to one another. Responses can be stratified by groups of scientists with different areas of interest or affiliation, such as public versus private sector orientation. For example, agreement might exist about the need for emphasis regard- less of stratification. However, breeders working with a particular crop may not agree on which crop improvement activities should be empha- sized, indicating that more in-depth review of the status of those activi- ties may be needed for the crop. Each framework component is followed by the applicable survey ques- Framework tion numbers in appendix II, suggested analyses, and other information Components that should be collected and analyzed to describe the component. I. Amount of Stored Germplasm (Acquisition) A. Identification of Criteria for In reviewing ARScriteria for decisions about what germplasm to acquire, Acquisition and Storage of Plant decisionmakers could evaluate criteria cited as important to the scien- Germplasm tists who work with the crop’s germplasm and assess recent and * planned collection efforts of others to identify duplication of effort, pri- mary sources of funding for collections, and whether coordination with others’ collection efforts is possible. Page 5 GAO/PEMD-9lIB Plant Gennplasm Framework and Questionnaire ZII. c Appendix I A lbmework to Guide Data Collection Q13 provides the extent to which scientists use various methods to obtain germplasm, such as exploration or requests from the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). Q14, Q17, and Ql8 indicate how many exploration trips have been con- ducted and are planned, the locations of collection efforts, and funding sources for planned trips. Q28 provides the factors that are most important in influencing scien- tists’ decisions to acquire genetic resources, and Q22 provides the cate- gories of genetic resources they requested. Criteria for acquiring germplasm may also involve knowledge of collec- tions that contain germplasm thought to be of value to NPGS. Q41 and Q42 provide the number of scientists who believe they have unique accessions that would be of value to NPGS and whether they have offered the accessions to NPGS. Comparison of these responses indicates how much valuable germplasm may not be offered to the system. Q43 provides respondents’ opinions of why offered accessions were not accepted. Perceived reasons for nonacceptance could help ARS communi- cate with scientists about criteria for accepting germplasm into NPGS. Q29 provides respondents’ opinions on the extent to which seven acqui- sition activities should be emphasized to facilitate germplasm manage- ment. This information provides a means for ARS to review its own priority-setting from the standpoint of a wide range of scientists working with the genus, species, crop, and so on. B. Reliable Inventory of Stored Presumably, ARScurators have knowledge of inventories for their own Accessions, Which Include collections. However, more-complete information about collections held Cultivars in Current Use, by other components of NPGS, and those outside NES, might help set pri- Obsolete Cukivars, Special orities for whether to increase the size of NPGS inventories. Genetic Stocks, Traditional Cultivars (Landraces), and Wild Q39 provides information on the number of accessions in each gene pool and Weedy Speciesor Relatives held in scientists’ collections. Also, column 4 provides the number of of Cultivated Varieties accessions the scientists sent to others in the last 5 years, another indi- cation of which types of germplasm are being exchanged and used. Q31 and Q32 (amount of resources held in gene banks) can be analyzed Y by gene pool to determine scientists’ degree of satisfaction with the quality (accuracy and completeness) of information available on the amount of germplasm existing in gene banks and specific sources of the Page 6 GAO/PEMD-Ol-BB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire Appendix I A Framework to Guide Data Collection information. This analysis can identify generally which sources are con- sidered most reliable or in which gene pools the information is consid- ered most or least complete and accurate. Q22 column 1, for example, can be used to determine the numbers of accessions in each gene pool that respondents requested. Q2 1 indicates from which sources respondents requested germplasm. With this infor- mation, ARSmight assess how many scientists do not request germplasm from them in any gene pool or, conversely, in which gene pools for the crop scientists are requesting ms germplasm. C. Number of Accessions in ARSshould review statistics on percentage of plant introduction station Working Collections That Are accessions that are stored long-term at the National Seed Storage Backed Up at a Long-Term Laboratory. Facility In addition to learning of the amount of NPGSgermplasm stored long term, ARScould determine what percentage of others’ collections for the crop are probably guarded against loss by storage at a long-term facility through responses to Q39 column 3. In addition, Q41 and Q42 ask about unique germplasm that scientists may have offered to NPGS.These ques- tions could give an indication of whether potentially valuable germ- plasm is in long-term storage. D. Degree of Access to New A profile of scientists’ access to sources of germplasm can be determined Sources of Germplasm and through analysis of Q15, which provides the number of times respon- Programmed Collection Efforts dents have attempted to acquire germplasm through exploration in the last 3 years, and &IS, which provides the number of times attempts were unsuccessful and why. Q14 identifies locations where scientists have apparently gained access. Q24, Q26, Q26, and Q27 indicate the extent to which collected germ- plasm has been placed in quarantine, how long it has remained there, whether scientists have had access to the germplasm, and whether scientists’ work has been hindered as a result of the genetic resources’ being in quarantine. Ql8 can identify duplication in trips planned or funded to the same loca- tions for different crops, to allow for possible coordination. Also, Q14 and Ql8 provide the locations where scientists have collected and plan to collect and Q19 where they believe collection should occur. Such information could supplement ARSdata on the extent locations have been accessed or where information might exist outside ARSon Page 7 GAO/PEMD-OldB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire Appendix I A Framework to Guide Data Collection potential acquisition sites. Also, ARScould identify where private or other funding is already arranged for collection and could save all or part of the cost of collection if opportunities for coordination are possible. E. Degree of Access to Q23 rows 1,2,3, and 4 provide the frequency with which respondents Information About &rmplasm encountered problems with information about accessions they received and the extent the problems hindered their work. QSOindicates the reasons respondents do not request descriptive infor- mation from sources of germplasm, such as inaccessible data bases or belief that existing information is not complete or accurate. Q5 1 pro- vides the types of germplasm information most important to scientists’ work and whether the information is hard or impossible to obtain. II. Endangered Geographic Sites of Origin A. Knowledge of World Locations Statistics should be obtained by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Where Traditional Cultivars (USDA),the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, or other (Landraces) and Wild and Weedy sources. ARSshould use the following information as part of an effort to Species or Relatives of Cultivated identify and access locations where germplasm collection may be a high Varieties Are Declining priority. Q28 row 2 (in the great or very-great importance columns) indi- cates the number of scientists whose decisions to acquire genetic resources were influenced by knowledge of sites where wild and weedy species or traditional varieties are in danger of loss. Row 8 indicates that the ability to gain access to collection sites influenced decisions. For these respondents, Q14 and Q18 provide locations where exploration might have taken place or is planned. Q29 row 1, compared to other rows, could indicate scientists’ opinions about the importance of acquiring endangered genetic resources for the crop versus other crops. B. Number of Declining Species Statistics should be obtained by ARS,the International Board for Plant or Cultivars Genetic Resources, or other sources. Q31 (amount of resources declining) provides scientists’ degree of satis- faction with the accuracy and credibility of information they obtained on the amount of genetic resources that are in decline, by category of genetic resource. Q32 provides scientists’ degree of satisfaction with the information from specific sources- for example, NPGS,international research centers, or individual scientists. Page 8 GAO/PEMDBl-SB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire Appendix I A F’ramework to Guide Data Collection C. Acres of Traditional Cultivars Statistics should be obtained by ARS,the International Board for Plant and Wild and Weedy Relatives Genetic Resources, or others to identify the extent of loss of genetic That Are Lost From Natural and resources from encroaching industrialization, and other factors. Societal Pressures III. Condition of Stored Germplasm (Preservation) A. Probable Viability of Knowledge of the general condition of the germplasm that scientists Accessions Upon Receipt or Prior received from various sources for a particular crop would be useful in to Storage assessing the overall differences among the viability of collections. Q23 rows 6 and 7 provide the frequency with which scientists received germplasm with low viability or insufficient seed quantity and the extent to which these problems hindered their work. Row 1 indicates how often data on germination rates were not provided with the material. B, Probable Viability of It is possible that many accessions from individuals’ collections are dis- Accessions Being Held in Storage tributed to other scientists (Q39 rows 1 and 4), and depending on the level of maintenance of these collections, breeders and researchers may not be exchanging high-quality material. ARSmight determine that for a particular crop more attention is needed to ensure that NPGSis ade- quately preserving germplasm and that high-quality material is avail- able to users. Q44 identifies percentages of various forms of germplasm such as seed, clones, or in vitro culture stored in scientists’ collections. Q45 provides the types of storage conditions scientists report they are regulating for their collections and Q46 the maintenance activities they usually perform. Q46 rows 1 and 2, in particular, can be tabulated to determine how many of these scientists usually germinate seed prior to and after placing it in storage. QSl row 7 provides the level of importance scientists place on getting health and viability information on accessions and whether the informa- tion is hard or impossible to obtain. Page 9 GAO/PEMD-91-6B Plant Germplasm Framework and 6jueetionnaire Appendix I A Framework to Guide Data Collection C. Adequacy of Regeneration, Q46 frequencies for all rows indicate which maintenance activities Grow-Out, and Germination scientists perform on their collections, and Q47 indicates which stan- Testing Procedures and dards, if any, they follow. Standards Used to Maintain the Integrity of the Accessions D. Adequacy of Conditions 937 helps identify scientists who keep germplasm for particular periods Necessary to Preserve and of time, and Q45 can indicate whether the scientists regulate or record Maintain Stored Accessions of storage conditions. Germplasm For scientists who regulate or record conditions, ARS could compare fre- quencies of Q47 row 1 (no standards applied to germplasm mainte- nance) with rows 2 through 6 to determine the proportion of scientists who hold collections and are following preservation standards and which standards they are following. E. Identification and Control of In assessing the potential vulnerability of germplasm held in collections, Pathogens (Fungal, Bacteria, it is important to know how much emphasis scientists are placing on the Nematodes), Viruses, Insects, or identification and control of pests or disease. Q45 rows 5 and 7 indicate Rodents in Stored Accessions how many scientists include control of disease, insects, and rodents in their germplasm maintenance activities. Also, Q46 row 5 indicates the extent to which scientists test for or treat viruses and pathogens. Q66 frequencies for rows 5,6, and 8 indicate how many scientists focus their research objectives on identifying resistance to pathogens, pests, or other environmental stresses or deterioration in stored accessions. Q48 row 4, when compared with other rows, indicates the extent to which scientists believe detecting and treating diseases and insects in storage should be emphasized as part of the preservation activities for a particular crop. IV. Status of Description of Stored Germplasm (Evaluation) A. Type of Descriptive We are defining descriptive information as the results of germplasm Information on Germplasm That evaluations and passport and other taxonomic information and other- Is Important and Available to wise describing preserved genetic resources. We believe that AB should Germplasm Users be aware of the needs of scientists who work with germplasm, including what types of descriptive information are most important to their work. Page 10 GAO/PEMPOldB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire Appendix I A Framework to Guide Data Collection ARS decisions on setting priorities among crops for various activities could be assisted and supported by knowledge of what scientists think is most important. Q51 provides the relative importance of various types of information describing germplasm to scientists’ work and whether the information was hard or impossible to obtain. Q63 provides scientists’ opinions, by crop, on the extent to which five germplasm description activities should be emphasized. Q23 rows 2,3, and 4 indicate how often scientists received incorrect data or descriptions or no description on the germplasm they requested and the extent the problems hindered their work. Q52 provides scientists with suggestions of the additional types of descriptive information that might assist them. B. Type and Availability of Evaluation results obtained from scientists who request germplasm may Germplasm Evaluation Data be useful to ARS and may reduce duplicative effort. ARS could identify Produced by Germplasm Users how much data are available and accessible, whether scientists are sending their evaluation results to requesters, and why they do not comply with such requests. Q66 row 9 and other selected rows can provide the number of scientists who emphasize evaluation of gene bank accessions or identification of traits or gene mapping as objectives in their breeding or research pro- grams. Q54 provides the approximate number of accessions evaluated by scientists during the past 3 years. Questions 55-58 indicate whether the resulting data are recorded, available, and easily retrieved. Q60 provides the percentage of time scientists have been asked to send evaluation results back to the provider of germplasm. Q61 provides the percentage of time they provided the requested data, and Q62 indicates the reasons they did not provide the data. V. Emphasis in Research A degree of knowledge on the research and breeding objectives scien- and Breeding Programs tists emphasize most and their rationale for the emphasis can help ARS set priorities for enhancement, evaluation, and breeding efforts in a (Including Enhancement) manner that responds to scientists’ needs, if appropriate. Page 11 GAO/PEMDBl-BB Plant Germplasm Pramework and Questionnaire L Appendix I A Framework to Guide Data Collection A. Level of Production (in Area, Statistics should be obtained by ARS, the International Board for Plant Weight, or Volume) and Value (in Genetic Resources, or others. DolIars) of Commercial Varieties B. Level of Effort in Breeding Q63 provides data on full-time-equivalent staff working on the crop or and Research Programs genus. This information could be stratified by public or private sector. Q64 provides estimates of funding received for breeding and research, and Q66 provides the percentage of funding supplied by various sources. The amount and sources of funding and full-time-equivalent staff could help ARS identify gaps (or overinvestment) in effort among crops, thus helping direct limited ARS funds to crops needing the most attention. ARScould compare among crops, for example, the percentage of total full-time-equivalent staff dedicated to breeding and research for a crop (Q63). The percentage of such staff dedicated to particular areas of emphasis could reveal trends in the type of research being done, and the specific objectives from Q66 could provide more detail on the differ- ences in emphasis among crops. C. Degree of Emphasis on Several rows in Q66-for example, 7,8, and g-indicate breeding or Collecting and Preserving research objectives that involve preserving or evaluating stored germ- Germplasm in Coqjunction With plasm. ARS could compare among crops the proportion of scientists who Breeding and Research indicate these objectives are emphasized to a great or very great extent. Percentage of full-time-equivalent staff (Q63) or total funding (Q64) invested in crop improvement, preservation efforts, or basic research can be compared among crops. Such staff or funding levels could be compared with the number of accessions scientists used in their efforts (Q68) to further assess trends in the use of genetic resources among crops. For example, for the top quartile of full-time-equivalent effort in one crop, the number of accessions requested (Q22) or used (Q68) in a given gene pool might also be high, while for another crop in the same quartile, use may be very low, indicating that for whatever reason germplasm is not needed or is not being requested. D. Type and Cost of Breeding The level of effort (Q63) can be compared with levels of production and and Research Focused on High commercial values of crops. This could result in assessing the extent to Production or High Value which level of effort is correlated with the economic value of the crop Cultivars Versus Those of Lower but could also indicate where gaps in research or breeding objectives Commercial Value appear to exist (Q66) or could identify efforts that ARSbelieves are inap- propriately low or high for the value of the crop or other factors. This Page 12 GAO/PEMD-91-SB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire Appendix I A Framework to Guide Data CMlection could provide some support for adjusting funding levels for research, enhancement, or breeding efforts. The number of Q67 responses (in the great or very-great extent col- umns) indicates the factors that most influenced scientists’ decisions to develop and conduct research or breeding efforts. Differences in the fac- tors that are important among crops of higher and lower commercial value might indicate areas of concern about potential vulnerability of the crops or trends in economic, social, or political factors affecting direction of breeding and research efforts. E. Level of Government and Private and public sector full-time-equivalent staff and funding directed Private Funding or Full-Time- to various crops can be compared with the extent of requests for germ- Ek@valent Staff Invested in plasm (Q22) and with use of germplasm from gene pools 1,2, and 3 Developing Various Types of (Q68) in the breeding or research programs. This could help AR+9make Plant Germplasm decisions about which crops should be given attention in acquisition or enhancement or where it believes the use of wild germplasm should be encouraged. F. Influence of Yearly Demand Statistics on demand for hybrid seed and numbers of cultivars produced for Hybrid Seed or Ability to should be obtained by USDA, International Board for Plant Genetic Produce Cultivars Resources, or others. With the statistics and the overall results of Q67, row 7, the importance of current and potential demand for hybrids, and row 8, importance of production of cultivars as factors in decisions to develop or conduct pro- grams, can be compared among crops. G. Influence of Amount of Statistics on amount of domestic use and export of crops should be Domestic Use Versus Export of obtained from USDA, International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, or the Crops others. With the statistics and the overall results for Q67, a comparison can be made between crops from row 9, the importance of domestic consump- tion, and row 10, the importance of demand for export to other coun- tries, as factors in decisions to develop or conduct programs. H. Influence of Number of Uses Statistics on the number of uses for the crops should be obtained by for the Cultivars (e.g., Food, USDA, International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, or others. Forage, Fiber, IQel) With the statistics and the overall results for Q67, a comparison can be made between crops on the importance of row 11, on current and poten- tial uses for the crop, and row 12, on the importance of pressure from Page 13 GAO/PEMD-91~5B Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionmxire Appendix I A Framework to Guide Data Ckdlectlon crop producers or end user groups in influencing scientists’ decisions to develop or conduct their program. I. Changes in Research Emphasis Scientists’ survey responses will help identify the extent to which From Development or Use of advanced techniques (biotechnology tools) are used in breeding and Advanced (Biotechnology) research programs and whether their use is influencing program objec- Techniques tives or the type of genetic resources used by respondents. ARScould determine the percentage of scientists using advanced (bio- technology) techniques in their breeding and research programs. Q76 provides the extent to which each of seven techniques is used and the extent to which the techniques have changed the respondents’ breeding or research emphasis. Q66 row 14 indicates how many scientists have research objectives focused on the improvement of biotechnology techniques. Q77 provides the extent to which scientists expect the techniques to change the emphasis or objectives of their efforts. For respondents who report, for example, that a particular technique is expected to change their breeding or research efforts, Q66 column 1 can be compared to column 2 to determine significant changes expected in the next 3 years. Q78 and Q79 indicate whether the use of biotechnology is causing increases or decreases in the amount and type of germplasm used in the three gene pools. For scientists who report a change, and who say they are using germplasm from gene pools 2 and 3 in their breeding or research (Q68), their breeding and research objectives from Q66 can be evaluated to better understand how advanced techniques are influ- encing use of wild germplasm and how the techniques are being incorpo- rated into breeding and research efforts. VI. Susceptibility of Cultivars to Disease,Pests, and the Environment A. Total Number of Cultivars Statistics should be obtained by USDA, International Board for Plant Planted Annually in the United Genetic Resources, and others. States and Worldwde Page 14 GAO/PEMD-91-SB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire Appendix I A F’nunework to Guide Data Collection B. Total Acres (or Hectares or Statistics should be obtained by AR& the International Board for Plant Metric Tons) of Cultivars Lost Genetic Resources, and others. Annually From Disease, Pests, and the Environment To analyze the availability and quality of information about the culti- vars being lost (or genetic resources being lost from all gene pools), ARS could compare scientists’ opinions about information they have obtained. A comparison among crops could indicate where more atten- tion is needed to develop better information. Q3 1 (amount of resources declining) provides scientists’ degree of satis- faction with the accuracy and credibility of information they obtain on the amount of resources declining in the three gene pools, Q32 provides satisfaction with the information obtained from various sources. C. Amount and Type of Ongoing Using the overall results of research and breeding objectives in Q66, ARS Research on Known Stresses for could determine the number of great and very-great extent responses Which Traits for Resistance or for rows 6 and 6. This indicates level of emphasis in breeding and Immunity Have Not Been Found research programs in identifying traits for resistance to known diseases and pests and for greater adaptation to environmental stresses. This information could be compared with full-time-equivalent staff reported by those respondents. ARScould also determine how many scientists are to a great extent con- ducting their research or breeding programs because of pests, diseases, or environmental stresses that endanger crops (Q67 rows 2 and 4). Q70 provides a list of specific resistance traits for which scientists are currently searching and can be compared with Q73, a list of specific resistance traits they believe need greater emphasis as research priori- ties. From this, important traits may be identified that are receiving little or no attention. In addition, Q72 indicates the extent to which respondents believe descriptors listed by major organizations include those that should be priorities. VII. Size of Genetic Base The size of the genetic base of commercial crops has been described in terms of acreage planted with few varieties of a crop, a condition that could potentially cause widespread loss of the crop if one or more of the varieties fell susceptible to a new disease or pest. Analyses of survey results in this category are intended to describe breeders’ and researchers’ efforts in the acquisition and use of germ- plasm from gene pools 1,2, and 3, to identify trends in breeding and Page 15 GAO/PEMD-91-6s Plant Germplaem Fhmework and Queetionnaire I : !. ‘, Appendix I A Pramework to Guide Data Collection research objectives that ARS decisionmakers believe focus on identifying new sources of diversity or could potentially expand the base of com- mercial crops. A. Extent of Use of Germplasm Q22 for all rows (the three gene pools) provides the number of acces- From Gene Pools 1,2, and 3 by sions requested and received in the past 3 years and the number used Plant Breeders and Researchers currently and planned in the next 3 years (Q68). Q39 columns 1 and 2 for all rows provides the number of unique and duplicated accessions in scientists’ collections, and column 4 provides the number of accessions they distributed to others in the past 3 years. Q66 row 11 provides the emphasis scientists place on identifying new sources of genetic variation as the objective in their breeding and research programs. Also, the objectives in Q66 can be crosstabulated with Q68 to obtain the extent to which they use wild germplasm in their efforts. Q68, indicating a great extent of use or planned use of wild germplasm in breeding or research efforts, can be crosstabulated with Q63, the full- time-equivalent staff effort, or Q64, the level of funding to develop trends in the relative size of efforts that incorporate wild germplasm. B. Number of Cultivars in Statistics on estimated numbers of these different types of genetic Current Use, Obsolete Cultivars, resources in the genus or species should be obtained, if available. The Special Genetic Stocks, following analyses attempt to discern scientists’ experiences with the Traditional Cultivars accuracy and credibility of information they have obtained. (Landraces), and Wild and Weedy Speciesor Relatives of Q30, Q31, and Q32 (amount of resources in existence) provide an indica- Cultivated Varieties Existing tion of how many scientists working with the crop have obtained infor- Worldwide mation on the number of genetic resources that exist in each gene pool and their level of satisfaction with the accuracy and credibility of the information as well as with various sources of the information. Q33 pro- vides the reasons why respondents did not obtain the information. C. Amount of Diversity Present Information on the amount of diversity believed to be inherent in a in Cultivars in Current Use, genus or species should be included in decisions whether to invest in Obsolete Cultivars, Special additional acquisition versus other activities needed in managing a crop. Genetic Stocks, Traditional Knowing the extent to which breeders and researchers cite lack of diver- Cultivars (Landraces) and Wild sity in the genus as an important factor in their decisions to acquire and Weedy Species or Relatives germplasm compared to other factors, or the extent to which measuring of Cultivated Varieties Existing diversity is an important objective of their work, could have implica- Worldwide tions for ARS’Sown decisions on how to invest time and money. Page 16 GAO/PEMD-Bl-5B Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire Appendix I A F’ramework to Guide Data Collection Q34 row 1 provides scientists’ estimates of the number of subspecies, races, and varieties that exist in the cultivated and wild states. Q28 rows l-5, for example, if particularly emphasized for a crop, might indicate that lack of diversity is an important influence over users’ acquisition of genetic resources. Responsesfor Q66 rows that .could potentially result in measures of diversity-for example, rows 5,6,9, 10, 11, and 12-can be crosstabu- lated with full-time-equivalent staff (Q63) or funding (Q64) to determine trends in levels of effort emphasizing these research objectives versus others. D. Amount of Diversity in In evaluating the need to increase the diversity in particular collections, Existing Collections decisionmakers should be assisted by knowledge of the diversity believed to be contained in collections held by scientists at universities and private industry. ARScould, for example, assess differences among crops in the importance scientists place on obtaining a description of the expected diversity in accessions they receive and the difficulty experi- enced in obtaining such information. Q34 row 2 provides opinions on the number of subspecies, races, and varieties in the cultivated and wild states represented in gene banks, and Q36 provides scientists’ opinions on the percentage of existing diversity represented in gene banks. Q39 column 1 provides the number of accessions in each gene pool con- tained in scientists’ own collections, and Q40 provides estimates of the percentage of existing diversity believed to be represented in those col- lections. This could allow comparison among crops of estimated levels of diversity overall in collections to assess whether lack of diversity in col- lections should be a criterion for acquisition decisions. QSl row 8 provides an indication of the importance to scientists of information on the extent of expected diversity in accessions received and whether scientists have found such information hard or impossible to obtain. Page 17 GAO/PEMD-9ldB Plant Germplasm Pramework and Questionnaire , Appe ndix II Survey ConcerningPlot Genetic&sources UnhedStatesGeneralAccountingOmce n Survey ConcerningPlant Genetic Resources INTRODUCTION This survey is bdng sentto you aspart of an effon to obtain a statusof the preservationanduseof specitlc genetic ~csourcesfrom the perspectiveof scicntlstswho usethe resourcesin their crop improvementandotherresearchefforts. At this time, we are asking for your opinions aboutthe availability and reliability of informationfor one crop, species, or genuswhich is specifiedin the survey. We are also askingfor your opinionsaboutlevels of emphasisyou believe shouldbe placedon various genetictusourcemanagementactivities. Theseresponses,obtahud from a wide rangeof geneticresourceusersandcombinedwith other genetic nsource managementinformationor statistics,can help gauge the mlatlve vulncmbility of genctlc tusources. You are askedto respondbasedon your overail professionalknowledgeandexperiencewith the specifiedcrop. genus, or species,applying the most giobai view of genetictusouru needspossible. The survey Is being sentto plant scientists,world-wide, In many disciplines and with differing interests. It wiil be implementedfor many crops,to adat the U.S. Departmentof Agriculture in obtaining uniform and comparableinformationfor usein genetictusource managementdeclslomnaking. The survey is comprehensive,covering the areasof plant geneticresourceacquisition,preservation,description,and crop hnpmvementand research.Completingthe survey shouldtake about 1 l/2 to 2 hoursof your time. Someof the survey questionspettaln to your rquests for geneticresourcemated& your objectivesand rationalefor your work unphasis, and the size andtype of any genetictusourcecollectionsyou maintain.For suchquestions,pleaseestimate numbersof accessions,or percents,if possibleand try not to spenda lot of time consuitingtucordsfor detailed hrfotmation. Also, pleasekeep in mhtd that this survey instrumentwiil be usedto obtain informationaboutmany different types of crops,andtherefore,someresponsechoicesmay not seemapplicable for every crop. pleaseMum the completedsurvey in the enclosedpm-addressedenvelopewithin 2 weeksof receipt. If you have any .rue&~, pkM cd ___________---_---______________________-. BACKGROUND 2. Have you worked with Genusin the last 5 years? (Check one) This sectionprovidesinformation aboutrespondentsto facilitate analysisby respondentgroupings,andto assist 1. 0 Yes (Continuewith the remainder of the with futnm hnplemcntationof the survey. questionnaire.) 2. 0 No (Stop. Please return questionnaire In rhe 1. Pleaselist the plant generayou have worked with enclosed envelope.) (e.g., researched.maintainedor beenresponsiblefor) during the past 5 years. Note: For the remainder of the questionnaire, please consider only Genuswhen nnswerlng questions. Y 1 Page 18 GAO/PEMD-Bl-5B Plant Germplasm Framework and Que&.ionnaire . Appendix II Survey Concerning Pla.nt Genetic lbourcee 3. For bow many yearshave you wor&edwith Genrrst 6. At what type of organizationdo you currently (Check one.) conductthe major portion of your work’? (Checkrhe one thatbest describes your organlsation.) 1.0 2 yearsor less 2. 0 Over2to4years 1. 0 Public agency 3. [ZI Over 4 to 8 yeam 2. Cl Privatecompany 4. 0 Over 8 to 16 years 3. Cl University 5. 0 Over 16to 32 years 6. 0 Over 32 years 4. 0 Non-profit foundation 5. 0 Do not conductwork at an organization 4. How many subcategoriesof the spxifled genus, (retired.or useplant geneticnxources for a species. of crop have you worked with extensively in hobby or avocation) the past 5 years?(Llsr the number ofsubcategories you have worked with for each species. Since levels 6. 0 Other (specify) oftaxonomy, temhologyfor class(flcatkm, and opinions about terminology dfler among crops, please circle the term below, that you believe best describes the subcategories:) SUBSPECIES RACE VARIETY 7. Is this organizationbasedin the U.S., or in another country or is it internatIonal (Check one.) Number01 1. 0 U.S. based aubcategorlea 2. 0 NonU.S. based Speolesname(s) workedwiIh 1. 3. Cl lntemadonal 2. 8. What is your currentpositionWe with the 3. organizationabove? 4. 5. 6. 5. In what country and stateof province are you working? 2 Page 19 GAO/PmBl-SB Plant Germplasm Phutwwork and Quaetionnaire Appendix II Survey Cbnceming Plant Genetic l&sources 9. Which of the followlng disciplinesdo you considerto 10. What is the highestlevel of educationthat you have be your nmt impdrtant Reldsof study or activities atined? (Check one.) at this time? (Check up to four choices) 1. 0 Lessthan 4 yearsof college 1. 0 Agticulturaleconomy 2. 0 Bachelor’sdegreeor equivalent 2. 0 Agronomy/soilscience 3. 0 Master’sdegreeor equivalent 4. 0 Doctoral degreeor equivalent 3. c] Biochemistry 5. 0 Postdoctoralstudyor equivalent 4. 0 Botany 6. 0 Other (specify) 5. 0 Biology (molecularor cellular) 6. 0 Cytogenetics 7. 0 Ecology 11. Of which of the following committeesor organizationsam you currently a member7(Check all 8. c] Srttomology that apply.) 9. 0 Geoetics 1. 0 U.S. Crop Advisory Committee(CAC) 10. q Nut&ion 2. 0 U.S. Technical Advisory Committee(TAC) 3. 0 U.S. National Plant GermplasmCommittee 11. q Hotticuhum mc) 12. q Plant breeding 4. 0 U.S. National Plant GeneticResourcesBoard OIJPGW 13. 0 Plant pathology/virology 5. 0 Any InternationalBoard for Plant Genetic Resources(IBPGR) Committee 14. 0 Plant physiology 6. 0 ConservationGroups 15. q Taxonomy 7. q Crop specific associations 16. 0 Curator 8. 0 Agricultural or horticultural associations 9. Cl Otherprofessionalassociations 17. q Researchdirector 10. 0 Amateurcrop or plant orientedassociations 18. 0 Other(spec@) 11.0 Botanical gardens 12. q Other(speclfy) 13. 0 None 3 Page 20 GAO/PEMD-91.FIB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire . . Appendix II Survey Concemlng Plant Genetic Reeources 12. During the last year aboutwhat percentof your Ume was agentwolldng with Genus,other crops,and other activitles? Wxcnrs should tootalJOO.) 1. % Direct work with Genus 2. % Direct work with other crops 3. % Administrative, management, support,andother activities not directly relatedto Genusor other crops 4 Page 21 GAO/PEMD-91IB Plant Gennplaam Pramework and Questionnaire Appendix II Survey Concerning Plfmt Genetic Resources ACQUISITION OF GENUS PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES ‘IlUs sectlonprovidesinformationthat can help geneticresourcemanagersassessthe needsof geneticresourceusers, andmake decisionsaboutacquiring msoumes. 13. Pleaaeindicate the extent. if at all. to which you useeachof the following methodsto acquireplant genetic resources?(Check one column for each row) 2. Personaltdps (not associatedwith a formally Plant Exploration Tripe 14. PleaseUstthe locationsfrom which, in the past five years,you obtainedGenusgeneticresourcesthroughplant exploration tips plannedby you or people you know, (By location we meancountry andregion, state,or province). If you have not obtainedgenetic nsourcesin this manner,write NONE. LoeaUonaof wild and weedy geneticresources Locationsof cultivated geneeicresources 5 Y Page 22 GAO/PEMD-91.BB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire . . Appendix II Survey Concerning Plant Genetic Reeourcee 111.In the pastthreeyears,have you attempted to acquireGenusgeneticresourcesthroughplant exploration trips Umtged by yourdslfor people you know? (Check one.) 1. 0 Yes (Numberof attempts) 2. 0 No (GO TO QlLES7’JON 17) 16. How many Umes,if at all, have you beenunable to acquiregeneticresourcesfrom plant exploration trips cited in question 1Sfor eachof the following masons?(Wrire 0 ifnone). Number of Times Unableto Reason8For InabIlityto Acquire Acquire 1. Host country nstricUons 2. Inability to identify appropriatechannelsor make contacta Lack of hndlng provlded for exploration 3. Fundingwas denied 4. Exploration proposalwas accepted;no funding was available 5. Exploration proposalwas not accepted;fundlng was available 6. Other (spedfu 17. Do you plan to acquireGenus plant geneticresourcesthroughplant exploration trips arrangedby yourself,or people you know, in the next 3 years?(Check one.) 1. 0 Yes 2.0 No (GO TO QUESTlON 19) 6 Y Page 28 GAO/PEMD-Bl-5B Plant Cermplaam Fhmework md Questionmxire , Appendix II Snrvey Concerning Plant Genetic Resources - 18. Pleaseprovide htfonttatl~naboutthe location, number,and fundingof the abovetrips. (W&e rhe location, number @trip8 planned, wtd numberjlutded in the appropriate columns. Check no basis to judge, if appropriate.) Trlpa Planned/Funded Source(s) of Fundlng 19. From what areasof the world (country and region,state,or province) da you believe Genus geneticresourcesare undempresentedIn colkctions, and shouldbe collectedregardlessof whethera trip is plannedto collect there? Also, which species.subspecies,varieties.or races,etc. shouldbe collected? (Please list any locutions rhut you believe should be considered.) World locatlons for collectlon Resourcesthat should be collected from each location 1. Page 24 GAO/PEMD-gldB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questiomxaire . Appendix II Snrvey Cmcerning Plant Oenetic R4murcee Experf@nccrWith, end Oplnlons About Requesting and Obtaining Genus Genetic Resources 20. Have you rcqucstedor obtainedGenusgeneticresourcesfrom any individual or organizationin the past 3 years? (Check one.) 1. 0 Yes 2. 0 No (GO TO QUESTIoN 24) 21. III the past 3 years,which categoriesof Genus genedcresourcesdid you request.and from what sourcesdid you requestthem? (Indicateyour answer by checking the appropriate box in the row column matrix. Leave blank if you did not request a resource from a Jpecflc source.) 2. Obsolete cultivan 3. TradItional vtieties (landraces) Gene pool 2 using conventionalmethodsbut with a Gene pool 3 6. BIological speciesthat can be crossed only by useof advancedtechniques I I I I I I I I Other - -- 7. Special geneticstocks 8. Breedingpopulations 9. Other (specify) 8 Y Page 25 GAO/PEMD=I)l-5B Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire Survey C~ncernlng Plant Genetic Remurces 22. Pleaseeslimatcthe numberof accessionsor samplesin eachcategoryof geneticresourcethat you requestedor receivedIn the p& 3 yearsfrom any of the sourcesin question21. (W&e the number or leuve blank (fnone). Accesslonr Categoriesof Plant Genetb Resources Gene pool 1 1, Cultlvars In currentuse 2. Obsoletecultlvars I 3. Traditional varieties (landraces) 4. Mstant relativesof cultivated varieties that form fenlle hybrids 5. Blologlcal speciesthat can be crossedusing conventionalmethods but with a high level of sterllitv 6. Blologlcal speciesthat can be crossedonly by useof advanced tecMoues I I I 9 Page 26 GAO/PEMD91-5B Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire Appendix II Survey Concerning Plant Genetic Resources 23. Indicatebelow how often, if at all, you encounteredthe following problemswith the -Ions you -ted. Also Indicatethe &tent. if at all, the problem hinderedyour work. (Check one cohmn under each hed@for each Dftan II I ProblemsEncountered 1. Data on germinationrateswere not provided omvided 11. No geneticresourcesprovided 12. Other(specify) 24. Have any geneticresourcesyou obtainedbeenplacedin quarantine?(Check one.) 1. Cl Yes 2. 0 No (GO TO QUESTIOh’28) 10 Page 27 Appendix II Survey tbwmlng Plant Genetic l&sources 25. To what extent, If at all. have you had accessto your geneticresourceswhile they wen in quarantine?(Checkone.) I. •i Little or no extent 2. Cl Someextent 3.0 Moderateextent 4. Cl Ofeat extent 5. 0 Very gnat extent 26. pleaseestimatethe averagetime in monthsand yearsthat your geneticresourceshave remainedin quarantine. Montha Years 27. To what extent, if at all, hasthe quarantinetime period hinderedyour work? (Check one.) 1. El Little or no extent 2. Cl Someextent 3.0 Modem extent 4. q Greatextent 5. q Verygreat extent 11 Page 29 GAO/PEMD-9ldB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire . Appendix II Survey Cimeerning Plant Genetic Resources Factora Influencing Genus Acquisition 28. In tbe past3 years,how important,if at all, were the following factorsin intlucncing your decisionswhetheror Mt to acquireparticular geneticresources?(Wearecheck rhe appropriare columnfor each of the factors Usted below.) FactorslnfluencinpDe&ions / (1) / (2) / (3) / (4) 1. Genetic resourcesstoredin collectionsdo not containtraits neededfor researchor plant breeding 2. Knowledgeof siteswherewild and weedy speciesor traditional varieties are in dangerof loss II I I I I II II 3. Diversity stomdin collectionsworld-wide is 1 I I I insufficient to assuI(: survival of specieswithin the genus 4. Researchresultsmeasuringalleiic freuuencies indicatea lack of diversity-in the genus ! I ! ! ! 5. Overall wncem Forgeneticuniformity of crops 6. Availability of resourceswell adaptedto particularenvironments 7. Commercialinterestin the crop I I I I 8. Ability- to -nain accessto collection sites I I I I I 9. USA’s ngulations, practices,or changesin wlicv that inhibit the imoortationof genetic ksoukes 10. Countries’(otherthanthe USA) mgulations, practicesor changesin policy that inhibit the exportationof geneticresources 11. USA Crop Advisory Committee recommendationto-collectgeneticresources I I I 12. Availability of resourcesto conductcollection 1 I expeditions I I I I 13. Scientific curiositvldiscoverv II I I I I 14. Availability of facilities to storeandmaintain collectedresources 15. Other (specifi) 12 Page 29 GAO/PEMD-Ol-SB Plant Germplasm Fhunework and Questio~~&~ Append& II Survey Concerning Plant Genetic lbeource!s 29. To what extent, if at all, do you believe the fohowing acquisitionactivities andeventsricedto be cmphaaixedto facilitate the overall managementof Genusplant geneticresources?(Please check one column for each row) Aquisition 1. Acquiring endangeredgenetic resourceswhetheror not their potential 18known 2. Acquiring geneticnsoutcesthat am constdemdto be potentially usefulin dant breeding 3. Acquiring gene& msoutce8of tmknownpotenttatwhetheror not they ate endangered 4. hnpmving quarantineprocedUE8and regulationsto facilitate aquiaition 5. Eliminattng politicaJbarriersthat hhuier collectton tti 6. Developing arrangementsfor minimizing patentrestrictionsin considerationof acce88to genetic for collecting andrecordingaccessions Oplnlonr About Availablllty and Accuracy of Information Concerning Genus Genetic Reeourcer In Exietence 30. Have you obtahud any informationPromany source,including your own research,aboutthe amountof Genus geneticresourcesthat exist in the cultivated or wild stateor in genebanks,or aboutthe amountthat are declining due to humanand otherpressures?(Consider the range of species, subspecies, races, varieries, efc.). (Check one.) 1. 0 Yes 2. 0 No (GO TO QUESTIOA 33) 13 Page 30 GAO/PEMDOldB Plant Germplasm Ikunework and Questionnaire . Appendix II Survey Concerning Plant Genetic Iiemurces 31. For eachof the 6 g?neticIcBOUrcC categodeslisted below, how satisfiedwere you with the overall accUracyand complctcnes8of tn!bnnadonobtained? Answer for (1) informattonon the amountof geneticr~4OUrCe8 existing in the cultivated andwild BtaW,(2) infonation on the amountof geneticnsoumesheld in gene.banka,and(3) informationon the amountof geneticresourcesthat are decllnlng due to humanandotherpressures.(Check no basfs to judge lfyou have not obtained @formation about a spec@c resource category ,or you do not have enough Itformarion w rare qualily). Amount of Roeourcre Amount of Ro8ourcor AmOuMof Rowufc@a in ExittenCe Hold in Gone bank8 Soumes Gene 11001 1 1, Cuitivars in current II&? 2. Obsoletecultivars 3. Traditional varieties (landraces) Gene woi 2 4. Distant relativesof cultivated varieties that foamfertile hybrids II. Bioiogkai species that can be crossed using conventional methodsbut with a blah level of stediity Gene pool 3 6. Biological specie8 that can be crossed only by useof advancedtechniques 14 Y Page 81 GAO/PEBlDM-6B Plant Qennplasm FtanmvorkandQu~tio~ Appendix II Survey Concerning Plant Genetic Resources 32. For eachof the IO information 8ourcesor provider8 listed below, how satlsfkd were you witi the overall accuracyandcompletenessof informationobtained? A8 with the previousquestion.answerfor (I) informationon the amountof genetlcresourcesexisttng in the cultlvated and wlld state,(2) Informationon the amountof genetic resourcesheld in genebanks,and(3) informationon the amountof geneticresource8that aredeclining due to humanandotherpressures.(Check no basis to judge lfyou have not obtained i@ormatlon from a spec#lc source or you do )MI have enough Idonnatlon to rate quality.) Amount 01Reoourco~ Amount of Re8ourcrr Amount of Reeourceo Rew~~r~eo 3. U.S. Crop Advisory Committee(CAC) 4. Individual U.S. scientists 5. Your own research 6. lntemational Board for PlantGenetic Resources (IBPGR) 7. Individual scientistsfrom countriesother than the USA 8. lntemational ResearchCenters, e.g. ICRISAT, CLMMYT 9. Scientific/technical publications 10. Other(specfi) 15 Page 32 GAO/PEMD-914B Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire . Appendix II Survey Cancernlng Plant Genetic Besources 33. In instanceswhen you have not obtainedinformation 35. Considerthe total amountof geneticdiversity that on the amountan&declineof geneticresources, exists in eachcategoryof Genusgeneticresource.If which of the following reasonsdescribewhy not? you can.pleaseestimate the percent of each (Check all char apply.) category total that you believe is representedin gene banks. If you feel that you do not have enough 1. q Did not requestinformation informationto even make an intelligent guess,check 2. q Informationis not needed no basisto judge. 3. c]Informationprobably doesnot exist 4. 17Informationis not accessible 5. 0 Informationis not accurateor complete enoughto be useful 6. 0 Other(specify) 2. Obsoletecultivars I %( 3. Traditional varieties I i 34. Basedon informationyou have obtainedand/oryour bestprofessionalopinion, pleaseestimatethe number zGize-j# 4. Distant relativesof of Genus8ubspWie.9, races,or VarietieS,etc. that exist in the cultivated andwild state,worldwide, and cultivated varietiesthat the numberheld in genebanks. form fertile hybrids 5. Biological speciesthat I. Number in existence can be crossedusing conventionalmethodsbut 2. Number held in genebanks with a high level of steriiitv 3. 0 No basisto judge 16 Page 33 GAO/PEMD-9ldB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire . Appendix If Survey Coneem Plant Genetic Reaourcee PRESERVATION OF GENUS PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES ‘IWe sectionIs intendedto provide a profile of on-going preservationactivities performedby public andprivate sectorplant scientistsin conjunctionwith their breeding or nscarch programs,andto help Idendfy collections containingmetcrial hclieved to be importantto the U.S. NatIonalPlant CktmplasmSystem. Characterlstlcs of Your Collections 36. Do you have responsibility for the preservationor maintenanceof any Genus nsources?(Check one.) 1. Cl Yes 2. 0 No. (GO TO QCESTION48) 37. In generalfor how many yearsdo you intend to preserveor maintain your geneticresources?(Check one.) I.0 Lcssthanlyear 2. Cl I to 10 years 3. cl 11to2oycars 4. Cl 21 to 30 years 5. Cl 31 to 40 years 6. q Over 40 yean 38. Who owns the geneticnsourcesyou preserveor maintain?(Check all thar apply.) 1. 0 College or University 2. 0 Private organizationat which you work 3. Cl U.S. or stategovernmentalorganizationor agency 4. Cl Governmentalorganizationor agencyof a country other than tbe United States 5. q Non-profit organizationor agency 6. 0 Yourscll 7. q Other (specify) 17 Page 34 GAO/PEMD-Sl-SB Plant Germplaam Framework and Queationnak . Survey fhwerning Plant Genetic Resources 39. We would like to get someidea of the size of the Genusgeneticresourcescdlecti~tt~ you refer to in question36. and the extent thatmaterial is distributedto others. About how many different accessionsor samplesof materlat do you have?Whatpercentof thoseare duplicatedat your facility, and what percenthavebeenplacedin long tctm back-upstorage(e.g., at the National SeedStorageLaboratory)? Also, abouthow many accessionsor samplesof material, if any. have you sentto other scientistsin the past 3 years? Leave the spaces blank (fyou have no accesslons In a category, and check no basis to judge if you do not have enough lqfomwtlan w estimate numbers andpercents. AccralIon Prewrvod and Dlmrlbutod ~~~ Categoriesof GeneticReaourcea / (1) / (2) / 0) / (4) / (5) Gene pool 1 ::’ ,I I 1. Cultivars in currentuse I % %I I 2. Obsoleteculdvars I I % %( I 3. Traditional varieties flandraces) 1 %I %I Gene pool 2 I 4. Distant relativesof cultivated I I I varieties that form fertile’hybrlds ! % %( 5. Biological speciesthat can be crossedusing conventional methodsbut with high level of I I I I sterility Gene ~013 9. Other(specify) 18 Page 36 GAO/PEMD-91-SB Plant Germplasm Fhmework and Questionnaire Appendix II Survey Concerning Plant Genetic lb3ourcea 40. If you campleaseestimatethe percentof existing 43. If accessionswere not accepted,why not? (Check all diversity for GcnliJ you believe Is representedin the that apply.) collection describedin question397 By existing divetatty, we meanthat which is representedin all 1. 0 All accessionswere.accepted cultivated and wild types world-wide. (1fyou can’t 2. 0 Resourceswere.duplicates provide an estimate check no basis to judge) 3. [7 Resourceswere thoughtto be in poor 1. Percentof existing diversity condition 4. 0 Recipientcould not storeor maintain 2. 0 No basisto judge 5. 0 Inadequatedescription 41. Do you have uniqueaccessionsin your collection 6. 0 Resourceswere not consistentwith mcipicnt’s that would be of value to the U.S. National Plant mission OotmplasmSystem?(Check one.) 7. Cl Other (specfi) 1. 0 Yes 2. 0 Pmbably yes 3. 0 Undecided 8. 0 No reasongiven for non-acceptance 4. 0 Ptobably no (GO TO QUEST1OAr 44) 44. Whatpercentof your Genusgeneticresourcesare 5. 0 No (GO TO QUESTION44) preservedor maintainedin the following form(s)? ( Esdmates are good enough). 42. About how many of the possibly unique accessions wcte offeredto the U.S. National Plant Germplasm Percent Systemin the past3 years;how many were accepted? Esttmate the numbers offered and accepted, or check 1. %Seed na basis IOjudge. 2. 9%Pollen 1. Numberoffered 3. % Clones/vegetativeptopagules 2. Numberaccepted 4. % DNA (geneticsequences)library 3. 0 No basisto judge 5. 96 In-vitm culture 6. 96Other (specify) 19 Y Page 36 GAO/PEMD-Ql-SB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire Appendix II Survey Concerning Plant Genetic Resources 45. For genetictesourcesyou preserveor maintain in any 47. Which of the following standardsfor preservation if form, which of thefollowing conditions,if any, are any, do you apply in maintainingyour genetic usually regulatedand/orrecorded?(Checkany resources?(Check all thatapply.) conditions you regulate, and any for which records are kept). 1. q No standardsapplied 2. 0 fntemationalBoardfor Plant Genetic Resources(IBWR) recommendedstandards 3. 0 Standardsusedby, or recommendedby the Types of Condttions / (1) /w U.S. Departmentof Agriculture or National SeedStorageLaboratory 1. Temoeratute I 4. 0 Standatdsestablishedby the lnsdtudonor industry with which you work 3. Packagingmaterials 5.0 Your personalstandards 6. 0 Other (specfy) 6. Atmosphere(e.g., co21 I I I 7. Controlof insects/rodents I I I 8. Light quality and intensity I I I 9. Length of time in StO*l@ I I I 10. Other(specify) I I I 16. Which of the following maintenanceactivities, if any, do you usually perform? (Check all that apply.) 1. 0 Germinateseedprior to placing it in storage 2. 0 Conductsubsequentgerminationtests 3. 0 Grow out seedto replenishcollection(s) 4. 0 RegeneratedOna resources 5. 0 Test or treat for virusesandpathogens 6. 0 Noneof the above 20 Page 37 GAO/PEMD-91-SB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire 48. To what extent, If at all, do you believe the following preservation aetivides shouldbe amphaalmd to faellltate the wad mana@mentof ffrnur geneticresources?(Checkone columnfor each row to lndicatc tha extent of anphasls or nabah loludgd. Praaawatbn Actknb8 / 11)/ (2) / (3) / (4) / (6) / (6) 1. Dwelophg new pmservatkmtechlques (e.g., dme culture,oryopnsenation, etc.) 2. lnemuing rhosize and/orimproving the quality of ax&Inn storagefacilities or elonal mmallo& .~~ - I I I I I I I I I I I I I 3. lmrwln8 plowout eondltionsor strategies I I I I I 4. Detectingandtreatingdiseasesand inseetsin amrage 21 Page 80 GAO/PJMIWl-SB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire Appendix II Survey Concerning PIant Genetic Re8ources DESCRIPTION OF GENUS GENETIC RESOURCES fhis sectionprovidesinformationto genetic resource managersaboutthe descriptionsof storedgenetic resourcesthat are imponant to scientistswho usethe resources,andaboutthe availability andusefulnessof descriptiveinformation. 49. Have you requestedany type of descriptive WonnatIon aboutGenusgeneticresources,from any sourceor provider, within the past5 years?(Check One.) 1. Cl Yes (CONTINUE) 2.0 No (CONTINUE’) 50. In instanceswhen you have not requesteddescriptive information,which of the following reasonsdescribe why not? (Check all that apply.) 1. 0 Descriptionsof geneticresourceaccessions am not impottant to my work andare not needed(GO TO QUESTION 53) 2. Cl Do not believe informationexists 3. 0 Informationis difficult to obtain becauseof inaccessibledatabases 4. 0 Believe existing informationis not complete or accurate 5. c] Believe informationwould not be relevantto currentwork 6. 0 Other(specify) 22 Y Page 39 GAO/PEMD-9MB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire Appendix II Survey Concerning Plant Genetic Resources 5 1. How important,if at all, are eachof the following kinds of geneticnsourcesinformationto your wodt? Also, indicate if accurate’orcompleteinformationis hard to get, or if informationis impossibleto get. (For level of bnportance check only one of the columns numbered l-5 or no basis to judge for each row). I l.Lwd af lmearirnca Ii 2.Accwa 1 2. Commonname(s) 11111111 I 3. Donor/collector ~1 I I I I I 4. Accuratelocation of collection site, altirude,latitude, 1OngiNdC. etc. 5. Conditionsat collection site (e.g., climate, soil, pests) 6. PCdiJJme/~CnCtiC history 7. Health/viabiiity 8. Extent of expecteddiversity in eachaccessionreceived 9. Nutritional needsof plants 10. Phenologicaltraits (e.g.,seedcoat color or life cycle) 11. Physicaltraits suchas leaf size, growth habit, bud size and shape) 12. Known genetictraits for resistance to disease,pests,or enviromnental stresses;mineral tolerance;yield; and adaptation,etc. 13. Crossability with commercial cultivars 14. Descriptionof usesof commercial culuvars 15. Humanor animal nutritional information(e.g.,protein level, oil content) 23 Y Page 40 GAO/PEMDQl-BB Plant Gexmplasm Framework and Questionnaire Appendix II Survey Concerning Plant Genetic Resources 52. Pleaselist addidonaltypes of descriptiveinformationthat, if available, would assistyou in your work. 53. To what extent, if at all, do you believe the following description activities shouldbe emphasizedto facilitate the overall managementof Genusplant geneticresources?(Check one columnfor each activfry listed.) 1. f%htatmg accessionsfor individual 2. Mapping genesin storedaccessions 3. Ehminating unnecessaryduplicate accessions 5. Providing descriptiveinformation, including background,taxonomy,and oediame.data I I I I I I I IIIIIII 6. Other (specify) 54. Consideryour own researchandbreedingefforts during the past 3 years. For abouthow many accessionshave you generateddescriptiveand/orevaluationinformation7Estimates are good enough. (Number of accessions)(IF NONE, GO TO QUESTION 60) 55. Is this descriptiveand/orevaluationinformationrecordedin any manner?(Check one.) 1. [II Yes (CONTINUE) 2. 0 No (GO TO QUESTlON 60) 24 Page 41 GAO/PEMD-91-IB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire Appendix II Survey Concerning Plant Genetic Rawurcce 56. Which of the following methodsare usedto 60. In general,over the past3 years,in aboutwhat mtain/ncord Udsififormalion?(Check all rhat apply.) prccnt of the instanceshave providers(peoplewho sentyou Genusgeneticresources)askedyou to send I. 0 ManuaVmechanlcalfiles back your evaluationdata?(Answer for both VSDAIARS as well as for other prodders) 2. Cl Computcrixedtiles 3. 0 Publications 1. % of USDAIARS askingfor evaluationdata 57. To what extent, if at all, is this information 2. % of othersaskingfor evaluation organized,crossindexed,andlabeled for easeof data access?(Place a check mark in the appropriate (IF BOTH ARE 0 %, GO TO column.) QUESTION 63) 61. About how often, if at all, did you provide the requested data? 1. Manual or mechanical 2. Computerized 3. Publication 58. Is your manualor computerizedinformationusually avaIlable to others?(Check one.) 1. 0 Yes 2. Cl Oenerally yes 3. q As often yesas no 4. Cl Generally no 5.0 No 59. How long do you plan to retain your manualor computerizedinformation?(Check one.) 1.0 Lcssthanlyear 2. 0 1 to 3 years 3. 0 4 to 6 years 4. q 7 to 9 years 5. 0 More than9 years 25 Y Page 42 GAO/PEMD-91-5B Plant Germplasm Framework and Questio~M~ Appendix II Survey Concswning Plant Genetic Berourcer 62. Which. if any, of the following masonsmadeit difficult for you tdprovide the requested information?(Check all that apply.) I. 0 All requestedinformationwas provided 2. 0 Did not evaluatensources 3. 0 No conclusiveresultswere obtained 4. q Prlmadly negativeresultswere obtainedfrom scncning for spcclfic traits S. Cl Informationwasproprietary 6. 0 Not our policy to returninformation 7. 0 Did not have time 8. 0 Too Costly 9. 0 Felt informationwas alreadyreadily available 10. 0 Informationwasdifficult to copy, extract, format or send 11. Cl Other(spcc@) 26 Page 48 GAO/PEMD-B14iB Plant G@mn~laem Fr8mfmd md ~eetto~ . Appendix II Survey Concerning Plant Genetic Resources GENUS CROP IMPROVEMENT AND RESEARCH This sectionprovidesa statusof ongoingefforts involving the useof Genus geneticresources,including tiding and staff levels, the primary focusof programs,andextent of useof geneticresources. 63. How many Ml-time equivalentstaff doesyour entire organization,or do you personallyhave working on Genus breedingand/orresearch?(By full-time equivalentwe meanthe sumof all full-time andpan-time staff hours convertedlo representan equivalentnumberof full-dme staff.) Also, aboutwhatpercentof the total FTEs is dedicatedprimarily to eachof the broad ateasof emphasislisted below? (Answerfor your organizatfon, your own area of responsibility, or both as appropriate for your situ&on. Percents should total 100.) 63a. Your OrganlzPtion’s Staff (Total numberof iitll-time equivalentemployees) Percent of FTEs Primary Emphasis 1, % Improving cropsto enhancecommercialvalues 2. % Improving preservadontechniquesor conditions 3. % Developing or improving geneticmanipulationor other advanced(biotechnology)techniques 4, % Basic research 5. % Other (specifu) 100% Total 6. 0 No basisto judge 63b. Your Staff (Total numberof full-time equivalentemployees) Percent of FTES Primary Emphasis 1.- % Improving cropsto enhancecommercialvalues 2. -% Improving preservationtechniquesor conditions 3* % Developing or improving geneticmanipulationor other advanced(biotechnology)techniques 4. % Basic research 5. -% Other(specify) 100% Total 6. 0 No basisto judge 21 Page 44 GAO/PEMD-91.II3 Plant Germplasm kamework and Questionnaire . Appendix II Survey Concerning Plant Genetic Resounxs 64. Pleaseestimatethe,total amountof funding that your organizationor you have receivedfor G~nur br&ing and/or researchpmgram(8)in the past 3 years. (If your budget is aggregated to include other crops and WCSplerrrc 4mate how much went for Genus.) 1. Organization’sprogramS 2. Your programS 3. c] No basisto judge (GO TO QUESTKJPf66) 28 Page 45 GAO/PEMD-Bl-SB Plant GermpLasm Framework and Questionnaire I Appendix II Survey Concerning Plant Genetic l&sources 65. Appmxhnately wh?t percentof this funding was pmvlded by the following soumes?(FM In the blanks with the appropriate percents for your organization atior your area of responsslbllity, as appropriate. Percents should total 100. If you don’t have access to this information, check no basis w judge.) I-Organlzatlon’s Program 2.Your Program Sourceof Funding 01. % % Internationalsources(e.g., FAO. IBPGR.) 02. % % Governmentsourcesin counttiesotherthan the.USA 03. % % LJSDAESRScompetitive grants 04. % % All other USDA funds 05. % % Other federalagencies(e.g., U.S. AID) 06. % % Stateagencies/StateExperiment Stations 07. % 46 Universities 08. % % FoundationSeedRoyalty AssociationsK!mpbnpmvement Foundations 09. % % Private industry IO. % % private foundations(e.g.,RockefellerFoundation,Ford Foundation,etc.) 11. % % Crop specific associations 12. % % Useror membershipfees 13. % % Other(specifi) 100% lCO% Total 14. •I No basisto judge 29 Page 46 GAO/PEMLbBl-SB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire . Appendix II Survey Concerning Plant Genetic Resources 6Ci. PleaseIndicatethe,extent,if at all. your Genus breedingand/orresearchefforts currently emphasizethe following objectives. Also, lttdicate the extent. if at all. you bellcve your efforts will be directedtowardtheseobjectivesin the next Wee years. (Check one column for each heading) Commercial emphasis 1. Increasingyields or production 2. Enhancingnutidonal valuesof crops I I I I I I I I ( I I 3. Expandingcommercialusesof crops 4. Intpmving pmductprocessingor storaactechnlaucs Search for reslstance 5. Identifying traits for resistanceto known diseases,pests,etc., that have not yet beenfound in genetic rcsoitrccsfor this crop- 6. Identifying traits for gmater adaptationto environmentalor physical stresses --....,1 --. -.-.... :, ----..r:----.,y :, :y Other research 1. 10. Mapping genesnot yet identified with any known traits 11. Identifying new sourcesof genetic variation within or outsidethe genus 12. Studying populationgenetics 13. Studyof hostplant/parasite interaction 14. Improving geneticmanipulation (biotechnology)techniquesfor btceding and/orresearch I I I I I 15. Other research(specify) 30 J Page 47 GAO/PEMD-916B Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire . . Appendix II Swey Concerning Plant Genetic Resources r- 67. Pleaseindicate the,extent,if at ali, eachof the following reasonsinfluenceddecisionsto develop,conductand/or participatein your durrentbreedingand/orresearchpmgrams?(Checkone columnfor each row) Extent naronr lnlluenced dOolSlonS Reasonsfor Br0edinQorResearchProprams / (1) / (2) / (3) / (4) / (s) / @I 1. High economicvalue of crop 2. EnvimnmentaJstressesareendangeringcrops 3. Changesin land usepatterns 4. Pestsor diseasesam endangeringcrops 5. Requiredby fundingsourceor researchleader 6. Scientific interest/discovery 7. Currentand/orpotentialdemandfor hybrids 8. Productionof cultivars 9. Amount of domesticconsumption 10. Demandfor exmtt to other counuies 11. Currentandpotential numberof usesfor the crop (e.g., food, fiber, forage,fuel) 12. pressurefrom the crop produceror end user itmuos 13. Increaseduseof alternativefarming products 14. Low input sustainableagriculture(LISA) 15. Other(specify) 31 Y Page 48 GAO/PEMDBl-BB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire Appendix II Survey Concerning Plant Genetic Resources 68. About how many diffetent accessions,samples,etc. 70. PleaselndlcatespeclfIcresistancetraits for which am you cumntly using in your breedingor research you are searchingor checkinformationis proprietary. efforts? About how many do you plan to usein the next 3 years? Pleaseestimatethesenumbersfor each 1. of the geneticresourcecategories.(If none,enter0). Use in Categoriesof Genetic yrt ;y,; Resources Gene pool 1 1. Cultivars in currentuse 2. Obsoletecultivate I I 3. Traditional varieties, 2. Cl Informationis pmprletiuy (landraces) Gene pool 2 7 1. Werethe traits or descriptorsyou searchedfor 4. Distant relativesof recommendedby a major advisoryorganizationsuch cultivated varieties that as a U.S. Crop Advisory Committee,the Intemadonal form fenile hybrids Boardfor Plant GeneticResources;etc.7(Check one.J S. Biological speciesthat 1.0 No can be crossedusing conventionalmethodsbut 2. 0 Yes wlth high level of sterility 3. 0 Proprietaryinformation Gene pool 3 4. 0 No basisto judge 6. Biological speciesthat can be crossedonly by 72. We would like to know to what extent, if at all, you useof advanced believe the descriptorsfor resistancerecommended techniques by major advisoryorgtmlzatlonsIncludethe traits Other that you believe shouldbe researchpriorities7 (Check one.) 7. Special genedcstocks 1. cl To little or no extent 2. 0 To someextent 3. 0 To a moderateextent 4. 0 To a great extent 49. Are you currently searchingfor traits for resistanceto specific stresses(e.g., specificdisease,pest,etc.) in 5. 0 To a very greatextent Genus? (Check one.) 6. 0 No basisto judge 1. Cl Yes (CONTINUE) 2.0 No (GO TO QUESTION72) 32 Y Page 49 GAO/PEMD-91-SB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire Appendix II Snrvey Concerning Plant Genetic Reeom 73. What, if any. rpccijic resistance trpita do you believe need#materemphasisas researchpriorities. (wrlre none (f twna, or check i#ormatlon b proprietary.) 1. 2. 0 btfomuuion is proprietary 74. To what axtent, if at all, do you believe the following research,crop improvement,or cnhanccmentacUvitler shouldbe cmphasixedto facilitate the overall managementof Genur plant geneticnsources? (Check one coltttnn for each actlvity). Acmy / (1) / (2) / (3) / (4) / (6) / (6) / 1. Identifying andmappinggenes 2. Developing msiatanceto stresses (envlmnmental,diseases,insects,pesticides, NC.) 3. Identifying traits for, and/orimproving commercialqualities of crops 4. Improving or developing advanced @iotachnology)techniques,suchas molecular genetics,cell tissueculture,genemapping,etc. 5. Transferringcharactedsticsfrom non-adapted geneticresourcesto adaptedtypes (pm-breeding, enhancement) 6. Developing new usesfor undomesticatedgenetic lesourccs 7. Other(spcc(fy) 33 Page SO GAO/PEMD91-LIB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questioxmah Impact of Advanced (Biotechnology) Techniques on Breeding and Reseerch 7%hib# lh6 pw 5 year%have you usedany advanced(biotechnology)techniquesin your bnading or research propnms Wh6lB~IJWJ gerlCtiCIWourccswere involved7 (Check one.) 1. a Yu (CONTINUE) 2.0 No (Go TO QUESTION 80 AND THE DEFINITIONS ON PAGE 37). 76. plsus indlcrtc the extent, If at all. you have usedthe following advanced(biotechnology)techniquesdudng the put 5 yeam. Also, indicatethe extent, if af all, the useof eachtechniquehaschangedthe emphasisor objectivesof your bmedingor researchaffofons up to the pnsent time. (Check one column under each heading for each row). 5. mrnicrl rvnthcsisof nucleic adds or gene aynthe6is- 6. Protoplut fusion 7. wid6em6ses 8. ouw (SPCCUL) 34 P*ge 61 GAO/PEMD-91-SB Plant Germplasm kamework and Questionnaire Appendix II Snmey Concerning Plant Genetic Besources 77. Pleaseindicate the,extent,if at all, you expect the advanced(biotechnology)techniquesto changeUKJemphasisor objectivesof yourbreeding and/orresearchefforts in the foreseeablefuture. (Checkone columnw&r each heading for each row.) 78. Is the useof theseadvancedtechniqueschanging,to any extent, the amountor types of geneticnsourcesyou use in your breedingor researcheffom? (Check one.) 1.0 Yes(COhTlNCJhJ 2. 0 No (CO TO QUESTION 80 AND THE DEFINITIONS ON PAGE 37) Page 52 GAO/PEMD-91-5B Plant Germplasm Pramework and Que&ionnaire Appendix II Survey Concerning Plant Genetic Besources 79. lndlcate whetheruseof advanced@iotechnology)techniquesis caus@ an increase.decrease,or no changein your useof geneticrestimes in eachcategory.(Check one column for each rm.) 1. Cultivafs in curtent use 2. Obsoletecultivan I 3. Traditional varieties (landraces) I I I I 5. Biological spiciesthat can be crossedusing conventionalmethods but with high level of Gene pool 3 6. Biological speciesthat can be crossedonly by useof advanced techniques 36 Page 53 GAO/PEMDBl-SB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire , Appendix II Survey Concerning Plant Genetic Reeoureee DEFINITIONS OF PLANT GENETIC RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES We want to know if opinionsaboutplacing emphasison patticular genedcresourceactivities, provided by scientists who usethe resources,can help geneticresourcemanagersidentify differencesin needsamongcropsor genera. Please hmliiarlze yourself with the following deflnitlons before contlnulng to question 80. ACQUISITION: Collecting additionalplant geneticresourcesfrom centersof diversity andother world locations,as well asthroughexchangewith other scientistsor genebanks. PRESERVATION - Storing andmaintainingplant geneticresourcesin genebank~IWUUOM throughoutthe world In orderto assumthat (1) a diversesupply of plant genetic resourcesis available to breedersand researchers,and (2) sufficientdiversity exists in genebanksto assurethe long-termsurvival of cultivated crop species. DESCRIPTION - Identifying and accuratelydescribingplant geneticresources(especiallythosestoredin collections throughoutthe world) by developingaccuratepassportdocumentationandevaluating for descriptors. ENHANCEMENT - Transferringcharacteristicshorn non-adaptedgeneticresourcesto adaptedtypes (pm-breeding) so that scientistscan moreeasily usethe characteristicsto improve cultivated cmps. BREEDING - Developing new plant varieties or improving existing varieties (especiallycommercialcrops)using tradidonal methodsof crossingvarieties (i.e. not usingmodemmoleculargeneticstechnologiesto transfergenesfrom one vadety to another). BIOTECHNOLOGY - Developing and applying advancedtechniquesto identify andmanipulategenes,or improve storagetechnologiesfor plant geneticresources. 37 Page 64 GAO/PEMD-Bl-5B Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire I . f Appendix II Survey Concerning Plant Genetic Resources 80. Basedon your kno,wledgeandexperience,pleaserate the relative importanceof emphasizingthe major activiUes. definedabove,to dte overall impmvementof Genusgenetic resoumepnservation anduse. Do this by considering eachpair combinationof the six major activities listed in the fifteen rows below. On eachmw. pleasecomparethe two acttvittesdesignatedActivity A andActivity B (e.g.,descriptionI pnsetvation). Pleasenotethat nhte columns am arrangedso that you may checkone column for eachmw to indicate which activity is more important, or that they are equal in importance. We realize that somechoicesmay be easywhile othersmay be very difficult. But regardless,be sureto rate eachcombinationpair becausewe cannotmakean accurateassessmentuntessa9 I5 pairs am rated. Please check the m&We column (5) lf you believe the two actlvitles should be emphasized equally for the overall improvement of Genusgenetic resource management. If you believe Activity A Is more important rhanActivtty 8. check one of the columns to the left of center w indicate how much more important A is over B, or Ifyou belleve Activity B is more important than Activity A, check one of the columns to the right of center to lndlcate how much more important B is over A. 2. DescriptionI Breeding I I I I I I I I I I 3. EnhancementI Preservation I. Acquisition I Description i. PtosetvationI Biotechnology o. Bneding I Enhancement 7. BiotechnologyI Breeding 8. DescriptionI Pteservation 9. EnhancementI Acquisition I I I I I I I 10. Acquisition I Breeding I I 11. PreservationI Acquisition I I I I I 12. BreedingI Preservadon 13. BiotechnologyI Enhancement 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14. DescriptionI Biotechnology I I I I I I 15. EnhancementI Description 1 I 38 Page 66 GAO/PEMD-91.BB Plant Gennplaam Framework and Questionnaire . Appendix II Survey Cmcernlng Plant Genetic Resources 1 8I. If you have any commentsor qualificationson any of 83. To assistus with furtherdevelopmentof the questionsaskedor on any questionswe should questionnairerespondentlista, pleaseprovide the have askedbut dld not, pleasemakethesestatcmcnts namesandaddressesof up to threeusel~of Genus ln the spacebelow. We would like to hear horn you. geneticresources,who do work dmllar to your own (Atkxh additional sheets ifnecessary) Thank you. 82. In order for us to discussthe questionnairewith you andto follow-up on responses,if necessary,please provide the following infonnation: Your telephonenumber: Bestday of the week for us to call you: Best time of the day for us to call you: 39 Page 66 GAO/PEMD-914B Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire Bibliography Beckmann, J, S., and M. Soller. “Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms in Plant Genetic Improvement,” no. 1607-E, 1985 series. Oxford Surveys of Plant Molecular Biology. Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Centre, Hebrew University, Bet Danan, Israel: n.d. Brooks, Howard J., and Grant Vest. “Public Programs on Genetics and Breeding of Horticultural Crops in the United States.” HortScience, ‘20:5 (October 1985), 826-30. Brown, A. H, D., et al. The Use of Plant Genetic Resources. Melbourne, Australia: Cambridge University Press, 1985. Brown, William L. “Genetic Diversity and Genetic Vulnerability-An Appraisal.” Economic Botany, 37: 1(1983), 4-l 2. Buttel, Frederick H., and Jill Belsky. “Biotechnology, Plant Breeding, and Intellectual Property: Social and Ethical Dimensions.” Science and Technology: Human Values, vol. 12, issue I, pp. 31-49. Cambridge, Mass.: Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the President and Fellows of Harvard College, Winter 1987. Center for Plant Conservation Conference Plan. The Genetics of Rare Plant Conservation: A Conference on Integrated Strategies for Conserva- tion and Management. Jamaica Plains, Mass.: July 22, 1988. Commission on Plant Genetic Resources. “Implications of New Biotech- nologies for the International Undertaking.” Provisional Agenda. Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, April 1989. Committee on Biosciences Research in Agriculture. New Directions for Biosciences Research in Agriculture. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1985. Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research and Interna- tional Board for Plant Genetic Resources. Partners in Conservation: Plant Genetic Resources and the CGIAR System. Rome, Italy: Interna- tional Board for Plant Genetic Resources, n.d. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. Genetic Engineering in Food and Agriculture, no. 110. Ames, Iowa: September 1986. Page 67 GAO/PEMD-91.SB Plant Germplasm Premework and Questionnaire Bibliography Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. Plant Germplasm Pres- ervation and Utilization in U.S. Agriculture, no. 106. Ames, Iowa: November 1985. Day, P. R. “Crop Improvement: Breeding and Genetic Engineering.” Phil- osophical Transactions Royal Society, London, 310 (1985), 47-52. Day, P. R. “Future Trends in Plant Breeding.” Biotechnology and Its Application to Agriculture, Monograph No. 32, pp. 25-31, Croydon, Eng.: BCPC Publications, 1985. Diversity, issue 15. Washington, D.C.: Genetic Resources Communica- tions Systems, Inc., 1988. Diversity, issue 16. Washington, DC.: Genetic Resources Communica- tions Systems, Inc., 1988. Duvick, Donald N. “Genetic Diversity in Major Farm Crops on the Farm and in Reserve.” Economic Botany, 38:2 (1984), 161-78. Elkington, John. Double Dividends? US. Biotechnology and Third World Development, WRI Papers No. 2. Washington, DC.: World Resources Institute, 1986. Frey, K. J. “Genes From Wild Relatives for Improving Plants.” Proceed- ings of the Fourth International SABRAO Congress. Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia: 1983. Frey, K. J. “Presidential Address: the Unifying Force in Agronomy- Biotechnology.” Agronomy Journal, 77 (March-April 1985), 187-89. Goodman, Billy. “From Russia With Love.” Discover, May 1990, pp. 63- 65. Gould, Fred. “Evolutionary Biology and Genetically Engineered Crops.” Bioscience, 38: 1 (January 1988), 26-33. Hoyt, Erich. Conserving the Wild Relatives of Crops. Rome, Italy: Inter- national Board for Plant Genetic Resources, International Union for Con- servation of Nature and Natural Resources, World Wide Fund for Nature, 1988. Page 58 GAO/PEMD-Ol-SB Plant Germplasm Pramework and Questionnaire . Bibliography International Board for Plant Genetic Resources. Crop Genetic Resources: Conservation and Evaluation. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1984. Joint Council on the Food and Agricultural Sciences. Fiscal Year 1990 Priorities for Research, Extension, and Higher Education. Washington, DC.: June 1988. Joint Council on the Food and Agricultural Sciences. Five-Year Plan for the Food and Agricultural Sciences: A Report to the Secretary of Agri- culture. Washington, DC.: May 1988. Keystone Center. Final Report of the Keystone International Dialogue on Plant Genetic Resources. Session 1, Ex Situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources. Keystone, Colo.: August 15-18, 1988. Kloppenburg, Jack, Jr. First the Seed: The Political Economy of Plant Biotechnology. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Kloppenburg, Jack, Jr. “Seeds of Struggle: The Geopolitics of Genetic Resources.” Technology Review, February-March 1987, pp. 47-53. Lande, Russel. “Genetics and Demography in Biological Conservation.” Science, 241 (September 1988), 1455-60. McMullen, Neil. “Seeds and World Agricultural Progress.” National Plan- ning Association Report, no. 227. Washington, D.C.: National Planning Association: 1987. “National Plant Germplasm System of the United States.” Plant Breeding Reviews, vol. 7. Portland, Ore.: Timber Press, 1989. Peeters, John P., and Nick W. Galwey. “Germplasm Collections and Breeding in Europe.” Economic Botany, 42:4 (1988), 503-21. “Pino to Lead Global Germplasm Study.” Diversity, issue 9 (1986), 4-5. Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. “Conservation and Utilization of Exotic Germplasm to Improve Varieties.” Report of the 1983 Plant Breeding Research Forum. N.p.: 1983. Page 69 GAO/PEMD-91.SB Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire Blbllography Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. “The Role of Biotechnology in Plant Breeding.” Report of the 1984 Plant Breeding Research Forum. N-p.: 1984. Plucknett, Donald L., et al. Gene Banks and the World’s Food. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1987. Saaty, Thomas L. The Analytic Hierarchy Process. New York: McGraw- Hill, 1980. Saaty, Thomas L., and Luis G. Vargas. The Logic of Priorities: Applica- tions in Business, Energy, Health, and Transportation. Boston: Kluwer- Nijhoff, 1982. Simpson, Glenn. “Saving Variety in the Global Garden.” Insight, July 20, 1987, pp. 56-57. Strauss, Michael S., Joel I. Cohen, and John A. Pino. “Quantification of Diversity in Ex-Situ Plant Collections.” Paper at American Association for the Advancement of Science Symposium, Boston, February 12,1988. Tadisina, Suresh K., and Vijay Bhasin. “Doctoral Program Selection Using Pairwise Comparisons.” Research in Higher Education, 30:4 (1989), 403-18. Troyer, A. F., S. J. Openshaw, and Kilt Knittle. “Measurement of Genetic Diversity Among Popular Commercial Corn Hybrids.” Crop Science, 28:3 (May-June 1988), 481-86. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Technologies to Main- tain Biological Diversity, CI’A-F-300. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, March 1987. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Technologies to Main- tain Biological Diversity, vol. 2, contract papers, part A, papers 1-6 and 8, plant technologies, PB87-139200. Washington, DC.: U.S. Government Printing Office, December 1986. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. “Solving Agricultural Problems with Biotechnology,” draft. Washington, D.C., November 1989. Page 60 GAO/PEMD-91-IB Plant Germplasm Prameworlc and Questionnaire , Bibliography U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Agricul- tural Research Service Program Plan, miscellaneous publication 1429. Washington, D.C.: January 1983. U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Plant Genetic Resources Board. Plant Germplasm: Conservation and Use. Washington, DC.: October 1984. U.S. General Accounting Office. Better Collection and Maintenance Pro- cedures Needed to Help Protect Agriculture’s Germplasm Resources, GAO/CED-~~-~. Washington, D.C.: December 4, 1981. US. General Accounting Office. Biotechnology: The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Biotechnology Research Efforts, GAO/RCED-~~-~~BR. Wash- ington, DC.: October 25, 1985. U.S. General Accounting Office. Case Study Evaluations, transfer paper 9. Washington, DC.: April 1987. U.S. General Accounting Office. The Department of Agriculture Can Minimize the Risk of Potential Crop Failures, GAO/CED-~~-~. Washington, DC.: April 10, 1981. Wilkes, Garrison. “Current Status of Crop Plant Germplasm.” CRC Crit- ical Reviews in Plant Sciences, I:2 (1982), 133-81. Williams, Trevor. “Plant Genetic Resources and Food Security.” Food Policy, May 1988, pp. 178-84. Witt, Steven C. Biotechnology and Genetic Diversity. San Francisco, Calif.: Agricultural Lands Project, 1985. Witt, Steven C. QuickBook Genetic Engineering of Plants. San Francisco, Calif.: California Agricultural Lands Project, 1982. Wolf, Edward C. “Challenges and Priorities in Conserving Biological Diversity.” Interciencia, 10:5 (September-October 1985), 236-42. Page 01 GAO/PEMD-91.5B Plant Germplasm Framework and Questionnaire ll~.l.-l. . ..-. _.-. -_--- -.--..-- _-.. -.-.___-.-_._ __._-.-_,___- ll__.-“_-------_I -.... --_~.. .- .._~---. __. ~ --..^.... “_- *I,,,“,. ““l-..“h.. .- ---_-- Ortlt~ring Ir~formii!ithr i
Plant Germplasm: A Data Collection Framework and Questionnaire
Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1990-10-10.
Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)