oversight

More Emphasis Needed on Data Analysis Phase of Space Science Programs

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1977-06-27.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                         DOCUMENT RESUME

02740 - [A1852872]

More Emphasis Needed on Data Analysis Phase of Space Science
Programs. PSAD--77-114; B-133394. June 27, 1977. 17 pp. + 4
appendices (24 pp.).

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General.

Issue Area: Science and Technology: Management and oversight of
    Programs (2004); Federal Procurement of Goods and Services
    (1900).
Contact: Procurement and Systems Acquisition Div.
Budget Function: General Science, Space, and Technology: Space
    Science, Applications, and Technology (254).
Organizaticn Concerned: National Aeronautics and Space
    Administration.
Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Science and
    Technology; Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and
    Transportation; Congress.
Authority: National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (P.L.
    85-568; 72 Stat. 426).

         Scientific data acquired from the National Aeronautics
and Space Administration's (NASA's) space programs are not
always promptly made available to the scientific community for
further analysis and maximum benefit to the United States.
Findings/Conclusions: The National Space Science Data Center has
problems acquiring data promptly because some principal
investigators fail to submit their data. actors contributing to
late data or data not received are: contracts and written
agreements which required investigators to submit data were not
enforced; too little money and time were available to
investigators for data analysis; and the Center was understaffed
in relation to its mission. Recommendations: The Administrator
of NASA should direct the Associate Administrator for Space
Science to enforce the contracts and in-house agreements
requiring investigators to submit data to the Center in order to
maintain a schedule showinq when investigators are expected to
submit data from their experiments and to set up a system
showing which experiments should receive priority attention at
the Center. The Administrator should develop more realistic
estimates of funds and time necessary to adequately support
investigators' data analysis and assign certain data acquisition
duties to project scientists. When evaluating NASA's program
content and budget requests, the Congress should examine the
adequacy of NASA's allocation of resources between gathering
space science data and analyzing it. (Author/SC)
N-




0
                REPORT TO THE CONGRESS

     :sO    '   BY THE COMPTROLLER GENERAL
     '>'.':     OF THE UNITED STATES




                More Emphasis Needed On
                Data Analysis Phase Of
                Space Science Programs
                National Aeronautics and Space Administration

                Scientific data acquired from NASA's space
                programs is not always promptly made avail-
                able to the scientific community for further
                analysis and maximum benefit to the Nation.
                The Congress should examine the adequacy of
                NASA's allocation of resources betweer,
                gathering space science data and analyzing it.




                PSAD-77-114
                                                                 JUNE 27, 1977
                COMPTROLLER GENERAL OF THE UNITe   IrrAT   -
                          WAHINTON, 3.C.




B-133394




To the President of the Senate and the
Speaker of the House of Representatives
     This report discusses the National Aeronautics and
Space Administration's upport of investigator' postlaunch
data analysis efforts on space science experiments and im-
provements needed in making this data available to other
members of the scientific community for further analysis.
     This review is a follow-on to a survey in which we
found that data on a number of successfully launched experi-
ments had not been submitted to the National Space Science
Data Center as required.

     Our review was made pursuant to the Budget and Account-
ing Act, 1921 (31 U.S.C. 53), and the Accounting and Audit-
ing Act of 1950 (31 U.S.C. 67).

     We are sending copies of this report to the Director,
Office of Management and Budget, and to the Administrator,
National Aeronautics and Space Administration.




                                Comptroller General
                                of the United States
COMPTROLLER GENERAL'S                  MORE EMPHASIS NEEDED ON
REPORT TO THE CONGRESS                 DATA ANALYSIS PHASE OF
                                       SPACE SCIENCE PROGRAMS
                                       National Aeronautics and
                                         Space Administration

             DIG EST

            When evaluating the National Aerorautics and
            Space Administration's (NASA's) program content
            and budget requests, the Congress should examine
            the adequacy of NASA's allocation of resources
            between gathering space science data and analyz-
            ing it. Greater emphasis is needed during the
            data analysis phase of a program to obtain the
            maximum scientific benefit from the data ob-
            tained.
             BACKGROUND
             NASA is responsible for developing and operating
             spacecraft to gather data on phenomena in space.
             It has invested billions of dollars on launch
             vehicles and satellites which transmit large
             quantities of space science data to Earth. Such
             oata should increase our knowledge and further
             scientific exploration into such areas as the
             history of the universe. physics of the stars,
             and the search for life and other cultures.
             NASA has structured its space science program
             primarily around individual scientists who
             are competitively selected from within NASA
             or elsewhere to carry out investigations. It
             enters into contracts or agreements with these
             scientists to do required work. These scien-
             tists, usually referred to as principal in-
             vestigators, actively participate with NASA
             from the experiment's inception through the
             various operations' phases until the primary
             data analysis is completed and the processed
             or reduced data is placed in NASA storage.

             Generally, the first step of an analysis is to
             receive from the satellite raw data which NASA
             gives to the principal investigator. The in-
             vestigators change the raw data to reduced
             or processed data principally by compacting,
             editing, correcting, and merging operations.
             The reduced data provides the base from which
             other indepth studies can be done.

curLSt. Upon rrnmovl, the report   i                  PSAD-77-114
covr date hould be noted hereon.
NASA policy requires the principal investigators
to publish their findings as soon as practicable
and make the reduced data records available for
analysis by others.
The National Space Science Data Center is NASA's
primary facility for acquiring and disseminating
space science data to be nalyzed by scientists
other than the principal investigators and their
coworkers. People using the Center are generally
pleased with the quality of the data available
there and the services provided. There is some
concern, however, about the time it takes the
principal investigators to submit reduced data
to the Center for use by others.
WHY DATA IS NOT BEING SUBMITTFD TO THE CENTER
SOON ENOUGH

The Center has problems acquiring data promptly
because some principal investigators fail to
submit their data. This happens partly because
of insufficient funding and the time allowed for
their analyses. As a result, other investigators
must either cancel or delay their work with this
data or obtain it directly from the principal
investigator or NASA field centers.
Data on 559 space science experiments, during
1966-73, should have been submitted to the Center
by the time of GAO's review. The Center had not
received data on 208 (37 percent) of these experi-
ments; data has been submitted on the remaining
351 (63 percent).  Also, based on the Center's
ceneral criteria of acquiring init-al data within
2 years after launch, data from 165 (47 percent)
of the 351 experiments was late by 6 months or
more. However, GAO could not readily deter-
mine if the data for each experiment was complete.
Factors contributing to late data or data not
received are:

-- Contracts and written agreements which re-
   quired investigators to submit data were not
   enforced. (See pp. 6 to 8.)
--Too little money and time were available to
  investigators for data analysis. (See pp. 11
  to 13.)



                     ii
            --The Center was understaffed in relation to its
              mission.  (See p. 13 to 16.)

            Center managers do not keep a schedule showing
            when investigators are expected to submit data
            from their experiments (see p. 7) and have pro-
            vided little overall criteria for assigning
            priorities to the acquisition of this data.
            (See pp. 8 to 10.)

            An alternative to increasing the Center's data
            acquisition staff is to expand the roles and
            responsibilities of NASA's space science project
            scientists to include data acquisition for the
            Center.  They are already responsible for managing
            the scientific aspects of the projects and should
            be familiar with the data.

            RECOMMENDATIONS

            The Administrator of NASA should:

            -- Direct the Associate Administrator for Space
               Science to enforce the contracts and in-house
               agreements requiring investigators to submit
               data to the Center.  (See p. 10.)

            -- Direct the Associate Administrator for Space
               Science to maintain a schedule showing when
               investigators are expected to submit data
               from their experiments and to set up a system
               showing which experiments should receive prior-
               ity attention at the Center.  (See p. 10.)

            -- Develop more realistic estimates of funds and
               time necessary to adequately support investiga-
               tors' data analysis.  (See p. 16.)

            -- Assign certain data acquisition duties to proj-
               ect scientists.  (See p. 16.)

            NASA agrees with GAO's recommendations and lists
            a number of corrective actions it plans to make.
            (See app. I.)




Tear Sh"t
              ~     ~
            T~~~~maz_~b~3~    ~   ~   1
             CG n t e n t s


DIGEST                                        i
CHAPTER

          INTRODUCTION                        1
              Organization and
                management                    2
              Review objectives and
                scope                         3
 2        SPACE SCIENCE DATA NOT BEING
            ACQUIRED BY THE CENTER IN A
            TIMELY MANNER                     5
              Late or nonsubmissions
                of data reduce the
                Center's effectiveness        5
              Need to enforce the require-
                ment for submission of
                data by principal
                investigators                 6
              Uniform criteria for
                assigning priority codes
                should be established         8
              Recommendations for NASA
                Administrator                10
 3        NEED TO INCREASE DATA
            AVAILABILITY FOR FOLLOW-ON
            ANALYSIS                         11
              Initial project office
                funding of principal
                investigator data analysis
                for more than 1 or 2 years
                should be considered         11
              Need for a better division
                of responsibility between
                project and acquisition
                scientists                   13
              Recommenda''  s for NASA
                Administ                     16
              Recommende      to the
                Congress                     17
              Agency comments                17
                                                     Page
APPENDIX

       !   Comments dated March 1, 1977,
             from the Associate Administrator,
             Office of Space Science, National
             Aeronautics and Space Administration     18

      II   Results of U.S. General Accounting
             Office Survey of Space Science
             Investigations                           25

  III      Results of U.S. General Accounting
             Office Survey of Requesters of
             Data From the National Space
             Science Data Center                      34

      IV   Principal officials of the
             National Aeronautics and Space
             Administration responsible
             for activities discussed
             in this report                           40


                     ABBREVIATIONS

GAO        General Accounting Office
NASA       National Aeronautics and Space Adminis-
           tration
                          CHATER 1
                        INTRODUCTION
     The National Aercnautics and Space Administration
(NASA)--established by the National Aeronautics and
Space Act of 1958 (Public Law 85-568, 72 stat. 426)--
in responsible for arranging for the scientific community's
participation in panning scientific measurenments and ob-
servations to be male through use of aeronautical and
space vehicles, and conducting or arranging for the conduct
of such measurements and observations. NASA is also re-
sponsible for providing the widest practicable and appro-
priate dissemi-ation of information concerning its activi-
ties and results.
     NASA's January 7, 1967, Policy Directive 8030.3
states its policy regarding space science flight experi-
ments. It provides, in part, that NASA shall rely heavily
on individu'al scientists in the United States (in and out
of Government) to carry out complete investigations by
(1) conceiving specific investigations; (2) developing,
when appropriate. the instrumentation for the investigation:
(3) participating actively, whenever possible, in the actual
conduct of the investigation; (4) reducing 1/ and analyzing
the data obtained; and (5) publishing their-findings as soon
as practicable and making the reduced data records available
on a timely basis for use by others.

     Under this policy the investigator dedicates many years
to his investigation. For example, the prelaunch activities
on the Orbiting Solar Observatory launched in 1975 took over
6 years and involved the design, development, and integration
of the experiments into the satellite for launch. The post-
launch data analysis activity generally lasts an additional
2 or more years.

     The selection of investigations begins once NASA has
established a particular space science program. First,
an Announcement of Opportunity is wi ely disseminated to
interested scientific investigators. The announcement


1/Generally, the first step of any analysis effort is to
  reduce the raw data. This typically includes compacting,
  editing, correcting, and merging operations. The re-
  duced data should contain the basic information obtained
  from the experiment needed to independently analyze the
  data.
generally does not specify the investigations to be proposed,
but solicits ideas which contribute to broad program ob-
jectives. According to NASA, the proposals received are
distinctive and innovative. They are screened and compet-
itively selected.
     NASA field installations are assigned project manage-
ment responsibilities for these investigations. Contracts
are negotiated between the investigator's institution and
the field installation or, in the case of foreign irvesti-
gators, written agreements are negotiated with the sponsor-
ing governmental agency in that country. These contracts
and agreements specify the responsibility of the investi-
gator (i.e.. principal investigator) in developing the
investigation to be launched, and for the postlaunch data
reduction, analysis, and delivery of reduced data records
and necessary documentation to the National Space Science
Data Center (Center) at the Goddard Space Flight Center
(Goddard).
     The Center, established in 1964, has a mission to
provide for the dissemination and analysis f space science
data beyond that provided by the principal investigators.
Consequently, it is responsible for the acquisition, or-
ganization. storage. retrieval, announcement, and dissem-
ination of the scientific data obtained from satellites.
sounding rocket probes, high altitude aircraft and balloons.
     The schedule for delivery of data to the Center is
negotiated between the investigator's institution and the
cognizant NASA field installation. Experiments are generally
designed to operate 1 r more years during which time data
is being relayed to Earth. Center guidelines state that a
typical time interval for the investigator to submit data
received during the first 6 months of the experiment has
been 2 years after launch. Data received during the next
6-month period is to be furnished to the Center within 2-1/2
years after launch and so forth.

Organization and management
     The Associate Administrator, Office of Space Science,
is responsible for te overall direction of the Center
through the Director, Goddard Space Flight Center.   Indi-
vidual Headquarters program directors  are responsible for
managing the data reduction, primary  analysis, and delivery
of reduced data records to the Center from space science
flight experiments under their auspices.
     The Center is primarily a contractor-operated facility,
staffed with about 82 contractor and 14 civil service person-
nel. The civil service staff is responsible for overall

                              2
management and direction, as well as acquiring appropriate
data from the investigators and maintaining n interface
with the scientific community.

     The contractor is responsible for the development
and operation of the Center's automated information system.
which includes computers and related equipment needed to
process, store, and retrieve data for which the Center is
accountable. The contractor is also responsible for process-
ing and completing all data requests the Center receives. The
Center's fiscal year 1976 operational costs were $1,734,500.

Review objectives and scope
     This report presents our observations on problems
involved in the submission of processed space science data
to the Center. Our review objective was to determine
why reduced data was either not submitted to the Center
or was submitted late. We also did limited work to determine
the adequacy and usefulness of data and services provided
by the Center.

     Our review was made at the Center, Greennelt, Maryland,
and at NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. We interviewed
NASA officials, examined records and reports, and sent
questionnaires to scientists in the United States and
other countries.
     One questionnaire was sent to investigators, primarily
principal investigators who participated in NASA space
missions launched before July 1,. 1973. and were responsible
for submitting data to the Center. These investigators at the
time of our review had had sufficient time to meet the Center's
general criteria of submitting their initial data 2 years
after launch. This questionnaire requested information on
such areas as (1) the adequacy of funding and support for
data analysis, (2) the investigators' willingness to submit
data and/or problems hindering the suomission of data to
the Center. and (3) possible improvements in the data
analysis effort and services provided by the Center.

     Another questionnaire was sent to foreign and U.S.
persons whose requests for data were filled by the Center
during the period January 1,. 1974, through April 30, 1975.
In this questionnaire we sought opinions on the adequacy
and usefulness of data and services provided by the Center
and ways the Center might be more useful and responsive
to the scientific community.




                              3
     The quer ionnaires were mailed to 262 investigators
and 473 requesters. We receivea responses from 198
(75 percent' of the investigators and 392 (83 percent)
of the requesters. Results of the questionnaire sent
to the principal investigators are included as appendix
II, The results of the questionnaire sent to requesters
are included as appendix III.




                              4
                           CHPTER 2
             SPACE SCIENCE DATA NOT BEING ACQUIRED

                BY THE CENTER IN A TIMELY MANNER

     NASA has invested billions of dollars on launch
vehicles and satellites including the scientific instru-
ments which have transmitted large quantities of space
science data back to Earth in the conduct of experimental
investigations. Although information to readily determine
NASA's total investment was not available, the following
examples illustrate the growing cost of such experiments.

     The Orbiting Solar Observatory launched in February
1965 contained 10 experiments costing an average of $400,000.
A later satellite in this series was launched in 1975 with
seven experiments at an average cost estimated at about
$2 million. Further, the four experiments selected for the
High Energy Astronomy Observatory to be launched in 1977
have been estimated to cost an average of about $7.1 million.

     The increasing costs of developing space science
experiments limits opportunities for investigators to
participate as principal investigators on the experiments.
Also, the cost is too expensive and the effort too detailed
to merit repeating the principal investigator's work in
changing raw data (i.e., data as returned from an experiment)
to reduced data. Therefore, NASA policy requires the princi-
pal investigators to publish their findings as soon as practi-
cable and mke the reduced data records available on a timely
basis for use by others.
     The Center was established as NASA's primary facility
to acquire and disseminate space science data for further
analysis beyond that performed by the principal investigators
and their coworkers. Responses to the user questionnaire
showed users to be generally pleased with data quality and
the Center's service. There was, however, some concern
expressed about the time it takes principal investigators
to submit reduced data to the Center.
LATE OR NONSUBMISSIONS OF DATA REDUCE
THE CENTER S EFFECTIVENESS

     There were 559 space science experiments as of Novem-
ber 11, 1975, launched during 1966-73, for which principal




                             5
investigators should have submitted reduced daca to the
Center.  The Center had not received data on 208 (37 percent)
of these experiments; data has been submitted on the remain-
ing 351 (63 percent) experiments.  However, we could not
readily determine the completeness of the data for each
experiment.  Alio, based on the Center's general criteria of
acquiring data within 2 years rfter launch, data on 165
(47 percent) of the 351 experiments was 6 months or more
late.

     The majority of respondees to the investigator question-
naire said they are not reluctant to submit their data to
the Center.  However, approximately one-half of the respondees
said they consider their late submission of the data to
be a problem (to varying degrees) to other users of the
data in the general scientific community.

     NASA officials consider the Center's mission to acquire
and disseminate all data from scientific missions unattain-
able in light of the limited manpower and dollar resources.
They stated that NASA is currently reassessi;1 the Center's
mission as a national facility to clearly def.ne its proper
role in the acquisition, dissemination, and archival of
space science data.  This reassessment is expected to be
completed and implemented by fiscal year 1978.

NEED TO ENFORCE THE REQUIREMENT FOR SUBMISSION
OF DATA BY PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS

     NASA's January 7, 1967, policy directive 8030.3 re-
quires all principal investigators to prepare and submit
their data and results to the Center in accordance with a
schedule to be negotiated between the principal investiga-
tor's institution and the project management center.   The
data submitted is to include background information  needed
to make the data usable by other scientists.

     Under this directive each program director within head-
quarters program offices is responsible for submission of
reduced data records to the Center from space science flight
experiments for his program. At the same time, the NASA
field installation assigned project management responsibility
for these experiments is required to make sure that the con-
tracts or written agreements negotiated between the principal
investigators' institutions and the project management center
specify these responsibilities, and that investigators on




                              6
these projects comply with the contracts or written agreements.
The in-house NASA investigators, although not contractually
bound, are required to submit data to the Center in accordance
with the above policy directive.
      A Center official stated that NASA infrequently uses
the contractual commitment to exert pressure on investigators
to submit their data to the Center. He said the Center pre-
fe-rs a cooperative approach in working with the investigators
for the purpose of acquiring only good usable data rather than
just any data to fulfill the commitnments.
     We believe the number of experiments for which data
had not been submitted to the Center, or had been submitted
late, indicates a need for stronger enforcement action by
the contracting officer where a contract is used, and by
NASA management when the investigator is a NASA employee.
The Center leaves it up to the project office to initiate
any enforcement action by the contracting officer or NA
management. The only part the Center has in this procf ; is
to have the acquisition scientist 1/ contact the investigator
and arrange to examine the preliminary reduced data and de-
termine how much, what kind, and in what format the data
should be submitted. All other matters, including the funding
necessary to accomplish this, are controlled by the project
office.

     Officials in one project office said the office is mostly
involved n the experiments during the hardware development
stage and other phases preceding launch; afterward, their
involvement ana monitoring drops off drastically. NASA offi-
cials have stated that the extent to which the investigators'
postlaunch data analysis efforts are monitored by the project
office varies from project to project. Some are very thorough;
others are not.
     Directive 8030.3 makes the Director of the Center
responsible for compiling schedules showing the dates by
which investigators on NASA flight projects should have sub-
mitted reduced data records to the Center. These schedules
are to be based on information obtained from the instal-
lations charged with project management. This procedure



1/The Center's Data Acquisition and Analysis Branch includes
  scientists trained in one or more of the related scientific
  disciplines and is responsible for acquiring essential
  data from experiments in the most appropriate form for the
  Center.


                             7
is not being done for all experiments. We believe the
Center should prepare and maintain delivery schedules for
the data required to be submitted to the Center and coordinate
followup procedures with the project management centers to
make sure investigators are notified when data is not
submitted according to schedule. A decision should then
be made as to the appropriate course of action to be taken.
     NASA agrees that additional management emphasis should
be placed on the postlaurzh phase and cites the establish-
ment of the Orbiting Satellite Project Office in January
1974 at Goddard as one means of dealing with this issue.
This office is responsible for providing project management
and technical direction for selected operating satellites.
NASA believes this is resulting in improved enforcement of
contract requirements.
     We believe better coordination between the Center and
the project management centers is needed to make certain
that appropriate enforcement action is initiated in those
cases where it is warranted. We believe a stronger enforce-
ment of the investigators' contractual or in-house agreements
to submit data to the Center will result in more timely sub-
missions. NASA agrees.

Uniform criteria for assigning priority codes
shoul be established
      The acquisition scientists operate with minimum control
or guidance from management. Each acquisition scientist
determines which principal investigators to contact, how
much data to collect, and the priority to assign to thL
data.

     Basically, each scientist assigns top priority A to
about five experiments for which data is nearly ready for
submission or has recently been received, and which the
acquisition scientist plans to give top priority attention.
Priority B is assigned to about 15 other experiments on
which the acquisition scientist works when time permits.
The remaining experiments with potentially desirable data
are placed in lower priorities. This almost automatically
includes experiments in the prelaunch phase or those just
recently launched.
     As noted above, the highest priority is assigned when
data is either at the Center or is about to be submitted.
The determination as to which experiments receive the top
priority is made by the acquisition scientist, but there
are no uniform criteria for such decisions. Justifications


                              8
 for top priority an vary from one acquisition scientist co
 another. They can be based on factors such as actual or
 anticipated request activity for the data or simply that
 the investigator has indicated his willingness and/or desire
 to submit data.
     NASA officials said that the limitation of resources
has forced NASA to make priority decisions that balance
the cost of creating a reduced data archive against its
potential use.   NASA believes this approach to be cost
effective since data that has been given priority for archiv-
ing at the Center has permitted the Center staff to complete
the data requests of 97 percent of the requesters.   In our
opinion, however, this is not a true measure of the Center's
capability to meet the scientific community's need for data
because:

     -- Some unfilled data requests may not have been recorded.
        Center personnel said a rule of thumb is that if it
        takes less time to complete the request than it does
        to fill out the request form used to record data re-
        quests, the form will not be completed. An example
        is a telephone request for data that the Center rep-
        resentative knows is not available at the Center.
        Since it would not require any processing or other
        effort on the representative's part, the request would
        not be recorded.
     --Additional requests might have been received from the
       scientific community if other data had been acquired
       or late data had been acquired in a more timely
       fashion.  For example, approximately 23 percent of
       the respondees to our questionnaire said the Center
       is not their first choice as a data source. One
       reason cited was a desire to obtain the data sooner
       than it was available at the Center.
     --Any assessment of the cost effectiveness of NASA's
       selection of data for archiving at the Center should
       not be based only on the number of requests filled,
       jut should also take into consideration the amount
       of data at the Center that has never been requested
       or for which there has been only a limited number of
       requests.
     If data is to be acquired from investigators on a
priority basis, we believe the Center should establish
a procedure to obtain more input from the scientific com-
munity, such as the National Academy of Science Space
Science Board, in determining which experiments promise



                             9
the most desirable data. At the same time, we believe
that if the acquisition scientist is to function properly,
the high priorities should be assigned earlier in the
data acquisition cycle so that the scientist can work
more directly with the principal inveStigators in assuring
that data is properly reduced and documented for timely
submission to the Center.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR NASA ADMINISTRATOR

     We recommend that the NASA Administrator direct the
Associate Administrator for Space Science to:
     -- Enforce the contractual and in-house agreements
        requiring investigators to subnit data to the Center.
     -- Maintain a schedule showing when investigators are
        expected to submit data from their experiments.

     --Sct up a priority system to assure that acquisition
       scientists give appropriate attention early in the
       planning phases to those experiments that promise
       the most desirable data.

     The above recommended changes are not the total solution.
In the following chapter we discuss some of the underlying
funding and staffing problems that significantly affect, in
our opinion, the accomplishment of the Center's mission.




                             10
                           CHAPTER 3

              NEED TO INCREASE DATA AVAILABILITY

                    FOR FOLLOW-ON ANALYSIS

      NASA, over the years, has not placed as much manage-
ment emphasis on the data analysis efforts as it has on
prelaunch phase, according to 77 percent of the investi- the
gators responding to our questionnaire. About 80 percent
of the investigators making this comment believe this has
lessened the scientific accomplishment of NASA supported
experiments.

INITIAL PROJECT OFFICE FUNDING OF PRINCIPAL
INVESTIGATOR DATA ANALYSIS FOR MORE THAN
  OR 2 YEARS SHOULD BE CONSIDERED
     Experiments on NASA space flight missions usually
are funded by project management offices (at NASA field
centers) from project initiation through the early data
analysis effort. Shortly before launch, principal
investigators submit detailed data an&''sis plans, which
NASA uses to negotiate the amount of money to be provided
for data analysis. Approximately one-half of the investi-
gators responding to questions on their planned scope
and funding of data analysis said NASA usually reduces
the scope and/or funding level of their analysis plans.
Some of those responding in this manner believed the
reductions were not justified and that this action degraded
the experiment's scientific results.
      A NASA official at headquarters said the investigators
know what NASA's approved objectives are at the time the
agreements are reached and the investigators agree that
these objectives can be met within the stated funding and
time constraints. He said the investigators usually plan
a much greater data analysis effort than NASA believes
can be justified. The responses to our questionnaire
show the initial period of NASA's funding of data analysis
has been approximately 1 or 2 years after launch in most
cases. About 70 percent of the investigators said that
this initial period was insufficient to process the data
and achieve the experimental objectives.

     Some of the reasons cited for the inadequacy of
the initially funded period for primary analysis are:
     -- Investigators receive more data than anticipated
        from experiments.


                             11
     -- Delays in receiving data from NASA tracking and
        processing stations.
     -- Problems with the experiments' scientific instruments,
        spacecraft, or data reduction/analysis equipment.
     -- Failure to formulate an effective data reduction/
        analysis plan before receipt of first data.
     Although principal investigators may publish the new,
obvious results of space investigations within the initially
funded period, indepth analysis and appropriate understand-
ing of the meaning of the results ma' take up to 3 to 5 years.
A 1972 NASA data management sudy showed ta~ most publica-
tions containing comprehensive analysis nr  -a appeared
approximately 5 years after data acqu.s
                                      i
     Headquarters program offices may provide special
budget funds for data analysis beyond the period of funding
agreed to by the project office. The principal investi-
gator, therefore, must submit a new proposal to NASA head-
quarters for review in competition with other scientists
seeking funds from the data analysis budget line item.
The preparation of additional proposals requires time and
money that may take away from the ongoing data analysis
effort. About two-thirds of the investigators answering our
questionnaire said they have had to seek additional funds
for one or more of their experiments--other than funds pro-
vided under the initial NASA contract--to complete their
postlaunch data reduction/analysis.  In the majority of
cases, NASA Headquarters was the chief source of this funding.
     We believe NASA, based on past experience, should
initially plan to provide adequate funding of the investi-
gators' analysis efforts through the project office. As
noted earlier, the Center's guidelines give the investi-
gator 18 months from the completion of each 6-month period,
during which data is received from the experiment, to submit
the required data to the Center. Therefore, it seems logical
that NASA should plan to fund the data analysis effort on
each experiment through the project office for a minimum of
18 months beyond the expected operational life of the
experiment.
     In May 1976 the Physica. Sciences Committee of NASA's
Space Program Advisory Council reached a similar conclusion
cn the planning of the data analysis effort. This Committee,
at the request of the Associate Administrator for Space
Science, conducted a detailed review of the policies and
procedures of the Supporting Research and Technology/Data


                             12
Analysis Program in the Office of Space Science and concluded,
in part:
     "* * * we also see the need for a more farsighted
      management of Data Analysis support.  In most
      present flight programs, support linked to
      specific missions usually terminates one year
      after the completion of the mission; further
      interpretation of mission results, both by the
      original investigators and by other scientists,
      must thereafter be carried out under the [Support-
      ing Research and Technology]/Data Analysis Program.
      We urge that adequate provision for the thorough
      analysis of data from any mission be made in con-
      nection with the planning of that mission."

Need for a better division of responsibility
between project and acquisition scientists
     The Center's Data Acquisition and Analysis Branch
has been staffed at about half the level considered necessary
by Center management to perform its mission. Because there
are not enough acquisition scientists, and those available
do not devote full time to the acquisition function, they
have been unable to contact all investigators to obtain
data centractually required to be submitted to the Center.
In 1968 NSA planned for the Center to have 30 civil
service personnel, including 22 a guisition scientists,
by the end of fiscal year 1972.
     Staffing problems and the resultant effects have ex-
isted in the Data Acquisition and Analysis Branch almost
since the inceptio.n of the Center.    As early as September
1968 the Center was having   staffing  problems. At that time
the Director  of  the Center expressed  concern to Goddard man-
agement that the Center has   been  stymied  in attempting to
grow to meet  its  mission requirements.    This  required
assigning low priorities to   the  acquisition   of a large
amount of data.
      Again in July 1973, responding to the question of
what impact additional reductions in civil service ceilings
would have on Center operations, the Director stated in
part:
     "The staffing of NSSDC has dropped to
     such a low level that it is difficult
     to determine the effect of further
     reductions. Our acquisition staff is
     undermanned by more than a factor of two


                              13
    and the data continues to pour in. At
    one time, we both agreed that 22 acquisi-
    tion agents represented an adequate
    number to do the job. We have 8 full-
    time agents at the present, another is
    on assignment at NASA Headquarters until
    September 14, and still another is in-
    volved almost full-time in conducting
    radiation environment studies for the
    various project officec. Just the
    important spacecraft and experiments
    per agent average about 30 and 150,
    respectively, not to mention hundreds
    of other experiments which must be
    entered into our information system."
As of October 28, 1976, the Center had 14 civil service
employees including 9 acquisition scientists.
     Because of understaffing, the acquisition scientists
have had to assume responsibility for more experiments
than they can adequately manage. The result is that
they cannot maintain effective contact with all the
principal investigators who have commitments to submit
data to the Center. On some experiments there has been
little contact between the acquisition scientists and
the principal investigator until data was either sub-
mitted to the Center or the principal investigatorsaid
he was about ready to submit data. More and more the
acquisition scientist is relying on the initiative of
the principal investigator to submit his data to the
Center in a proper format and with proper supporting
documentation.
     The data acquisition problems caused by understaffing
take on added significance when considering that two
of the acquisition scientists came to the Center with
commitments to other NASA activities. One performs con-
siderable work on radiation environment studies, leaving
only 20 percent of his time for data acquisition. The
other is committed to spending about 50 percent of his
time on the space telescope program. These individuals
are, however. counted as full-time staff against the
Center's staff ceilings.
     The number of principal investigators who can be
contacted is further limited b ause acquisition scientists
spend, on the average, less than 50 percent of their time
on acquiring, processing, and documenting space science
data from investigators. Center management believes that,


                             14
to attract good scientists to data acquisition duties, it
is necessary to permit them time to pursue independent
research. To this purpose, NASA allows acquisition
scientists to spend up to 40 percent of their time on
research activities that focus on data products or systemi
development which benefit the Center.

     Those acquisition scientists that have done little
or no disciplinary scientific research have, according
to NASA officials, generally contributed in the develop-
ment of useful file and report systems for the Center.
Other activities on which the acquisition scientists
spent time include work in support of data requests
and on special publications, career development, and
sporadic assignments to NASA Headquarters and/or Center
working groups.
     A part of the justification for having specialists
acquire data for the Center is their scientific back-
ground. They understand the scientific aspects of the
experiment and can work with the investigators to select
appropriate data for submission to the Center with adequate
documentation to permit other investigators to understand
and use the data. The number of experiments for which data
is to be submitted to the Center is placing a heavy burden
on the limited number of acquisition scientists. As shown
above, the acquisition scientist has been unable to contact
and work with the principal investigator on some experiments
to insure adequate and timely submission of data to the Cnter.
     NASA officials take the position that

     "The Goddard Space Flight Center has been reduced
     in ceiling over the past several years and the whole
     scale of activities has been reduced,"
They therefore believe it is only reasonable that the Center's
staffing levels also be continuously reevaluated.

     We believe, however, an alternative to hiring additional
acquisition scientists for the Center is to expand the
roles and responsibilities of NASA's space science project
scientists to include the Center's data acquisi ion respon-
sibilities. The current roles and functions of a project
scientist, as outlined in NASA Management Instruction
7100.11 of June 20, 1975, include:

     1.   Managing the project's scientific aspects.
     2.   Being the scientific spokesman for the project and
          investigators.

                              15
    3.    Representing the principal investigator or team
          leader in their relationships with the project
          manager.

    4.    Maintaining the science integrity of the mission
          within the agreed time and funding constraints.

    5.    Maintaining cognizance of the individual as well
          as the overall science investigations included
          in the project.

    6.    Reviewing data analysis plans and programs to assure
          timely and adequate analysis of spacecraft data.

     7.   Assuring public dissemination of scientific results
          through professional groups and the public affairs
          office.

     These activities place the project scientist in a
very knowledgeable and advantageous position to also carry
out the data acquisition responsibilities. He is in con-
tact with the investigators and should be familiar with
their experiments. He has to re;iew the data analysis
plans to insure timely and adequate analysis of the data.
It logically follows that he should be in a position to
work with the principal investigators to select appropriate
data, make sure that it is sufficiently documented, and
arrange for its timely submission to the Center.
     The acquisition scientists would still be in a posi-
tion to retain the overall responsibility for data acquisi-
tion in their particular disciplines. Shifting some of
the acquisition responsibility to the project scientists
might also allow the acquisition scientists at the Center
to devote more time to compiling data and developing other
data products that have proven useful to the scientific
community.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR NASA ADMINISTRATOR

     We recommend that the NASA Administrator:
     -- Develop more realistic project planning estimates
        of funds and provide the time necessary to adequately
        support data analysis efforts of the principal in-
        vestigators.

     --Assign certain data acquisition responsibilities
       to project scientists.



                               16
RECOMMENDATION TO THE CONGRESS
     NASA invests a great deal of money and effort in
initiating programs that contribute to the work of many
scientists and their institutions.  If the United States
is to obtain the full benefit of this effort, NASA must
fulfill its responsibility of providing for the analysis
and widespread dissemination of space science data.
     When evaluating NASA's program content and budget
requests, the Congress should examine the adequacy of NASA's
allocation of resources between gathering space science data
and analyzing the data. Greater emphasis is needed during
the data analysis phase of a program to obtain the maximum
scientific benefit from the data obtained.
AGENCY COMMENTS

     NASA officials agree with our recommendations.
They stated in part:
    "As the GAO report and our own analysis
    indicate, the principal cause of these delays
    in data acquisition is the lack o enforce-
    ment of existing regulations such as NMI
    7100.11, NPD 8030.3, and NHB 8030.6. A
    joint Headquarters/Goddard review [latter
    part of 1976 and early 1977] of the situa-
    tion led to a recent commitment to a new,
    more cost effective mode of operation of the
    NSSDC in which project and program scientists
    will have more direct responsibility for data
    acquisition and the establishment of priorities.
    They will be responsible for establishing
    with the Principal Investigators, data manage-
    ment plans and programs to assure adequate
    analysis of spacecraft data and timely sub-
    mission of data and associated documentation
    to the Data Center.  In the future, project
    plans will include a schedule for data sub-
    mission to allow better planning and scheduling
    of data acquisition after launch. This new
    sharing of responsibility with program and
    project scientists will also increase the time
    that NSSDC staff collectively spend on data
    activities."




                             17
                                                                         APPENDIX I
APPENDIX I




                    National Aeronautics and
                    Space Administration
                    Washington. D.C
                    20546


                    WG                                           March 1,   1977
 Retly i, Aitn ot




                    Mr. Chester S. Daniels
                    Aasistant Director
                    Procurement and Systems
                      Acquisition Division
                    U.S. General Accounting Office
                    Washington, DC 20548


                    Dear Mr. Daniels:
                                                                        10, 1977,
                    Reference is made to VtASA's letter dated February
                                                                    entitled,
                    which enclosed comment'  on GAO's draft report
                                                                     Of Space
                    "Need For More Emphasis; On Data Analysis Phase
                    science Programs" (Coda 952104).
                                                                    today, there
                    In accordance with our telephone arrangements
                                              of a  restatement of  the above-
                    are enclosed three copies                        and ampli-
                    mentioned February 10 comments.   Clarification
                                                                   desirable and
                    fication of several individual comments were such changes
                    we deemed it to be more convenient to merge
                                                                       willingness
                    into a complete restatement. Thank you for your
                    to consider these changes.

                    Sincerely,



                    Walter C. Shupe
                    Director, GAO Liaison Activitie3

                     Enclosure:        A/S




                                      Page numbers in enclosures refer   to a preliminary
                     GAO note:
                                      draft of this report.




                                                  18
APPENDIX I                                                          APPENDIX I




                     NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMIISTRATION
                                      COMMENTS ON
                 DRAFT OF REPORT TO THE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STALES

                            NEED FOR MORE EMPHASIS ON DATA
                       ANALYSIS PHASE OF SPACF SCIENCE PROGRAMS
                                     (CODE 952104)


   The draft report indicates that the National Snace Science Data Center
   (NSSDC) is not completely carrying out its stated mission in acquiring
   and disseminating space science data for further analysis beyond that
   performed by the principal investigators and their co-workers.        The
   mission to acquire and disseminate all data from scientific missions
   including satellites, sounding rockets, high-altitude aircraft and
   balloons is extremely broad.     It is a goal that is unattainable in
   light of the limited resources both in manpower and dollars since the
   establishment of NSSDC.     We believe the current problem lies with the
   failure to define the true mission rather than failure to meet an
   unrealistic goal.     To correct this, NASA is currently reassessing the
   mission of NSSDC as a National facility to clearly define its        roper role
   in the acquisition, dissemination, and archival of space science data.
   It is expected that this reassessment will be completed and implemented
   by FY 1978.

   Digest
   We believe a more proper expression of NASA's mode of operation would be
   to substitute the following for the final'sentence of the last paragraph




                                        19
APPENDIX I                                                       APPENDIX I




   on oaae i: "NASA has structured its space science program primarily
   around individual scientists competitively selected to carry out

   complete investigations."


   The report highlights several continuing problems NASA has experienced
   in the operation of NSSDC, but does not consider the recent effo-ts

   to correct the problems.    A review of the situation will result in a

   commitment to a new, more cost effective mode of operation of the NSSDC

   in which project and program scientists will have more direct responsibility

   for data acc   ition and the establishment of priorities.    Future project

   plans will in, de a schedule for data submission which will allow better

   planning and scheduling of data acquisition after launch.    The increased

   emphasis on planning and sharing of responsibilities with program and

   project scientists will result in greatly improved operation of the NSSDC.


   Throughout the report the term "Center" is used to indicate NSSDC.       This

   should be changed to eliminate any confusion between NSSDC and Goddard

   Space Flight Center.


   To provide a balanced report, we feel that a summary assessment of the

   responses to the two questionnaires (mentioned on pages 5 and 6) should

   be added.   Our assessment of the statistical results indicate that NSSDC

   is Droviding a necessary and effective service to the scientific community.


   Space Science Data Not Being Acquired by NSSDC in a Timely Manner (Chapter 2)

   The draft report correctly documents that space science data has not been

   acquired in a timely manner by NSSDC.    We believe that while it is most




                                         20
APPENDIX I                                                         APPENDIX      I




  important to make full use of data returned from each scientific mission,
  we must balance the cost of creating a reduced data archive vs. its
  potential use.     Within budgetary constraints the staff of NSSDC has made
  this evaluation.    We believe this evaluation provides a cost effective
  system.    That is,the data which has been given priority for archival
  through the collective judgment of the projects and the NSSDC staff has
  proved sufficient to meet the data requests of all but three percent (3) of
  our requestors.    The limitation of resources has forced NASA to make
  priority decisions regarding the most efficient use of resources.

  We agree that stronger enforcement of contractual commitments will
  result in more timely submissions of data.

  More Emphasis Needed on Data Analysis Phase of Space Science Programs
  (Chapter 3)
  Page 13.   The draft report states that NASA has placed more management
  emphasis on the pre-launch phase of its missions than it does on the
  post-launch data reduction/analysis phase.    We believe that NASA provides
 proper management attention to data analysis during the planning phase
 of each project and focusses its management attention on hardware develop-
 ment problems during the pre-launch phase of each project.      We agree that
 additional NASA management emphasis should be placed on the post-launch
 phase and, in January 1974, Goddard reorganized to deal, in part, with
 this issue by establishing the Orbiting Satellite Project Office which is
 responsible for providing project management and technical direction for




                                         21
APPENDIX    I                                                       APPENDIX I




 selected operating satellites.     The sole responsibility of this Project
 Office is to manage satellites in the post-launch phase.     A full time
 contractino officer has been assigned to this activity as part of the
 Business Management team and strict enforcement of contract requirements
 is not only feasible, but steadily improving.     Coordination between
 the NSSDC and the Orbitino Satellite P,.ject Office will identify those
 Principal Investigators who are delinquent in data submissions so that
 approoriate action may be taken.

 Page 17.   We believe a comment is in order on the GAO statement that "The
 (National Soace Science Data) Center's nata Acquisition and Analvsis Branch has
 been staffed at about half the level considered necessary by SS)C mallaQement
 to perform its mission."   The Goddard Space Flight Center has been
 reduced in ceiling over the past several years and the who:     scale of
 activities has been reduced.     It is only reasonable that the NSSDC plan
 also be continuously reevaluated.

 Page 19.   We also note that the draft report states that acquisition scientists
 spend "much of their time on activities other than data acquisition."
 Data Center management believes that to attract good scientists to data
 acquisition, it is necessary to permit time tc pursue independent research.
 No scientist wants to just collect and store the data of others.      It is
 true that up to 40% has been allotted for research activities but these
 activities are focussed on data product or system development which
 benefit NSSDC.   Those acquisition scientists who have done little or no
 disciplinary scientific research have generally contributed in the




                                        22
APPENDIX    I                                                      APPENDIX I




   development of useful NSSDC systems such as the Technical Reference
   File, the Rocket File, Active and Planned Report, and the SIDS Report.
   The average breakout of time for the acquisition scientists has been
   as follows:
        a. Acquisition, processing, and documentation of space science
            data - 211,


        b. Searchino for, reading, and keywording papers and reports
            for the Technical Reference File - 13     (This is part of the
            information acquisition.)

        c. Preparing information on spacecraft, experiments, and data
            set entry into the AIM File - 13, (This      part of the
            information acquisition and processing.)

        d. Work in support of data requests - 10,

       e. Data synthesis and analysis and professional development - 17°:

        f. Work on special publications - 13°'

       g. Work on design and implementation of NSSDC system improve-
            ments - 1351


   Consequently, we believe the citation of 40° for research activities is
  misleading.    That 401, includes (e)above, data synthesis anu analysis and
  professional development. This activity is one which is directly related
  to new data products and sciences of the NSSDC, and should not be considered
  a non-NSSDC related activity.




                                        23
APPENDIX I                                                         APPENDIX I




   Conclusions and Recommendations
   We agree with the recommendations in the draft report with one exception,
   that being that the responsibility for correcting any deficiencies
   should be the NASA program Associate Administrator rather t:,-. roject
   Management or Center Management.

   As the GAO report and our own analysis indicate. the principal cause
   of these delays in data acquisition is the lack of enforcement of
   existing regulations such as NMI 7100.11, NPD 8030.3, and NHB 8030.6.
   A joint Headquarters/Goddard review of the situation led to a recent
   commitment to a new, more cost effective mode of operation of the
   NSSDC in which project and program scientist.- will have more direct
   responsibility for data acquisition and the establishment of priorities.
   They will be responsible for establishing with the Principal Investigators
   data management plans and programs to assure adequate analysis of
   spacecraft data and timely submission of data and associated documenta-
   tion to the Data Center.   In the future, project plans will include a
   schedule for data submission to     llow better planning and scheduling of
   data acquisition after launch.     This new sharing of responsibility with
   prugram and project scientists will also increase the time that NSSDC
   staff collectively spend on data activities.

   The allocation of resources between gathering space science Jda.    and
   analyzing the data will be addressed in Ccngressiondl tstihlony.


            ;g'.',<
   Noel W. Hinners
                                    ~3-/-
                                             Date
                                                    77
   Associate Administrator
     for Space Science




                                            24
APPENDIX II                                                                            APPENDIX II




                                                  UULTS OY
                                        U,S. GOUNAL ACCOUNTING orFICE
                                                 SUIVEY OF SPACE
                                             SCIENCE INVESTIGATIONS

INSTRUCTIONS
     Investigators working on pace science experiments flown on NASA missions are uually required to
reduce nd submit the firet six months of data they receive to the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC)
within approximately two yeare after the launch of the atellite.


       Accoruing to NSSDC records, ome data has not been submitted in a timelv manner, nd we are
attempting to identify the zasone for the delaye. NASA recorde indicate you have been assigned as a
Principal Investigator (PI) on at leart one experiment, and ae ·. '-h should be able to addrese the factors
diecusseed in thie questionnaire. However, if you were never a PI on a NASA experimental mission, or have
never been required to submit data to NSSDC, or have always eubmitted your data on time, we would still
appreciate your views to the extent poeesible.
     ?lease read each question carefully and answer each as frankly and completely as possible based upon
your overall experiences. Do not single out your beet or worst experience; however, if you have been
associated with only one experiment, please respond as best you can from that single experience.

      Because you may have been involved in numerous pace flight experiments and missions, we have etructured
our questions to apply to general or typical itutions--not specific ones. Therefore, you may find it
difficu'.t in ome caeees to check only one response alternative when inetructed to do so. However, o - of
the response alternatives i almost always more relevant to your general or overall experience than ..-
others. Please mark that one and pardon u for forcing you to choose only one.


1.   What has generally been your role or position              2. What has ben your primary organizational
     with respect to NASA experiments you have                     affiliation, while aerving a an investi-
     been involved with? (Check one.) (See Note A p.     33.       gator? (Check one.)

     LZ/    Pri.icipal Investigator                                LL7    Federal Government,   except NASA
     Li7    Co-Investigator                                        /7     State Government
     /02/   Guest Investigator                                     /i7    Local Government
     L//    Data Analysis Teem Member                              /i7    Regional Agency
     /Q2/   Spacecraft or Hardware Development                     /R/    NASA
             Team Member
                                                                   /U7 Industries
     /03/   Other (please specify)
                                                                   /17 Academic
                                                                   /00/   Foundation

                                                                   LT7    Federal Contract Research Center
                                                                   ~/     Non-profit

                                                                   /T     Other (please specify)




                                                    25
APPENDIX                    I                                                                APPENDIX II



3.   Which discipline is most representative of the             5.     Provide a breaL ut for the total number of
     experiments on which you have been (are) an                       experiments cite 'n qusqtion #4 above on
     Investigator or Team Member (check one.)                          the following base..

     IfM          Astronomy                                                   approximate numbe, f experiments
                                                                              required by NASA contract to submit
     /-           Geodesy and Gravimetry                                      data to NSSDC

              7   Geology                                                     approximate number of experiments for
                                                                              which there was an oral agreement with
                  Ionospheric Physics                                         NASA to submit data to NSSDC

                  Meteorology                                                  approximate number of experiments for
                                                                               which there was no firm NASA require-
     /31/         Particles and Fields                                         ment to submit data to NSSDC, but felt
                                                                               obligation to do so
     /08/         Planetary Atmospheres
                                                                               other (please specify)            _
     /06/         Planetology                                                    *See Note B p. 33.

     /097         Solar Physics

     /0           Other (please specify)
                                                                How many of all these submissions have been
                                                                completed to date? (Note: Consider a "completed"
                                                                submission as: (1) a required submission which
                                                                satisfied agreed-upon timeframes, volumes, etc.;
4.   To date, on how many experiments have you                  or (2) one for which there was no firm require-
     been assigned, or otherwise assumed, the                   ment by NASA to submit but which you believe has
     responsibility for submitting reduced (and                 sufficient data in NSSDC to be useful to others
     analyzed) data to NSSDC, either as a                        in the scientific community)
     Principal Investigator, Team Leader, etc.?
                                                                Number completed                (If all of them
      ___          None (If     none, go to question #7)        have been completed, go to question #7)

          /1
           1=                                                    6.     Please indicate the approximate numbe' of
      /21/ 2                                                            submissions not yet completed associated
                                                                        with each of the reasons listed below for
      /17 3                                                             not submitting reduced and analyzed data.

          g6/7     4-6                                                 NUMBER OF
                                                                      EXPERIMENTS
      ,V5/         7-10                                               OT C0(PLETED          REASON FOR NOT SU.ITTINC.

                                                                      See Note B           Data not due to NSSDC yet
          05-/ More than 10
                                                                                           Submission due, but experi-
                                                                                           encing data reduction and/or
                                                                                           analysis problems

                                                                                           Reduction and analysis com-
                                                                                           plete but awaiting further
                                                                                           instruction to submit

                                                                                           No plans to ever submit

                                                                                           Other (please specify)




                                                           26
 APPENDIX                  II                                                                      APPENDIX       II



      7.     Which of the following statements best                  9.   Typially, in obtaining NASA support, has
             describes your feeling toward submitting                     the scope of work you originally proposed
             data to NSSDC? (Check one.)                                  for data reduction and anealysis activities
             /11/     Reluctant to submit because the                     been revised by NASA in any way? (check one)
                      time and money required to prepare16                      Significantly decreased
                      data for NSSDC detracts from exper-
                      imental effort
                                                                                 M7
                                                                                 Moderately decreased
              /       Reluctant to submit because of                      /      No change
                      possibility that the data could
                      be misinterpreted by other scien-                   /08/   Moderately increased
                      tists and result in misleading
                      conclusions
                                                                          co/01/clusions
                                                                                   Sinificantly increased
             /02/     Reluctant to submit because of                      If so, what was (will be) the effect of such
                      belief that experiment d-'a should                  changes on theachievement of your proposed
                      remain proprietary rig   'f in-                     objectives?  (check one)
                      vestigative team for a anger
                      period of time                                      /11/   Substantial improvement
             /72/     No reluctance to submit data                        /0/    Marginal improvement
             /05/    Other (please specify)                               /18/   Little or no effect

                                                                          /38/   Marginal degradation

                                                                          /30/   Substantial degradation
 DATA REDUCTION AND ANALYSIS
                                                                          If any degradation occurred, do you believe
 8.          In general, have the data analysis proposals                 the change was Justified? (please comment)
            you submitted to NASA included the scope of
            work and funding amounts you believed were                    See Note
            necessary to achieve the scientific goals
            you wished to investigate?

            /67      Yes
            /33      No

            If not, why not?     (check all that may apply)l/

           /29/     Did not have available sufficient
                    personal, equipment, facilitiee, etc.,
                    to complete the necessary level of
                    effort

           L02/ Technologies required were beycnd the
                    available state-of-the-art

           /20/     Thought the scope of work was too
                    iarge to gain NASA support

           ZL57     Thought that total project costs would
                    limit the probability of obtaining
                    NASA funding

           1-Ul     Thought that the time required to
                    accomplish all project activities
                    would limit the probability of ob-
                    taining NASA funding

           /20/     Other (please specify)




l/Percentages total to ore than 100 percent because
  multiple responses could be checked.




                                                                27
APPENDIX II                                                                                 APPENDIX II




10.   Typically, in obtaining NASA support, has             12.   Has the timefrre idieLted 31. ._:qtion Ill
      the cost you originally proposed for data                   proven to be adequate time in which t process
      reduction and analysis activites been                       your data and achieve your xperi" lr
      revised by NASA in any way? (..heck one)                    objectives?

      LQ      Significantly increased                             ,/7-     Yee

      jW      Moderately increased                                /7W No

      Lp/     No change                                           If not, please indicate wvht you consider to
                                                                  be the time 4enerally needed to do this?
      1W      Moderately decreased                                (check one)

      /T      Significantly decreased                             IT       2 years after launch

      If so, what was (will be) the effect of                     tLI      3 years after launch
      such changes on the achievement of your
      proposed objectivee?  (check one)                           /|       4 years   fter lunch

      I/TJ    Substential improvement                             /T       5 years after launch

      L       Marginal imprvemnt                                  /27      Other (please specify)

      L1W     Little or no effect

      /34/    Mrsinel desradation
                                                            13.    If you ansevred "No" to Question #12. please
      /34/    Substantial degradation                              cite the primary reason why more time is
                                                                   generally needed. (check one)
      If any degradation occurred, do you believe
      the change was justified? (please comment)                   /T/     More data is received than anticipated

          See Note B                                               /N7     Instrument problems hinder anelysis
                                                                            efforts

                                                                   /-)-7   Spacecraft problem hinder analysis
                                                                            efforts

                                                                   /1T7    Delays in receiving data from NASA
                                                                            tracking and processing stations

11.    What bhs generally been the timeframe which                  /57     Data r-duction/analyeis equipment
       NASA hase yagreed to fund you for poet-launch                         problems hinder efforts
       data reduction and analysis, under your
       initial proposal? (cbeck one)                                / s     Effective data reduction/analysis
                                                                             plan not formulated before receipt
       I-      Less thn I year after launch                                  of first dete--which hinders efforts

       /337    1 year after launch                                  /T      Other (please specify)

       /441    2 years after launch

       L07=    3 years after launch

       /007    4 years after laeuch

       /s7     5 or    ore years after launch

       /M7     Other (please specify)




                                                       28
APPENDIX II                                                                                          APPENDIX II



14.   Cenjrally, what hae been the funding source           17.    In general. how would you rate the adequacy
      for the initial post-launch deat analysis                    of total funding provided by all scurces for
      effort on your experiments?   (check one)                    data reduction and analysis efforts?
                                                                   (Check one)
      /i7       NASA
                                                                   /7            Significntly more than adequate
      Li91      Co-funding by NASA and your (or some
                other) organization or agency                      /01          More than adequate

      /03/      Other (if you marked this box go to                j/           Adequate
                question #18(b) and indicate your
                primary source)                                    /44/          Less than adequate

                                                                   /19/          Significantly less than adequate
15.   On the average.  pproximately what pe-en:t-
      age of the total funding an "-ved by NASA.                   If not adequate, recognizing that any indivi-
      i.e. under your initial expe  sent proposals,                dual experiment will have a limited total
      is represented by poet-launch date reduction/                budget, what percent of that budget do you
      analysis efforts? (check one)                                believe should be directed specifically toward
                                                                   post-launch data reduction/analysis.
      (Note:      If you received funding onll for
                  data reduction/analysis check this               /*   /7  Percent
                  box 09! eand go to Question #17)                 *See Note B

             7T Less      than 52                           18.(a)            Have you ever had to seek additional
                                                                              funds--other than funds provided under
      f.7/      6 - lO                                                        your initial NASA contact--in order to
                                                                              complete your post-launch data reduction/
      /17       11 - 15l                                                      analysis:

      _t/       16 - 202                                            / 2          Never (If     this box is checked,   go to
                                                                                             question #20)
      hj7       21-       25X
                                                                    ,37          Rarely
        T       26-       302
                                                                    hl/          Sometimes
      A_7 More than 302
                                                                         47 As often as not

16.   Historically, what percentage of the total                    /15/         Cenerally
      funding support received from NASA as well
      as other sources on your experiments                          /157         Almost Always
       (including follow-on efforts) is moet rep-
      resentative of your post-launch data re-                      /17/         Always
      duction/analysis efforts?

      Note: If you have not yet completed the                     (b)         What has generally been the chief source
      data reduction/analysis effort on any of                                of this funding? (check one)
      your experimentr, please provide your best
      estimate of the percent of total funds re-                        /17/     NASA project office
      quired to complete that phase.
      (check one)                                                       /5       NASA headquarters

      /W        Lesse than 52                                           /_0      National Science Foundation

      /09/      6 - 102                                                 /0       National Oceanic and Atmospheric
                                                                                 Administration
      i13       11 - 152
                                                                        /0T7     Department of Defense
      /T7 16          -   20
                                                                        /087     Your peat/present employer (other. then
      /67       21 - 252                                                         above)

      /I1       26 - 302                                                /0i7 Other on-going experiments on which
                                                                             you were (ere) an investigator
      /1I7-     More than 302
                                                                              I~7T Other (pieeae specify)




                                                       29
 APPENDIX                   II                                                                             APPENDIX II




19.    Did these additional funds generally permit                     21.   How would you describe the time period
       you to complete your post-launch data                                 NASA generally plans or allows between
       analysis effort?                                                      launches?
       /i6-     Yes                                                              7      ost launches occur too close
                                                                                       together to adequately analyze
       13_2/                                                                           previous data and/or solve problems
                                                                                       which could reoccur.
20.    With regard to the instrument and tracking                            /53/      Most launches are spaced appropriately
       (attitude, time, position, etc.) data you                                       to allow ample time to analyze previous
       typically receive to anclyze, how would                                         data and/or solve previous problems
       you generally rate the r:                                                       which could reoccur.
       (a) Quantity? (check one box for each colum)                          /09/      Most launches are spaced too far
                                                                                       apart to adequately achieve mission
 Instrument        Trackin                                                             objectives.
      /277                /257    Nore than enough data to             /     12/ Other (please specify)
                                  achieve scientific objectives

        W/67              /69/    Just about right aount of
                                  data to achi-ve scientific
                                  objectives
      /06/                /06/    Too little data to achieve           22.   Would you say that NASA places (check one)
                                  scientific objectives
                                                                             L       ' More enphasis
       (b)     Quality? (check one box for each columa)
                                                                              _J       Equal emphasis
Instrument        Tracking
                                                                                 l-80Less emphasis
   /42/               L          Very gsod
                                                                             6/05/     No basis to judge
  1__                 L/_        Good
                                                                             on the management of post-launch data reduction/
   /08/                /13/      Fair                                        analysis phase of its missions than it does
                                                                             on the pre-launch phase? If you arked "less
  /03/                /04/       Poor                                        emphasis" do you belie   this has lessened the
                                                                             scientific accomplishments of NASA supported
  /01                 /02/       Very poor                                   experiments?

      If the quantity received was more or less                              /8s-      Yes
      than necessary, explain the primary reason(s)
      or cause(s), if known.                                                 /19/      No
       See Note                                                              Please provide any additional explanatory
                                                                             coments you may wish to make.
                                                                             See Note


      If the quality was poor or very poor, explain
      the reason(s) or cause(s), if know.
       See Note




                                                                  30
      APPENDIX II                                                                                           APPENDIX         I



                                                                                                                                 (

23.    Listed helow are several important phases in space science experimental activities and some factors
       or problems which might cause significant post-launch reduction/anal';sis delays.  If you have
       gsenerally experienced any of these problems which resulted in a delay, place a check by the problem
       experienced under the appropriate phase in which it most typically occurs.

       For example, if poor planning of the desicn or development of the instrument frequently carses
       problems and delays in post-launch data analysis efforts, place a check next to "Insuffltint or
       poor planning" under the olumn headed "design, development, and test of instrument."

       Please consider each factor or problem, and if you generally have not 'epf-enced it or it des
       not create delays n analysis efforts, cross out the item letter and go to the next item.

                                                                                                          PHASE




              Reasons or Carses of                                                     4   /
              Significant Data Reduction                                      /a   C                               Oa
              Analysis Delays                                                                                            /




       (b)     Inaufficient funds                                        07        10            01         26      3
       kc)     Not enough taff                                           07        10            03         28      23
       Ed)     inexperIEnco start                                        0    I    0       !03              10      05
        e)     Inadequate tcl:le-                                        02        02            02          7       3
       (f)     Insufficint computer support                              ox        02            03         14    I11

       (h)     Excess quantity    ofdta                                  00        1       Q          _            06
       -J)     Late receit of data                                w nr   n         Al            11
       (k)     Instruent operation probles                               06        01
       --
       (r    -'Meuand   effot    required   to prepare
                follow-on proposals                                      03        01            01         11     18
         -     spacSscr-ft operation problesms                           04        01            05         1      07
       (n)     Poorly delined objectiv-                                            01                       °
       (o)     Frequent vorT scope oalzctaions-          -
                revisions                                                03        02            01         03     04
       (p)     Other (please specify)
                                                                         02        02            02         07     OS




                                                             31
   APPENDIX II                                                                                         APPENDIX II



24.   For the problems you indicated in Question                26.    Whether or not the objective has been
      *23, select the three you consider the most                      achieved, do you believe hat NSSDC serves
      significant and briefly provide any explana-                     a useful scientific purpose from the stand-
      tion and/or recommended solutions you believe                    point of providing centralized archives
      would help to alleviate this type of problem                     for space science data?
      in the future. Please indicate each problem
      with its appropriate letter in the brackets                      L0          Definitely no
      provided in the margin.
                                                                       /7          Probably no

      First most significant problem:                                       Mj/    Undecided

            See Note                                                        /32/   Probably yes

                                                                       /53/        Definitely yes

                                                                       _/          No basis to judge




      Second most significant problem:                          27.     Each of the items listed below deals with
                                                                        certain features of data which Investigators
            See Note                                                    are required to submit to NSSDC. From vour
                                                                        own experience, please rate each item as to
                                                                       _whether you consider it to be a problem or
                                                                        not to the other users of such data in the
                                                                        general scientific community. (Check one
                                                                        box for each item)


[ i   Third most significant problem:

            See Note                                                                                         P             ow



                                                                                                                 o         o




                                                           a.    The form and type of the
                                                                 reduced and nalvzed data               45       21   13       13   09
25.                    THE'NSSDC SERVICE
                                                           b.    The detail of the re-
       In 1965, NASA established the NSSDC with                  duced and analyzed data
       the objective of providing the widest prac-
       ticable and appropriate dissemination of            c.    The detail of the
      data obtained from space science investi-                  supporting documentation               25       28 18         13   16
      gations. To what extent do you believe                     submitted along with re-
      NSSDC has achieved this objective? (Check                  duced and analyzed data
      one. )
                                                           d. The time periods covered
      /7       Little or no achievement                       by the reduced and analyzed               71       10 13         03   03
                                                              date
      /111     Minimally achieved
                                                           a. The timeliness of data sub-               38       26 1          12   10
      /36/     Moderately achieved                               mission to NSSDC

      /I7      Major achievement                           f.    Other (please specify)

      /02l/ Completely or almost completely                           See Note B
            achieved

      L/I7     No basis to judge




                                                      32
APPENDIX II                                                                             APPENDIX II




 28.    Are there any particular types of activities,
        studies, information, etc., currently being
        done or available at NSSDC which you believe
        are not necessary?

        /._-     Yes
        /94       No
        If yes, specify what they are and why there
        is     no need for then.
         See Note B




  29.   Are there any types of activities, studies,
        information, etc. not currently being done
        or available at NSSDC which you believe
        would be useful to the scientific public?
        r27 Yes
        /m7       HNo

        If yes, specify what they are.

             See Note B




  ADDITIONAL CONIENTS

  30.    If you have additional comments on any of
         the questions or related points or topics
         not covered, please write your coments
         in the space below. Your views are greatly
         appreciated. Thank you.
         41 percent commented (See note B)

         NOTES:

         A.      Percentages are based on the actual number of properly marked responses to each question.
                 The total of the percentages for each question will not necessarily equal 100 percent because
                 of rounding-percentages ending in .5 or higher were rounded up to the next whole number, *nd
                 those percentages ending in .4 or lower were rounded down to the next whole number.

             D. Questions requiring written responses were not computer coded. Therefore these questions
                are not sumarized.




                                                       33
     APPENDIX III                                                                                                        APPENDIX III

                                                                   RESULTS OF
                                                        U, S. GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE
                                                       SURVEY OF REQUESTERS OF DATA FROM
                                                     THE NATIONAL SPACE SCIENCE DATA CENTER
INSTRUCTIONSt

     Please read these questions carefully and answer each one as frankly and completely as possible. If the
material you requested from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC)/World Data Center-A (WDC-A) was not
intended to be used primarily for research and analysis purposes, please omit questions 20 and 21. If the
material was requested for research and analysis purposes, please complete the entire questionnai   ,


     If you have submitted more than one request for material to the NSSDC/WDC-A, please respond to the
questions from your overall general experience. Please don't single out either your best experience or your
worst experience when responding. Think of your total experience and attempt to give a representative response.
Naturally, if you have submitted only one request, please respond s best you can from that single experience.

1.       When you requested data from NSSDC, what type                         3. Approximately how many times have you requested
         of organization were you generally affiliated                            data from the NSSDC? (Check one.)
         with? If affiliated with two or more, please
         indicate the primary organization.  (Check                                           1
         one for section (a) and one for section (b).

          (a) Countryt             (See Note A P    39. )                           L         2-5

               L.W United States               /.     Non-United States
                                                                                    /06       11-20
         (b)       Organization:
                                                                                    _..       21 or more
               /aJ Federal Government, except NASA
                                                                               4.    In which of the following data source categories
               /L/          State Government                                         and disciplines have you most frequently requested
                                                                                     data? (Check one for section (a) and one for
                u/          Local Government                                         section b.)

                   E        Regional Agency                                             (a) Ctezoriesw

               Lt/          NASA                                                              L~L     Ground-based     /_7   Rockets

                        /   Industries                                                                ML/
                                                                                                      nodels           O0Balloons

                /Z] Academic                                                                  L       Computer Codes    8H Spacecraft

                   -7       Foundation                                                        LO'     Aircraft         L.7   Other (please spezify)
               L        / Federal Contract Research Center
                                                                                        (b)       Diaciolines;
               &j6          Non-profit
                                                                                              L/17 Astronomy
                     IOther (please specify)                                                          GJ
                                                                                                      Astronomy
                                                                                              1A.     Geodesy and Gravimetry

2.       What is the most frequent use of the data you
         requested from NSSDC? (Check one.)                                                   L_      Ionospheric Physics

     L2        Personal exhibit or display                                                    L07 Meteorology
         2     Professional exhibit or display                            _                           Particles and fields

               Instructional material                                                         L       Planetary Atmospheres

     ~         Reference material                                                                 3.LV Planet logy (including geology, geo-physics,
     j67       Research and analysis                                                              H   Solar Physics

         U3.   Other (please specify)          _.                                                     Other (please specify)




                                                                          34
      APPENDIX III                                                                                           APPENDIX III




5.    In what medium have you most frequently                  7.       Generally, what h   been the primary source or
      requested data? (Check one.)                                      means by which you have identified the specific
                                                                        data you have requested? (Check one.)
      §     Punched Cards
                                                                    Li7           Documents Describing the Operation of NSSDC
     n_     Digital Magnetic Tapes                                                  and WDC.AoR&S

     /4     Microfilm                                               ./            NSSDC Announcements of Satellite Experiment
                                                                                    Data Availability
     L1     ' PLotographic Products (Prints, duplicates,
                etc.)                                               L_            NSSDC Data Announcement Bulletins

     /0     Computer Printout                                       I             NSSDC Report on Active and Planned Spacecraft
                                                                                    and Experiments
     ~_~ Microfiche
                                                                    L             NSSDC Lunar and Planetary Catalogs and Users
     /097 Hard Copy (Text or report)                                                Guides

     /01/ Other (please specify)                   ___NSSDC                 7           Meteorological Data Catalogs and Users
                                                                                    Guides

                                                                    L.            NSSDC Handbook of Correlative Data
6.    How did you initially learn of the data and
      services available through NSSDC? (Check one.)                    1         NSSDC Spacecrft Program Bibliographies

     /26/ Friends (co-workers or others)                            /.'           WDC-A Catalog of Data

     /14/   Technical Publications (including internal                      7     WDC-A Spacewarn Bulletin
              references)
                                                                                7 Technical   Publications
     /7     Professional Societies, Conferences, etc.
                                                                    Ps            Personal contacts with NSSDC (Mail, Telephone,
     /177 NASA (mailing list or other)                                              Face to Face, etc.)

     /1      Participation in NASA program                                V       Personal Contacts with Scientists, Investi-
                                                                                    gators, etc. (Mail, Telephone, Face to
      _g~ Other (please specify)                                                    Face, etc.)

                                                                        E7 Other        (please specify)



                                                               8.         Have you encountered difficulty in using NSSDC/
                                                                          WDC-A documents or publications to ideatify and
                                                                          order data? (Check one.)

                                                                                       L.      Yes                L&.   No

                                                                          If yes, what is the most frequent cause of this
                                                                          difficulty? (Check one.)

                                                                    j.(/ Inaccurate descriptions or explanations of data

                                                                                  Insufficient descriptive or explanatory
                                                                                    information

                                                                          L/      Language too technical to understand

                                                                    BO            Language not technical enough

                                                                        0/        Information difficult to find in catalog
                                                                                    (e.g., indexing problems)

                                                                            a.    Other (please specify)




                                                              35
       APPENDIX III                                                                                              APPENDIX III

9.    Excluding requests currently being processeed,                         11,   For requests on which you have been referred
      in which of the following manners has NSSDC                                  to another source by NSSDC, were you generally
      most frequently processed or handled your                                    able to obtain the data you needed from the
      requests   (Check one.)                                                      alternative sources? (Check one.)

       s         By furnishing the data requested                                  j     Never referred to alternative sources--
                                                                                         if you checked this box, skip to question
      LW         Referred to alternative source(s) for data                              if you checked thi bo13. kip to quetion
                                                                                         number 13.
      L/         NSSDC unable to fulfill request(s) or                                  7 always or almost always
                   unable to recommend alternative source(s)

10.        With respect to data obtained from NSSDC, what                                generally
           has been your general experience with the                               9     never or almost never
           following.
                                                                             12.   Cite (in order of frequency of use) primary
                                                                                   alternative sources for space science data you
                        exactly as requested
                        -8                                                         have been referred to by NSSDC.
             L.V        exactly as requested

                        not as requested, but usable

                 2      not as requested and not usable             2
       b.        Receipt of data was:       (Cheek one.)
                                                                             13.   When requesting space science or other xperiment
                       0much earlier than anticipated                              related data, is NSSDC generally your first
                                                                                   choice as a data source?
                 2/Y   earlier than anticipated

             / 6y just about when anticipated

             jU8J      later than anticipated                                      If no, please list (In order of frequency of
                                                                                   use) thos, data sources you consider preferable
             /04/ much later than anticipated                                      to NSSDC and briefly explain the basis for your
                                                                                   preference.
       c.        Quality of data received was:      (Check one.).                      See Note B

             L9/ very good
             LI        good

             La/ fair

                       poor

                     / very poor

      d.         Value of the data to my efforts has been:
                 (Check one.)
                                                                                   3.
            L/         little or no value

                       minor value

            L,         moderate value

            LW         substantial value

            2I extreme value




                                                                        36
          APPENDIX III                                                                                         APPENDIX III




14.        What has bean your most ticai   method of                16.       On approximately how many of your requests have
           ordering and receiving data or information                         you been charged by NSSDC for the service supplied
           from NSSDC7 (Check one each for part A,                            to you?
           and B,)
                                                                          A/          On all requests
           A.       Orders
                                                                          / .         on most requests
                L_        Mailed letter request
                                                                               viAbout half the requests
                L         Nailed Order Form
                .I7M      Telephone                                       //L/ Very few of the requests
                                                                                      None of the requests
                ,i6       Walk-in (ordered in person)
                                                                    17.       If in the future, requesters are required to pay
                l_        Other (please specify)                              the costs incurred in providing the service, (i.e.,
                                                                              including only mailinb, handling and reproduction
                                                                              costs), would you still use the service? (Check one.)
           3B.Received:                                                         ,                      Yes              No

                      .   MNail delivery                            18.       To effectively use the data you receive from NSSDC
                      _                                                       (other than catalogs, bulletins, etc.), is it
                L2W       Picked up at NSSDC                                  generally necessary to contact the scientist or
                                                                              investigator who reduced the data and placed it
                    U     Other (please specify)                              in NSSDC?

                                                                                                 .fl   Yes       .f7    No
15.       Of the data received on each request made to                         If you     hecked no, skip to question number 20.)
          NSSDC, approximately how much of that data
          would you say you generally use? (Check one.)             19.       Once you determined that it was necessary to
                                                                              contact the investigator for assistance, did you
                 none or almost none                                          make contact in most cases? (Check one.)

      _          about one-fourth                                                           t.         Yes              No

          =      about one-half                                               If yX,  how helpful were these contacts in making
                                                                              the data usable for the purpose you intended.
      1/         about three-fourths                                          (Check one.)

      J          a11 or almost all                                            85/ Very helpful

          If al of it is generally not used, please                           L7      Helpful, but not what needed
          indicate the primary reason for this.
          (Check one.)                                                    LN/         No help at all

      L/         Not all the data received was usable because                 If     no, identify the reasons. (Check all that apply.)
                 of poor quality, insufficient back-up
                 information, etc.                                            1/l     Contact would inconvenience me

      /          Ordered more data than was really needed                     LI      Contact would inconvenience the investigator

      /_.        Keceived more data than       requested                       vJ]    Did not know how to contact investigator

      L3         Other (please specify)                    _    .                     Investigator and/or staff members were not
                                                                                      available

                                                                          =           Investigator would probably be uncooperative

                                                                          .           Other (please specify)




                                                                    37
           APPENDIX III                                                                                                  APPENDIX III




20.        Each of the items below deals with different                        21.        For the problems you identified in question 20,
           features of the services and data offered by                                   please select the three you consider the most
           NSSDC(WDC-A).   Identify any serious problems                                  significant and briefly provide any explanations
           which have hampered or ,ade impossible use of                                  and/or solutions you believe would help alleviate
           the data you requested; in other words, items                                  this problem in the future.   Please indicate each
           that have caused significant cost increases,                                   problem with its appropriate letter in the brackets
           significant modification of the scope of work,                                 provided in the margin.
           or cancellation of effcrts, etc.

           Please consider wt..thr each item is a signifi-                     L-                        Nost significant problem:
           cant problem or not.   For each item you consider
           to be a significant problem, check one of the
           columns to indicate the frequency with which                                                  See Note B
           you have experienced it.   If the item is not
           considered a problem, cross out the item letter,
           and go to the next item.




                                                                                LJ                    Second most significant problem:


  a)        Informing the potential user                                                                  See Note 3
            community of the service            097      1        5
            available
  b) Explanation and classifica-
     tion of the data and infor-    L                            54
     mation available
  c) Providing other types of data-
     correlational or long term      9 9 03 02                    5
     analysis                     _                                    ,        J                      Third most significant problems
  d)        Caet to requesters                   1 09 03020        3
                                                                                                          See Note
                                                                                                              Note 3
      e)    Speed of fulfilling                  11606060          8

      f) Information on availability            11 23 07T    0     9
            of data                                 0              9
      g) Data quantity                          i2 1002 01 00 5

  h)        Data   quality                      1417 05 02 012

                                                            _i
                                                i)_____________            d        22.    As previously stated, NAfA established the NSSDC
      i)    Media data is    available in        1012 0402;     3                          with the objective of praviding the widest prac-
                                                                                           ticable and appropriate dissemination of data
      j)    Format data is    available in      D914 05010         9                       obtained from space science investigations.   To
      k)   Time coverage of the                                                            what extent do you believe NSSDC has achieved
           Rhenomena measured                    7 14 05 03 02                             this objective? (Check one.)
      I) Coverage--area and coordi-                   050107
          naes of             ta upplied        10 161000                                      Little or no achievement
      m) Quantity of back-up or                 09 1210 02 03                                        ly
           supporting data including                                                           Minimally achieved
           instructions for use
      n) Quality of back-up or                               Ioderately                        Mo./           achieved
           supporting data including            09 13 0502 010
           instructions for use                                                           &j   Major achievement
      o) Use of technical wording                                __0101;
        o) Usoftechnlicluwore            di n   12109o701        u 7                           Completely or almost completely achieved
      p) other (leuse               _
                                 s .,ify
                        p) 6(hrpl
                                ease
                                 specify)       O       o1100102
                                                          02!0194                          U   No basis to judge




           1/ Not considered a problem




                                                                                38
APPENDIX III                                                                            APPENDIX III



23.    Whether or not the objective has been achieved,      26.   Additional Comments
       do yo-ubelieve that NSSDC serves a u3eful
       scientific purpose from the standpoint of provid-          If you have additional comments on any of the
       ing centralized archives for space science data?           questions or related points or topics not
                                                                  covered, please write your comments in the
      /00/ Definitely no                                          space below. Your views are greatly
                                                                  appreciated. Thank you.
      /00/ Probably no
                                                                  25 percent commented (See Note B)
      /01/ Undecided

      /12/ Probably yes

      /84/ Definitely yes

          a_7   No basis to judge


24.    Are there any particular types of activities,
       studies, information, etc., currently being
       done or available at NSSDC which you believe
       are not necessary?

      D7 Yes

      j         No

      If yes, specify what they are and why there is
      no need for them.

                See Note B




                                                                  NOTES:

                                                                  A.   Percentages are based on the actual
                                                                       number of properly marked resoonses to
                                                                       each question. The total of the per-
                                                                       centages for each question will not
                                                                       necessarily equal 100 percent--because
25.   Are there any types of activities, studies,                      of rounding--percentages ending in .5
      information, etc. not currently being done o'r                   or higher were rounded up to the next
      available at NSSDC which you believe would :,e                   whole number and those percentages
      useful to the scientific public?                                 ending in .4 or lower were rounded down
                Yes                                                    to the next whole number.
                                                                  B.   Questions requiring written responses
                No
                ~.                                                     were not computer coded. Therefore
                                                                       these questions are not summarized.
       If yes, specify what they are.

       See Note B




                                                       39
APPENDIX    IV                                       APPENDIX IV

                    PRINCIPAL OFFICIALS OF THE

            NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION

                    RESPONSIBLE FOR ACTIVITIES

                      DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT


                                          Tenure of office
                                         From           To

ADMINISTRATOR:
     Alan M. Lovelace (acting)        May     1977   Present
     James C. Fletcher                Apr.    1971   May   1977
     George M. Low (acting)           Sept.   1970   Apr.  1971
     Thomas O. Paine                  Apr.    1969   Sept. 1970
     Th-mas O. Paine (acting)         Oct.    1968   April 1969
   -,James E. Webb                    Feb.    1961   Oct.  1968

DEPUTY ADMINISTRATOR:
     Alan M. Lovelace                 June    1976   Present
     George M. Low                    Dec.    1969   June  1976
     Thomas O. Paine                  Mar.    1968   Apr.  1969
     Robert C. Seamans, Jr.           Dec.    1965   Jan.  1968
     Hugh L. Dryden                   Oct.    1958   Dec.  1965

ASSOCIATE   ADMINISTRATOR FOR
OFFICE OF   SPACE SCIENCE: a/
     Noel   W. Hinners                June    1974   Present
     John   E. Naugle (acting)        Mar.    1974   June  1974
     John   E. Naugle                 Dec.    1971   March 1974

ASSOCIATE ADMINISTRATOR FOR
OFFICE OF SPACE SCIENCE AND
APPLICATIONS: a/
     John E. Naugle                   Oct.    1967   Dec.    1971
     Homer E. Newell                  Nov.    1963   Oct.    1967

DIRECTOR, GODDARD SPACE
FLIGHT CENTER:
     Robert S. Cooper                 July    1976   Present
     John F. Clark                    May     1966   June  1976
     John F. Clark (acting)           July    1965   May   1966
     Harry J. Goett                   Sept.   1959   July  1965




                                 40
APPENDIX IV                                          APPENDIX IV

                                         Tenure of office
DIRECTOR, NATIONAL SPACE
SCIENCE DATA CENTER:
     James I. Vette               Jan.     1967     Present




a/The Office of Space Science and Applications was reorgan-
  ized and in December 1971 Space Science was established as
  a separate office.




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