,_ m GAO Acccountability * Integrity * Reliability United States General Accounting Office Resources, Community, and Washington, DC 20548 Economic Development Division B-283967 October 27, 1999 The Honorable Thomas J. Bliley, Jr. Chairman, Committee on Commerce House of Representatives Subject: Environmental Protection: EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields Dear Mr. Chairman: Federal, state, and local governments have focused much attention on the cleanup and economic redevelopment of abandoned and idled urban properties that have real or perceived contamination, known as brownfields. Partly because of the potential high costs to clean contaminated sites in accordance with federal and state environmental laws, businesses have often chosen to locate elsewhere, thus leaving the sites underutilized. Consequently, cities can lose tax revenues and employment opportunities. The Congress has been very interested in supporting initiatives to promote the cleanup and redevelopment of brownfields and has considered several legislative proposals to address this goal. In the meantime, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has implemented several brownfield-related initiatives and has been setting aside portions of its budget to fund them. In March 1998, we reported to you that EPA primarily was using or planned to use funds for fiscal years 1997 and 1998 to help state, local, and tribal governments build their capability to assess, clean up, and revitalize brownfields.' We also reported that, to accomplish this, EPA was obligating its funding for brownfields through several major program activities, or categories. For example, EPA used a portion of its funds through a category entitled assessment pilot projects, which are grants it awards to state, local, and tribal governments to identify, characterize, and plan cleanup activities at contaminated sites targeted for redevelopment. Subsequently, you asked us to update our information on EPA's brownfields activities. Specifically, for each program category, you asked us to identify the amount of funds that EPA actually obligated in fiscal years 1997-99, the amount it plans to obligate in fiscal 2000, and the number of grants and agreements that EPA awarded or plans to award with these funds, along with the recipients of these awards. 2 In summary, EPA obligated $37.2 million in fiscal year 1997, $88.2 million in fiscal 1998, and $91.1 million in fiscal 1999 for brownfield assessments and cleanup activities; the agency plans to obligate $91.2 million in fiscal 2000. EPA is conducting these activities primarily through more than 800 grants, 'Superfund: EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfield Revitalization (GAO/RCED-98-87, Mar. 19, 1998). 2 Throughout this report, we refer to grants and cooperative agreements as grants and agreements or awards. Both provide organizations with funding to undertake certain activities. EPA uses grants when it does not expect to be substantially involved in the activities and cooperative agreements when it does expect to be involved. GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields B-283967 agreements, and contracts with states, tribes, local governments, and private entities, such as universities and research organizations. Table 1 shows the amounts obligated and the number of awards for each of EPA's 11 program categories. Specific recipients of the grants, agreements, and contracts are shown for each category in the tables in this letter and the enclosures. Table 1: EPA's Use of Brownfield Funds, Fiscal Years 1997-2000 Dollars in millions Fiscal year 1997 1998 1999' 2000 Number of Dollars Number of Dollars Number of Dollars Planned Program awards obligated awards obligatedb awards obligatedb funds category 45 $7.7 105 $27.2 80 $20.0 $20.0 Assessment pilot projects Cleanup 23 8.1 0 0 45 35.0 35.0 revolving loan fund 44 9.4 41 15.0 42 15.0 10.0 State voluntary cleanup programs 27 2.3 103 11.9 132 3.0 8.0 Targeted brownfield assessments 3 0.3 11 5.1 10 5.0 5.0 Job training 11 6.3 20 8.2 20 3.0 3.0 Outreach, technical assistance, and research Tribal support 0 0 3 1.8 4 1.3 1.4 0 0 16 5.9 0 0 0 Showcase communities 0 0 24 4.8 0 0 0 Showcase finalists 9 0.6 4 0.8 10 0.8 0.8 Policy and reinvention 0 2.5 0 7.5 0 8.0 8.0 EPA personnel 162 $37.2 327 $88.2 343 $91.1 $91.2 Total 'Actual obligations for fiscal year 1999 not yet determined. The amount shown is for planned obligations. projects; bDollar amounts include actual dollars obligated to communities, regions, states, and tribes for assessment pilot states' voluntary cleanup programs; targeted brownfield assessments; and outreach, technical assistance, and research categories. Amounts also include dollars obligated for contractors to provide technical support. Funds That EPA Obligated on Brownfield Activities, by Program Categories, for Fiscal Years 1998-2000 During fiscal years 1997 through 1999, EPA obligated funds for up to 11 major program categories that comprise its brownfield activities. Over those years, EPA made some adjustments in the amount of funds it provided for each category. In general, funds increased for most categories from fiscal year 1997 to fiscal 1998 but decreased in fiscal 1999. This is primarily because in fiscal year 1998, EPA planned to obligate $35 million of its total brownfield funds to help states, tribes, and localities establish revolving loan programs to pay for brownfield cleanups. However, the Congress prohibited EPA from using funds appropriated in fiscal year 1998 for this activity. As a result, EPA allocated the $35 million 2 GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields B-283967 across the remaining seven program categories and funded three new ones-tribal support, showcase communities, and showcase finalists. The last two categories provided pilot communities with federal funds to develop models that communities could adopt to clean up and revitalize brownfields. The Congress did not prohibit EPA from using funds appropriated in fiscal year 1999 for revolving loans. Therefore, in order to provide a budget for this activity, EPA decreased funds in several categories and did not provide funds for the two new categories. The following provides information on the funding for each of EPA's 11 brownfield program categories. Assessment Pilot Projiects Since September 1993, EPA has been funding assessment pilot projects through cooperative agreements with state, local, and tribal governments, which use the funds to assess, identify, characterize, and plan cleanup activities at contaminated brownfields targeted for redevelopment. In general, an individual recipient can get a one-time award of up to $200,000. Most of the cooperative agreements were for this amount, although a few were for smaller amounts- We reported previously that EPA had used $21 million to fund 121 projects in 41 states through fiscal year 1997. Since then, EPA has used an additional $36.8 million to fund 185 projects in 43 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, through fiscal year 1999. (See enc. I for a listing of projects for fiscal years 1998 and 1999.) EPA used the remaining $10.4 million budgeted for these projects on contractor support. In fiscal year 2000, EPA plans to fund approximately 50 additional projects. According to EPA, it will also begin a new program whereby any project funded prior to September 30, 1998 (a total of 226 projects) can apply for up to $150,000 in supplemental funding to continue assessments. Cleanup Revolving Loan Fund In fiscal year 1997, EPA obligated $8.1 million to 23 state, local, and tribal governments to help them create revolving loan funds that would provide public and private entities with low-interest loans to clean up brownfields. The Congress directed EPA not to use funds appropriated in fiscal year 1998 on this activity but did not maintain this prohibition in fiscal 1999. Therefore, EPA allocated $35 million to 45 additional recipients in that year and plans to allocate $35 million to 60 more recipients in fiscal year 2000. As of October 1999, only one recipient, Stamford, Connecticut, had made a loan of $250,000 to help clean up waterfront property along the harbor. Therefore, of the total of $43.1 million that has been allocated since fiscal year 1997, $42.8 million remains with the cooperative agreement recipients to cover administrative, costs and future loans. According to EPA, loans have not been made because (1) turnovers in key state and local personnel have caused delays, (2) the program is relatively new, and (3) the recipients have not established the financial management system for the loans in compliance with EPA's funding regulations. States' Voluntary Cleanup Programs In fiscal year 1997, EPA allocated $9.4 million to 42 state and tribal governments to enhance and develop voluntary cleanup programs that states often use to address brownfields. States use the funds for such activities as (1) completing regulations for voluntary cleanup programs, (2) purchasing equipment to support program administration, (3) paying the salaries of agency staff to develop program procedures, (4) helping states and tribes to build their own capacity to oversee cleanups, and (5) promoting greater community involvement. In fiscal year 1998, EPA increased the amount of funds for this activity to $15 million but plans to return to a budget of $10 million for fiscal 2000. EPA awarded a total of $22.2 million in fiscal years 1998-99 as grants to 41 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and 3 tribal governments; individual awards ranged from $10,000 to $815,000 and had a median value of $200,000. (See enc. II for a list of recipients and award amounts for fiscal years 1998 and 1999.) 3 GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's of Funds for Brownfileds B-283967 Targeted Brownfields Assessments EPA uses these funds to enter into cooperative agreements whereby states can hire contractors to identify the extent of contamination at brownfields when this option is faster and cheaper than using EPA's own contractors. EPA regions reported that they used $2.3 million in fiscal year 1997. EPA increased this amount five-fold to $11.9 million in fiscal year 1998, returned to a $3 million budget for fiscal 1999, and plans to increase funds to $8 million in fiscal 2000. EPA funded 27 assessments in fiscal year 1997, 103 in fiscal 1998, and 132 in fiscal 1999. Individual agreements ranged from $1,500 to $155,000, and had a median value of $30,028. (See enc. mIfor a listing of recipients for fiscal years 1998 and 1999 and award amounts.) Job Training EPA enters into environmental job training grants and agreements with educational institutions and professional organizations for (1) environmental curriculum development that incorporates brownfields, (2) community outreach and the dissemination of information on brownfields, and (3) job training in the cleanup of hazardous waste and employment assistance at cleanup sites. During fiscal years 1993 through 1997, EPA obligated a small amount to award five job-training grants. In fiscal years 1998-99, EPA allocated $4.1 million to award 21 job training and development demonstration pilots, as shown in table 2. Table 2: Job Training Awards, Fiscal Years 1998-99 Award recipient name and location I Award amount Fiscal year 1998 City of Richmond, Calif. $200,000 Oakland Private Industry Council, Oakland, Calif. 200,000 Career Options, Inc., Clearwater, Fla. 141,364 Miami-Dade Community College, Miami, Fla. 200,000 City of New Bedford, Mass. 200,000 Jobs for Youth, Lynn and Somerville, Mass. 199,704 Metropolitan Community Colleges, Kansas City, Mont. 200,000 New Jersey Youth Corps, Camden and Newark, N.J. 200,000 Impact Services, Inc., Philadelphia, Pa. 200,000 A & M Engineering Extension Service, Dallas, Tex. 200,000 Milwaukee Service Corps, Milwaukee, Wis. 200,000 Fiscal year 1999 Youth Community Developers, San Francisco, Calif. 179,715 City of Stamford, Conn. 200,000 Strive-Boston Employment Services Inc., Chelsea, Mass. 200,000 Hennepin County, Minn. 200,000 Mineral Area College, Bonne Terre, Mont. 200,000 Beralillo County, N.M. 200,000 Bucks County Community College, Pa. 200,000 Universidad Metropolitana, P.R. 200,000 Houston Community College System, Houston, Tex. 200,000 King County/City of Seattle, Wash. 147,500 Total - $4,068,283 Job-training awards ranged from $141,364 to $200,000 and had a median value of $200,000. The remaining $6 million in fiscal years 1998-99 was provided to the National Institute of Environmental Health Services to support minority worker training for brownfield sites. EPA plans to make 10 additional awards for job training in fiscal year 2000. 4 GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields B-283967 Outreach, Technical Assistance, and Research EPA funds outreach to constituents affected by brownfields; technical assistance to state, local, and tribal governments on the redevelopment of brownfields; and brownfield-related research. Typically, the agency awards grants and agreements to educational, governmental, research, and community organizations to, among other things, disseminate information and conduct research on issues related to the redevelopment of brownfields and potential health risks from contaminants. During fiscal year 1997, EPA obligated $6.3 million for these activities but reduced the budgets for fiscal years 1999 and 2000 by half, to $3 million a year. EPA funded 11 such grants and agreements in fiscal year 1997 and a total of 40 in fiscal 1998 and 1999. Table 3: EPA Awards for Outreach, Technical Assistance, and Research, Fiscal Years 1998-99 Fiscal year Fiscal year Award recipient 1998 1999 International City and County Management Association $1,054,943 $944,169 Hazardous Substance Research Center 700,000 575,000 Institute for Responsible Management 533,684 360,900 U.S. Conference of Mayors 330,000 300,000 Northeast/Midwest Institute 257,547 229,294 Council for Urban Economic Development 153,023 117,966 Hazardous Materials Training Research Institute 149,765 149,765 Northern Kentucky University 135,380 0 Center for Public Environmental Oversight 112,000 125,500 Resources for the Future 103,458 0 Center for Land Renewal 100,000 192,000 National Council of Negro Women 75,000 0 National Governors Association 75,000 74,831 National Association of Development Organizations 56,075 47,790 Environmental Law Institute 50,000 0 National Association of Local Government Environmental 50,000 100,000 Professionals National Conference of Black Mayors 50,000 25,000 Center for Clean Air Policy 40,000 40,000 Waterfront Regeneration Trust 18,750 25,000 Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands Department of 13,000 0 Environmental Quality Engineering Society of Western Pennsylvania 0 673,660 Development Training Institute 0 100,000 Environmental Alliance for Senior Involvement 0 50,000 National Endowment for the Arts 0 35,000 International Association for Public Participation 0 10,000 Total $4,057,625 $4,175,875 In fiscal years 1998-99, grants and agreements in this category ranged from $10,000 to $1.05 million and had a median value of $100,000. EPA's brownfield managers stated that they plan to continue to incrementally fund existing cooperative agreements while, at the same time, funding new, innovative agreements in fiscal year 2000. Tribal Support Tribal support includes technical and financial support to tribal organizations to conduct research on tribes, their existing services, problems, and needs as they relate to the human effects associated with brownfields. EPA awarded a total of $2.8 million in fiscal years 1998-99 as grants and agreements to 5 GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's of Funds for Brownfileds B-283967 four tribal organizations; awards ranged from $100,000 to $1 million and had a median value of $266,931. See table 4 for a listing of projects for fiscal years 1998 and 1999. Table 4: EPA Awards for Tribal Support, Fiscal Years 1998-99 Fiscal year Fiscal year Award recipient 1998 1999 Tribal Association on Solid Waste and Emergency Response $1,000,000 $385,000 National Tribal Environmental Council 497,525 260,975 Americans for Indian Opportunity 258,432 266,931 Alaska Native Health Board 0 100,000 Total $1,755,957 $1,012,906 Showcase Communities The showcase communities project includes 16 communities selected competitively to develop national models for collaborative efforts to assess, clean up, and reuse brownfields. In fiscal year 1998, EPA provided $400,000 to support each showcase community, including $200,000 earmarked to pay for a temporary federal staff person to work with each community under the Intergovernmental Personnel Act, for a total of $6.4 million. Some communities had already received $200,000 in assessment pilot project grants. The 16 showcase communities that received the financial support in fiscal year 1998 are shown in table 5. Table 5: Showcase Communities Awarded Funds in Fiscal Year 1998 Name of showcase community East Palo Alto, Calif. Los Angeles, Calif. Stamford, Conn. Southeast Florida Chicago, III. Kansas City, Kans.Mo. Lowell, Mass. Baltimore, Md. St. Paul, Minn. Trenton, N.J. Glen Cove, N.Y. Portland, Oreg. State of Rhode Island Dallas, Tex. Salt Lake City, Utah. Seattle-King County, Wash. Showcase Finalists Twenty-four applicants that were finalists but were not selected to be showcase communities also received financial support from EPA in fiscal year 1998. These finalists received $200,000 each as either a supplement to an existing assessment pilot project or as a new assessment pilot award, for a total of $4.8 million. The 24 showcase finalists that received the financial support in fiscal year 1998 are shown in table 6. 6 GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields B-283967 Table 6: Showcase Finalists Awarded Funds in Fiscal Year 1998 Name of showcase finalists Prichard, Ala. Tuscon, Ariz. Richmond, Calif. Oakland, Calif. Bridgeport, Conn. Hartford, Conn. New Britain, Conn. Wilmington, Del. Louisville, Ky. Worcester, Mass. Malden/Medford/Everett, Mass. Omaha, Nebr. Camden, N.J. Buffalo, N.Y. Utica, N.Y. Toledo, Ohio Philadelphia, Pa. Pittsburgh, Pa. Sioux Falls, S.D. Houston, Tex. Brownsville, Tex. Cape Charles, Va. Burlington, Vt. Kenosha, Wis. Policy and Reinvention EPA's Office of Policy and Reinvention (previously the Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation) awards agreements and contracts to research and community organizations to provide them with analytical tools and products for urban development and brownfield activities. For example, EPA awarded a $292,000 contract in fiscal year 1998 for brownfield redevelopment, including identifying barriers to development. EPA awarded 14 contracts totaling $869,362 in fiscal years 1998-99, as shown in table 7. The remaining $700,000 in fiscal years 1998-99 was used for contractor support. As of October 1999, funding for fiscal year 2000 has not been determined. 7 GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's of Funds for Brownfileds B-283967 Table 7: Policy and Reinvention Agreements and Contracts, Fiscal Years 1998-99 Award recipient Award amount Fiscal year 1998 Industrial Economics $292,000 Industrial Economics 1,400- Industrial Economics 33,947 Fiscal year 1999 Industrial Economics 190,000 Environomics 25,000 Industrial Economics 25,000 Industrial Economics 11,000 Industrial Economics 100,000 Industrial Economics 14,000 Industrial Economics 5,200 Stratus Consulting, Inc., Environmental and Energy Research 25,000 Industrial Economics 53,000-- Industrial Economics 8,815 Industrial Economics 85,000 Total $869,362 EPA Personnel In fiscal year 1997, EPA assigned approximately 33 employees in headquarters and field offices to manage brownfield activities at a cost of $2.5 million. The next year, the agency increased its staff to 58 employees and tripled the amount of funds to $7.5 million. The brownfield managers explained that EPA needed more staff to manage the increasing number of grants, cooperative agreements, and pilot projects to state, local, and tribal governments. In fiscal year 1999, EPA increased the number of employees to 68, at a cost of $8 million. EPA plans to maintain 68 employees at a planned cost of $8 million in fiscal year 2000. Agency Comments We provided EPA with copies of a draft of this report for review and comment. EPA's assistant administrator generally agreed that the report provided a good characterization of the funds obligated for brownfields in fiscal years 1997-99, and planned obligations for fiscal 2000. EPA suggested several technical changes to the report that we made as appropriate. Scope and Methodology We performed our work at EPA's headquarters in Washington, D.C. To determine the activities that EPA supported with its brownfield allocation, we contacted EPA's Outreach and Special Projects Staff- the office with jurisdiction for brownfield activities within the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. We reviewed listings of the grants and agreements that EPA awarded during fiscal years 1998 and 1999.- We determined the total number and dollar value of grants and agreements for each of EPA's brownfield program categories. We did not independently verify the data provided by EPA. We performed our work from September through October 1999 in accordance with generally acceptable government auditing standards. As arranged with your office, unless you publicly announce its contents earlier, we plan no further distribution of this report until 14 days from the date of this letter. At that time, we will send copies of 8 GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields B-283967 this report to Senator Max Baucus, Senator Christopher S. Bond, Senator Frank R. Lautenberg, Senator Barbara A. Mikulski, and Senator Robert C. Smith, and to Representative Sherwood Boehlert, Representative Robert Borski, Representative John D. Dingell, Representative Alan B. Mollohan, Representative James L. Oberstar, Representative Michael G. Oxley, Representative Bud Shuster, Representative Edolphus Towns, and Representative James T. Walsh in their capacities as Chair or Ranking Minority Member of Senate and House Committees and Subcommittees. We will also send copies of this report to the Honorable Carol Browner, Administrator of EPA. Copies will be made available to others on request. If you have any questions regarding this letter, please contact me at (202) 512-6111. Key contributors to this report were Eileen R. Larence and Everett O. Pace. Sincerely yours, David G. Wood Associate Director, Environmental Protection Issues 9 GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's of Funds for Brownfileds Enclosure I Brownfield Assessment Pilot Projects Funded in Fiscal Years 1998-99 Award recipient Fiscal year 1998 EPA Region I Norwich & Griswold, Conn. New Britain, Conn. Stamford, Conn. Middletown, Conn. State of Massachusetts Department of Environment Protection Colrain, Mass.a Pioneer Valley, Mass.. Methuen, Mass. Springfield, Mass. Chelsea, Mass. Maiden, Medford, Everett, Mass. Mansfield, Mass. Brockton, Mass. Montachusett Regional Planning Commission, Mass. Lewiston, Maine State of N.H. State of New Hampshire Coastal Piscataqua River Watershed State of Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation EPA Region II Niagara County, N.Y. Yonkers, N.Y. Ogdensburg, N.Y. Utica, N.Y. Ulster County, N.Y. Paterson, N.J. Hudson County, N.J. Atlantic City, N.J. Long Branch, N.J. Morris County, N.J. Middlesex County, N.J. Puerto Rico Ports Authority, P.R. EPA Region IIl Washington, D.C. Hagerstown, Md. Johnstown, Pa. Northampton County, Pa. Ford City, Pa. Reading, Pa. Shenandoah, Va. Wheeling, W.Va. EPA Region IV Uniontown, Ala. Escambia County, Fla. Southeast Fla. East Point, Ga. Jackson, Miss. Oktibbeha County, Miss. Columbia, Miss. Winston Salem, N.C. Burlington, N.C. Charleston, S.C. Columbia, S.C. 10 GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields Enclosure II EPA Region V Calumet City, III. East Moline, 111. Waukegan, 111. Canton, Ill. Fort Wayne, Ind. Wayne County, MI. St. Joseph/Benton Harbor/Benton Charter Township, Mich. Ypsilanti, Mich. Saginaw, Mich. Flint, Mich. Hennepin County, Minn. Dayton, Ohio Cleveland, Ohio Youngstown/Campbell/Struthers, Ohio Columbus, Ohio Hamilton, Ohio Toledo, Ohio Springfield, Ohio Southern Ohio Port Authority, Ohio Milwaukee, Wis. Glendale, Wis. Kenosha, Wis. EPA Region VI Gretna, La. Sante Fe, N.M. Bernalillio County, N.M. State of New Mexico Environment Department Oklahoma City, Okla. Comanche Nation, Okla. Grand Prairie, Tex. Austin, Tex. Galveston, Tex. Brownsville, Tex. Rio Grande Council of Governments, Tex. & N.M. EPA Region VII Clinton, Iowa Coralville, Iowa Cedar Rapids, Iowa Omaha, Nebr. EPA Region VIII Lakewood, Co. Missoula, Mont. Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa, N.D. Evanston, Wyo. Kemmerer, Wyo.' EPA Region IX Tohono O'odham Nation, Ariz. Colton, Calif. State of California Trade and Commerce Agency Long Beach, Calif. Alameda County, Calif. West Hollywood, Calif. Montebello, Calif. Hoopa Valley Tribe, Calif. Los Angeles, Calif. Las Vegas, Nev. Ely Shoshone Tribe, Nev. EPA Region X 11 GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's of Funds for Brownfileds Enclosure I Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District, Oreg. Everett, Wash. Port of Seattle, Wash. Fiscal year 1999 EPA Region I Haddam, Conn.8 New Milford, Conn. Winsted, Conn. Worcester, Mass.' Great Barrington, Mass. Walpole, Mass. Marlborough, Mass. Salem, Mass. Taunton, Mass. Nashua, N.H. Southem Windsor County Regional Planning Commission, Vt. EPA Region II Albany, N.Y. Johnstown, N.Y Watertown, N.Y. Schenectady, N.Y. Senaca Nation, N.Y. Hackensack Meadowlands District, N. J. Orange Township, N.J. Phillipsburg, N.J. EPA Region IIl Borough of Central City, Pa. Delaware County, Pa. Luzeme/Lackawanna Counties, Pa. Mifflin County, Pa. Montgomery County, Pa. Neville Township, Pa. Duquesne, Pa. Newport News, Va. EPA Region IV Fort Myers, Fla.' Tampa, Fla. Fort Lauderdale, Fla. Ocala, Fla. Hillsborough County, Fla. Sarasota, Fla. Augusta, Ga. Fort Valley, Ga. Macon, Ga. Covington, Ky. Raleigh, N.C. Wilmington, N.C. Anderson, S.C. Chattanooga, Tenn. EPA Region V Rockford, Ill. Lacon, IIl. Hammond, Ind. South Bend, Ind.. Antrim County, Mich. Jackson County, Mich. Muskegon Heights, Mich. Minneapolis, Minn. Roseville, Minn. 12 GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields Enclosure II Twin Cities Metropolitan Council, Minn. Virginia, Minn. Barberton, Ohio Warren, Ohio Lockland, Ohio Girard, Ohio West Allis, Wis. EPA Region VI Southeastern Louisiana Regional Planning Commission, La. Albuquerque, N.M. Pueblo of Acoma, N.M. Association of South Central Oklahoma Governments, Okla. San Antonio, Tex. Tarrant County, Tex. Fort Worth, Tex. EPA Region VII Sioux City, Iowa Wichita, Kans. Springfield, Mo. EPA Region VIII Aurora, Colo. Westminster, Colo. Spirit Lake Nation, N.D. Naco Fire District, Ariz. White Mountain Apache Tribe, Ariz. Anaheim, Calif. Carson, Calif. Lynwood, Calif. Ventura, Calif. EPA Region X Coos Bay, Oreg. Renton, Wash. Aberdeen, Wash. Bellingham, Wash. Note: All recipients received $200,000, unless otherwise noted. 'Colrain, Mass., received $195,862; Kemmerer, Wyo., received $105,000; Haddam, Conn., received $161,500; Fort Myers, Fla., received $169,000; and Worcester, Mass., received $161,500. 13 GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's of Funds for Brownfileds Enclosure II 1998-99 EPA's Funding for State Voluntary Cleanuo Programs. Fiscal Years Fiscal year 1998 | Fiscal year 1999 Award recipient EPA Region I $200,000 $250,000 Connecticut 85,000 Maine 126,855 230,000 350,000 Massachusetts 225,000 New Hampshire 248,719 246,176 125,000 Rhode Island 500,000 0 VCP Assessment Region EPA Region II 000 500,000 New Jersey 550,000 | 500,000 350,000 New York 300,000 Puerto Rico 300,000 500,000 300,000 VCP Assessment Region Ilb EPA Region III 125,000 81307 Delaware 81,307 District of Columbia 0 Maryland 1157,000 550,000 193,700 Virginia 815,000 749,000 662,300 West Virginia EPA Region IV 218,727 238,189 Georgia 397,208 196,839 Mississippi 177,300 North Carolina 0 117,480 0 South Carolina 118,818 Tennessee 97,038 250,000 0 VCP Assessment Region IV EPA Region V 186,323 240,000 Illinois 400,000 Indiana 261,932 203,421 250,000 Michigan 227,500 325,000 Minnesota 325,000 Ohio 227,500 194,269 225,000 Wisconsin EPA Region VI 225,000 200,000 Arkansas 0 Louisiana 100,000 300,000 174,503 New Mexico 192,600 Oklahoma 300,000 300,000 183,824 Texas 50,000 0 Navajo EPA Region VII 150,000 150,000 Kansas 206,994 Missouri 361,820 b 325,000 0 VCP Assessment Region VII EPA Region VIl 25,000 75,000 Colorado 71,000 Montana 41,400 20,000 10,000 South Dakota 135,000 0 Utah 45,000 Wyoming 0 50,000 0 VCP Assessment Region Vilib EPA Region IX - 250,000 300,000 Arizona 0 22,000 Navajo GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields 14 Enclosure II Award recipient Fiscal year 1998 Fiscal year 1999 ThnoOdhm $80,000 $0 California 500,000 300,000 Hawaii 150,000 100,000 Nevada 260,000 250,000 EPA Region X Alaska 286,700 277,250 Oregon 501,374 135,528 Washington 512,382 489,778 Total $12,502,824 $9,701,930 Note: Table shows EPA regional offices' estimates of voluntary cleanup programs' funding for states and tribes. 'Actual obligations for fiscal year 1999 have not yet been determined. Amount shown is planned obligations. bFunding to states for brownfield assessment activities. Funds not identified by individual states. 15 GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's of Funds for Brownfileds Enclosure III Targeted Brownfield Assessments. Fiscal Years 1998-99 Award amount Targeted brownfield site assessment name Fiscal year 1998 EPA Region I $16,000 DOT/Precision Plastics, Portland, Conn. 21,000 NAAPCO, Berlin, Conn. 50,000 Penn Central Transportation Company, New London, Conn. 15,000 Burt Company Site, Portland, Maine 15,000 Edwards Manufacturing, Augusta, Maine 42,500 Alden Corrugated, New Bedford, Mass. 40,000 Church Coal, Taunton, Mass. 65,000 Former Tremont Villa, Everett, Mass. 75,000 Craig Supply, Durham, N.H. 25,500 Pontiac Enterprises, Warwick, R.l. 40,000 Rau Fasteners, Providence, R.I. 47,000 T.H. Baylis, Warwick, R.I. EPA Region II 35,995 Gundi Brothers (Badger Avenue), Newark, N.J. 35,995 Block 2704 (Badger Avenue), Newark, N.J. 35,995 Block 2691 (Badger Avenue), Newark, N.J. 35,995 Anti Hydro (Badger Avenue) Newark, N.J. 35,995 Block 252-251, Newark, N.J. 35,995 Kramer Trenton Property, Trenton, N.J. 35,995 Former PSE & G Transformer Station, Trenton, N.J. 35,995 Traction Tire Warehouse, Trenton, N.J. 35,995 Lenox China, Trenton, N.J. 35,995 Eastern Insulated Wire Corporation, Trenton, N.J. 138,159 Knox Gelatin Site, Camden, N.J. N/A Former Freight Yard Site, Trenton, N.J. N/A Bona Fide Redi Mix, Glen Cove, N.Y. N/A Windsor Fuel, Glen Cove, N.Y. N/A Mill Pond, Glen Cove, N.Y. N/A Sheridan Cesspool, Glen Cove, N.Y. N/A Vernon Barbadoes Area, Rockaway Queens, New York City, N.Y. EPA Region IIl 62,147 Commerce Street Site, Wilmington, Del. 62,147 Del Chapel Place, Wilmington, Del. 52,147 Delmarva Power and Light Substation/Dupont Christina Labs Site, Wilmington, Del. 20,070 3500 East Biddle Street, Baltimore, Md. 20,070 3700 Potee Street, Baltimore, Md. 20,070 Banjo Lane Site, Centerville, Md. 20,070 Crop Production Services, Chestertown, Md. 20,070 FNT Realty Company, Baltimore, Md. 60,210 Gilbert Tank Farm, Havre de Grace, Md. 20,070 Hampton Business Park, Capital Heights, Md. 20,070 Penn's Beach Marine, Havre de Grace, Md. 20,070 Rsigel Scrap Yard, Havre de Grace, Md. 20,070 Shannon Drive Site, Baltimore, Md. 27,600 Poseidon Pool, Wright Township, Luzerne County, Pa. 48,000 Shapiro Steel, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, Pa. 21,000 Va. Cheriton Canning Facility, Cheriton, Northampton County, 20,000 McCready Lumber, Pulaski, Va. EPA Region IV 12 ~ Street Yard/Police Station, Tampa, Fla. 43,553 GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields 16 Enclosure m Cuyahoga Wrecking, Opa-Locke, Fla. $71,363 Inventory, Jacksonville, Fla. 48,589 Inventory, Ocala, Fla. 49,991 Wryais Pit Cherry Park, Dade County, Fla. 53,717 EPA Region V 403 West 138' Street, III. 27,000 Galve Foundry, III. 27,000 Oswald Property, III. 27,000 Union Evergreen School, II. 27,000 Waukegan Gas Station,ll. 27,000 Former Bowser Pump Plant, Ind. 27,000 City of Hillsdale Property, Hillsdale, Mich. 27,000 MCI, Incorporation, Mich. 27,000 Melvindale Property, Mich. 27,000 Old Charcoal Iron Property, Mich. 27,000 Old Smokestack Property, Mich. 27,000 L.A. Darling, Mich. 27,000 Ser-Plating Company, Mich. 27,000 Ward Bakery, Mich. 27,000 Rubbish Ranch Dump, Minn. 27,000 Trupar Pump Mfg., Ohio 27,000 Dayton Tire and Rubber Co., Ohio 27,000 Whitter Peninsula, Ohio 27,000 Allis Chalmers Utility Cord, Wis. 27,000 American Quality Fibers, Wis. 27,000 Alpha Cast II, Wis. 27,000 American Toy and Fumiture, Wis. 27,000 Cargill Heating and Air Conditioning Company, Wis. 27,000 City Owned Property, Wis. 27,000 Hawthorne Melody, Wis. 27,000 Henry Bros. Jr. Property, Wis. 27,000 Luxco Subsidiary of Northern Engraving Co., Wis. 27,000 EPA Region VI Industrial Road, Malvern,. Ariz. 60,759 Broadway, New Orleans, La. 30,028 Central City/Saratoga, New Orleans, La. 82,532 Handee Court, New Orleans, La. 74,043 Powers Junction, New Orleans, La. 70,215 Headrick, Okla. 34,000 Newkirk, Okla. 20,762 Emory, Tex. 30,000 Eubanks Property, Duncanville, Tex. 24,113 EPA Region VII Flying Pig Site, Estherville, Iowa 11,250 Fredericktown Greenway Development, Fredericktown, Mo. 17,500 EPA Region VIII Heller Property, Commerce City, Colo. 48,967 South Tejon-Phase II, Denver, Colo. 50,000 Westlake Dry Cleaners, Loveland, Colo. 68,947 Brewery Flats, Lewistown, Mont. 50,000 Coulson Park Dump, Billings, Mont. 37,000 EPA Region IX Roseburg, Mt. Shasta, Calif. 80,801 North Fork Mill Site Phase I, North Fork, Calif. 9,100 North Fork Mill Site Phase II, North Fork, Calif. 80,000 Kaks'ako Site Phase I, Honolulu, Hawaii 12,400 17 GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's of Funds for Brownfileds Enclosure III EPA Region X $165,000 Metiakatia, Alaska 98,000 Ship Creek, Anchorage, Alaska 15,800 Atlas Mill, Falls City, Oreg. 27,850 Benton Auto Wreckers, Corvallis, Oreg. 75,000 Burns Piute, Burns, Oreg Fiscal year 1999 EPA Region I 50,000 50 Miles Street, Bridgeport, Conn. 20,000 American Tool, Winsdor, Conn. 20,000 Berlin Center, Berlin, Conn. 40,000 Derby Downtown Business Revitalization District, Derby, Conn. 10,000 Erickson Property, Ledyard, Conn. 35,000 H. J.Mills Box Factory, Bristol, Conn. 75,000 InterRoyal Mill, Plainfield, Conn. 75,000 Occum Roto Print, Norwich, Conn. 75,000 Rolfite, Canal Street Site, Shelton, Conn. 75,000 Samarius Property, Shelton, Conn. 50,000 Swan Engraving, Bridgeport, Conn. 25,000 Turnpike Auto Wreckers, Westbrook, Conn. 75,000 U.S. Cap, Inc., Prospect, Conn. 75,000 O'Sullivan's Island, Derby, Conn. 75,000 Ferdinand Block/DPH, Boston, Mass. 75,000 Former Beacon Chevrolet, Lynn, Mass. 35,000 Former DPW Yard, Newburyport, Mass. 40,000 Amesbury Wharf, Amesbury, Mass. 75,000 Boston Specialty Rehab Hospital, Boston, Mass. 75,000 David Street Parking Lot, Lowell, Mass. 50,000 Hallmark Van Lines, Holyoke, Mass. 50,000 Marine Railways Property, Gloucester, Mass. 75,000 Montello Auto Body, Brockton, Mass. 75,000 Standard Times Field, New Bedford, Mass. 50,000 Old Northampton Fire Station, Northampton, Mass. 75,000 Omniwave Electronics, Gloucester, Mass. 35,000 Quarry Street Highpoint Site, Quincy, Mass. 4,174 Bangor Hydro, East Machias, Maine 35,000 Lewiston & Auburn RR Co, Water Street, Lewiston, Maine 100,000 Ayers Island, Orono, Maine 10,000 Craig Supply, Durham, N.H. 75,000 J.P. Stevens Mill, Franklin, N.H. 50,000 Kaminski Property, Mont Vernon, N.H. 75,000 Former Tannery Site, Milton, N.H. 6,500 Henry's Tire Property, Sutton, N.H. 50,000 Henry's Tire and Wrecking, Sutton, N.H. 50,000 Narragansett Landing, Providence, R.I. 1,500 Pontiac Enterprises, Warwick, R.I. EPA Region II 172,800 12 Site Inspections, State of New Jersey 125,000 City of Hudson Waterfront/Conrail, Hudson City, N.Y. 125,000 Jervis/Roundhouse Property, Port Jervis, N.Y. 125,000 Former Perry Builders, Bainbridge, N.Y. 60,000 Lackawanna Foundry Site, Lackawana, N.Y. EPA Region III 42,987 Bafundo, New Castle, Del. 44,239 Bancroft Mills, Wilmington, Del. 46,321 DP &L-Congo Marsh, Wilmington, Del. 55,743 Dravo Shipyard - Amer Property, Wilmington, Del. GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields 1 Enclosure III Dravo Shipyard Harbor Associates, Wilmington, Del. $63,386 Dravo Shipyard-Sardo and Sons, Wilmington, Del. 46,928 Wilmington Public Works, Wilmington, Del. 44,307 Triumph Industrial Park, Elkton, Md. 80,054 Aileen Incorporated, Fint Hill, Va. 16,203 EPA Region IV Simpson Fertilizer, Atmore, Ala. 23,000 City Wellfield, Fort Meyers, Fla. 60,000 FHI Ag. Project, Sarasota, Fla. 50,000 Goody's Cleaners, N. Miami Beach, Fla. 50,000 Taylor Park, N. Miami Beach, Fla. 50,000 White Construction, Ocala, Fla. 50,000 Soccer Fields, Atlanta, Ga. 30,000 Elkay Ind., Camden, S.C. 44,848 Unispere Chemical, Cowpens, S.C. 42,352 Walter Farms, Johnston, S.C. 38,283 Yemassee Chipper, Yemassee, S.C. 26,801 26 Parcels, Nashville, Tenn. 120,000 EPA Region V City of Berwyn - Wallace Property, II. 27,000 Bruce Property, Ind. 27,000 Former Pennsylvania Railroad Depot, Ind. 27,000 Bear Archery Disposal Property, Mich. 27,000 Hartford School Athletic Field, Mich. 27,000 Joy Road Dump/Holiday Park/Holiday Nature, Mich. 27,000 Kellogg Property, Mich. 27,000 Laingsburg, Mich. 27,000 LFPR, Inc., Mich. 27,000 Nagel Residence Site, Mich. 27,000 Pardon Manufacturing, Mich. 27,000 P & G School Bus Service, Wis. 27,000 Petroleum Construction, Inc., Wis. 27,000 EPA Region VI Old Post Road, Russellville, Ariz. 5,116 Plainview Lumber, Plainview, Ariz. 8,838 Lafayette, La. 30,000 Malter Site, Gretna, La. 19,000 ATSF Raton, Raton, N.M. 41,048 Boston Hill, Silver City, N.M. 18,591 Carisbad Railyards, Carisbad, N.M. N/A Nile Mile Hill Landfill, Bemadillo County, N.M. 26,453 Santa Fe Railyards, Santa Fe, N.M. 58,607 Cushing, Okla. 30,000 Grandfield, Okla. 35,000 Haskell, Okla. 35,000 Edward Warren Field, Muleshoe, Tex. 12,000 Entex Gas Company, Beaumont, Tex. 24,213 Erickson/Independent Refining, Port Neches, Tex. 55,430 Grief Yount Partnership, Austin, Tex. 12,000 Hulen Park (Balwin Steam Location), Cleburne, Tex. 7,333 Laguna Park, Alamo, Tex. 22,170 Market Street, Houston, Tex. 70,000 Nacagdoches, Tex. 36,000 Police Headquarters, Dallas, Tex. 10,000 Power Plant & Garage Area, Lubbock, Tex. 37,968 Sulphur Springs, Tex. 45,000 William R. Black Estate, Galveston, Tex. 20,517 19 GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's of Funds for Brownfileds Enclosure m $21,844 Barron Brick Company, Groesbeck, Tex. 19,813 Blanchard Auto Sales, West Columbia, Tex. 24,733 Continental EMSCO, Sachse, Tex. 80,000 Dorset Steet, Houston, Tex. Region VII 28,750 Former Weisman Steel Site, Cedar Falls, Iowa 21,500 Former Leavenworth Landfill, Leavenworth, Kans. 10,500 Area Agency on Aging Building, Manhattan, Kans. 6,250 4800 Block Development Natural Bridge Rd., St. Louis, Mo. 6,250 4919-4929 Natural Bridge Road Development, St. Louis, Mo. 6,250 Delmar Blvd. Redevelopment, 3100 Block, St. Louis, Mo. 6,250 Delmar Blvd. Redevelopment, 3200 Block, St. Louis, Mo. 20,400 Former Atcom Property, St. Louis, Mo. N/A Fredicktown Greenway Development, Fredricktown, Mo. 12,500 Kennerly Avenue Redevelopment, St. Louis, Mo. 12,500 Old Eden Publishing, St. Louis, Mo. 12,500 The Fresh Building, St. Louis, Mo. EPA Region VIII 50,000 South Tejon-Phase il, Denver, Colo. 50,000 500 West Park Blocks, Salt Lake City, Utah Region IX 53,180 West Wetland Project, Yuma, Arz. 22,675 3 Properties, Stockton, Calif. 20,718 Cooley Landing, East Palo Alto, Calif. 19,041 Goodyear Tract Industrial Site, Los Angeles, Calif. 67,000 North Fork Mill Site Phase Ill, North Fork, Calif. 7,612 Reginal Transit Center, Ukiah, Calif. 26,162 Rincon Park Site, San Francisco, Calif. 58,700 Kaka'ako Site Phase II, Honolulu, Hawaii EPA Region X 106,000 Fort Yukon, Alaska 27,000 Rose City Plating, Ore9 . 41,000 Old Harlan Mill, Oreg. 68,500 Wenatchee Landfill, Wash. 25,000 Wenatchee Orchard, Wash. $9,253,608 Total Legend N/A = not available V calculated an average cost of its targeted 'Data were not available on the cost of eight targeted site assessments; Region for 10 of its targeted brownfield assessments assessments at $27,000; and Region II calculated an average cost brownfield in New Jersey at $35,995. (160507) 20 GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields
Environmental Protection: EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields
Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1999-10-27.
Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)