oversight

Environmental Protection: EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1999-10-27.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

,_   m
         GAO
          Acccountability * Integrity * Reliability

United States General Accounting Office                                           Resources, Community, and
Washington, DC 20548                                                          Economic Development Division


 B-283967


 October 27, 1999


The Honorable Thomas J. Bliley, Jr.
Chairman, Committee on Commerce
House of Representatives

 Subject: Environmental Protection: EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields

 Dear Mr. Chairman:

Federal, state, and local governments have focused much attention on the cleanup and economic
redevelopment of abandoned and idled urban properties that have real or perceived contamination,
known as brownfields. Partly because of the potential high costs to clean contaminated sites in
accordance with federal and state environmental laws, businesses have often chosen to locate
elsewhere, thus leaving the sites underutilized. Consequently, cities can lose tax revenues and
employment opportunities. The Congress has been very interested in supporting initiatives to promote
the cleanup and redevelopment of brownfields and has considered several legislative proposals to
address this goal. In the meantime, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has implemented
several brownfield-related initiatives and has been setting aside portions of its budget to fund them.

In March 1998, we reported to you that EPA primarily was using or planned to use funds for fiscal
years 1997 and 1998 to help state, local, and tribal governments build their capability to assess, clean
up, and revitalize brownfields.' We also reported that, to accomplish this, EPA was obligating its
funding for brownfields through several major program activities, or categories. For example, EPA
used a portion of its funds through a category entitled assessment pilot projects, which are grants it
awards to state, local, and tribal governments to identify, characterize, and plan cleanup activities at
contaminated sites targeted for redevelopment. Subsequently, you asked us to update our information
on EPA's brownfields activities. Specifically, for each program category, you asked us to identify the
amount of funds that EPA actually obligated in fiscal years 1997-99, the amount it plans to obligate
in fiscal 2000, and the number of grants and agreements that EPA awarded or plans to award with these
funds, along with the recipients of these awards. 2

In summary, EPA obligated $37.2 million in fiscal year 1997, $88.2 million in fiscal 1998, and $91.1
million in fiscal 1999 for brownfield assessments and cleanup activities; the agency plans to obligate
$91.2 million in fiscal 2000. EPA is conducting these activities primarily through more than 800 grants,



'Superfund: EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfield Revitalization (GAO/RCED-98-87, Mar. 19, 1998).
2 Throughout this report, we refer to grants and cooperative agreements as grants and agreements or awards. Both
provide organizations with funding to undertake certain activities. EPA uses grants when it does not expect to be
substantially involved in the activities and cooperative agreements when it does expect to be involved.

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agreements, and contracts with states, tribes, local governments, and private entities, such as
universities and research organizations. Table 1 shows the amounts obligated and the number of
awards for each of EPA's 11 program categories. Specific recipients of the grants, agreements, and
contracts are shown for each category in the tables in this letter and the enclosures.

Table 1: EPA's Use of Brownfield Funds, Fiscal Years 1997-2000

Dollars in millions
                                                             Fiscal year
                             1997                         1998                             1999'                       2000
                      Number of     Dollars        Number of       Dollars          Number of       Dollars        Planned
Program
                        awards    obligated          awards     obligatedb            awards     obligatedb          funds
category
                             45        $7.7             105          $27.2                 80         $20.0           $20.0
Assessment
pilot projects
Cleanup                      23            8.1                0              0               45           35.0         35.0
revolving loan
fund
                             44             9.4             41            15.0               42            15.0        10.0
State
voluntary
cleanup
programs
                             27             2.3            103            11.9              132             3.0          8.0
Targeted
brownfield
assessments
                              3             0.3             11             5.1               10             5.0          5.0
Job training
                             11             6.3             20             8.2               20             3.0          3.0
Outreach,
technical
assistance,
and research
Tribal support                 0              0               3            1.8                 4            1.3          1.4
                               0              0              16            5.9                 0              0            0
Showcase
communities
                               0              0              24            4.8                 0              0            0
Showcase
finalists
                               9            0.6               4            0.8                10            0.8          0.8
Policy and
reinvention
                               0            2.5               0            7.5                 0            8.0          8.0
EPA
personnel
                            162          $37.2             327          $88.2               343          $91.1        $91.2
Total

'Actual obligations for fiscal year 1999 not yet determined. The amount shown is for planned obligations.
                                                                                                                   projects;
bDollar amounts include actual dollars obligated to communities, regions, states, and tribes for assessment pilot
states' voluntary cleanup programs; targeted    brownfield assessments; and outreach,  technical assistance, and  research
categories. Amounts also include dollars obligated for contractors to provide technical support.

Funds That EPA Obligated on Brownfield
Activities, by Program Categories, for
Fiscal Years 1998-2000

During fiscal years 1997 through 1999, EPA obligated funds for up to 11 major program categories that
comprise its brownfield activities. Over those years, EPA made some adjustments in the amount of
funds it provided for each category. In general, funds increased for most categories from fiscal year
1997 to fiscal 1998 but decreased in fiscal 1999. This is primarily because in fiscal year 1998, EPA
planned to obligate $35 million of its total brownfield funds to help states, tribes, and localities establish
revolving loan programs to pay for brownfield cleanups. However, the Congress prohibited EPA from
using funds appropriated in fiscal year 1998 for this activity. As a result, EPA allocated the $35 million



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across the remaining seven program categories and funded three new ones-tribal support, showcase
communities, and showcase finalists. The last two categories provided pilot communities with federal
funds to develop models that communities could adopt to clean up and revitalize brownfields. The
Congress did not prohibit EPA from using funds appropriated in fiscal year 1999 for revolving loans.
Therefore, in order to provide a budget for this activity, EPA decreased funds in several categories and
did not provide funds for the two new categories. The following provides information on the funding
for each of EPA's 11 brownfield program categories.

Assessment Pilot Projiects

Since September 1993, EPA has been funding assessment pilot projects through cooperative
agreements with state, local, and tribal governments, which use the funds to assess, identify,
characterize, and plan cleanup activities at contaminated brownfields targeted for redevelopment. In
general, an individual recipient can get a one-time award of up to $200,000. Most of the cooperative
agreements were for this amount, although a few were for smaller amounts- We reported previously
that EPA had used $21 million to fund 121 projects in 41 states through fiscal year 1997. Since then,
EPA has used an additional $36.8 million to fund 185 projects in 43 states, the District of Columbia, and
Puerto Rico, through fiscal year 1999. (See enc. I for a listing of projects for fiscal years 1998 and 1999.)
EPA used the remaining $10.4 million budgeted for these projects on contractor support.

In fiscal year 2000, EPA plans to fund approximately 50 additional projects. According to EPA, it will
also begin a new program whereby any project funded prior to September 30, 1998 (a total of 226
projects) can apply for up to $150,000 in supplemental funding to continue assessments.

Cleanup Revolving Loan Fund

In fiscal year 1997, EPA obligated $8.1 million to 23 state, local, and tribal governments to help them
create revolving loan funds that would provide public and private entities with low-interest loans to
clean up brownfields. The Congress directed EPA not to use funds appropriated in fiscal year 1998 on
this activity but did not maintain this prohibition in fiscal 1999. Therefore, EPA allocated $35 million to
45 additional recipients in that year and plans to allocate $35 million to 60 more recipients in fiscal year
2000. As of October 1999, only one recipient, Stamford, Connecticut, had made a loan of $250,000 to
help clean up waterfront property along the harbor. Therefore, of the total of $43.1 million that has
been allocated since fiscal year 1997, $42.8 million remains with the cooperative agreement recipients
to cover administrative, costs and future loans. According to EPA, loans have not been made because
(1) turnovers in key state and local personnel have caused delays, (2) the program is relatively
new, and (3) the recipients have not established the financial management system for the loans in
compliance with EPA's funding regulations.

States' Voluntary Cleanup Programs

In fiscal year 1997, EPA allocated $9.4 million to 42 state and tribal governments to enhance and
develop voluntary cleanup programs that states often use to address brownfields. States use the funds
for such activities as (1) completing regulations for voluntary cleanup programs, (2) purchasing
equipment to support program administration, (3) paying the salaries of agency staff to develop
program procedures, (4) helping states and tribes to build their own capacity to oversee cleanups, and
(5) promoting greater community involvement. In fiscal year 1998, EPA increased the amount of funds
for this activity to $15 million but plans to return to a budget of $10 million for fiscal 2000. EPA
awarded a total of $22.2 million in fiscal years 1998-99 as grants to 41 states, the District of Columbia,
Puerto Rico, and 3 tribal governments; individual awards ranged from $10,000 to $815,000 and had a
median value of $200,000. (See enc. II for a list of recipients and award amounts for fiscal years 1998
and 1999.)


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Targeted Brownfields Assessments

EPA uses these funds to enter into cooperative agreements whereby states can hire contractors to
identify the extent of contamination at brownfields when this option is faster and cheaper than using
EPA's own contractors. EPA regions reported that they used $2.3 million in fiscal year 1997. EPA
increased this amount five-fold to $11.9 million in fiscal year 1998, returned to a $3 million budget for
fiscal 1999, and plans to increase funds to $8 million in fiscal 2000. EPA funded 27 assessments in fiscal
year 1997, 103 in fiscal 1998, and 132 in fiscal 1999. Individual agreements ranged from $1,500 to
$155,000, and had a median value of $30,028. (See enc. mIfor a listing of recipients for fiscal years 1998
and 1999 and award amounts.)

Job Training

EPA enters into environmental job training grants and agreements with educational institutions and
professional organizations for (1) environmental curriculum development that incorporates
brownfields, (2) community outreach and the dissemination of information on brownfields, and (3) job
training in the cleanup of hazardous waste and employment assistance at cleanup sites. During fiscal
years 1993 through 1997, EPA obligated a small amount to award five job-training grants. In fiscal years
1998-99, EPA allocated $4.1 million to award 21 job training and development demonstration pilots, as
shown in table 2.

Table 2: Job Training Awards, Fiscal Years 1998-99

Award recipient name and location                         I       Award amount
Fiscal year 1998
City of Richmond, Calif.                                              $200,000
Oakland Private Industry Council, Oakland, Calif.                      200,000
Career Options, Inc., Clearwater, Fla.                                 141,364
Miami-Dade Community College, Miami, Fla.                              200,000
City of New Bedford, Mass.                                             200,000
Jobs for Youth, Lynn and Somerville, Mass.                             199,704
Metropolitan Community Colleges, Kansas City, Mont.                    200,000
New Jersey Youth Corps, Camden and Newark, N.J.                        200,000
Impact Services, Inc., Philadelphia, Pa.                               200,000
A & M Engineering Extension Service, Dallas, Tex.                      200,000
Milwaukee Service Corps, Milwaukee, Wis.                               200,000
Fiscal year 1999
Youth Community Developers, San Francisco, Calif.                       179,715
City of Stamford, Conn.                                                 200,000
Strive-Boston Employment Services Inc., Chelsea, Mass.                  200,000
Hennepin County, Minn.                                                  200,000
Mineral Area College, Bonne Terre, Mont.                                200,000
Beralillo County, N.M.                                                  200,000
Bucks County Community College, Pa.                                     200,000
Universidad Metropolitana, P.R.                                         200,000
Houston Community College System, Houston, Tex.                         200,000
King County/City of Seattle, Wash.                                      147,500
Total                                                         -      $4,068,283

Job-training awards ranged from $141,364 to $200,000 and had a median value of $200,000. The
remaining $6 million in fiscal years 1998-99 was provided to the National Institute of Environmental
Health Services to support minority worker training for brownfield sites. EPA plans to make 10
additional awards for job training in fiscal year 2000.




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Outreach, Technical Assistance, and Research

EPA funds outreach to constituents affected by brownfields; technical assistance to state, local, and
tribal governments on the redevelopment of brownfields; and brownfield-related research. Typically,
the agency awards grants and agreements to educational, governmental, research, and community
organizations to, among other things, disseminate information and conduct research on issues related
to the redevelopment of brownfields and potential health risks from contaminants. During fiscal year
1997, EPA obligated $6.3 million for these activities but reduced the budgets for fiscal years 1999 and
2000 by half, to $3 million a year. EPA funded 11 such grants and agreements in fiscal year 1997 and a
total of 40 in fiscal 1998 and 1999.
Table 3: EPA Awards for Outreach, Technical Assistance, and Research, Fiscal Years 1998-99

                                                                   Fiscal year        Fiscal year
Award recipient                                                           1998              1999
International City and County Management Association               $1,054,943           $944,169
Hazardous Substance Research Center                                   700,000            575,000
Institute for Responsible Management                                  533,684            360,900
U.S. Conference of Mayors                                             330,000            300,000
Northeast/Midwest Institute                                           257,547            229,294
Council for Urban Economic Development                                153,023            117,966
Hazardous Materials Training Research Institute                       149,765            149,765
Northern Kentucky University                                          135,380                   0
Center for Public Environmental Oversight                             112,000            125,500
Resources for the Future                                              103,458                   0
Center for Land Renewal                                               100,000            192,000
National Council of Negro Women                                        75,000                   0
National Governors Association                                         75,000             74,831
National Association of Development Organizations                      56,075             47,790
Environmental Law Institute                                            50,000                   0
National Association of Local Government Environmental                 50,000            100,000
Professionals
National Conference of Black Mayors                                    50,000                25,000
Center for Clean Air Policy                                            40,000                40,000
Waterfront Regeneration Trust                                          18,750                25,000
Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands Department of                 13,000                     0
Environmental Quality
Engineering Society of Western Pennsylvania                                 0             673,660
Development Training Institute                                              0             100,000
Environmental Alliance for Senior Involvement                               0              50,000
National Endowment for the Arts                                             0              35,000
International Association for Public Participation                          0              10,000
Total                                                              $4,057,625          $4,175,875

In fiscal years 1998-99, grants and agreements in this category ranged from $10,000 to $1.05 million and
had a median value of $100,000. EPA's brownfield managers stated that they plan to continue to
incrementally fund existing cooperative agreements while, at the same time, funding new, innovative
agreements in fiscal year 2000.

Tribal Support

Tribal support includes technical and financial support to tribal organizations to conduct research on
tribes, their existing services, problems, and needs as they relate to the human effects associated with
brownfields. EPA awarded a total of $2.8 million in fiscal years 1998-99 as grants and agreements to




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                                                          GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's of Funds for Brownfileds
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four tribal organizations; awards ranged from $100,000 to $1 million and had a median value of
$266,931. See table 4 for a listing of projects for fiscal years 1998 and 1999.

Table 4: EPA Awards for Tribal Support, Fiscal Years 1998-99

                                                                    Fiscal year      Fiscal year
Award recipient                                                            1998            1999
Tribal Association on Solid Waste and Emergency Response            $1,000,000         $385,000
National Tribal Environmental Council                                  497,525          260,975
Americans for Indian Opportunity                                       258,432          266,931
Alaska Native Health Board                                                    0         100,000
Total                                                               $1,755,957       $1,012,906

Showcase Communities

The showcase communities project includes 16 communities selected competitively to develop national
models for collaborative efforts to assess, clean up, and reuse brownfields. In fiscal year 1998, EPA
provided $400,000 to support each showcase community, including $200,000 earmarked to pay for a
temporary federal staff person to work with each community under the Intergovernmental Personnel
Act, for a total of $6.4 million. Some communities had already received $200,000 in assessment pilot
project grants. The 16 showcase communities that received the financial support in fiscal year 1998 are
shown in table 5.

Table 5: Showcase Communities Awarded
Funds in Fiscal Year 1998

Name of showcase community
East Palo Alto, Calif.
Los Angeles, Calif.
Stamford, Conn.
Southeast Florida
Chicago, III.
Kansas City, Kans.Mo.
Lowell, Mass.
Baltimore, Md.
St. Paul, Minn.
Trenton, N.J.
Glen Cove, N.Y.
Portland, Oreg.
State of Rhode Island
Dallas, Tex.
Salt Lake City, Utah.
Seattle-King County, Wash.

Showcase Finalists

Twenty-four applicants that were finalists but were not selected to be showcase communities also
received financial support from EPA in fiscal year 1998. These finalists received $200,000 each as either
a supplement to an existing assessment pilot project or as a new assessment pilot award, for a total of
$4.8 million. The 24 showcase finalists that received the financial support in fiscal year 1998 are
shown in table 6.




6                                                          GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields
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Table 6: Showcase Finalists Awarded
Funds in Fiscal Year 1998

Name of showcase finalists
Prichard, Ala.
Tuscon, Ariz.
Richmond, Calif.
Oakland, Calif.
Bridgeport, Conn.
Hartford, Conn.
New Britain, Conn.
Wilmington, Del.
Louisville, Ky.
Worcester, Mass.
Malden/Medford/Everett, Mass.
Omaha, Nebr.
Camden, N.J.
Buffalo, N.Y.
Utica, N.Y.
Toledo, Ohio
Philadelphia, Pa.
Pittsburgh, Pa.
Sioux Falls, S.D.
Houston, Tex.
Brownsville, Tex.
Cape Charles, Va.
Burlington, Vt.
Kenosha, Wis.

Policy and Reinvention

EPA's Office of Policy and Reinvention (previously the Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation)
awards agreements and contracts to research and community organizations to provide them with
analytical tools and products for urban development and brownfield activities. For example, EPA
awarded a $292,000 contract in fiscal year 1998 for brownfield redevelopment, including identifying
barriers to development. EPA awarded 14 contracts totaling $869,362 in fiscal years 1998-99, as shown
in table 7. The remaining $700,000 in fiscal years 1998-99 was used for contractor support. As of
October 1999, funding for fiscal year 2000 has not been determined.




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                                                    GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's of Funds for Brownfileds
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Table 7: Policy and Reinvention Agreements and Contracts, Fiscal Years 1998-99
Award recipient                                                      Award amount
Fiscal year 1998
Industrial Economics                                                       $292,000
Industrial Economics                                                          1,400-
Industrial Economics                                                         33,947
Fiscal year 1999
Industrial Economics                                                        190,000
Environomics                                                                 25,000
Industrial Economics                                                         25,000
Industrial Economics                                                         11,000
Industrial Economics                                                        100,000
Industrial Economics                                                         14,000
Industrial Economics                                                          5,200
Stratus Consulting, Inc., Environmental and Energy Research                  25,000
Industrial Economics                                                         53,000--
Industrial Economics                                                          8,815
Industrial Economics                                                         85,000
Total                                                                      $869,362

EPA Personnel

In fiscal year 1997, EPA assigned approximately 33 employees in headquarters and field offices to
manage brownfield activities at a cost of $2.5 million. The next year, the agency increased its staff to 58
employees and tripled the amount of funds to $7.5 million. The brownfield managers explained that
EPA needed more staff to manage the increasing number of grants, cooperative agreements, and pilot
projects to state, local, and tribal governments. In fiscal year 1999, EPA increased the number of
employees to 68, at a cost of $8 million. EPA plans to maintain 68 employees at a planned cost of $8
million in fiscal year 2000.

Agency Comments

We provided EPA with copies of a draft of this report for review and comment. EPA's assistant
administrator generally agreed that the report provided a good characterization of the funds
obligated for brownfields in fiscal years 1997-99, and planned obligations for fiscal 2000. EPA
suggested several technical changes to the report that we made as appropriate.

Scope and Methodology

We performed our work at EPA's headquarters in Washington, D.C. To determine the activities that
EPA supported with its brownfield allocation, we contacted EPA's Outreach and Special Projects Staff-
the office with jurisdiction for brownfield activities within the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency
Response. We reviewed listings of the grants and agreements that EPA awarded during fiscal years
1998 and 1999.- We determined the total number and dollar value of grants and agreements for each of
EPA's brownfield program categories. We did not independently verify the data provided by EPA. We
performed our work from September through October 1999 in accordance with generally acceptable
government auditing standards.



As arranged with your office, unless you publicly announce its contents earlier, we plan no further
distribution of this report until 14 days from the date of this letter. At that time, we will send copies of



8                                                             GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields
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this report to Senator Max Baucus, Senator Christopher S. Bond, Senator Frank R. Lautenberg, Senator
Barbara A. Mikulski, and Senator Robert C. Smith, and to Representative Sherwood Boehlert,
Representative Robert Borski, Representative John D. Dingell, Representative Alan B. Mollohan,
Representative James L. Oberstar, Representative Michael G. Oxley, Representative Bud Shuster,
Representative Edolphus Towns, and Representative James T. Walsh in their capacities as Chair or
Ranking Minority Member of Senate and House Committees and Subcommittees. We will also send
copies of this report to the Honorable Carol Browner, Administrator of EPA. Copies will be made
available to others on request. If you have any questions regarding this letter, please contact me at
(202) 512-6111. Key contributors to this report were Eileen R. Larence and Everett O. Pace.

Sincerely yours,




David G. Wood
Associate Director, Environmental
 Protection Issues




9
                                                    GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's of Funds for Brownfileds
Enclosure I

               Brownfield Assessment Pilot Projects Funded in Fiscal Years 1998-99

Award recipient
Fiscal year 1998
EPA Region I
Norwich & Griswold, Conn.
New Britain, Conn.
Stamford, Conn.
Middletown, Conn.
State of Massachusetts Department of Environment Protection
Colrain, Mass.a
Pioneer Valley, Mass..
Methuen, Mass.
Springfield, Mass.
Chelsea, Mass.
Maiden, Medford, Everett, Mass.
Mansfield, Mass.
Brockton, Mass.
Montachusett Regional Planning Commission, Mass.
Lewiston, Maine
State of N.H.
State of New Hampshire Coastal Piscataqua River Watershed
State of Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation
EPA Region II
Niagara County, N.Y.
Yonkers, N.Y.
Ogdensburg, N.Y.
Utica, N.Y.
Ulster County, N.Y.
Paterson, N.J.
Hudson County, N.J.
Atlantic City, N.J.
Long Branch, N.J.
Morris County, N.J.
Middlesex County, N.J.
Puerto Rico Ports Authority, P.R.
EPA Region IIl
Washington, D.C.
Hagerstown, Md.
Johnstown, Pa.
Northampton County, Pa.
Ford City, Pa.
Reading, Pa.
Shenandoah, Va.
Wheeling, W.Va.
EPA Region IV
Uniontown, Ala.
Escambia County, Fla.
Southeast Fla.
East Point, Ga.
Jackson, Miss.
Oktibbeha County, Miss.
Columbia, Miss.
Winston Salem, N.C.
Burlington, N.C.
Charleston, S.C.
Columbia, S.C.



10                                                            GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields
Enclosure II
EPA Region V
Calumet City, III.
East Moline, 111.
Waukegan, 111.
Canton, Ill.
Fort Wayne, Ind.
Wayne County, MI.
St. Joseph/Benton Harbor/Benton Charter Township, Mich.
Ypsilanti, Mich.
Saginaw, Mich.
Flint, Mich.
Hennepin County, Minn.
Dayton, Ohio
Cleveland, Ohio
Youngstown/Campbell/Struthers, Ohio
Columbus, Ohio
Hamilton, Ohio
Toledo, Ohio
Springfield, Ohio
Southern Ohio Port Authority, Ohio
Milwaukee, Wis.
Glendale, Wis.
Kenosha, Wis.
EPA Region VI
Gretna, La.
Sante Fe, N.M.
Bernalillio County, N.M.
State of New Mexico Environment Department
Oklahoma City, Okla.
Comanche Nation, Okla.
Grand Prairie, Tex.
Austin, Tex.
Galveston, Tex.
Brownsville, Tex.
Rio Grande Council of Governments, Tex. & N.M.
EPA Region VII
Clinton, Iowa
Coralville, Iowa
Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Omaha, Nebr.
EPA Region VIII
Lakewood, Co.
Missoula, Mont.
Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa, N.D.
Evanston, Wyo.
Kemmerer, Wyo.'
EPA Region IX
Tohono O'odham Nation, Ariz.
Colton, Calif.
State of California Trade and Commerce Agency
Long Beach, Calif.
Alameda County, Calif.
West Hollywood, Calif.
Montebello, Calif.
Hoopa Valley Tribe, Calif.
Los Angeles, Calif.
Las Vegas, Nev.
Ely Shoshone Tribe, Nev.
EPA Region X



11
                                                          GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's of Funds for Brownfileds
Enclosure I
Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District, Oreg.
Everett, Wash.
Port of Seattle, Wash.
Fiscal year 1999
EPA Region I
Haddam, Conn.8
New Milford, Conn.
Winsted, Conn.
Worcester, Mass.'
Great Barrington, Mass.
Walpole, Mass.
Marlborough, Mass.
Salem, Mass.
Taunton, Mass.
Nashua, N.H.
Southem Windsor County Regional Planning Commission, Vt.
EPA Region II
Albany, N.Y.
Johnstown, N.Y
Watertown, N.Y.
Schenectady, N.Y.
Senaca Nation, N.Y.
Hackensack Meadowlands District, N. J.
Orange Township, N.J.
Phillipsburg, N.J.
EPA Region IIl
Borough of Central City, Pa.
Delaware County, Pa.
Luzeme/Lackawanna Counties, Pa.
Mifflin County, Pa.
Montgomery County, Pa.
Neville Township, Pa.
Duquesne, Pa.
Newport News, Va.
EPA Region IV
Fort Myers, Fla.'
Tampa, Fla.
Fort Lauderdale, Fla.
Ocala, Fla.
Hillsborough County, Fla.
Sarasota, Fla.
Augusta, Ga.
Fort Valley, Ga.
Macon, Ga.
Covington, Ky.
Raleigh, N.C.
Wilmington, N.C.
Anderson, S.C.
Chattanooga, Tenn.
EPA Region V
Rockford, Ill.
Lacon, IIl.
Hammond, Ind.
South Bend, Ind..
Antrim County, Mich.
Jackson County, Mich.
Muskegon Heights, Mich.
Minneapolis, Minn.
Roseville, Minn.



12                                                         GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields
Enclosure II
 Twin Cities Metropolitan Council, Minn.
 Virginia, Minn.
 Barberton, Ohio
 Warren, Ohio
 Lockland, Ohio
 Girard, Ohio
 West Allis, Wis.
 EPA Region VI
 Southeastern Louisiana Regional Planning Commission, La.
 Albuquerque, N.M.
 Pueblo of Acoma, N.M.
 Association of South Central Oklahoma Governments, Okla.
 San Antonio, Tex.
Tarrant County, Tex.
 Fort Worth, Tex.
 EPA Region VII
Sioux City, Iowa
Wichita, Kans.
Springfield, Mo.
EPA Region VIII
Aurora, Colo.
Westminster, Colo.
Spirit Lake Nation, N.D.
Naco Fire District, Ariz.
White Mountain Apache Tribe, Ariz.
Anaheim, Calif.
Carson, Calif.
Lynwood, Calif.
Ventura, Calif.
EPA Region X
Coos Bay, Oreg.
Renton, Wash.
Aberdeen, Wash.
Bellingham, Wash.

Note: All recipients received $200,000, unless otherwise noted.

'Colrain, Mass., received $195,862; Kemmerer, Wyo., received $105,000; Haddam, Conn., received $161,500; Fort Myers,
Fla., received $169,000; and Worcester, Mass., received $161,500.




13
                                                                  GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's of Funds for Brownfileds
Enclosure II
                                                                               1998-99
              EPA's Funding for State Voluntary Cleanuo Programs. Fiscal Years
                                            Fiscal year 1998 |            Fiscal year 1999
Award recipient
EPA Region I
                                                   $200,000                       $250,000
Connecticut                                                                         85,000
Maine                                               126,855
                                                    230,000                        350,000
Massachusetts                                                                      225,000
New Hampshire                                       248,719
                                                    246,176                        125,000
Rhode Island
                                                    500,000                              0
VCP Assessment Region
EPA Region II
                                                     000                            500,000
New Jersey                                          550,000
                                 |                  500,000                         350,000
New York                                                                            300,000
Puerto Rico                                         300,000
                                                    500,000                         300,000
VCP Assessment Region Ilb
EPA Region III
                                                     125,000                         81307
Delaware                                                                             81,307
District of Columbia                                       0
Maryland                         1157,000                                           550,000
                                                                                    193,700
Virginia                                             815,000
                                                     749,000                        662,300
West Virginia
EPA Region IV
                                                     218,727                        238,189
Georgia
                                                     397,208                        196,839
Mississippi                                                                         177,300
North Carolina                                             0
                                                     117,480                              0
South Carolina                                                                      118,818
Tennessee                                             97,038
                                                     250,000                              0
VCP Assessment Region IV
EPA Region V
                                                     186,323                        240,000
Illinois                                                                            400,000
Indiana                                              261,932
                                                     203,421                        250,000
Michigan
                                                     227,500                        325,000
Minnesota                                                                           325,000
Ohio                                                 227,500
                                                     194,269                        225,000
Wisconsin
EPA Region VI
                                                     225,000                         200,000
Arkansas                                                                                     0
Louisiana                                             100,000
                                                     300,000                         174,503
New Mexico                                                                           192,600
Oklahoma                                             300,000
                                                     300,000                         183,824
Texas                                                                                 50,000
                                                           0
Navajo
EPA Region VII
                                                      150,000                        150,000
Kansas                                                                               206,994
Missouri                                              361,820
                          b                           325,000                              0
VCP Assessment Region VII
EPA Region VIl
                                                       25,000                         75,000
Colorado                                                                              71,000
Montana                                                41,400
                                                       20,000                         10,000
South Dakota                                          135,000                              0
Utah                                                                                  45,000
Wyoming                                                     0
                                                       50,000                              0
VCP Assessment Region Vilib
EPA Region IX -
                                                      250,000                        300,000
Arizona
                                                            0                         22,000
Navajo




                                                        GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields
  14
 Enclosure II


 Award recipient                                      Fiscal year 1998                     Fiscal year 1999
 ThnoOdhm                                                      $80,000                                   $0
 California                                                    500,000                              300,000
 Hawaii                                                        150,000                              100,000
 Nevada                                                        260,000                             250,000
 EPA Region X
 Alaska                                                        286,700                             277,250
 Oregon                                                        501,374                             135,528
 Washington                                                    512,382                             489,778
 Total                                                     $12,502,824                          $9,701,930
Note: Table shows EPA regional offices' estimates of voluntary cleanup programs' funding for states and tribes.

'Actual obligations for fiscal year 1999 have not yet been determined. Amount shown is planned obligations.
bFunding to states for brownfield assessment activities. Funds not identified by individual states.




15
                                                               GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's of Funds for Brownfileds
Enclosure III


                        Targeted Brownfield Assessments. Fiscal Years 1998-99

                                                                            Award amount
Targeted brownfield site assessment name
Fiscal year 1998
EPA Region I
                                                                                  $16,000
DOT/Precision Plastics, Portland, Conn.                                            21,000
NAAPCO, Berlin, Conn.                                                              50,000
Penn Central Transportation Company, New London, Conn.                             15,000
Burt Company Site, Portland, Maine                                                 15,000
Edwards Manufacturing, Augusta, Maine
                                                                                   42,500
Alden Corrugated, New Bedford, Mass.                                               40,000
Church Coal, Taunton, Mass.                                                        65,000
Former Tremont Villa, Everett, Mass.                                               75,000
Craig Supply, Durham, N.H.                                                         25,500
Pontiac Enterprises, Warwick, R.l.                                                 40,000
Rau Fasteners, Providence, R.I.                                                    47,000
T.H. Baylis, Warwick, R.I.
EPA Region II
                                                                                    35,995
Gundi Brothers (Badger Avenue), Newark, N.J.                                        35,995
Block 2704 (Badger Avenue), Newark, N.J.                                            35,995
Block 2691 (Badger Avenue), Newark, N.J.                                            35,995
Anti Hydro (Badger Avenue) Newark, N.J.                                             35,995
Block 252-251, Newark, N.J.
                                                                                    35,995
Kramer Trenton Property, Trenton, N.J.                                              35,995
Former PSE & G Transformer Station, Trenton, N.J.                                   35,995
Traction Tire Warehouse, Trenton, N.J.                                              35,995
Lenox China, Trenton, N.J.                                                          35,995
Eastern Insulated Wire Corporation, Trenton, N.J.                                  138,159
Knox Gelatin Site, Camden, N.J.                                                        N/A
Former Freight Yard Site, Trenton, N.J.                                                N/A
Bona Fide Redi Mix, Glen Cove, N.Y.                                                    N/A
Windsor Fuel, Glen Cove, N.Y.
                                                                                       N/A
Mill Pond, Glen Cove, N.Y.                                                             N/A
 Sheridan Cesspool, Glen Cove, N.Y.                                                     N/A
Vernon Barbadoes Area, Rockaway Queens, New York City, N.Y.
 EPA Region IIl
                                                                                    62,147
 Commerce Street Site, Wilmington, Del.                                             62,147
 Del Chapel Place, Wilmington, Del.                                                 52,147
 Delmarva Power and Light Substation/Dupont Christina Labs Site,
 Wilmington, Del.
                                                                                    20,070
 3500 East Biddle Street, Baltimore, Md.                                            20,070
 3700 Potee Street, Baltimore, Md.                                                  20,070
 Banjo Lane Site, Centerville, Md.                                                  20,070
 Crop Production Services, Chestertown, Md.                                         20,070
 FNT Realty Company, Baltimore, Md.
                                                                                    60,210
 Gilbert Tank Farm, Havre de Grace, Md.
                                                                                    20,070
 Hampton Business Park, Capital Heights, Md.
                                                                                    20,070
 Penn's Beach Marine, Havre de Grace, Md.                                           20,070
 Rsigel Scrap Yard, Havre de Grace, Md.                                             20,070
 Shannon Drive Site, Baltimore, Md.                                                 27,600
 Poseidon Pool, Wright Township, Luzerne County, Pa.                                48,000
 Shapiro Steel, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, Pa.                                   21,000
                                                          Va.
 Cheriton Canning Facility, Cheriton, Northampton County,                           20,000
  McCready Lumber,    Pulaski,  Va.
  EPA Region IV
  12 ~ Street Yard/Police Station, Tampa, Fla.                                       43,553




                                                                   GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields
  16
 Enclosure    m
  Cuyahoga Wrecking, Opa-Locke, Fla.                                       $71,363
  Inventory, Jacksonville, Fla.                                             48,589
  Inventory, Ocala, Fla.                                                    49,991
 Wryais Pit Cherry Park, Dade County, Fla.                                  53,717
  EPA Region V
 403 West 138' Street, III.                                                 27,000
 Galve Foundry, III.                                                        27,000
 Oswald Property, III.                                                      27,000
 Union Evergreen School, II.                                                27,000
 Waukegan Gas Station,ll.                                                   27,000
 Former Bowser Pump Plant, Ind.                                             27,000
 City of Hillsdale Property, Hillsdale, Mich.                               27,000
 MCI, Incorporation, Mich.                                                  27,000
 Melvindale Property, Mich.                                                 27,000
 Old Charcoal Iron Property, Mich.                                          27,000
 Old Smokestack Property, Mich.                                            27,000
 L.A. Darling, Mich.                                                       27,000
 Ser-Plating Company, Mich.                                                27,000
 Ward Bakery, Mich.                                                        27,000
 Rubbish Ranch Dump, Minn.                                                 27,000
 Trupar Pump Mfg., Ohio                                                    27,000
 Dayton Tire and Rubber Co., Ohio                                          27,000
 Whitter Peninsula, Ohio                                                   27,000
 Allis Chalmers Utility Cord, Wis.                                         27,000
 American Quality Fibers, Wis.                                             27,000
 Alpha Cast II, Wis.                                                       27,000
 American Toy and Fumiture, Wis.                                           27,000
 Cargill Heating and Air Conditioning Company, Wis.                        27,000
 City Owned Property, Wis.                                                 27,000
 Hawthorne Melody, Wis.                                                    27,000
 Henry Bros. Jr. Property, Wis.                                            27,000
 Luxco Subsidiary of Northern Engraving Co., Wis.                          27,000
 EPA Region VI
Industrial Road, Malvern,. Ariz.                                           60,759
Broadway, New Orleans, La.                                                 30,028
Central City/Saratoga, New Orleans, La.                                    82,532
Handee Court, New Orleans, La.                                             74,043
Powers Junction, New Orleans, La.                                          70,215
Headrick, Okla.                                                            34,000
Newkirk, Okla.                                                             20,762
Emory, Tex.                                                                30,000
Eubanks Property, Duncanville, Tex.                                        24,113
EPA Region VII
Flying Pig Site, Estherville, Iowa                                         11,250
Fredericktown Greenway Development, Fredericktown, Mo.                     17,500
EPA Region VIII
Heller Property, Commerce City, Colo.                                      48,967
South Tejon-Phase II, Denver, Colo.                                        50,000
Westlake Dry Cleaners, Loveland, Colo.                                     68,947
Brewery Flats, Lewistown, Mont.                                            50,000
Coulson Park Dump, Billings, Mont.                                         37,000
EPA Region IX
Roseburg, Mt. Shasta, Calif.                                              80,801
North Fork Mill Site Phase I, North Fork, Calif.                           9,100
North Fork Mill Site Phase II, North Fork, Calif.                         80,000
Kaks'ako Site Phase I, Honolulu, Hawaii                                   12,400




17
                                                         GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's of Funds for Brownfileds
Enclosure III

EPA Region X
                                                                              $165,000
Metiakatia, Alaska
                                                                                98,000
Ship Creek, Anchorage, Alaska                                                   15,800
Atlas Mill, Falls City, Oreg.
                                                                                27,850
Benton Auto Wreckers, Corvallis, Oreg.                                          75,000
Burns Piute, Burns, Oreg
Fiscal year 1999
EPA Region I
                                                                                50,000
50 Miles Street, Bridgeport, Conn.                                              20,000
American Tool, Winsdor, Conn.                                                   20,000
Berlin Center, Berlin, Conn.                                                    40,000
Derby Downtown Business Revitalization District, Derby, Conn.                   10,000
Erickson Property, Ledyard, Conn.                                               35,000
H. J.Mills Box Factory, Bristol, Conn.                                          75,000
InterRoyal Mill, Plainfield, Conn.
                                                                                75,000
Occum Roto Print, Norwich, Conn.
                                                                                75,000
Rolfite, Canal Street Site, Shelton, Conn.                                      75,000
Samarius Property, Shelton, Conn.                                               50,000
Swan Engraving, Bridgeport, Conn.
                                                                                25,000
Turnpike Auto Wreckers, Westbrook, Conn.
                                                                                75,000
U.S. Cap, Inc., Prospect, Conn.                                                 75,000
O'Sullivan's Island, Derby, Conn.
                                                                                75,000
Ferdinand Block/DPH, Boston, Mass.
                                                                                75,000
Former Beacon Chevrolet, Lynn, Mass.
                                                                                 35,000
Former DPW Yard, Newburyport, Mass.
                                                                                 40,000
Amesbury Wharf, Amesbury, Mass.
                                                                                 75,000
Boston Specialty Rehab Hospital, Boston, Mass.
                                                                                 75,000
David Street Parking Lot, Lowell, Mass.                                          50,000
Hallmark Van Lines, Holyoke, Mass.
                                                                                 50,000
Marine Railways Property, Gloucester, Mass.                                      75,000
 Montello Auto Body, Brockton, Mass.
                                                                                 75,000
 Standard Times Field, New Bedford, Mass.
                                                                                 50,000
Old Northampton Fire Station, Northampton, Mass.
                                                                                 75,000
Omniwave Electronics, Gloucester, Mass.
                                                                                 35,000
 Quarry Street Highpoint Site, Quincy, Mass.                                      4,174
 Bangor Hydro, East Machias, Maine
                                                                                 35,000
 Lewiston & Auburn RR Co, Water Street, Lewiston, Maine                         100,000
 Ayers Island, Orono, Maine                                                      10,000
 Craig Supply, Durham, N.H.                                                      75,000
 J.P. Stevens Mill, Franklin, N.H.
                                                                                 50,000
 Kaminski Property, Mont Vernon, N.H.
                                                                                 75,000
 Former Tannery Site, Milton, N.H.
                                                                                  6,500
 Henry's Tire Property, Sutton, N.H.
                                                                                 50,000
 Henry's Tire and Wrecking, Sutton, N.H.
                                                                                 50,000
 Narragansett Landing, Providence, R.I.
                                                                                   1,500
 Pontiac Enterprises, Warwick, R.I.
 EPA Region II
                                                                                172,800
 12 Site Inspections, State of New Jersey                                       125,000
 City of Hudson Waterfront/Conrail, Hudson City, N.Y.                           125,000
 Jervis/Roundhouse Property, Port Jervis, N.Y.
                                                                                125,000
 Former Perry Builders, Bainbridge, N.Y.
                                                                                 60,000
 Lackawanna Foundry Site, Lackawana, N.Y.
 EPA Region III
                                                                                 42,987
 Bafundo, New Castle, Del.
                                                                                 44,239
 Bancroft Mills, Wilmington, Del.
                                                                                 46,321
 DP &L-Congo Marsh, Wilmington, Del.                                             55,743
 Dravo Shipyard - Amer Property, Wilmington, Del.




                                                                GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields
  1
 Enclosure III

  Dravo Shipyard Harbor Associates, Wilmington, Del.               $63,386
  Dravo Shipyard-Sardo and Sons, Wilmington, Del.                   46,928
  Wilmington Public Works, Wilmington, Del.                         44,307
  Triumph Industrial Park, Elkton, Md.                              80,054
 Aileen Incorporated, Fint Hill, Va.                                16,203
  EPA Region IV
 Simpson Fertilizer, Atmore, Ala.                                   23,000
 City Wellfield, Fort Meyers, Fla.                                  60,000
 FHI Ag. Project, Sarasota, Fla.                                    50,000
 Goody's Cleaners, N. Miami Beach, Fla.                             50,000
 Taylor Park, N. Miami Beach, Fla.                                  50,000
 White Construction, Ocala, Fla.                                    50,000
 Soccer Fields, Atlanta, Ga.                                        30,000
 Elkay Ind., Camden, S.C.                                           44,848
 Unispere Chemical, Cowpens, S.C.                                   42,352
 Walter Farms, Johnston, S.C.                                       38,283
 Yemassee Chipper, Yemassee, S.C.                                   26,801
 26 Parcels, Nashville, Tenn.                                      120,000
 EPA Region V
 City of Berwyn - Wallace Property, II.                            27,000
 Bruce Property, Ind.                                              27,000
 Former Pennsylvania Railroad Depot, Ind.                          27,000
 Bear Archery Disposal Property, Mich.                             27,000
 Hartford School Athletic Field, Mich.                             27,000
 Joy Road Dump/Holiday Park/Holiday Nature, Mich.                  27,000
 Kellogg Property, Mich.                                           27,000
 Laingsburg, Mich.                                                 27,000
 LFPR, Inc., Mich.                                                 27,000
 Nagel Residence Site, Mich.                                       27,000
 Pardon Manufacturing, Mich.                                       27,000
 P & G School Bus Service, Wis.                                    27,000
 Petroleum Construction, Inc., Wis.                                27,000
 EPA Region VI
Old Post Road, Russellville, Ariz.                                   5,116
 Plainview Lumber, Plainview, Ariz.                                  8,838
Lafayette, La.                                                     30,000
Malter Site, Gretna, La.                                            19,000
ATSF Raton, Raton, N.M.                                            41,048
Boston Hill, Silver City, N.M.                                      18,591
Carisbad Railyards, Carisbad, N.M.                                     N/A
Nile Mile Hill Landfill, Bemadillo County, N.M.                    26,453
Santa Fe Railyards, Santa Fe, N.M.                                 58,607
Cushing, Okla.                                                     30,000
Grandfield, Okla.                                                  35,000
Haskell, Okla.                                                     35,000
Edward Warren Field, Muleshoe, Tex.                                12,000
Entex Gas Company, Beaumont, Tex.                                  24,213
Erickson/Independent Refining, Port Neches, Tex.                   55,430
Grief Yount Partnership, Austin, Tex.                              12,000
Hulen Park (Balwin Steam Location), Cleburne, Tex.                   7,333
Laguna Park, Alamo, Tex.                                           22,170
Market Street, Houston, Tex.                                       70,000
Nacagdoches, Tex.                                                  36,000
Police Headquarters, Dallas, Tex.                                  10,000
Power Plant & Garage Area, Lubbock, Tex.                           37,968
Sulphur Springs, Tex.                                              45,000
William R. Black Estate, Galveston, Tex.                           20,517




19
                                                       GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's of Funds for Brownfileds
Enclosure    m
                                                                                    $21,844
Barron Brick Company, Groesbeck, Tex.
                                                                                     19,813
Blanchard Auto Sales, West Columbia, Tex.                                            24,733
Continental EMSCO, Sachse, Tex.                                                      80,000
Dorset Steet, Houston, Tex.
Region VII
                                                                                     28,750
Former Weisman Steel Site, Cedar Falls, Iowa
                                                                                     21,500
Former Leavenworth Landfill, Leavenworth, Kans.
                                                                                     10,500
Area Agency on Aging Building, Manhattan, Kans.
                                                                                      6,250
4800 Block Development Natural Bridge Rd., St. Louis, Mo.                             6,250
4919-4929 Natural Bridge Road Development, St. Louis, Mo.
                                                                                      6,250
Delmar Blvd. Redevelopment, 3100 Block, St. Louis, Mo.                                6,250
Delmar Blvd. Redevelopment, 3200 Block, St. Louis, Mo.
                                                                                     20,400
Former Atcom Property, St. Louis, Mo.                                                   N/A
Fredicktown Greenway Development, Fredricktown, Mo.
                                                                                     12,500
Kennerly Avenue Redevelopment, St. Louis, Mo.
                                                                                     12,500
Old Eden Publishing, St. Louis, Mo.                                                  12,500
The Fresh Building, St. Louis, Mo.
EPA Region VIII
                                                                                      50,000
South Tejon-Phase il, Denver, Colo.                                                   50,000
500 West Park Blocks, Salt Lake City, Utah
Region IX
                                                                                      53,180
West Wetland Project, Yuma, Arz.                                                      22,675
3 Properties, Stockton, Calif.                                                        20,718
Cooley Landing, East Palo Alto, Calif.                                                19,041
Goodyear Tract Industrial Site, Los Angeles, Calif.
                                                                                      67,000
 North Fork Mill Site Phase Ill, North Fork, Calif.
                                                                                       7,612
Reginal Transit Center, Ukiah, Calif.
                                                                                      26,162
Rincon Park Site, San Francisco, Calif.
                                                                                      58,700
Kaka'ako Site Phase II, Honolulu, Hawaii
EPA Region X
                                                                                     106,000
Fort Yukon, Alaska
                                                                                      27,000
Rose City Plating, Ore9 .                                                             41,000
Old Harlan Mill, Oreg.                                                                68,500
Wenatchee Landfill, Wash.
                                                                                      25,000
Wenatchee Orchard, Wash.                                                          $9,253,608
Total

Legend

N/A = not available
                                                                                  V calculated an average cost of its targeted
'Data were not available on the cost of eight targeted site assessments; Region for 10 of its targeted brownfield assessments
          assessments at $27,000;    and  Region  II calculated an average cost
brownfield
in New Jersey at $35,995.




 (160507)




 20                                                                GAO/RCED-00-32R EPA's Use of Funds for Brownfields