oversight

Food Safety and Quality: USDA Initiatives Regarding Aflatoxin Research

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1990-08-15.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

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 Arl~llst                     l!)!bO
                                                 FOOD SAFETY AND
                                                 QUALITY
                                                 USDA Initiatives
                                                 Regarding Aflatoxin
                                                 Research




                                                   IZJZSTRICTED --Not    to be released outeide the
                                                   General Accounting Ol%lce unless speclflcally
                                                   approved by the Office of Congressional
                                                   Relations.
United States
General Accounting OfYIce
Washington, D.C. 20548

Resources, Community,   and
Economic Development    Division


B-240304

August l&l990


The Honorable  Dan Glickman
Chairman,  Subcommittee  on Wheat,
  Soybeans, and Feed Grains
Committee on Agriculture
House of Representatives
Dear Mr. Chairman:
On August       10, 1989,       you asked us to provide             information        on
aflatoxin      research       funded as part of the U.S. Department                      of
Agriculture's         (USDA) Agricultural             Research Service         (ARS)
fiscal     year 1989 appropriation.                 In addition,       we are
including       financial      data on each of the subject                ARS research
projects.         To provide      a more comprehensive            overview       of
USDA's aflatoxin          research      efforts,       we are also including
information        on (1) fiscal        year 1990 research            projects
undertaken        by ARS as part of a program devoted solely                        to
the prevention         of aflatoxin        formation       and (2) aflatoxin
research      projects      that involve         USDA's Cooperative          State
Research Service          (CSRS).       Some of these research              projects
are carried        out by state       institutions,         including
agricultural        experiment      stations        associated      with land-grant
colleges      and universities,          and may be funded,            in part,       by
the federal        government.
FISCAL YEAR 1989 ARS AFLATOXIN-RELATED
RESEARCH PROJECTS
The ARS data show a total      of 11 research     projects      in fiscal
year 1989 designed    to address aflatoxin       problems with corn
(and other feed grains),     cottonseed,    peanuts,     and domestic
animals.   Funding for these projects       totaled     $5,002,700,       of
which ARS designated    $3,782,400    as supporting       specific
aspects of aflatoxin    research.    (See table     1.)    The remaining
$1,220,300  supported   other aspects of four of the projects.
B-240304


Table 1: Aqricultural                Research Service   Fundinq       for    Specific
Aspects of Aflatoxin               Research,  Fiscal  Year 1989
            Research       aspect                                           Amount
    Management/cultural              practices                         $1,152,200
      for prevention
    Analytical        methods                                                384,100

    Plant     resistance         factors                                     980,900
    Mechanisms        of   toxin     formation                               496,400
    Control      of   toxicity       in animals                              768,800
                                                                        ---------
        Total                                                          $3,782,400
                                                                        ----w---m
                                                                        ---------


Appendix      I contains         more detailed    information     on these
projects.
FISCAL YEAR 1990 ARS AFLATOXIN
PREVENTION RESEARCH PROJECTS
The ARS appropriation            for fiscal       year 1990 included         a total
of $4,248,700        for aflatoxin         research.        Of this amount,
$750,000 was specifically               earmarked to begin a research
program devoted solely             to aflatoxin        prevention.        ARS
solicited      research     proposals        for this effort       from the
nation's     universities/experiment              stations      and established      an
"Aflatoxin       Task Force" to review the proposals                  received.
The Task Force was comprised                 of eight     industry
representatives,         two from each of the corn, peanut,                  cotton,
and tree nut industries,               and was chaired        by ARS. ARS
received     23 research       proposals        in response to its
solicita     ions.      On the basis of Task Force determinations,
$665,500 CFwas committed             to aflatoxin       prevention      research--


'Less than the $750,000 originally          appropriated             was
subsequently       available   for this research    because           of Gramm-
Rudman-Hollings         budget reductions  and associated             ARS
administrative/overhead          costs.
u
2
B-240304

$332,750 to start   eight         new research      projects   and $332,750
to continue funding    for        two existing      ARS projects.
The National       Peanut Council's         Director      for Industry     Services
said that the aflatoxin            prevention       projects     are concentrated
more on research        to eliminate       aflatoxin,        rather   than its
detection    and control.          Also, according          to the director     the
proposed research         follows     two separate        approaches:      (1)
developing     aflatoxin-resistant           varieties       of major crops and
(2) developing       biocompetitive        controls       to the aflatoxin-
forming    mold.
Once approved,       the research       projects     were coordinated      with
the Multi-Crop       Aflatoxin      Working Group.         The Working Group
membership     includes      the California       Pistachio    Commission;
Corn Refiners       Association,       Incorporated;      National    Corn
Growers Association:          National     Cotton Council;      National
Cottonseed    Products Association:            National     Peanut Growers
Association;      National      Peanut Council;       and the Prune, Raisin,
and Walnut Board.
In comments submitted          to the Subcommittee       on Rural
Development,      Agriculture,       and Related Agencies,      House
Committee on Appropriations,            in March 1990, the Working
Group's Chairman said that increased             funding    is needed for
the ARS aflatoxin         prevention    research   program in order to
eliminate    aflatoxin       by the year 2000.
The Working Group Chairman believes               that a funding        level   of
$2.75 million is required  for fiscal               year 1991.
Appendix II contains         more detailed     information      on the      fiscal
year 1990 aflatoxin         prevention    research    projects.
CSRS AFLATOXIN-RELATED RESEARCH
As of October 18, 1989, USDA's Current                 Research Information
System (CRIS) listed         126 CSRS and state aflatoxin-related
research    projects     as "active."        According     to the CRIS
Director,    estimated      completion     time frames for research
projects    can change, and projects            are retained     in the system
as active    until   an official       termination      report   is received,
regardless     of the estimated        termination      dates given.      The
director    said it was therefore          possible     that some of the
state identified       projects     with termination        dates that have
already    passed may have actually           ended but that no



3
B-240304

termination     report     had been received.             We were told that
more current      information     on the actual           status of some state
projects    might require      direct    contact         with the individual
research    investigators      involved.
According       to a CSRS Budget Office           official,      CSRS does not
allocate      research     funds on an individual           project       basis.
CSRS research        funds are allocated          to the states on a formula
basis,     and the individual          research    proposals       to be funded
with these dollars          must be reviewed          and approved by CSRS
before these funds can be spent on them.                     The states,         in
turn,    determine      how the funds will          be allocated        among their
various     research     institutions       and/or approved projects.
Also, most of the funds for these research                     projects       usually
come from state and/or private                versus federal         sources.      Data
regarding       the state allocation          of federal     funds to
individual        CSRS projects       were not available         from CSRS or
CRIS.
The CRIS Director           said that some state projects                listed    in
the CRIS voluntarily             participate      in and share research
information       under the CSRS cooperative              research       program but
are not financed          with USDA funds.           According        to the
director,      regardless        of funding     source,     the expenditures          for
all participating           projects      are reported       to CRIS each year.
However, amounts          spent on various          aspects of aflatoxin
control     research      are not separately          identified.          Also, a
substantial       number of institutions             and projects        are
included,      and a time frame of several               months      or more is
involved      before all the information              is received,         compiled,
checked for errors,             and entered     into the CRIS.           According      to
the director,        fiscal      year 1989 expenditure            information      would
not be available          until    mid-1990.
Research     objectives       for     the 126 CSRS and state           research
projects     are provided           in appendix III.
SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY
Information       on ARS and CSRS research              projects      is maintained
in USDA's computerized              CRIS.     However, ARS preferred             to
provide     its   data    to us separately,          based on its own records.
We therefore        obtained      information       on ARS research         projects
directly      from the ARS National             Program Leader for Food
Safety and Health.             We obtained       data on CSRS and state
research      projects      from CRIS, based on a search of about
28,000 research         resumes in the data base.               Information       on
research      to prevent       aflatoxin      formation     being funded under
VARS' 1990 appropriation             was obtained       from the ARS National
4
'B-240304

Program Leader for Food Safety and Health and the National
Peanut Council.        The Council    is a member of the Multi-Crop
Aflatoxin     Working Group-- an informal         alliance  of producers
formed to seek scientific         solutions     to the aflatoxin
problem.      ARS met with the Working Group to coordinate             and
obtain    industry   views regarding       the additional    research
projects     approved for aflatoxin        prevention.
Although     the information      we are providing       was obtained  from
and discussed      with agency/industry      officials      who agreed with
the information       in the fact sheet, we did not independently
verify   data accuracy or try to validate             the
computer/information         system(s)  that generated       it.    As
requested,      however, we did not obtain        official     agency
comments on this fact sheet.
Information    regarding       ARS and CSRS research       efforts  can be
obtained    by contacting       the ARS Information       Staff,
Beltsville,    Maryland,       20705, telephone      (301) 344-2264,   or
the CSRS Administrator's           Office,   Washington,    D.C., 20250-
2200, telephone      (202)     447-4423,   respectively.


As you requested,        we are sending copies of this report          today
to Representative        Jim Jontz.     As arranged   with your office,
unless you publicly         announce its contents     earlier,   we plan
no further    distribution      of this fact sheet until       30 days
from the date of this letter.             At that time, we will     provide
copies to the Secretary          of Agriculture    and other interested
parties.    If you have any questions           about the information      in
this fact sheet, please call me at (202) 275-5138.
Major   contributors        to this   fact   sheet   are listed   in appendix
IV.
Sincerely    yours,




John W. Harman
Director,      Food and
   Agriculture     Issues




5
                              CONTENTS

                                                                Page

LETTER                                                            1


APPENDIX

       I    UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
              AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE
              AFLATOXIN RESEARCH PROJECTS
              FISCAL YEAR 1989

  II        UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
              AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE
              RESEARCH PROJECTS ON PREVENTION OF
              AFLATOXIN FORMATION FISCAL YEAR 1990               17


  III       UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
              COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH SERVICE
              AFLATOXIN RESEARCH PROJECTS                        26


       IV   MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS FACT SHEET               113


TABLE

       1    Agricultural     Research Service     Funding for
              Specific     Aspects of Aflatoxin     Research,
              Fiscal     Year 1989                                2
                      ABBREVIATIONS

ARS    Agricultural       Research Service
CRIS   Current      Research Information    Service
CSRS   Cooperative      State Research Service
GAO    General Accounting        Office
USDA   U.S. Department       of Agriculture
APPENDIX I                                                                         APPENDIX I
                         UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
                              AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE

                                AFLATOXIN RESEARCH PROJECTS

                                          FISCAL YEAR 1989

                                      (As of October   20,   1989)

Project        Number:       3620042000-005-OOD

          Title:        Mycotoxins      in Corn and Other        Cereal   Grains

          Objectives:         Develop and evaluate       methods for detecting         and
                              determining   mycotoxins      produced by Fusarium,
                              Aspergillus,    and Penicillium        in grains,    foods
                              and feeds, and meat and meat products.             Isolate
                              and identify    mycotoxins     affecting     farm animals.
                              Study occurrence     of specific       mycotoxins.      Prepare
                              mycotoxins   for standards       and testing.

                              Total     funding:                                     $733,700

                              Aflatoxin-related       portion:
                                 Analytical     Methods                              $242,100




                                                   8
APPENDIX I                                                                        APPENDIX I
Project    Number:       3620042000-009-OOD

      Title:        Integrated      Pest Management of Aspergillus             Flavus    and
                    Aflatoxin     in Corn Cultivation

      Objectives:         Predict      and prevent      the occurrence        of aflatoxin
                          in corn by identifying           and studying        the
                          interactions         of abiotic     and biotic      environmental
                          factors      that determine       levels    of Aspergillus
                          flavus     infection     and mycotoxin       contamination.
                          Eliminate       sources of primary        infective       inoculum.
                          Identify       corn germplasm resistant           to fungal
                          infection.         Prevent nitidulid        beetle     vectoring    of
                          A. flavus       inoculum    to corn.     Reduce levels         of
                          insect     damage to corn.

                          Total   funding:                                           $502,300

                          Aflatoxin-related      portion:
                             Management/Cultural       Practices
                                for Prevention                                       $502,300




                                                   9
APPENDIX I                                                                        APPENDIX I
Project    Number:       6202-34000-004-OOD

      Title:        Toxicologic     Effects        of Mycotoxins   in Livestock      and
                    Poultry

      Objectives:         To determine     the (1) adverse effects       of
                          mycotoxins    on livestock      and poultry,    (2) nature
                          of the interactions        between mycotoxins     and
                          environmental      stressors    as well as the
                          interaction     between mycotoxins,       and (3) role
                          mycotoxins    play in idiopathic       problems associated
                          with animal production.

                          Total    funding:                                         $556,000

                          Aflatoxin-related          portion:
                             Control      of Toxicity
                                in Animals                                          $287,800




                                              10
APPENDIX I                                                                          APPENDIX I
Project        Number:       6202-34000-005-OOD

          Title:        Prevention      of Mycotoxicosis        in Livestock    and Poultry

          Objectives:         To determine      the significance      of dietary
                              modification      on the expression      of mycotoxin
                              toxicity,    to what extent therapeutic          agents used
                              in animal production         may alter   the toxicity    of
                              mycotoxins,      and the efficacy      of selected
                              adsorbents     to reduce the toxicity        of mycotoxins
                              in livestock      and poultry.

                              Total     funding:                                       $481,000

                              Aflatoxin-related          portion:
                                 Control      of Toxicity
                                    in Animals                                         $481,000

Project        Number:       6406-22240-OOl-OOD

          Title:        Disease      Resistance    for   Corn in the South

          Objectives:         Isolate    and/or develop corn germplasm with
                              superior    disease resistance          and investigate       plant
                              responses to various         disease-producing         fungi and
                              viruses.      Improve pathogen        inoculation      techniques
                              and/or plant      evaluation     procedures       to increase
                              efficiency     of selecting      resistant      genotypes.

                              Total     funding:                                       $352,500

                              Aflatoxin-related          portion:
                                 Plant Resistance         Factors                      $352,500

                                                   11
                                                                                              ,




APPENDIX I                                                                           APPENDIX I
Project        Number:       6435-42000-004-OOD

          Title:        Control     of Aflatoxin-Producing         Fungi   by Agroecosystem
                        Modification

          Objectives:         Identify   environmental,    fungal,    and plant    factors
                              associated    with the natural    occurrence      of
                              aflatoxin   in developing    crops, particularly
                              cotton as grown in Arizona,       as a basis for
                              agronomic manipulations      to control    toxin-
                              producing   fungal populations.

                              Total    funding:                                        $522,700

                              Aflatoxin-related      portion:
                                 Management/Cultural       Practices
                                    for Prevention                                     $522,700

Project        Number:       6435-42000-005-OOD

          Title:        Elucidate Chemical Constituents'             Reactions      in Corn
                        Kernels That Reduce Aflatoxin             Contamination

      Objectives:             Identify    specific   proteins    or other         substances
                              produced by developing        corn kernels          that inhibit
                              development     of both aflatoxin-producing              fungi and
                              toxin production.

                              Total   funding:                                         $325,300

                              Aflatoxin-related        portion:
                                 Plant Resistance       Factors                        $325,300



                                                  12
APPENDIX I                                                                       APPENDIX I
Project    Number.:      6435-42000-007-OOD

      Title:        Molecular     Genetic Basis for Fungal Infection              and
                    Aflatoxin     Biosynthesis  in Corn and Cottonseed

      Objectives:         Elucidate     molecular    mechanisms of gene
                          regulation     governing     traits       in Aspergillus
                          flavus     and A. parasiticus         critical      for infection
                          and aflatoxin      production       in developing         corn and
                          cottonseed.       Develop genetic           engineering
                          technology     to manipulate        these traits        in the
                          domestication      of the fungi for eventual               use as
                          biocompetitive       agents.

                          Total   funding:                                          $496,400

                          Aflatoxin-related     portion:
                             Mechanisms of
                                Toxin Formation                                     $496,400




                                               13
                                                                                            ,




APPENDIX I                                                                       APPENDIX I
Project        Number:      6602-22240-OOl-OOD

          Title:        Genetic   Improvement of Corn, Sorghum, and Other
                        Forages   for Resistance to Insects  and Aflatoxin

          Objectives:        Identify     genetic    mechanisms that impart
                             resistance      to insects     and aflatoxin      and transfer
                             resistance      genes to agronomically         acceptable
                             plant types.        Determine mechanisms of inheritance
                             of resistance       genes and develop breeding
                             techniques      that efficiently      transfer     these genes.
                             Develop mid/short-season          corn inbreds       with
                             antibiosis/nonpreference-type            resistance       to the
                             corn earworm/fall         armyworm.

                             Total   funding:                                       $184,400

                             Aflatoxin-related       portion:
                                Plant Resistance      Factors                      $ 73,800




                                                14
APPENDIX I                                                                    APPENDIX I
Project    Number:          6602-24000-OOl-OOD


      Title:        Plant     Resistance  and Germplasm        Enhancement   for    Insect
                    Pests     of Southern Crops

      Objectives:           Artificially         infest  and evaluate    corn, sorghum,
                            peanut,        and forage grasses for resistance         to
                            insect       pests and toxin-producing       fungi.
                            Determine mechanisms of pest resistance.
                            Determine        economic thresholds      and economic injury
                            levels       for pests.     Develop and release     resistant
                            germplasm.

                             Total   funding:                                      $530,100


                             Aflatoxin-related      portion:
                                Management/Cultural       Practices
                                   for Prevention                                  $127,200
                                Plant Resistance     Factors                       $ 53,000




                                                 15
APPENDIX I                                                                       APPENDIX I
Project    Number:       6604-42000-004-OOD

      Title:        Biochemical,      Environmental,       and Microbiology
                    Resistance     for Preharvest       Aflatoxin   Resistance

      Objectives:         Control     mycotoxins,      aflatoxin        in particular,       by
                          (1) developing        biocompetitive         agents such as non-
                          aflatoxigenic        strains    of Aspergillus           flavus   and
                          A. parasiticus,          (2) evaluating         the role of peanut
                          phytoalexins       in producing        field      resistance    to
                          aflatoxin     contamination,         and (3) developing           and
                          evaluating      other appropriate           prevention
                          strategies      as these become apparent.

                          Total    funding:                                         $318,300

                          Aflatoxin-related       portion:
                             Analytical     Methods                                 $142,000
                             Plant Resistance      Factors                          $176,300




                                              16
APPENDIX II                                                                            APPENDIX II
                     UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
                          AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE

        RESEARCH PROJECTS ON PREVENTION OF AFLATOXIN FORMATION

                                      FISCAL YEAR 1990

                                   (As of April           5, 1990)



Performing     Orqanization:          North      Carolina         State   University

      Title:        Breeding      Peanuts      for    Aflatoxin       Resistance

      Objectives:         Significantly     reduce or eliminate        aflatoxin
                          contamination     in cultivated      peanut products      by
                          identifying    and utilizing     plant genotypes       with
                          known multiple      levels   of partial    resistance     to
                          Aspergillus    species and to toxin production.
                          Investigate    the inheritance       and usefulness     of
                          preharvest    and postharvest     resistance       for
                          selected    hybrids     that hold promise for
                          restricting     aflatoxin      production.        Identify
                          sources of Aspergillus          resistance      and restricted
                          aflatoxin    production      in cultivated       wild Arachis
                          species.     Incorporate       newly identified         sources of
                          resistances     into commercially          acceptable      peanut
                          cultivars    by utilizing       sources of resistances
                          identified.

                          Total     funding:                                              $13,286




                                                     17
APPENDIX II                                                                         APPENDIX II
Performing     Orqanization:         University       of Arizona

      Title:        Management of Aflatoxin     Contamination               of Cottonseeds
                    Using Seed-borne   Endophytic    Bacteria

      Objectives:        Develop biological             control     procedures        for the
                         management of cottonseed                 contamination         by
                         aflatoxin.        Expand cotton endophyte collection
                         through isolation            from seeds, flowers,              and bolls
                         of commercially          grown Arizona           cotton.       Screen
                         endophytic      isolates        for the ability           to become
                         systemically         established        within      cotton plants        and
                         to colonize       boll tissues.             Identify      endophytic
                         isolates     that form large population                   sizes in
                         wounded boll tissue.               Screen endophytic            isolates
                         for their      ability       to eliminate         or reduce
                         cottonseed      aflatoxin        contamination           under
                         greenhouse conditions.                 Field test endophytic
                         isolates     that effectively             reduce aflatoxin
                         contamination         of cottonseeds           in the greenhouse.

                         Total    funding:                                               $32,641




                                               18
APPENDIX II                                                                      APPENDIX II
Performinq     Organization:        North   Carolina     State      University

      Title:        Molecular    Approaches to Control           Aflatoxin
                    Contamination     of Food Sources

      Objectives:        To clone and sequence gene coding for enzymes in
                         the aflatoxin       pathway.      Determine      and study the
                         factors     that regulate      aflatoxin      biosynthesis      in
                         Aspergillus      flavus.     Develop control         strategies
                         for aflatoxin       contamination        based on information
                         developed.

                         Total   funding:                                           $58,051

Performinq     Orqanization:        Iowa State     University

      Title:        Development   of a Predictive   Model of Aspergillus
                    Flavus Invasion   of Preharvest   Maize

      Objectives:        Accumulation       of environmental,   biological,  and
                         physical     parameters     to serve as a basis for the
                         development       of the model system to enhance the
                         field    application    of biocontrol    agents.

                         Total   funding:                                           $35,000




                                            19
APPENDIX II                                                                        APPENDIX II
Performinq     Organization:         University       of   Illinois

      Title:        Identification   of Molecular    Markers Associated   With
                    Genes for Preharvest    Resistance    in Corn to Aspergillus
                    flavus and Aflatoxin    Production

      Objectives:        Produce a large group of Fl hybrids                    by crossing        a
                          large,   genetically         diverse      set of corn inbreds
                         onto two inbreds            (B73 and Mo17) representing              the
                         genetic     base of hybrids           extensively      used in the
                         Corn Belt.         Evaluate      and improve inoculation
                         methods for screening             for resistance         to A. flavus
                         in corn.        Evaluate      the resultant         Fl hybrids      for
                         genetic     resistance        to A. flavus        in the field.
                         Evaluate      the top 10 percent            most resistant
                         hybrids     for aflatoxin         production        in the
                         laboratory.          Identify     germplasm that expresses              a
                         dominant form of resistance                 to A. flavus        and
                         aflatoxin       production.         Develop different           F2
                         populations        from different          Fl hybrids      that
                         exhibit     resistance        to A. flavus        and aflatoxin
                         production.          Plant F2 seed, sample individual
                         plant tissue,          and inoculate        and evaluate        F3 seed
                         on F2 plants         for resistance         to A. flavus        and
                         aflatoxin       production.         Identify      F2 generation
                         demonstrating          the best differential           for
                         resistance/susceptibility                to A. flavus        and
                         isolate     deoxyribonucleic           acid (DNA) from plant
                         tissue    samples corresponding              to the highest         10
                         percent     and lowest 10 percent              of plants      for
                         resistance       to A. flavus        and aflatoxin        production
                         within    this generation.             Perform molecular           marker
                         analyses on the DNA samples to identify


                                              20
APPENDIX II                                                                         APPENDIX II
                           chromosome regions    associated      with           resistance        to
                           A. flavus and aflatoxin      production.

                           Total    funding:                                                $27,748

Performing     Organization:           University       of Georgia      Research      Foundation

      Title:        Biological      Control    of Aspergillus   flavus             and
                    Aspergillus      parasiticus    by Paecilomyces             lilacinus

      Objectives:          Determine      potential        of Paecilomyces       lilacinus       to
                           be a biological          control    agent by colonizing            A.
                           flavus    and A. parasiticus.             Determine,        in field
                           and laboratory        environment,        conditions        allowing
                           mycoparasitism        of A. flavus        and A. parasiticus
                           sclerotia      and mycelia        by P. lilacinus.            Determine
                           if P. lilacinus          is a true mycoparasite             by
                           evaluating      the colonizing        ability      of strains
                           recently     isolated        from naturally       colonized
                           sclerotia      buried      in Georgia and Illinois.

                           Total    funding:                                                $40,000




                                                21
APPENDIX II                                                                     APPENDIX II
Performing     Organization:        University      of California,        Berkeley
                                    University      of California,        Davis

      Title:     Genetic Variation          in the Resistance        of Various
                 Cultivars      of Pistachio,        Almond, and Walnut to
                 Aspergillus       flavus/parasiticus        and Determination          of
                 Environmental        and Ecological       Factors Necessary for
                 Stable and Efficient           Preharvest     Aflatoxin       Suppression
                 Facilitated       by the Use of Atoxigenic            Strains    of A.
                 flavus/parasiticus.

      ObJectives:       Determine      genetic    variation        in the resistance         of
                         10 to 14 cultivars        each of pistachios,             almonds,
                        and walnuts to Aspergillus               flavus/parasiticus.
                        Search for atoxigenic            strains       of A. flavus or
                        other microorganisms           native      to tree nut orchards
                        in California        and use them to suppress (or
                        exclude)     A. flavus/parasiticus               in preharvest
                        pistachios,       almonds, and walnuts.               Determine    the
                        effects     of altering      cultural        practices
                        (irrigation       and cover crops) in tree nut orchards
                        that affect       environmental        conditions       and the
                        changes in the mycoflora              of pistachio,        almond,
                        and walnut fruits,         especially          for Aspergillus
                        flavus/parasiticus.            Determine         the involvement      of
                        hemipterans       in contaminating           pistachio     (and/or
                        almond and walnut)         with A. flavus           and the
                        effects     on aflatoxin      accumulation.

                        Total    funding:                                            $83,024




                                              22
APPENDIX II                                                                     APPENDIX II
Performinq     Organization:            ARS, Georqia Coastal   Plain        Experiment
                                        Station, Tifton,  Georgia

      Title:        Identification        of Peanut    Germplasm     With   Resistance     to
                    Aflatoxin

      Objectives:          Identify     peanut germplasm with resistance              to
                           preharvest       aflatoxin     contamination.         Year 1:
                           Develop an effective           and efficient       mass
                           screening      method for detecting          aflatoxin
                           resistant      germplasm.       Select a core collection          of
                            700 cultivated        peanut genotypes       to represent     the
                           entire     U.S. cultivated       species collection        and
                           increase     the seed supply.          Year 2: Screen the
                           core collection          of the cultivated        species
                           developed      in year 1 with the best mass screening
                           method identified          in year 1. Select a core
                           collection       of 200 wild species peanut genotypes
                           to represent        the entire     U.S. wild species
                           collection       and increase      the seed supply.

                           Total     funding:                                       $43,000




                                                23
APPENDIX II                                                                      APPENDIX II

Performing     Orqanization:          National        Peanut   Research   Lab,   Dawson,
                                      Georqia

      Title:        Elucidate      the exact mechanisms (timing,     route,           etc.)
                    by which      peanuts are infected  with aflatoxigenic
                    fungi.

      Objectives:         Select/screen        for parasitic        organisms    (viruses,
                          bacteria,     fungi,     insects,      etc.)   against    A.
                          flavus/A.     parasiticus.         Study the effect         of
                          Chitosan on preharvest            aflatoxin      contamination
                          in collaboration         with the Southern Regional
                          Research Center,         New Orleans group.

                          Total     funding:                                         $166,250




                                                 24
APPENDIX II                                                                        APPENDIX II
Performing     Orqanization:         Southern      Reqional  Research Center,
                                     Mycotoxin      Research, New Orleans,
                                     Louisiana

      Title:        Biocontrol  of A. Flavus Using             Biocompetitive         Agents,
                    and Enhancement of Host Plant              Resistance

      Objectives:        Test effectiveness          of crab or shrimp-derived
                         chitin    or chitosan       products       as (1) soil
                         amendments to inhibit            growth of A. flavus and/or
                         to enhance bacterial            and/or other microbial
                         populations       that are suppressive              to fungal
                         growth:      (2) seed treatments,            amended with
                         natural     biocompetitive         flora,      to compete and
                         suppress A. flavus          in the soil:           and (3)
                         treatments      to induce defense chemicals
                          (phytoalexins)        and associated          resistance       against
                         infection      by A. flavus.          Biochemically         charac-
                         terize    crops with measurable              levels     of
                         resistance      against     A. flavus        (i.e.,     corn) and
                         compare with biochemical              profiles        of highly
                         susceptible       varieties      of the crop.           Replace
                         aflatoxin      producing      strains      of A. flavus with
                         nonproducing        A. flavus      strains       in field
                         environments.

                         Total    funding:                                             $166,500




                                                 25
APPENDIX III                                                                    APPENDIX III
                         UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
                            COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH SERVICE

                               AFLATOXIN RESEARCH PROJECTS

                                    (As of October         18,   1989)



Project        Number:     ALA00563

          Title:    Mycotoxins        of Corn and Other           Feed Grains

      Objectives:           To reduce mycotoxin        contamination      by developing
                            evaluation     procedures,      improving    host plant
                            genotypes,     agronomic practices,         decontamination
                            methods, and storage procedures.              To study the
                            epidemiology,      biochemistry,       and physiology     of
                            mycotoxigenic      fungi and the role of arthropods               in
                            dissemination.        To analyze and assess grains            for
                            aflatoxins,     other mycotoxins,         and toxigenic     fungi
                            and to improve sampling          and analytical      methods.

                            Start     date:    10/01/82

                            Termination       date:        09/30/88




                                                      26
APPENDIX III                                                                         APPENDIX III
Project        Number:        ALA00583

          Title:        Cellular       and Molecular        Genetics    for   Crop Improvement

          Objectives:          Identification          and characterization         of
                               agriculturally          important   genetic      systems.

                               Start     date:    10/01/82

                               Termination       date:       09/30/88

Project        Number:       ALA00609

          Title:        Disease    Resistance      and Immunity         in Poultry

          Objectives:          Determine      the effects       of subclinical         levels    of
                               aflatoxin      on the growth,         performance,        and immune
                               response of young broiler              chickens     and turkey
                               poults.      Evaluate      infectious       bursal disease
                               vaccination       programs for broiler           and broiler
                               breeder chickens.            Evaluate     Newcastle       disease
                               vaccination       programs for broiler           and broiler
                               breeder     chickens.        Determine      the influence        of
                               heredity     on acquired       resistance       conferred      by
                               coccidiosis       vaccination.        Potentiate      the immune
                               response of young broiler              chickens     to coccidiosis
                               vaccination.

                               Start     date:    10/01/83

                               Termination       date:       09/30/88




                                                       27
APPENDIX III                                                                        APPENDIX III
Project        Number:       ALA00612

          Title:        Hycotoxicology           of Aspergillus    Flavu~     and Other    Fungi

          Objectives:         Identify     mycotoxins    of fungi associated         with
                              agricultural      commodities,      feeds, and foods.
                              Determine     the effect    of nutritional       and
                              environmental      factors   on mycotoxin       production   by
                              A. flavus     and other fungi.         Determine    the
                              influence     of extrachromosomal        genetic    elements
                              on the production        of aflatoxin      and other
                              mycotoxins.

                                 Start   date:       10/01/83

                                 Termination       date:    09/30/88

Project        Number:       ALA00645

          Title:        Growth     of and Toxin Production             by Fungi   Contaminating
                        Foods,     Feeds, and Forages

          Objectives:         Isolate      and identify       fungi from grain sorghum,
                              and other foods,          feeds, and forages      associated
                              with possible        mycotoxicoses.        Screen fungi for
                              toxigenicity       in bioassays       with experimental
                              animals.       Determine      the effect    of environment
                              and other factors          on growth and toxin production
                              of toxigenic       fungi on natural        and synthetic
                              substrates.

                                 Start   date:       11/01/84

                              Termination          date:    09/30/89

                                                       28
APPENDIX III                                                                   APPENDIX III
Project        Number:        ALA00707

          Title:        Nutrition      and Feeding      of Cultured    Warmwater   Fishes

          Objectives:          Requirements    for selected     amino acids and
                               vitamins,    and energy for channel catfish,
                               tilapia,   and grass carp will        be determined    under
                               controlled    environment    conditions     using purified
                               diets.

                               Start   date:    02/01/87


                               Termination     date:        09/30/91

Project        Number:       ALA00771

          Title:        Effect    of Antimetabolites      and Degradative   Enzymes on
                        Aflatoxin    Production      by Aspergillus  Flavus

          Objectives:          Determine   the effect  of emetine and related
                               methoxy compounds on the biosynthesis     of
                               aflatoxins.    Identify  enzymes that degrade
                               aflatoxin.

                               Start   date:    10/01/88

                               Termination     date:        09/30/93




                                                       29
APPENDIX III                                                                 APPENDIX III
Project        Number:   ALA00793

          Title:    Epidemiology   and Ecology          of Aflatoxin-Producing        Fungi
                    and Rhizosphere-Inhabiting            Organisms in Peanuts

      Objectives:         Determine      the effects       of environmental      factors
                          and ecological        interactions       with other
                          rhizosphere-inhabiting            organisms    on aflatoxin
                          production       by Aspergillus       spp. in peanuts.
                          Simulate     rhizosphere-organism1            development      and
                          effects,     using peanut/Aspergillus           spp.
                          interaction       as a model.        Examine effects      of
                          applications       of chemicals       or biocontrol      organisms
                          on organisms       in the rhizosphere         of peanuts.

                          Start   date:     10/01/89

                          Termination     date:        09/30/94




                                                  30
APPENDIX III                                                                  APPENDIX III
Project        Number:   ALAX-2-279-14-3160

          Title:    An Interdisplinary   Approach         to Optimum Food Utility            of
                    Peanuts in SAT Africa

      Objectives:        Design and implement          a research        program to
                         determine      the food utility         of the peanut for
                         semi-arid      tropics     (SAT) of Africa         via:
                         Description       and understanding          of variations        in
                         environment,        socioeconomics,        and food
                         technologies        as they constrain         the preservation
                         and utilization         of peanut supplies:           analysis      of
                         the current       and potential       dietary      role of
                         existing     peanut products:         research      on improvement
                         of existing       peanut products         with suitable        energy
                         density,     nutrient     concentrations,          and preferred
                         tastes at acceptable          cost:     insurance       of safety of
                         products     with particular        reference       to mycotoxins
                         in raw and finished          products:       exchange of peanut
                         germplasm for breeding           varieties       resistant      to
                         aflatoxin.

                          Start   date:    09/01/84

                         Termination      date:     08/31/87




                                              31
APPENDIX III                                                                      APPENDIX III
Project        Number:        ARK009 34

          Title:        Mycotoxins     of Corn and Other            Feed Grains

          Objectives:          To determine     the effects      of mycotoxins,       the
                               effects    of their   interactions      on domestic
                               animals,    and their    presence in edible        tissue.    To
                               analyze and assess grains           for toxigenic      fungi,
                               aflatoxin,    and other mycotoxins,          and to improve
                               sampling    and analytical       methods.

                               Start   date:      10/01/82


                               Termination       date:        09/30/87

Project        Number:       ARK')0985

      Title:            Biological     Effects     of Mycotoxins

          Objectives:          Characterize     symptoms produced by mycotoxins            and
                               determine    pathology   and pathogenesis of
                               symptoms.

                               Start   date:      12/01/82


                               Termination        date:        09/30/87




                                                         32
APPENDIX III                                                               APPENDIX III
Project    Number:      ARK01227

      Title:        Environmental     Influences on Physiological          and
                    Metabolic     Responses in Poultry

      Objectives:        To determine       the physiological       basis of
                         environmentally        induced hemodynamic and metabolic
                         alterations      in gastrointestinal,         splanchnic,
                         renal,     and reproductive       vasculatures.        To
                         investigate      the role of acid-base          balance in
                         maintenance     of body homeostasis.            To interrelate
                         hemodynamic,       metabolic,     or acid-base      alterations
                         with productivity.

                          Start   date:    10/01/85

                         Termination      date:    09/30/90




                                              33
APPENDIX III                                                                   APPENDIX III
Project        Number:   ARZT-136181-H-23-007

          Title:    Determination    of Toxic/Mutagenic Potentials                of Fungal,
                    Algal,   and Plant Toxins in Foods and Feeds

      Objectives:        .Mycotoxina:       To evaluate        on-site     use of
                          immunochemical        methods for monitoring           aflatoxin
                          contamination       in cottonseed         and corn and the
                          safety    of ammonia/aflatoxin            decontamination
                          reaction     products     in foods.        Seafood toxins:         To
                          isolate    and identify        toxins     associated     with
                          ciguatera     poisoning       by culturing       and exposing
                          fish to ciguatoxic          dinoflagellates.         Plant
                          toxins:      To determine        the toxicological        profiles
                          of intrinsic      components of herbal tea
                          preparations      and herbal plants           native   to
                          Arizona.

                          Start   date:     07/21/88


                          Termination     date:        09/30/91




                                             34
APPENDIX III                                                                       APPENDIX     III

Project        Number:      ARZT-137074-R-23-089

          Title:        Improve   Food Safety     Through Discovery           and Control      of
                        Natural   and Induced     Toxicants

          Objectives:         Determine      effects     of agricultural    practices,
                              biotechnological         manipulation,     and processing on
                              natural    toxicants       in foods: develop methods to
                              minimize     their     occurrence.

                              Start   date:     10/01/87

                             Termination      date:        09/30/92

Project        Number:      ARZT-171744-R-05-89

          Title:        Improve   Food Safety     by Control          of Natural   Toxicants

          Objectives:         Understand     conditions      contributing       to the occur-
                              rence of natural        toxicants.        Develop strategies
                              for controlling       natural      toxicants    in food.

                              Start   date:     10/01/82

                              Termination     date:        09/30/87




                                                      35
APPENDIX III                                                              APPENDIX III
Project    Number:      CA-D*-ETX-2813-RR

      Title:        Improve   Food Safety     Through Discovery      and Control     of
                    Natural   and Induced     Toxicants

      Objectives:        Detect and identify        presently     unknown natural
                         toxicants     in raw and processed        foods.     Develop
                         rapid and sensitive        analytical     and bioassay
                         methods for screening         known toxicants      in foods.
                         Determine     effects    and mode of action      of natural
                         toxicants     in animals and assess human health
                         risk.     Elucidate    the mechanisms of formation           and
                         transmission      of toxicants      in the food chain.

                          Start   date:     10/01/87

                         Termination      date:        09/30/92




                                                  36
APPENDIX III                                                                    APPENDIX III
Project        Number:   CA-D*-ETX-3739-AH

          Title:    Nature,   Occurrence,       and Effects         of Toxic   Chemicals   in
                    Animals

      Objectives:         Toxic chemicals       from various      sources may produce
                          acute or long-term        deleterious     effects     on
                          economic animals or lead to injurious               residues
                          for potential     consumers.        This project      will
                          investigate    the nature,       occurrence,      and
                          biological    effects     of chemicals      to which
                          economic species are exposed.

                          Start   date:      05/10/82

                          Termination       date:        09/30/88




                                                    37
APPENDIX III                                                                          APPENDIX III
Project        Number:       CA-D*-POM-3158-H

      Title:            Postharvest     Technology       in Fruit        Marketing

          Objectives:         Conduct research            to reduce pathological,
                              physiological,           and physical      losses after         harvest.
                              Studies will          include     the following:         Improved
                              temperature         management practices;           further      use of
                              controlled         (CA) or modified         (MA) atmospheres:
                              potential/suitability               of species and cultivars
                              for long distance             shipping:    physical      injury
                              resistance        and/or ability        to heal wounds: disease
                              resistance.

                              Start    date:      10/01/86

                              Termination       date:        09/30/91

Project        Number:       CA-D*-POM-3604-RR

          Title:        Improve   Food Safety       by Control          of Natural    Toxicants

          Objectives:         Develop strategies    for controlling      natural
                              toxicants  in food.     Develop rapid analytical
                              methods for detection     and surveillance      of natural
                              toxicants.

                              Start    date:      10/01/82

                              Termination       date:        09/30/87




                                                        38
APPENDIX III                                                                   APPENDIX III
Project        Number:       CONS00606

          Title:        Occurrence   of Mycotoxins in Feeds and Foods and Their
                        Effects   on Animal and Human Health

          Objectives:         Detect,   identify,      and quantitate  mycotoxins      and
                              their   metabolites      in feeds and foods.

                              Start   date:    04/01/87

                              Termination     date:        09/30/90

Proiect        Number:       FLA-ANS-02265

          Title:        Mycotoxins    of Corn and Other          Feed Grains

      Objectives:             Determine   the effects     of mycotoxins    and the
                              effects   of their   interactions     on domestic   animals
                              and their   presence in edible      tissues.

                              Start   date:    10/01/82

                              Termination     date:        09/30/88




                                                      39
APPENDIX III                                                                        APPENDIX III
Project        Number:       FLA-FOS-02265

          Title:        Mycotoxins     of Corn and Other          Feed Grains

          Objectives:         To determine      the effect      of mycotoxins        and the
                              effect   of their     interactions     and their        presence
                              in edible    tissues.

                              Start    date:     10/01/82

                              Termination      date:        08/01/85

Project        Number:      FLA-FOS-02710

      Title:            Reduction     of Aflatoxin      Content        in Peanut   Seeds by
                        Microwave     Roasting

      Objectives:             Determine       if medium intensity     microwave energy
                               (MIME) is an effective        method for reducing
                              aflatoxin       amounts in peanut seeds.        Evaluate the
                              effects     of MIME on the sensory and nutritional
                              qualities       of peanut seeds.     Evaluate    the
                              toxicological       effects  of aflatoxin     reaction
                              products      in microwave roasted peanut seeds.

                              Start    date:    10/01/88

                              Termination      date:        09/30/93




                                                       40
APPENDIX III                                                                      APPENDIX III
Project        Number:       FLA-VME-02265

          Title:        Mycotoxins    of Corn and Other          Feed Grains

          Objectives:         Determine   the effects     of mycotoxins    and the
                              effects   of their   interactions     on domestic   animals
                              and their   presence in edible      tissues.

                              Start   date:    10/01/82

                              Termination     date:        12/31/85

Project        Number:       FLAX85001

          Title:        Effect  of Genetic,     Agronomical,          and Environmental
                        Factors  on Peanut     Seed Quality

      Objectives:             Evaluate    the foliage     from annual and perennial
                              peanuts for use as a fodder.           Determine       the
                              effect    of cultural     and curing practices         on peanut
                              seed composition.         Develop a maturity       index and
                              correlate    with harvesting.        Determine biochemical
                              bases for pest resistance          and Aspergillus        spp.
                              Identify    nutritionally      rich protein     fractions      in
                              peanut seed.

                              Start   date:    10/01/85

                              Termination     date:        09/30/90




                                                      41
APPENDIX III                                                                             APPENDIX III
Project        Number:      GEO-RF-330-099

          Title:        Groundnut     Pest Management           in Burkina        Faso

          Objectives:         Identify      the major economic pests of groundnut            in
                              Burkina      Faso.      Relate relative      pest abundance to
                              groundnut        seasonal and developmental         phenology.
                              Develop      economic injury       levels    for the major
                              economic      pests by quantifying         the relationship
                              between      pest density       and yield    loss.    Develop
                              control      strategies      for insect    pest management
                              that fit       into the cultural,        socioeconomic
                              conditions        of the farmer.

                              Start    date:     05/01/83

                              Termination       date:         06/30/90

Project        Number:      GEO-02-0229

          Title:        Breeding  Peanuts for           Resistance       to Aflatoxin-Producing
                        Strains  of Aspergillus           Species

          Objectives:         Develop high       quality    peanuts        with     resistance    to
                              toxin-producing        molds.

                              Start   date:      03/01/87

                              Termination       date:         02/28/92




                                                         42
APPENDIX III                                                                  APPENDIX III
Project    Number:        GE000343

      Title:        Nutrition      and Management         of Swine   in Confinement

      Objectivest          Study the influence          of electrolyte      balance on
                           performance        and on skeletal      abnormalities      in
                           growing-finishing         swine.    Quantify     the
                           interrelationships         between vitamin        and mineral
                           nutrition      in growing swine.         Determine     the
                           effects      of low levels     of aflatoxin       in the diet
                           on reproductive        performance      of sows.

                           Start    date:    07/01/81

                           Termination      date:        06/30/86

Project    Number:        GE000358

      Title:        Mycotoxins      of Corn and Other          Feed Grains

      Objectives:          Determine      effects    of mycotoxins      and the effects
                           of their     interactions        on domestic     animls     and
                           presence in edible          tissues.    Study epidemiology,
                           biochemistry       of mycotoxigenic       fungi,     and role of
                           arthropods       in dissemination.        Analyze and assess
                           grain for aflatoxin,            other mycotoxins,       and
                           toxigenic      fungi and improve sampling            and
                           analytical       methods.

                           Start    date:    10/01/82

                           Termination      date:        09/30/88



                                                    43
APPENDIX III                                                                         APPENDIX III
Project        Number:        GE000365

          Title:        Identification           and Analysis        of Mycotoxins

          Objectives:          To develop mycotoxin        methods suitable       for use at
                               peanut buying points        and in finished      products.
                               To define     the role of irrigation,       calcium,      and
                               other nutrients      in field    aflatoxin
                               contamination.       To isolate     and identify      new
                               toxic   fungal metabolites.

                               Start     date:      01/01/83

                               Termination         date:        01/01/88

Project        Number:        GE000434

          Title:        Aflatoxins       in Peanuts

          Objectives:          To develop and evaluate           methods suitable       for use
                               at the buying point to help identify               aflatoxin-
                               contaminated       lots.    To characterize       and identify
                               genetic    differences      in peanuts that affect
                               aflatoxin      accumulation     in order to have a
                               reasonable      chance of identifying         sources of
                               resistance      to the A. flavus       group.     To evaluate
                               the influence        of current    harvesting     and drying
                               practices      on aflatoxin     contamination      of farmers'
                               stock peanuts.

                               Start     date:      07/01/88

                               Termination         date:        06/30/93


                                                           44
APPENDIX III                                                                            APPENDIX III
Project        Number:       GE000435

          Title:        Improved      Methods    for      the    Determination       of Mycotoxins

          Objectives:         To apply state-of-the-art           chromatographic
                              techniques      to the determination         of mycotoxins    in
                              human and animal feedstuffs            in order to improve
                              the selectivity,       sensitivity,       efficiency,    speed,
                              and reliability       of the chromatographic
                              techniques.

                              Start     date:         07/01/88

                              Termination        date:          06/30/93

Project        Number:       GE000837

          Title:        Mycotoxin      Distribution           and Control        in Foods and Food
                        Processing      Facilities

          Objectives:         To survey apple and grape products               produced in
                              Georgia for the presence of mycotoxins                  to (1)
                              investigate      why some agricultural         commodities       are
                              more susceptible         to mycotoxin     contamination       than
                              others,     (2) determine       the possible    presence of
                              airborne      mycotoxins     in processing     facilities,       and
                               (3) evaluate      the potential     benefit     of naturally
                              occurring      anticarcinogens.

                              Start     date:         07/01/84

                              Termination        date:          06/30/90



                                                         45
APPENDIX III                                                              APPENDIX III
Project    Number:   GE000864

      Title:    Genetics      of Aspergillus         Flavus

      Objectives2     To sample natural        populations       of A. flavus.         To
                      conduct heterokaryon         compatibility         tests and
                      identify      h-c groups.      To synthesize
                      heterokaryons        and heterozygous       diploids     for
                      parasexual       genetic  analyses.        To identify       and
                      map genes controlling         heterokaryon
                      incompatibility.

                      Start     date:    07/01/85

                      Termination       date:        09/30/86




                                                46
APPENDIX III                                                                  APPENDIX III
Project        Number:   GE001416

          Title:    Process    for    Development         and Utilization   of Peanut
                    Products

      Objectives:         To optimize       the process for making paste from
                          peanuts for use as an imitation             cheese spread and
                          as a food ingredient:         to optimize     processes    for
                          preparing      peanut tofu spreads flavored         with
                          chocolate      and fruit:    develop extraction       and
                          pasteurization       processes    for producing     a
                          palatable      peanut beverage:      develop fermented
                          products     from aqueous extracts        of peanuts:     and
                          evaluate     nondestructive      methods for removing
                          aflatoxins      from peanuts.

                          Start      date:    04/01/88

                          Termination        date:        03/31/92




                                                     47
APPENDIX III                                                                             APPENDIX III
Project        Number:       GE001422

          Title:        Physical     Properties       of Peanut       for   Processing
                        Alternatives

          Objectives:          To develop improved and alternate           separation
                               technologies        for peanut processing    by measuring
                               selected     physical    and rheological   properties      to
                               evaluate     fluidized    bed medium (FBM) separation
                               concepts and to improve shelling          characteristics,
                               and apply Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
                               principles       for sensing and evaluating
                               moisture/aflatoxin        content   in peanuts.

                               Start   date:       09/01/88

                               Termination        date:        08/31/92




                                                          48
APPENDIX III                                                                    APPENDIX III
Project        Number:   ILL&70-0358

          Title:    Occurrence   of Mycotoxins in Feeds and Foods and Their
                    Effects   on Animal and Human Health

      Objectives:        Detect,      identify,     and quantitate         mycotoxins       and
                         their    metabolites        in feeds and foods.             Inves-
                         tigate     effects     of mycotoxins       on animal health           and
                         productivity.          Improve diagnostic          criteria,
                         techniques,        and treatment       for mycotoxicoses.
                         Improve methods for controlling                 formation       of and
                         for detoxifying         mycotoxins      in feeds and foods.
                         Develop recommendations             for utilization          or
                         disposal       of contaminated       feeds.       Study the
                         biosynthesis         and disposition       of mycotoxins          and
                         their    metabolites       in microbial,       plant,      or animal
                         systems.        Support analytical         reference        centers
                         for mycotoxins         and fungus cultures.             Develop and
                         evaluate       an interdisciplinary          computerized
                         information        system for mycotoxins           and
                         mycotoxicoses.

                         Start    date:     10/01/85

                         Termination       date:        09/30/90




                                                   49
APPENDIX III                                                                          APPENDIX III
Project        Number:      ILLV-CVM-070-359

          Title:        Fuel Alcohol     as an Alternative             Use For Aflatoxin-
                        Contaminated     Corn

          Objectives:        To produce fuel alcohol      from corn contaminated
                             with aflatoxin,     treat the mash to destroy      the
                             aflatoxin,    and conduct feeding     studies with
                             stillage   in livestock   and poultry.

                             Start     date:    10/01/81

                             Termination       date:        09/30/86

Project        Number:      8400115

          Title:        Source and Dispersal           of Aspergillus        Flavus    Primary
                        Infective Inoculum

          Objectives:        Quantification    of Aspergillus      flavus             sclerotial
                             contribution    to primary    contamination               of field
                             corn in Tifton,    Georgia.

                             Start     date:    06/01/84

                              Termination      date:        12/31/86




                                                       50
APPENDIX III                                                                   APPENDIX III
Project    Number:        IOWO2365

      Title:        Bacterial      and Fungal       Spores    in Food and Feed

      Objectives:          To investigate         physical      and chemical    means of
                           controlling        bacterial      and fungal spoilage        in
                           foods and feeds.             Evaluate   such factors     as water
                           activity,      temperature,        ph, chemicals,      and
                           irradiation        for the control        of germination       and
                           outgrowth      of bacterial         and fungal spores of
                           importance       in causing spoilage         or producing
                           toxic     substances       in foods and feeds.         To study
                           the survival         and destruction       of spores in the
                           presence of germicides              and the influence      of the
                           environment        on the efficiency        of these
                           germicides       when used for sanitizing          surfaces.

                           Start    date:    07/01/87

                           Termination      date:        09/30/92




                                                    51
APPENDIX III                                                                     APPENDIX III
Project        Number:   IOWO2406

          Title:    Occurrence   of Mycotoxins in Feeds and Foods and Their
                    Effects   on Animal and Human Health

      Objectives:        Characterize       toxigenic        fungi,     substrates,        and
                         environmental        conditions         associated       with
                         mycotoxin     production.           Detect,     identify,       and
                         quantitate      mycotoxins        and their       metabolites       in
                         feeds and foods.           Investigate         effects      of
                         mycotoxins      on animal health            and productivity.
                         Improve diagnostic           criteria,       techniques,        and
                         treatment      for mycotoxicoses.              Improve methods
                         for controlling         formation        of, and for
                         detoxifying,       mycotoxins         in feeds and foods.
                         Develop recommendations               for utilization          or
                         disposal     of contaminated            feeds.      Study the
                         biosynthesis       and disposition           of mycotoxins         and
                         their    metabolites       in microbial,          plant,      or animal
                         systems.

                         Start    date:     10/01/85

                         Termination       date:      09/30/90




                                                52
APPENDIX III                                                                  APPENDIX III
Project    Number:      IOW-410-23-46

      Title:        Computer     Imaging   of Livestock        Behavior   and Disease

      Objectives:        Develop a microcomputer             pattern  recognition
                         system for monitoring            the behavioral     activity       of
                         swine.       Evaluate     the system in two studies:              The
                         first     study will      examine swine feeding        behavior
                         following      the presentation         of unpalatable       feed.
                         The second study will            assess behavioral       changes
                         occurring      during the onset of disease induced by
                         a clinically       toxic     dose of aflatoxin.
                         Experimental        results    to be used to evaluate           the
                         potential      of such a system as a tool for
                         improving      management practices         and in the early
                         detection      of disease.

                         Start     date:    02/01/87

                         Termination       date:        09/30/90




                                                   53
APPENDIX III                                                                APPENDIX III
Project        Number:   IOWV-416-23-18

          Title:    Relationship     of Mycotoxins         to Swine Reproductive
                    Failure

      Objectives:         To provide      a prospective       study of the
                          relationship      between reproductive           disease in
                          swine and mycotoxins          in the feed supply.           To
                          evaluate     the usefulness        of producer      sampling of
                          feeds to verify       prior     harmful    exposure to
                          mycotoxins.       To provide       evidence    for the
                          occurrence      of common mycotoxins         in feed supplies
                          provided     to midwestern       swine.

                          Start    date:    07/15/84

                          Termination      date:        12/31/87




                                                   54
APPENDIX III                                                                    APPENDIX III
Project        Number.:     KANO0124

          Title:        Occurrence   of Mycotoxins in Feeds and Foods and Their
                        Effects   on Animal and Human Health

          Objectives:        Characterize       toxigenic      fungi,    substrates,   and
                             environmental        conditions      associated     with
                             mycotoxin     production.         Improve methods for
                             controlling      formation      of, and for detoxifying,
                             mycotoxins     in feedstuffs         and foods, and develop
                             recommendations         for utilization       or disposal   of
                             contaminated       feeds.

                             Start   date:     10/01/85


                             Termination     date:        09/30/90

Project        Number.:     KANV00052

          Title:        Biochemical  Examination          of Avian   Blood   to Determine
                        the Presence of Hepatic           Disease

          Objectives:        To determine       whether common mammalian plasma
                             biochemical      indicators     of liver    disease are
                             applicable     to various     avian species.        To
                             evaluate    plasma biliverdin        concentration      as an
                             indicator    of avian hepatic        disease.      To study
                             the effects      of aflatoxicosis        in the pigeon model
                             for seed-eating        birds.

                             Start   date:     10/01/85


                             Termination     date:        09/30/86



                                               55
APPENDIX III                                                                APPENDIX III
Project        Number:       KY00490

          Title:        Mycotoxins     of Corn and Other      Feed Grains

          Objectives:         Study the epidemiology,        biochemistry,  and
                              physiology    of mycotoxigenic      fungi and the role
                              of arthropods    in dissemination.

                              Start    date:    10/01/82

                              Termination      date:    09/30/88

Project        Number:       LAB02496

          Title:        Mycotoxins     of Corn and Other      Feed Grains

          Objectives:         To determine    the effects     of mycotoxins    and the
                              effects   of their  interactions      on domestic   animals
                              and their   presence in edible      tissues.

                              Start    date:    01/01/86

                              Termination      date:    09/30/86




                                                   56
APPENDIX III                                                             APPENDIX III
Project    Number:       MD-JM-118

      Title:        Mycotoxins    of Corn and Other      Feed Grains

      Objectives:         To determine     the effects      of mycotoxins     and the
                          effects    of their   interactions       on domestic
                          animals and their       presence in edible      tissues.    To
                          study the epidemiology,          biochemistry,    and
                          physiology    of mycotoxigenic        fungi and the role
                          of arthropods      in dissemination.

                          Start   date:    10/01/82

                          Termination     date:    09/30/88




                                              57
APPENDIX III                                                                 APPENDIX III
Project        Number:   MD-M-230

          Title:    Mycotoxicoses    in Commercial   Poultry;           Descriptive
                    Toxicology    and Preventive   Measures

      Objectives:        To determine      and measure physiological            parameters
                         in poultry     affected      by aflatoxin       and ochratoxin.
                         To determine      and measure physiological            parameters
                         in poultry     affected      by ochratoxin       and citrinin
                         with special      attention      to modes of action         for
                         each.      To characterize       interactions      between T-2
                         toxin and other mycotoxin,              such as aflatoxin        and
                         ochratoxin.       To develop an avian model system for
                         the evaluation       of the existence         and extent of
                         mycotoxin/stressor          synergism      and to describe       such
                         interactions      when they occur.           To provide     a
                         practical     estimate     of the type and extent of
                         mycotoxicoses      affecting       poultry    production      in
                         Maryland.      To assess efficacy           of mold inhibitors
                         and determine      an integrated         approach to
                         prevention     and control       of mycotoxin      contamination
                         of feeds.

                          Start   date:    10/01/85

                          Termination     date:        09/30/88




                                                  58
APPENDIX III                                                                   APPENDIX III
Project    Number:       MD-M-231

      Title:        Response      of the Avian        Reproductive    System to Dietary
                    Mycotoxin

      Objectives:         To investigate       the effects        of aflatoxin,
                          ochratoxin,      and citrinin         on avian endocrine
                          function    and reproductive           performance.       To
                          examine the relationship              of the duration       and age
                          at toxin exposure to the              severity   on
                          mycotoxicoses      in poultry.          To provide     further
                          basis for improvement         in      poultry   performance     and
                          production     in Maryland.

                          Start     date:    10/01/85

                          Termination       date:       09/30/88




                                                 59
APPENDIX III                                                                       APPENDIX III
Project        Number:   ME08755

          Title:    In Vitro      and In Vivo       Studies    of Fish      and Shellfish
                    Neoplasia

      Objectives:         This project       is designed to further               our
                          knowledge of the characteristics                   and etiology         of
                          neoplasms of finfish            and shellfish.
                          Specifically,        studies      will   be initiated          to
                          induce neoplastic           transformation         in cells       of
                          bivalve      and teleost       origin    and to study the
                          characteristics          of those cells       as compared with
                          cells     from naturally        occurring     neoplasms.           The
                          characteristics          that will      be studied        include
                          alterations       of morphological,          biochemical,           and
                          immunological        properties        of the transformed
                          cells.       Biochemical       analyses will         include
                          fibronectin,       polar and neutral           lipids,       fatty
                          acid,     and glycosphingolipid           composition          of
                          transformed       cells.

                          Start     date:     10/01/87

                          Termination       date:       09/30/92




                                                 60
APPENDIX III                                                                  APPENDIX III
Project        Number:   MICL00584

          Title:    Chemical      Changes as Related          to Quality   Factors   in Meat

      Objectives:         Relate chemical         changes occurring         in meat from
                          time of slaughter          through consumption         to quality
                          of meat and meat products.              Determine      and relate
                          chemical      changes in muscle tissue            to physical,
                          organoleptic,         and nutritive     value of meat.
                          Ascertain      the effects       of processing      on the
                          chemical      constituents       of meat and relate       them to
                          the desirable         and undesirable      attributes.

                          Start     date:    10/01/57

                          Termination       date:        01/08/85




                                                    61
APPENDIX III                                                                    APPENDIX III
Project    Number:       MICL06838

      Title:        Animal     Mycotoxicosest          Prevention    and Therapy

      Objectives:            To determine       the feasibility       of using active       and
                             passive    immunization       for prevention       against   and
                             therapy    for mycotoxicoses          in laboratory     animals.
                             Protection      against     mycotoxicoses     will   be
                             initially     tested    in laboratory       mice.    The long-
                             term objectives        will   be to test similar
                             immunization      procedures       for other mycotoxins       and
                             utilize    the most successful          of these immunization
                             procedures      in food-producing        animals,    such as
                             swine and poultry.

                             Start   date:      01/14/85

                             Termination     date:      12/31/87




                                                  62
APPENDIX III                                                                  APPENDIX III
Project        Number:   MIS-1413

          Title:    Plant Resistance        to Diseases     and Insects      in Corn and
                    Hybrid Testing

      Objectives:         Continue     to search for and develop sources of
                          resistance      to maize dwarf mosaic,           maize  chlorotic
                          dwarf,     southern     corn rust,     Fusarium moniliforme,
                          Aspergillus       flavus,     southwestern      corn borers,      and
                          fall    armyworms.        Determine    effectiveness     and
                          inheritance       of resistance.        Determine
                          adaptability        and performance       of commercial
                          hybrids.

                          Start     date:    07/01/80

                          Termination       date:    06/30/85




                                                63
APPENDIX III                                                                 APPENDIX III
Project        Number:   MIS-1415

          Title:    Disease,  Insect,       and Nematode    Resistance      of Corn for
                    the South

      Objectives:         Continue     to search for and develop sources of
                          resistance      to maize dwarf mosaic,          maize
                          chlorotic      dwarf,    southern    corn rust,      Fusarium
                          moniliforme,       Aspergillus     flavus,    southwestern
                          corn borers,       and fall    armyworms.       Initiate     a
                          program on nematode resistance             in corn.
                          Determine      effectiveness      and inheritance        of pest
                          resistance       in corn.

                          Start     date:    07/01/85

                          Termination       date:    06/30/90




                                                64
APPENDIX III                                                                  APPENDIX III
Project    Number:      MO-00296-3

      Title:        Occurrence   of Mycotoxins in Feeds and Foods and Their
                    Effects   on Animal and Human Health

      Objectives:        Detect,      identify,       and quantitate       mycotoxins     and
                         their    metabolites         in feeds and foods.          Improve
                         methods for controlling              formation     of, and for
                         detoxifying,         mycotoxins      in feeds and foods, and
                         develop recommendations              for utilization       or
                         disposal       of contaminated         feeds.     Study the
                         biosynthesis         and disposition        of mycotoxins      and
                         their    metabolites         in microbial,      plant,    or animal
                         systems.        Support analytical          reference     centers
                         for mycotoxins           and fungus cultures,          and develop
                         and evaluate         an interdisciplinary           computerized
                         information         system     for mycotoxins       and
                         mycotoxicoses.


                         Start    date:     10/01/85

                         Termination      date:     09/30/90




                                               65
APPENDIX III                                                                      APPENDIX III
Project        Number:      MO-00298

          Title:        Resistance    of Maize   and Fescue          to Fungal   Pathogens   and
                        Mycotoxin-Producing      Fungi

          Objectives:        To rapidly     identify     sources of genetic        and/or
                             cytoplasmic      incompatibility         in maize to
                             Aspergillus      flavus   and in fescue to Epichloe
                             typhina.      To investigate        virulence     among fungal
                             isolates    in natural      and model environments.          To
                             test the gene-for-gene           hypothesis     in host-
                             parasite    associations        of corn and fescue with
                             the anamorphs of these fungi.

                             Start   date:    07/01/85

                             Termination     date:        09/30/89

Project        Number:      MO-00304

          Title:        Corn Improvement     Through       Resistance     to Corn Pathogens

      Objectives:            To identify     sources of resistance        in exotic,
                             U.S. Corn Belt genotypes         and the wild relatives
                             of corn, Zea diploperennis,          the diploid
                             perennial    teosinte     and the annual teosinte,         Z.
                             mexicana,    and transfer     these to usable
                             background     genotypes.     Use recurrent      selection
                             in the field     to increase     frequencies     of
                             favorable    genotypes.

                             Start   date:    07/01/83

                             Termination     date:        09/30/86
                                                     66
APPENDIX III                                                              APPENDIX III


Project    Number:      MO-00305

      Title:        The Role of Plant Defense Systems           in Limiting
                    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB) Accumulation

      Objectives:        Demonstrate      that corn kernels      produce induced
                         secondary      metabolites     which alter    the rate of
                         aflatoxin      (AFB) synthesis      by Aspergillus     flavus.
                         Identify     the elicitors      produced by A. flavus        and
                         characterize       the corn metabolites.         Determine
                         whether variability         for synthesis     of the corn
                         metabolite      exists    among corn lines or within
                         populations.

                         Start   date:    09/01/85

                         Termination     date:    08/31/90




                                             67
APPENDIX III                                                                     APPENDIX III
Project    Number:      MO-00377

      Title:        Maize    Improvement      Through     Breeding     and Genetics

      Objectives:           Identify    factors       that limit      maize production        in
                            Missouri.       Develop breeding          populations     from
                            adapted and exotic           germplasm sources that would
                            alleviate     those factors.           Develop breeding
                            methods and new techniques              for maize improvement
                            in respect      to stalk      and root quality:        host-plant
                            resistance,       including      insect    and plant diseases:
                            grain quality;         rapid field      dry down capabilities;
                            superior    white inbred lines;            strains    with cobs
                            suitable    for manufacture          of cob pipes:       and stress
                            endurance.

                            Start   date:     07/01/70

                            Termination      date:      09/30/86




                                                 68
  ,




APPENDIX III                                                                APPENDIX III
Project    Number:      MO-00830

      Title:        Critical  Evaluation    of New Chromatography           Techniques
                    for Diagnostic    Mycotoxicology

      Objectives:        Develop rapid diagnostic          methods of analysis         for
                         naturally      occurring    mycotoxins      and their
                         metabolites      in a variety     of feedstuffs,       animal
                         tissues,      and body fluids.       Critically      appraise
                         the overall      importance    of suspected
                         mycotoxicoses       to diagnostic      veterinary     medicine
                         in Missouri.

                         Start   date:     10/01/84

                         Termination     date:     09/30/88




                                             69
APPENDIX III                                                                APPENDIX III
Project    Number:       NC01175

      Title:        Mycotoxins     of Corn and Other      Feed Grains

      Objectives:         To reduce mycotoxin         contamination      by developing
                          evaluation     procedures,       improving    host plant
                          genotypes,      agronomic practices,         decontamination
                          methods, and storage conditions.                Determine    the
                          effects     of mycotoxins,       the effects     of their
                          interactions       on domestic      animals,    and their
                          presence in edible        tissues.       Study the
                          epidemiology,       biochemistry,       and physiology     of
                          mycotoxigenic       fungi and the role of arthropods
                          in dissemination.         Analyze and assess grains for
                          aflatoxin,      other mycotoxins,        and toxigenic
                          fungi.      Improve sampling        and analytical      methods.

                          Start    date:    10/01/82

                          Termination      date:    09/30/88




                                              70
APPENDIX III                                                                         APPENDIX III
Project        Number:       NC03452

          Title:        Peanut      Breeding     and Genetics

          Objectives:            Develop peanut breeding            lines and cultivars        with
                                 higher yields,       greater     insect  resistance,        early
                                 maturity,   and improved quality           characteristics.
                                 Generate information         and breeding      procedures       to
                                 efficiently    utilize      available    diverse     germplasm.

                                 Start   date:     10/01/84

                                 Termination      date:       09/30/90

Project        Number:      NC03508

          Title:        Peanut     Diseases      and Their      Control

          Objectives:        Epidemiology  and control   of peanut                diseases.
                             Ecology of soilborne   pathogens.

                             Start       date:     07/01/75

                             Termination          date:      09/30/87




                                                     71
                                                                                             Y




APPENDIX III                                                                      APPENDIX III
Project        Number:      NC03820

          Title:        Management    of Stored        Grain

          Objectives:         Evaluate   grain protectants     for insect
                              management.      Determine   the value of sanitation
                              in insect   management.      Cooperate  in determining
                              the association      of stored grain insects    with
                              aflatoxin.      Survey of stored grain insects.

                              Start   date:     10/01/83

                              Termination      date:      09/30/88

Project        Number:      NC03853

          Title:        Beef Cattle    Finishing        Systems   for   Eastern   North
                        Carolina

          Objectives:         To compare      different   environmental      systems.      To
                              investigate      the feeding    of aflatoxin-contaminated
                              corn.

                              Start   date:     04/01/84

                              Termination      date:       09/30/88




                                                   72
APPENDIX III                                                                    APPENDIX III
Project    Number:      NC03910

      Title:        Epidemiology and Host Parasite                Interaction    of Corn
                    Diseases in North Carolina

      Objectives:        Determine    influence    of environment         on
                         epidemiology      of Aspergillus      flavus     and
                         Cercospora     zeae-maydis;      the factors       regulating
                         aflatoxin    production     in culture:       the mechanism
                         of resistance       in C. zeae-maydis       to cercosporin;
                         the nature of resistance           in plants     to maize
                         dwarf mosaic      virus  (MDMV): and the distribution,
                         ecology,    and seed transmission         of MDMV strains.

                         Start    date:    U/01/84

                         Termination      date:        09/30/89




                                                  73
APPENDIX III                                                                     APPENDIX III
Project    Number:      NC05151

      Title:        Variety Evaluation of Corn,             Corn Silage,       Small    Grain,
                    Grain Sorghum, and Soybeans

      Objectives:        Evaluate      corn, corn silage,          grain sorghum, small
                         grains,     and soybean cultivars,            hybrids,      and
                         experimental         lines   now in production          or under
                         consideration          for release,      with respect      to
                         adaptation,        yield,    plant    characteristics,
                         chemical      properties,       pathological        data, and
                         quality     factors.        Seek methods of improving              the
                         precision       and efficiency       of conducting        official
                         variety     tests.        Examine genotype and environment
                         interactions         and the stability        of hybrids        and
                         cultivars      as they perform         in North Carolina           with
                         respect     to yield.

                         Start    date:      10/01/84

                         Termination       date:      09/30/89




                                               74
APPENDIX III                                                                      APPENDIX III
Project        Number:       NC06105

          Title:        Expression     and Regulation      of Genes for       Aflatoxin
                        Biosynthesis

          Objectives:         To isolate     the genes required       for aflatoxin
                              biosynthesis      in Aspergillus     flavus    by
                              complementation      of aflatoxin-negative        mutants
                              with a cloned gene library.            Determine    and
                              analyze the nucleotide         seguence of these genes.
                              Determine when these genes are actively
                              transcribed      and what conditions       affect
                              transcription.

                              Start    date:    10/01/89

                              Termination      date:     09/30/94

Project        Number:       NC07033

          Title:        Effects   of Nutritional  Factors   and Multiple             Mycotoxin
                        Contamination    on the Performance   of Swine

          Objectives:         To determine     whether     interactive       effects    exist
                              between mycotoxins.         Establish       the ability      of
                              swine to tolerate       single     or multiple       mycotoxin
                              contamination      in the diet.         Determine      if nutrient
                              content    of diets can be modified            to enhance
                              resistance    to dietary       mycotoxins.

                              Start    date:    01/01/85

                              Termination      date:     09/30/89


                                                   77
APPENDIX III                                                                       APPENDIX III
Project        Number:      NC07034

          Title:        Analysis      of Mycotoxin      Residues       in Food Animals    to
                        Diagnose      Exposure

          Objectives:        Diagnose exposure           of animals to aflatoxin,
                             trichothecenes,       or      zearalenone.         Apply mass
                             spectral    techniques          to confirm      the identities    of
                             mycotoxin     residues        in animals.         Expand the
                             computerized      mass      spectral     library     of mycotoxins.

                              Start     date:    01/01/86

                             Termination        date:       09/30/90

Project        Number:      NC07041

          Title:        Involvement of the Reticuloendothelial                  System   in
                        Response to Aflatoxicosis    in Turkey              Poults

          Objectives:        Determine    the short-      and long-term       effects     of
                             aflatoxin    B( 1) following       pre/post     natal exposure
                             on turkey monocytes and macrophage function.
                             Determine    the genetoxic       effects     of AF-B(1) on
                             turkey macrophages in vitro.              Investigate      the
                             relationship     between the genetoxic           and
                             immunotoxic     effects    following      treatment      of turkey
                             macrophages with AF-B(1) in vitro.

                             Start      date:    04/01/88


                             Termination        date:       09/30/89




                                                  78
APPENDIX III                                                                       APPENDIX III
Project        Number-r      NC05537

          Title:        Peanut Varietal        Improvement       for   Thailand   and the
                        Philippines

          Objectives:         Develop peanut varieties              and breeding       lines with
                              high yields,        early maturity;        tolerance       to
                              environmental         stress;    resistance      to rust,
                              cercospora      leafspots,       Aspergillus       flavus,    and
                              Sclerotium      wilt.       Develop agronomic         systems of
                              production      suitable      for exploitation         of new
                              varieties     in cropping        systems of Thailand          and
                              the Philippines.

                              Start    date:     01/01/83

                              Termination      date:        06/30/90

Project        Number:       NC05547

          Title:        Compositional    Uniqueness          of North Carolina      Feedstuffs
                        and Effect    on Utilization          by Dairy Cattle

          Objectives:         Evaluate     usage and value of feed analyses.
                              Investigate      Near Infrared     Reflectance
                              Spectroscopy      for determination       of feed
                              composition.       Compile data on nutritional
                              composition      and evaluate    consequences     of
                              utilizing     feeds with unique compositions.

                              Start    date:     07/01/83

                              Termination      date:        09/30/87


                                                       75
APPENDIX III                                                                               APPENDIX III
Project        Number:       NC05549


          Title:        Fungal     Activity      and Mycotoxins           in Poultry       Feeds

          Objectives:            Determine      specific  practices     within     feed mills
                                 that encourage fungal activity             and mycotoxin
                                 production.       Determine    the extent to which feed
                                 ingredients      other than corn are contaminated
                                 with mycotoxins.        Determine     specific      management
                                 factors     that can reduce the chances of fungal
                                 activity      and subsequent     mycotoxin     formation     at
                                 the farm level.

                                 Start   date:     10/01/83

                                 Termination      date:        09/03/87

Project        Number:      NC05634

          Title:        Measurement and Preservation    of Peanut                      Quality     During
                        Marketing,  Handling,  and Storage

          Objectives:            Develop improved procedures     and equipment   to
                                 determine  the quality of peanuts and to preserve
                                 peanut quality  during handling    and storage.

                                 Start   date:     10/01/86

                                 Termination      date:        09/30/90




                                                          76
APPENDIX           III                                                              APPENDIX     III

Project        Number:         NC09354

          Title:         Identification           of Genes for    Aflatoxin    Biosynthesis

          Objectives:           Isolate     genes required       for aflatoxin      biosynthesis
                                by complementation         of aflatoxin-negative          mutants
                                with a cloned gene library.              Determine     the
                                nucleotide     sequence of these genes and analyze
                                these sequences for information              about their
                                translation      products.       Determine     the time and
                                cultural     conditions      when these genes are actively
                                transcribed      and how transcription           is correlated
                                with aflatoxin        biosynthesis.

                                Start     date:      07/01/88

                                Termination         date:    06/30/90

Project        Number:         NEB-14-024

          Title:         Mycotoxicoses        of Swine      in Nebraska

          Objectives:           Diagnostic    capabilities       for analyses        of
                                mycotoxins     in animal and plant          material     matrices.
                                Survey occurrence         of mycotoxicoses        in Nebraska
                                swine over 5-year period.             Investigate       effects    of
                                selected    mycotoxicoses      in swine and possible
                                therapeutic      and prophylactic        regimens.

                                Start     date:      07/28/80

                                Termination         date:    09/30/85



                                                       79
APPENDIX III                                                                  APPENDIX III
Project    Number:      NEB-14-040

      Title:        Occurrence   of Mycotoxins in Feed and Foods and Their
                    Effects   on Animal and Human Health

      Objectives:        Improve methods for controlling                formation       of, and
                         for detoxifying,          mycotoxins      in feed and foods,
                         and develop recommendations               for utilization         or
                         disposal      of contaminated        feeds.      Investigate
                         effectiveness         of chemical      detoxicants       on
                         deoxynivalenol,          zearalenone      and ergot-
                         contaminated        grains.      Determine     statistically
                         significant       effectiveness        for detoxicants         with
                         greater     than 50 percent        mycotoxin       reduction
                         efficacy.       Investigate       effectiveness         of chemical
                         detoxicants       in combinations         of two on mycotoxin-
                         contaminated        grains.      Establish     statistically
                         significant      effectiveness         for detoxicant
                         combinations        that reduce decontamination              times.

                         Start   date:     10/01/85

                         Termination      date:     09/30/90




                                               80
APPENDIX III                                                               APPENDIX III
Project    Number:      NEB-16-033

      Title:        Marketing  and Delivery of Quality          Cereals    and Oilseeds
                    in Domestic and Foreign Markets

      Objectives:        Identify     quality    factors    and determine       their
                         economic significance           to producers,    marketers,
                         and end-users        of grains.     To relate     quality
                         factors     to urgent problems of safety           and health,
                         such as dust explosions,           microorganisms,
                         mycotoxins,      and chemical      (pesticide)
                         contamination.         Develop equipment,       techniques,
                         and grain varieties          to improve quality       throughout
                         the production        and marketing      system and determine
                         their    economic feasibility.

                         Start   date:     10/01/83

                         Termination     date:     09/30/88




                                            81
APPENDIX III                                                                APPENDIX III
Project        Number:   NEB-48-004

          Title:    Occurrence   of Mycotoxins in Feeds and Foods and Their
                    Effects   on Animal and Human Health

      Objectives:         Characterize       toxigenic      fungi,    substrates,   and
                          environmental        conditions      associated     with
                          mycotoxin     production.         Improve methods for
                          controlling      formation      of, and for detoxifying,
                          mycotoxins     in feeds and foods,           and develop
                          recommendations         for utilization       or disposal   of
                          contaminated      feeds.       Participate      in development
                          and evaluation        of an interdisciplinary
                          computerized       information       system for mycotoxins
                          and mycotoxicoses          with other NC-129 members.

                          Start   date:    10/01/85

                          Termination     date:        09/30/90




                                                  82
APPENDIX III                                                                   APPENDIX III
Project        Number;      NJ10201

          Title:        Improving  the Assurance       of Quality     and Safety     of
                        Consumer's   Food

          Objectives:        Determine     the mechanisms by which certain
                             specific    food components         (natural,     process-
                             induced,    intentionally        and unintentionally        added)
                             influence     potential     dietary-induced
                             carcinogenesis.          Develop procedures        to rapidly
                             identify    the presence of specific            toxic    materials
                             in the food supply.           Elucidate      the mechanisms
                             that regulate       microbial     growth and/or synthesis
                             of microbial      toxins    by food pathogens         and
                             potential     pathogens.

                             Start    date:    10/01/83

                             Termination      date:    09/30/89

Project        Number:      NJ10540

          Title:        Feasibility    Study on the Use of Sodium Bicarbonate               to
                        Reduce Aflatoxin    Contamination of Grains

          Objectives:        To confirm    and more clearly        elaborate    the
                             antimicrobial      activity     of sodium bicarbonate
                             against    a variety      of organisms    of spoilage  and
                             pathogenic    significance.

                             Start    date:    03/01/87

                             Termination      date:    09/30/90


                                                  83
APPENDIX III                                                                           APPENDIX III
Project        Number:       WC-399428

          Title:        Protein-Induced          Alteration        of Hepatocarcinogenesis

          Objectives:         The relationship       between dietary     protein    intake
                              and selected      biochemical     events involved     in the
                              post-initiation       development    of liver    preneoplasia
                              will    be evaluated.

                              Start      date:      05/15/84

                              Termination          date:        12/31/87

Project        Number:       NYCV-480-320

      Title:            Dietary   Modulation         of Chemical           and Viral
                        Hepatocarcinogenesis

      Objectives:             To discover     which dietary  factors  are related                to
                              increased     or decreased risk of liver   cancer,                and
                              to use dietary      modulation to enhance
                              understanding     of the mechanisms of
                              hepatocarcinogenesis.

                                 Start     date:       12/01/83

                              Termination          date:        U/31/86




                                                           84
APPENDIX III                                                                      APPENDIX III
Project    Numbers      ORE00062

      Titler        Metabolism    and Carcinogenicity             of Aflatox\ns      and Other
                    Food-Borne    Carcinogens

      Objectivest        Aflatoxin      Bl is a potent        food-borne      toxin and one
                         of only 30 compounds described               as human
                         carcinogens.         The long-term       objective      is to
                         understand       mechanisms of carcinogenicity              of this
                         and related       compounds so that rational              approaches
                         can be made toward elimination               of their      health
                         effects,     if not their        exposure,     in humans and
                         animals.       The rainbow trout         has proven a useful
                         and highly       sensitive      comparative      species for
                         cancer research.           Studies     in this project        will
                         improve methods for cancer testing                 of rare
                         chemicals,       and improve our understanding              of basic
                         molecular      biology     of cancer by aflatoxins            and
                         other food-borne          carcinogens.

                          Start   date:    04/01/87

                          Termination     date:        03/31/92




                                                  85
APPENDIX III                                                                             APPENDIX III
Project        Number:      ORE00108

          Title:        Improve   Food Safety          Through Discovery        and Control         of
                        Natural   and Induced          Toxicants

          Objectives:         Develop      rapid and sensitive           analytical    and
                              bioassay       methods of screening           known toxicants    in
                              foods.       Determine      effects      and mode of action of
                              natural      toxicants       in animals and assess human
                              health     risk.      Identify      and investigate      modes of
                              action     of food-borne         factors    that may reduce the
                              impact     of dietary       carcinogens.

                              Start   date:         10/01/87

                              Termination          date:        09/30/92

Project        Number:      ORE00911

          Title:        Temperature      Effects       on Xenobiotic       Elimination       by
                        Fishes

          Objectives:         The general       objective   of this project      is
                              increased      understanding     of how modulation              of
                              hepatic     detoxication     systems alter    toxicity               of
                              xenobiotics       in rainbow trout.

                              Start   date:         07/01/86

                              Termination          date:        06/30/91




                                                           86
APPENDIX III                                                                APPENDIX III
Project    Number:       PENV-5-22734

      Title:        Molecular     Mechanisms       of Chemical   Carcinogenesis

      Objectives:         To determine      the role of mitochondrial,         genetic,
                          and metabolic       injury    in cytotoxicity     and in the
                          multistep     carcinogenesis       induced by structurally
                          diverse    compounds like aflatoxin           Bl, benzo
                          pyrene,    dimethyl      benzanthracene,
                          dimethylazobenzene,          and nitrosamines.

                          Start    date:    02/01/78

                          Termination      date:      03/x/90




                                               87
APPENDIX III                                                                     APPENDIX III
Project        Number:       SC00526

          Title:        Metabolism,     Toxicokinetics,  and Physiological             Effects
                        of Aflatoxin     B(1) in the Bovine

          Objectives:         Characterization        of metabolic       and toxicokinetic
                              profiles     of aflatoxin       B(1) in the bovine and
                              effects    of potential       dietary     MFO inducers      on
                              these pathways.         Examine estrogenic         effects     of
                              major bovine liver         metabolites       of AFB( 1) by an
                              invitro    estrogen     receptor      assay.    Investigate
                              effects    of AFB( 1) and metabolites           on various
                              aspects of the bovine immune system in vivo and
                              in vitro.       Attempt to devise a rapid,            sensitive
                              enzyme immunoassay         system     for AFM( 1) in milk.

                              Start    date:    10/01/81


                              Termination      date:       06/30/87




                                                  88
APPENDIX III                                                                       APPENDIX III
Project        Number:       sc!01023

      Title:            Mycotoxins      of Corns and Other           Feed Grains

      Objectives:             To reduce mycotoxin        contamination      by developing
                              evaluating     procedures,      improvinG host plant
                              genotypes,     agronomic practices,        decontamination
                              methods, and storage conditions.              To study the
                              epidemiology,      biochemistry,       and physiology    of
                              mycotoxigenic      fungi and the role of arthropods             in
                              dissemination.        To analyze and assess grains          for
                              aflatoxin,     other mycotoxins,        and toxigenic
                              fungia,    and improve sampling and analytical
                              methods.

                              Start     date:      10/01/82

                              Termination        date:        09/30/88

Project        Number:       SC01060

          Title:        Dietary    Factors      Affecting       Cholecalciferol    Metabolism
                        in Poultry

          Objectives:         To determine     the effect  of contaminants            in feed
                              on the absorption      and metabolism   of
                              cholecalciferol.

                              Start     date:      07/18/83

                              Termination        date:        06/30/87




                                                         89
APPENDIX III                                                                  APPENDIX     III

Project    Number:       sc01090

      Title:        Suppression     of Aflatoxin         and Nematodes    in Corn Through
                    Cultural    Practices

      Objectives:         Aflatoxin    formation     in preharvest        corn will      be
                          evaluated    in prolific      and nonprolific         hybrids.
                          Minimum and conventional           tillage     systems will       be
                          examined for their        effects       on preharvest
                          aflatoxin    formation.       Nematode populations           will
                          be evaluated     in corn grown conventionally               and
                          under a minimum tillage           cropping     system.      The
                          role of organic      residue      on nematode population
                          dynamics will     be studied.

                          Start    date:    07/01/84

                          Termination      date:        06/30/89




                                                   90
APPENDIX III                                                                         APPENDIX III
Project        Number:       SC01124

          Title:        Dietary  Factors Affecting the Toxic                   or Immune
                        Responses of Ruminants to Mycotoxins

          Objectives:         Assess ability      of certain     dietary     constituents
                              for inducing     lymphocyte      MFO activity      toward
                              production    of mutagenic      metabolites      of AFB(l),
                              and subsequent      binding    to lymphocyte       DNA.
                              Evaluate   effects     of high levels       of clovers      in
                              endophyte-contaminated         pastures     for reducing       or
                              augmenting    stocker     steer response to fescue
                              toxicity.

                              Start    date:       05/01/85

                              Termination         date:          09/30/89

Project        Number:       SC01241

          Title:        Effects    of Aflatoxin           B(1)     on Bovine   and Avian   T-Cell
                        Function     in Vitro

          Objectives:         Examine the effect  of AFB(l) and aflatoxicol                     on
                              bovine and avian rracrophage and T-lymphocyte
                              function  in vitro.

                              Start    date:       08/01/87

                              Termination         date:          07/31/90




                                                      91
APPENDIX III                                                                  APPENDIX III
Project    Number:       SD00440

      Title:        Analysis      of Mycotoxins        and Selected   Pesticides

      Objectives:         Establishment       of a mycotoxin     screening     program
                          and the determination        of the extent       of regional
                          mycotoxin      occurrence.    Methodology      will   be
                          developed       for targeted  pesticides      (strychnine,
                          fluoroacetate).

                          Start     date:    10/01/80

                           Termination      date:       09/30/84




                                                  92
APPENDIX III                                                                  APPENDIX III
Project    Number:       TEN00678

      Title:        Mycotoxins    of Corn and Other        Feed Grains

      Objectives:         To reduce mycotoxin         contamination     by developing
                          evaluation     procedures,      improving    host plant
                          genotypes,     agronomic practices,         decontamination
                          methods, and storage conditions.              Determine      the
                          effects     of mycotoxins      and the effects     of their
                          interactions      on domestic      animals and their
                          presence in edible        tissues.      Study the
                          epidemiology,      biochemistry,       and physiology     of
                          mycotoxigenic      fungi and the role of arthropods               in
                          dissemination.        Analyze and assess grain for
                          aflatoxin,     other mycotoxins,        and toxigenic      fungi.
                          Improve sampling       and analytical       methods.

                          Start   date:     10/01/82

                          Termination      date:    09/30/88




                                               93
APPENDIX III                                                                            APPENDIX III
Project        Numberr       TEN00768

          Title:        Analysis     Assay and Control             of Mycotoxins       in
                        Agricultural      Products

          Objectives:            Evaluate    chemical   and biological      methods for
                                 analysis    of mycotoxins.      Study the immunological,
                                 mutagenic    and carcinogenic      effects   of mycotoxins.
                                 Determine    the incidence    of selected     mycotoxins    in
                                 foods and evaluate      methods to control       their
                                 occurrence.

                                 Start     date:    03/01/85

                                 Termination       date:        09/30/89

Project        Number:       TEN00786

          Title:        Drying     Grain     Sorghum and Minor             Crops   in Tennessee

          Objectives:            Evaluate  drying parameters    for grain sorghum and
                                 minor crops using laboratory-scale      systems.
                                 Identify  alternative  drying methods for these
                                 crops.

                                 Start     date:    10/01/85

                                 Termination       date:        09/30/89




                                                           94
APPENDIX III                                                                   APPENDIX III
Project    Number:      TEX-02-2434      (6785)

      Title:        Mechanistic  Studies       of Ochratoxin       A and Citrinin-
                    Induced Nephropathy        in Swine

      Objectives:        Develop efficacious            analytical       protocols     for
                         detection      and structural          confirmation        of the
                         mycotoxins       ochratoxin        A and citrinin        in swine
                         tissues.       Elucidate       the molecular         mechanisms and
                         structure/activity            relationships        involved     in the
                         nephrotoxic        action/interaction           of ochratoxin      A,
                         citrinin,      corresponding          metabolites,       and poly-
                         substituted        congeners.

                         Start   date:      09/01/84

                         Termination      date:        03/31/88




                                                  95
APPENDIX III                                                                     APPENDIX III
Project        Number:       TEX01882

          Title:        Genetic     Improvement  of Peanut to Alleviate           Production
                        Constraints      and Enhance Product Quality

          Objectives:         Develop peanut varieties         for Texas with improved
                              agronomic traits,     tolerance      to environmental
                              stresses,  resistance       to important     diseases,    and
                              with high market quality.           Devise improved
                              screening  techniques       and evaluate     new germplasm
                              for useful   genetic    traits.      Evaluate    new
                              promising  varieties      in important     peanut-growing
                              areas of the state.

                              Start   date:     04/01/87

                              Termination     date:        03/31/92

Project        Number:       TEX03751

          Title:        Mycotoxins    of Corn and Other          Feed Grains

          Objectives:         Determine      the effect     of mycotoxins,       the effects
                              of their     interactions      on domestic      animals,    and
                              their    presence in edible         tissues.     Analyze and
                              assess grains        for aflatoxin,       other mycotoxins,
                              and toxigenic        fungi.    Improve sampling       and
                              analytical       methods.

                              Start   date:     10/01/82

                              Termination     date:        09/30/88



                                                      96
APPENDIX III                                                                    APPENDIX III
Project        Number:        TEX06215

          Title:        Developmental        Toxicity    of Mycotoxins:     Mechanisms     of
                        Action/Interaction           and Detoxification

          Objectives:          Determine      the mechanisms of developmental
                               toxicity      of environmentally      important    mycotoxins
                               and naturally      occurring     mycotoxin    mixtures    from
                               animal feed sources and develop practical
                               detoxification       measures to antagonize         these
                               effects.

                               Start    date:     10/01/86

                               Termination      date:     09/30/91

Project        Number:       TEX06332

          Title:        Isolation  and Identification           of Mycotoxin  and Other
                        Fungi Associated   With Peanut          Plants  and Soil

          Objectives:          Isolate  and identify     mycotoxic     fungi associated
                               with peanuts in Texas.        Correlate     occurrence       of
                               fungal species in Texas with occurrence              in other
                               farming  areas in order to integrate           information
                               to improve yields     and quality     of peanuts.
                               Conduct cooperative      work with toxicologists           to
                               pinpoint  potential    problems     associated     with toxic
                               fungi.

                               Start    date:     11/02/84

                               Termination      date:     10/30/89


                                                    97
APPENDIX III                                                                 APPENDIX III
Project    Number:      TEX06682

      Title:        Mycotoxin    Management in Peanuts           by Prevention    of
                    Contamination    and Monitoring

      Objectives:        Determine when peanuts are invaded by mycotoxin-
                         producing       fungi.       Develop rapid,      accurate
                         analytical       procedures        for detection     of mycotoxins
                         in peanuts,         peanut products,        and tissues    and
                         biological        fluids     from animals.       Discover
                         production,         harvest,      and curing practices      that
                         can help minimize            mycotoxin    contamination.
                         Develop inspection             procedures    for rapid detection
                         and diversion          of mycotoxin-contaminated          peanuts
                         into processing           for cleanup and/or
                         detoxification.

                         Start   date:     07/01/83

                         Termination     date:        06/30/90




                                                 98
APPENDIX III                                                                           APPENDIX III
Project        Number:       TEX06719

          Title:        Mycoflora       and Mycotoxin   Damage of Peanuts:                 Host-
                        Parasite       Management Strategies

          Objectives:          Isolate    and identify       pathogenic,    antagonistic,
                               and hypoparasitic         microorganisms     associated       with
                               peanut soils       and plant parts.        Determine     the
                               ecological      significance      of microorganisms        in
                               healthy    plant parts.        Screen breeding      lines     for
                               resistance     to pathogenic        fungi and characterize
                               the resistant       barriers.       Devise an improved
                               sorting    system for removal of mold-damaged
                               kernels    in the shelling        plant.

                               Start     date:     07/31/84

                               Termination       date:        07/30/89

Project        Number:       TEX06735

          Title:        Predictive       Tests   for     Mycotoxicity

          Objectives:          Develop short-term,           in-vitro      assay systems that
                               can predict       the relative         prenatal    toxicity       (e.g.,
                               abortion,     stillbirth)        of food- and feed-borne
                               mycotoxins.         Elucidate      the underlying         genetic
                               mechanisms that mediate the maternal                    and fetal
                               toxicity    of food- and feed-borne              toxicants.

                               Start     date:     09/04/84

                               Termination       date:        09/30/89


                                                         99
APPENDIX III                                                                      APPENDIX III
Project        Number:      TEX06825

          Title:        Diagnostic    Assays for Mycotoxin-Induced             Reactivation
                        of Integrated     IBR Virus

          Objectives:        Design diagnostic    assay systems for mycotoxin-
                             induced latent    IBR viral  reactivation     and
                             induction  using the aflatoxins       as model mycotoxin
                             species.

                              Start    date:    02/14/86

                             Termination       date:       09/30/88

Project        Number:      TEX06830

          Title:        Experimental     Assessments        of the    Developmental    Toxicity
                        of Feedborne     Mycotoxins

          Objectives:        Characterize    the developmental       toxicity     of
                             commonly occurring      mycotoxin   combinations,          in
                             vivo and in vitro.       Determine    the distributicn
                             and excretion     of selected    mycotoxin       combinations
                             in vivo and accumulation        and metabolism        in the
                             fetus   (in vivo and in vitro).

                             Start     date:    02/14/86

                             Termination       date:    09/30/88




                                                  100
APPENDIX III                                                                     APPENDIX III
Project    Number:       TEXV-0501

      Title:         Comparative    Medicine

      Ob jectivest        Determine        the feasibility         of enzyme replacement
                          therapy       for genetic        diseases.       Determine     the
                          effects       of ochratoxin         A in the partially
                          nephrectomized           rate.      Determine     the acute
                          biologic       and toxic effects           of halogenated
                          pollutants         in humans.        Develop a model system for
                          virus-induced          atherosclerosis         in humans.
                          Determine        the effect       of aerobic      conditioning     on
                          the pathobiology            of atherosclerosis          in miniature
                          Pigs*      Determine         the electrophysiological,
                          histological,          and behavioral        effects      of four
                          pyrrolidine          derivatives      in a mouse model of
                          Huntington's          Disease.       Elucidate      the expression
                          of cloned human genes in bacteria.                      Determine    the
                          kinetics       of melanoma regression             in swine.

                           Start   date:     10/01/81

                           Termination      date:     09/30/88




                                               101
APPENDIX III                                                                         APPENDIX III
Project        Number:        TEXV-0505

          Title:        Cellular       and Molecular         Toxicology

          Objectives:          Gamete    and preimplantation            embryo physiology          and
                               genetic    engineering.          Bioactivation        of mycotoxin
                               aflatoxin    B-l.       Prenatal      toxic and teratogenic
                               symbols to identify          hazardous agents associated
                               with fossil      fuels.      Morphologic         and metabolic
                               responses    of astrocytes          in cattle      and in culture
                               to epliptogenic         agents.       Surface cables and
                               surface    coats of pathologic             cardiac    cells.
                               Ontogeny of cligodendroglia.                  Epidermal      implant
                               union in percutaneous            implants.        The role of ion
                               channel blockers         in neurotoxicity.            Membrane
                               mechanisms of alcohol.              Brain mechanisms of motor
                               control.     Marmoset wasting            syndrome.       Structural
                                studies   of the Bowhead whale and a marine
                               stranding    network.        Behavioral        evaluation      of cat
                               litter    usage.

                               Start     date:    11/02/84

                               Termination       date:        12/31/92




                                                       102
APPENDIX III                                                                    APPENDIX III

Project    Number:       UTA00112

      Title:        Immunotoxicity           of Naturally    Occurring   Feed
                    Contaminants

      Objectives:         Evaluate     effects      of selected     mycotoxins,       e.g.,
                          aflatoxin     B(l),     fusarium    toxins     in selected
                          species of food animals and laboratory                   animals.
                          Investigate       factors     that influence      or moderate
                          effects     of mycotoxins        on immunologic       responses,
                          and compare the immunotoxic              effects    of mycotoxins
                          in food animals vs. laboratory               animals,     in order
                          to characterize         the mechanism of effects.

                          Start      date:       07/01/87

                          Termination          date:    06/30/92




                                                  103
APPENDIX III
Project        Number:      UTA00126

          Title:        Mechanirma     of Action       of Animal      Toxicants

   .’
          Objectives:        Amsess    the molecular          effects      of various
                             mycotoxins       (principally         Aflatoxins)       and poisonous
                             plant alkaloids          (principally         Senecio and
                             Larkspur)      using in vitro          cell cultures       from
                             important      food animal species.               The most
                             commonly used cell line will                  be bovine kidney
                             tublar.        In some cases, whole animal studies
                             will    be initiated        to validate         in vitro   work.

                              Start    date:       07/01/87

                             Termination       date:       06/30/92

Project        Number:      UTA00129

          Title;        Pulmonary     Toxicology       of Aflatoxin       B(1)

          Objective@:        The carcinogen      aflatoxin   B(1) is a common
                             contaminant    in respirable      grain dusts.    The plan
                             of the proposed research        is to assess the
                             carcinogenic     potential    of APB(l) to the
                             respiratory    system in agricultural       workers.

                              Start    dater       04/01/84

                              Termination      date:       09/30/86




                                                     104
APPENDIX III                                                                     APPENDIX III
Project        Number:       UTA00476

      Title:            Improve   Food Safety      Through Discovery       and Control     of
                        Natural   and Induced      Toxicants

          Objectives:         Detect and identify     presently     unknown toxicants
                              in raw and processed      foods.     Develop rapid and
                              sensitive   analytical   and bioassay      methods for
                              screening   known toxicants      in foodb.       Determine
                              effects   and mode of action       of natural       toxicants
                              in animals and assess human health            risk.

                              Start    date:     10/01/87

                              Termination      date:     09/30/92

Project        Number:       VA-135066

          Title:        Application      of Molecular       Cloning   Methods   to the   Study
                        of Aflatoxin      Biosynthesis

          Objectives:         Study the mechanism of regulation       of aflatoxin
                              biosynthesis     at the level of transcription       of
                              genes specific      for secondary metabolism.      Assess
                              the genetic    competence of strains     of fungi to
                              synthesize    aflatoxin.

                              Start    date:     04/01/87

                              Termination      date:     03/31/92




                                                   105
APPENDIX III                                                            APPENDIX III
Project        Number:   VA-136033

          Title:    Mycotoxins    of Corn and Other       Feed Grains

      Objectives:         Study the epidemiology,     biochemistry,  and
                          physiology of mycotoxigenic      fungi and the role      of
                          arthropods in dissemination.

                          Start   date:    10/01/82

                          Termination     date:     09/30/88




                                              106
APPENDIX III                                                                   APPENDIX III
Project    Number:      VA-137007

      Title:        Effect   of Selenium on Immune Responses               and Disease
                    Resistance   in Beef Cattle

      Objectives:        Determine       optimal      dietary    selenium     (Se)
                         concentration          for maximum immune response and
                         disease resistance             in weaned beef calves.
                         Determine       effect     of parenteral        Se on immune
                         response.         Determine which components of immune
                         response,       i.e.,     humoral vs. cell mediated,             are
                         enhanced by Se supplementation.                   Determine      if
                         optimal      dietary      selenium     concentration      for
                         weanling      beef cattle,         which was determined          in the
                         first     year of study, will           also enhance humoral
                         immunity      of cows and the passive             immunity     of
                         their     calves.        Determine     effects    of optimal
                         selenium in these same parameters.                    Investigate
                         interaction         of the optimal        level of selenium
                         supplementation           with aflatoxin,        a known
                         immunosuppressive            mycotoxin,      with respect      to
                         humoral immunity           and production        parameters      in
                         beef calves.

                         Start    date:     10/01/86

                         Termination      date:      09/30/89




                                              107
APPENDIX III                                                                     APPENDIX III
Project        Number8       VA-137065

          Title:        Immodulation        in Swine With       Vitamin   E and Selenium

          Objectives:         Establish     optimal  concentrations    of selenium and
                              vitamin     E in the diet for the maximum immune
                              reeponse in swine.        Determine   if enhanced immune
                              response measurements correspond         with animal
                              resistance      as measured by bacterial     and toxin
                              challenges.

                              Start    date:       10/01/85

                              Termination        date:       09/30/88

Project        Number:      WISO2041

          Title:        Immunochemical         Studies    on Carcinogenic     Mycotoxin

      Objectives:            Develop a method for the production                 of antibody
                             against      several    carcinogenic       mycotoxins
                             (aflatoxins,       T-2 toxin,     penicillic      acid, patulin,
                             sterigmatocystin,          and a group of cocarcinogenic
                             mycotoxins)       and their     metabolites      and DNA
                             adducts.       Develop a radioimmunoassay             (RIA) and
                             enzyme-linked        immunosorbent      assay (ELISA) for
                             mycotoxin      detection.

                              Start    date:      01/01/84

                             Termination         date:     12/31/90




                                                    108
APPENDIX III                                                                     APPENDIX III
Project        Number:    WI602830

          Title:    Elimination        of Aflatoxin        From Milk

      Objective8:             Maximize elimination            of aflatoxin       from milk using
                              hydrogen peroxide         plus riboflavin          or
                              lactoperoxidase,         bieulfide,       bentonite,    or
                              irradiation.         Determine      safety of treated       milk
                              and suitability        of such milk for manufacture              of
                              some dairy products.             Determine     fate of aflatoxin
                              in treated      milk.

                              Start   date:     07/01/83

                              Termination     datet     06/30/86

Project        Numberr    WI602919

      Title:        Effects     of Feeding Aflatoxins            to Sows on Disease
                    Susceptibility      in Young Pigs

      Objectives;             Determine   if corn contaminated     with aflatoxins
                              causes significant    imrnunasuppression    in fetal or
                              neonatal  pigs when sow6 are fed during gestation
                              or the lactation   period.

                              Start   dates     09/15/84

                              Termination     date:     09/30/88




                                                 109
APPENDIX III                                                                    APPENDIX III
Project    Number:      WISO5110

      Title:        Occurrence   of Mycotoxins in Feeds and Foods and Their
                    Effects   on Animal and Human Health

      Objectives:        Characterize       toxigenic        fungi,     substrates,       and
                         environmental        conditions        associated        with
                         mycotoxin     production.           Detect,     identify,       and
                         quantitate     mycotoxins         and their       metabolites       in
                         feeds and foods.           Investigate         effects      of
                         mycotoxins     on animal health             and productivity.
                         Improve diagnostic           criteria,       techniques,        and
                         treatments      for mycotoxicosis.              Study the
                         biosynthesis       and disposition           of mycotoxins        and
                         their    metabolites       in microbial,          plant,      and animal
                         systems.

                         Start    date:     10/01/85

                         Termination       date:     09/30/90




                                              110
APPENDIX III                                                                  APPENDIX III
Project        Number:      WIS05147

          Title:        Marketing  and Delivery of Quality          Cereals   and Oilseeds
                        in Domestic and Foreign Markets

          Objectives:        Relate quality       factors     to urgent safety     and
                             health    problems,     such as dust explosions,
                             microorganisms,       mycotoxins,      and chemical
                             (pesticide)      contamination.        Develop techniques
                             and instrumentation          for improving     the detection
                             and quantification         of quality    factors   in market
                             channels.

                              Start   date:      01/01/83

                             Termination        date:    09/30/88

Project        Number:      WYO-184-83

          Title:        Improve   Food Safety       Through Discovery    and Control   of
                        Natural   and Induced       Toxicants

          Objectives:         Determine       effects  and mode of action of natural
                              toxicants       in animals and assess human health
                              risk.

                              Start   date:      10/01/87

                              Termination       date:    09/30/92




                                                   111
APPENDIX III                                                            APPENDIX III
Project    Number:      wo-01000

      Title:        Effects    of Selected  Mycotoxins  on Immunological        and
                    Resistance    Mechanisms of Animals

      Objectives:        Determine     the presence,    extent,    and native    of
                         suppression      by selected   mycotoxins    on humoral
                         and cellular      mechanisms of immunity.      Investigate
                         possible     synergism    in immunogenis by aflatoxin
                         and T-2 toxin.

                         Start     Date:    03/28/83

                         Termination       Dater    12/31/87




                                              112
APPENDIX IV                                                   APPENDIX IV
                      MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS FACT SHEET

RESOURCES, COMMUNITY, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DIVISION,
WASHINGTON, D.C.

William    E. Gahr,    Associate     Director
Michael    J. Rahl,    Evaluator-in-Charge

CHICAGO REGIONAL OFFICE

Cynthia    S. Rasmussen,      Senior    Evaluator




(150601)    "

                                                113
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