._-. -. .“. ..- ._ COAST GUARD ---’ - Federal Costs Resulting From the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill United Statee Gei\eral Accounting Of’ftce Washington, D.C. 2054(1 Resources, Community, and Economic Development Division B-236137.5 January26,1990 The Honorable Earl Hutto, Chairman The Honorable John R. Kasich, Ranking Minority Member Subcommittee on Readiness Committee on Armed Services House of Representatives On April 10, 1989, you asked us to provide information on the federal costs of dealing with the Exxon Valdez oil spill, which occurred on March 24, 1989, in Alaska's Prince William Sound. The lo-million-gallon spill --the largest ever in U.S. waters-- triggered an extensive cleanup effort. A number of federal agencies contributed to the effort by monitoring and supporting the cleanup, helping to remove oil from the water and beaches, dealing with dead and injured wildlife, and assessing the damage to the environment. In your letter, you expressed concern that the federal agencies involved be fully reimbursed for their activities by Exxon, the company responsible for the spill. As agreed with Congressman Kasich, who was designated as our contact, we focused on determining Be what costs federal agencies estimate they have incurred, -- whether the agencies had procedures to seek reimbursement from Exxon, and -- the extent to which these agencies have been reimbursed. This interim report addresses estimated costs reported by federal agencies as of September 30, 1989, and reimbursements received through November 15, 1989. Our final report should be issued later this year. It will provide updated cost information and discuss (1) the adequacy of procedures for agencies to identify, document, and seek reimbursement for costs resulting from the spill; (2) the adequacy with which the Coast Guard communicated these procedures to the agencies involved; (3) the effectiveness of agencies' procedures to accurately identify total costs: and (4) the timeliness of the reimbursement process. B-236137.5 COSTS INCU&&EQ We found that nine agencies incurred costs from the spil1.l By July 1989, about 3 months after the spill, seven of these agencies were already accumulating their costs. As a result of our inquiries, the two agencies that were not accumulating costs have since done so for us. The nine agencies reported that they had incurred costs totaling $125.2 million through September 30, 1989. Of this amount, $111.8 million was for cleanup, $12.3 million was for damage assessment, and $1.1 million was for other costs resulting from the spill.2 Four agencies---the Departments of Defense, Transportation, the Interior, and Commerce-- accounted for 94 percent of the total costs. The Department of Defense, which had been directed by the President to assist in the cleanup, incurred the most, $62.8 million. The Department of Transportation, which through the Coast Guard was responsible for day-to-day coordination of federal cleanup activities, spent the next highest amount, $33.3 million. (See sec. 1 for further details on costs.) COST REIMBURSEMENT All but one of the nine agencies (the Department of Justice) have sought full or partial reimbursement. They have used two approaches to do so: lThe nine agencies were the Departments of Defense, the Interior, Commerce, Agriculture, Justice, Transportation, Health and Human Services, and Labor, and the Environmental Protection Agency. 2We classified costs incurred into three categories: cleanup or removal, damage assessment, and other costs. Cleanup costs cover the removal and disposal of oil. Damage assessment costs involve the evaluation of damages to natural resources. Other costs cover activities that do not fall in either the cleanup or the damage assessment category, such as the Indian Health Service's investigation of the contamination of the Alaska Natives' food supply. Future costs to restore the environment to its pre-spill state (restoration costs), as well as the cost of damages to which dollar values cannot be assigned, are not included in these B three categories. 2 , , I B-236137.5 -- The 311(k) fund, established by the Clean Water Act to finance the cleanup of oil spills and administered by the Coast Guard. Under the Coast Guard's regulations, agencies must seek advance authorization of their spill- related activities from the Coast Guard's on-scene coordinator and submit the costs of these activities to the Coast Guard for approval and referral to Exxon for reimbursement. we Separate and direct reimbursement agreements with Exxon. Under this approach, agencies deal directly with Exxon and receive reimbursement in accordance with the terms of the agreement. (See sec. 2 for further details on reimbursement procedures.) As of November 15, 1989, Exxon had reimbursed $80.8 million of the $125.2 million of costs incurred. The unreimbursed balance of $44.4 million includes amounts not yet billed to Exxon, bills being processed by agencies or Exxon, and amounts questioned by Exxon or the Coast Guard. Recovery of almost one-half of the $44.4 million, or $21.6 million, is uncertain for the following reasons: -- The Coast Guard or Exxon is determining the allowability of $17.8 million, most of it for Department of Defense activities. Concerns involve (1) charges for Army Corps of Engineers dredges, which Exxon considers excessive: (2) costs of various activities that the Coast Guard's on-scene coordinator did not approve in advance, as required by the regulations: and (3) costs for which the Coast Guard has requested more detailed documentation. -- Costs reported for damage assessment by the Departments of Agriculture, the Interior, and Commerce, and the Environmental Protection Agency exceed what Exxon has formally agreed to pay by $3.1 million. Exxon has made no formal commitment to pay this additional amount. -- The Department of Justice has not yet decided whether it will request reimbursement for its litigation costs of $0.7 million because it does not normally seek reimbursement for such costs. In addition, $1 million of the unreimbursed balance of $44 million will not be reimbursed. The Department of the Interior and two units within the Department of Health and Human Services have not coordinated with and obtained Vapproval from the Coast Guard's on-scene coordinator for the activities that these costs covered, and therefore, the Coast 3 B-236137.5 Guard cannot approve reimbursement for them. Knowing this, the two agencies do not plan to submit bills to the Coast Guard for the $1 million. (See sec. 3 for further details on reimbursements.) In the future, federal agencies will likely incur further cleanup and damage assessment costs, as well as area restoration costs. The total extent of additional cleanup, assessment, or other costs beyond September 30, 1989, is unknown. Agencies involved in assessing the damage to the environment expect to incur another $9.2 million in costs between October 1989 and February 1990. Although indications are that Exxon will pay future Coast Guard-approved federal cleanup costs, Exxon has made no formal commitment to pay additional costs incurred for damage assessment and spill restoration. For this report, we gathered information from nine federal agencies in Washington, D.C., and from field offices in Alameda, California; Seattle, Washington: and Anchorage, Alaska. We interviewed agency officials and analyzed cost data obtained from each agency. As agreed with Congressman Kasich, we accepted the amounts reported by the agencies without verification because an extensive review of each agency's time reporting and cost accounting systems, conducted at a number of geographically dispersed locations, would be a lengthy undertaking. We reviewed the information in this report with officials at the nine agencies, and they concurred with its accuracy. As arranged with your offices, unless you publicly announce its contents earlier, we plan no further distribution of this report until 30 days from the date of this letter. At that time, we will send copies to interested parties and make copies available upon request. Major contributors to this report are listed in appendix I. Should you need additional information on the contents of this report, please call me at (202) 275-1000. Kenneth M. Mead Y Director, Transportation Issues 4 . CONTENTS LETTER 1 SECTION 1 SUMMARYOF COSTS FEDERAL AGENCIES REPORTED FOR ACTIVITIES STEMMINGFROMTHE SPILL 7 2 PROCEDURES FOR OBTAINING REIMBURSEMENT 18 3 STATUS OF COST REIMBURSEMENTFOR FEDERAL AGENCIES' ACTIVITIES STEMMINGFROMTHE SPILL 22 APPENDIX I MAJOR CONTRIBUTORSTO THIS FACT SHEET 27 TABLE 1.1 Costs Reported by Federal Agencies (Through September 30, 1989) 9 1.2 Types of Activities Conducted by the Department of Defense 11 1.3 Types of Activities Conducted by the Department of Transportation 12 1.4 Types of Activities Conducted by the Department of the Interior 13 1.5 Types of Activities Conducted by the Department of Commerce 14 1.6 Types of Activities Conducted by Other Agencies 16 3.1 Status of Cost Reimbursements (as of November 15, 1989) 23 3.2 Payments That Are Uncertain--Agencies, Amounts, and Reasons 24 3.3 Costs That Federal Agencies Will Not Bill-- Amounts and Reasons 26 Y 5 FIGURE 1.1 Federal Agencies That Have Reported Costs From the won Valdez-Oil Spill 7 1.2 Distribution of Reported Federal Costs by TYPO 8 1.3 Distribution of Reported Federal Costs by Agency 10 1.4 Distribution of Department of Defense costs 11 1.5 Distribution of Department of Transportation costs 12 1.6 Distribution of Department of the Interior costs 13 1.7 Distribution of Department of Commerce Costs 14 1.8 Distribution of Costs of Other Agencies 15 2.1 Federal Agencies I Cost Reimbursement Approaches 18 2.2 Reimbursement Process Under 311(k) 20 3.1 Status of Reimbursement of Reported Costs (as of November 15, 1989) 22 Y 6 . ’ 1, II I : ii . , . AGENCIES REPORTEQ 0 Nine agencies incurred costs from the spil1.l -- By July 1989, about 3 months after the spill, seven agencies reported that they were already tracking and accumulating their costs. -- All units within the remaining two agencies were not accumulating costs because they either considered these activities to be part of their normal operations or were not aware they could obtain reimbursement. As a result of our inquiries, both agencies began accumulating cost data. Fiaure 1.1. . Federal Aaencie s That Have Reported Costs rom the Exxon Valdez Oil 5~3111 Agencies accumulating Additional agencies spill-related costs accumulating spill-related by July 1989 costs after our inquiries l Department of the lnterlor l Department of Labor l Department of Commerce l Department of Health and e Department of Agriculture Human SetvIces l Department of Defense l Department of Justice l Department of Transportation o Environmental Protection Agency lAn additional agency, the Department of Energy, also reported that it incurred some costs to study Alaska's oil production and delivery systems, but it did not identify or accumulate these costs because it considered the activities to be part of normal agency responsibilities. Energy is not seeking reimbursement and does not expect to be reimbursed. Because no estimate was available for these costs, we excluded Energy from our list. 7 I l Nine agencies reported total estimated costs to be $125.2 million in three main areas. , Fiaure 1.2. . Distributzon of Reaorted Federal Costs bv TV- Dagqe Assessment Costs ($12.3 Other Costs ($1 .l million) Cleanup Costs ($111.8 million) Note:Estimatedcosts shown am those incurredas of September30,1989. Y C&$ts Reported bv Federal Aaen&es (T&Qg&Jeoten&g Dollars in Millions I Cost for the fol.lowrPa act ivities Damage Aaencv assessment Other Total Department of Defense $ 62.8 $ 0 $ 0 $ 62.8 Department of Transportation 33.3 0 0 33.3 Department of the Interior 9.4 2.6 0 12.0 Department of Commerce 3.6 6.0 0 9.6 Department of Agriculture 1.9 2.8 0 4.7 Environmental Protection Agencya 0.6 0.9 0 1.5 Department of Justice 0 0 0.7 0.7 Department of Health and Human Services 0.1 0 0.4 0.5 Department of Labor 0.1 0 0 0.1 Total $111.8 Q&L $U $125.2 aThe amount for the Environmental Protection Agency does not include about $3.6 million for a research and development (bioremediation) study on the use of microorganisms to break down oil. Exxon agreed to provide direct cash contributions of about $1.7 million for the study. Y 9 l Four agencies accounted for 94 percent of the estimated costs reported. . . IX2 1.3, . Distribut&on of ReD0r-t ed Federal Costs by Agency Department of Transportation ($33.3 million) 9.6% Department of the Interior ($12.0 million) - 7.6% Department of Commerce ($9.6 million) 6% Fiie Other Agencies ($7.5 million) Departmentof Defense ($62.8 million) Nom: Estimated costs shown am those repor@ as of September 30,198Q. Estimated costs for the period total $125.2 million. 10 DEPARTMENTOF DEFENSECOSTS 0 Department of Defense estimated costs totaled $62.8 c F' .I osts 9.6Oh Air Force ($6.0 million) Army ($14.5 million) Navy ($42.3 million) : .;? ,’ Now Estfmatedcosts shown are fhow reportedasof September30,196Q. . a Tble : Defense. Cost e Navy Provided barrack ships to house cleanup crews and to support cleanup activities on nearby beaches. Also provided oil skimmers, booms, tow boats, other equipment, and personnel necessary to support the removal of oil from the water and shorelines. AmY Provided two Corps of Engineers dredges to help remove oil from the water. Also provided medical evacuation equipment and personnel to support the cleanup effort. Air Force Provided aircraft to transport material and equipment to Alaska. Also provided personnel and telecommunications and support services for the cleanup effort. 11 DEPARTMENTOF TRANSPORTATIONCOSTS * Department of Transportation estimated costs totaled $33.3 million. Federal Aviation Administration ($0.8 millbn) Coast Guard ($32.5 million) f Activities Conducted bv the Department of Cost incurred bv Descriptioq Coast Guard Responsible for the day-to-day monitoring of the cleanup, which included the use of Coast Guard vessels, aircraft, and personnel. Also, coordinated federal assistance in the cleanup effort. Federal Aviation Provided air traffic control services Administration for the area around Valdez. Y 12 Department of the Interior estimated costs totaled j ZlZ.0 million. Fiaure 1,6. . . Distribution of Department of the Interior costs Fiih and Wildlife Service ($4.4 million) National Park Service ($7.0 million) 4.8% Other ($0.8 million) Note: Estimatedcosts shown are those mpwted as of September 30.1999. Tab1 1. : _e T es Interior Cost incurred bv Descriwtion National Park Service Supervised cleanup on National Park lands, protected park resources from damage, and established a data base for future cleanup activities. Fish and Wildlife Captured sea otters and other animals Service affected by the spill. Assessed damage done to fish and wildlife habitats. Other Response and damage assessment activities of two agencies, including administrative support activities. Y 13 0 Department of Commerce estimated costs totaled $9.6 million (reported by units of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). e 1.7. . Dist.r.&ution of Dewartment of Comm erce Costs Natbnal Ocean Service ($3.4 million) National Marine Fisheries Service ($5.3 million) 9.4% Other ($0.9 million) Note: Estimated costs shown are those reported as of September 80,1989. Table 1.5: Tvwes of Activities Conducted bv the Dewartment of Commerce ocs Descriwtion National Ocean Service The Hazardous Material Response Branch coordinated all scientific data on the oil spill and advised the on-scene spill coordinator about the status of the oil spill. This included making nautical charts for Navy use. National Marine Identified salmon hatcheries and marine Fisheries Service mammal rookeries for protection and subsequent cleanup efforts, studied halibut habitat to determine if closures to fishing were necessary, and assessed the damage to the environment (use of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ships was included). Other This included the use of a helicopter, a weather stations, and buoys to support cleanup efforts and scientific studies. 14 ! 0 Five other agencies reported estimated costs totaling $7.5 i million. Environmental Protection Agency ($1.5 million) 93% Department of Justice ($0.7 million) 6.7% Department of Health and Human Services ($0.5 million) I I 1.3% I Department of Labor ($0.1 million) 1 Department of Agriculture ($4.7 million) Note: Estimatedcosts shown are those reportedas of September30,1989. Y 15 . _ . ,” cost incurred bv Descrigtion Department of Identified areas for protection ‘and Agriculture cleanup, monitored Exxon's cleanup, and assessed environmental damage. Environmental Monitored the extent of pollution and Protection advised the Coast Guard's on-scene Agency coordinator on cleanup strategies. Provided technical support for the on- scene coordinator, advised the State of Alaska on the disposal of hazardous material, and performed damage assessment studies. Department of Justice Investigated civil and criminal matters associated with the oil spill and prepared for potential future claims or litigation. Department of Health The National Institute for Occupational and Human Services Safety and Health investigated worker protection issues associated with the cleanup effort. The Indian Health Service provided health care services and subsistence support for Alaska natives affected by the oil spill. The Food and Drug Administration incurred costs for seafood testing and inspection for possible contamination. Department of Labor Investigated workers' complaints and injuries and ensured that worker safety regulations were met. Y 16 T OF FUTURE COSTS ,,d: ,I l The total extent of additional federal cleanup costs beyond September 30, 1989, is unknown, but there are indio&ions that Exxon will continue to reimburse agencies' costs that the Coast Guard approves. 0 The total extent of additional federal costs for damage assessment beyond February 1990 is unknown. Fe-deral agencies project additional costs of $9.2 million for damage assessment from October 1989 through February 1990, but Exxon has made no, formal commitment to pay these costs. 0 The amounts that federal agencies may incur in the future to restore spill areas to their pre-spill state are unknown, and Exxon has made no formal commitment to pay these costs. 17 SECTION 2 0 Agencies have used two approaches to seek reimbursement from Exxon. -- Section 311(k) fund: Seven of the nine agencies have sought reimbursement from a fund established under section 311(k) of the Clean Water Act. -- Direct aareement: Three of the nine agencies have established direct agreements with Exxon (two of the three are also using the 311(k) process for costs not covered under direct agreements). a One agency has not decided whether to file reimbursement claims for its litigation costs because it does not normally seek such reimbursement. F7 : Aaencies' Cos eimbursement A roaches Agencies seeking Agencies seeking Agency that has not reimbursement from Exxon reimbursement from Exxon decided whether to using process under through direct agreement seek reimbursement section 311 (k) of the from Exxon Clean Water Act l Department of the Interior l Department of the Interior l Department of Justice l Department of Commerce l Department of Commerce l Department of Defense l Department of Agriculture l Department of Transportation l Environmental Protection l Department of Labor l Department of Health and Human Services 18 I,_(. ,._ 5’ : 1 1 ! 0 The basic characteristics of the 311(k) process are the following: -- Typically used only for 18federalized*1 spills--those,in which the federal government, rather than the spiller, assumes charge of the cleanup. -- Funded mainly from appropriations, with the spiller reimbursing the federal government when federal agencies incur costs from the cleanup. -- Covers cleanun costs (costs for removing oil from the water and beaches). -- Does not cover damaae assessment costs (costs for assessing the damage the spill has caused to the natural environment) or restoration costs (costs for restoring the natural environment to its pre-spill state). -- Administered by the Coast Guard, whose regulations require that activities stemming from the spill be pre-approved by the Coast Guard's on-scene coordinator in order to be reimbursed. 0 After the spill, the Coast Guard began using this reimbursement process for the Exxon Valdez spill. -- Although Exxon took charge of the cleanup, federal involvement was substantial because of the magnitude of the spill and the cleanup needed. -- From the outset, Exxon has been paying for federal cleanup costs. -- The Coast Guard began using the 311(k) fund because it was an existing and readily accessible fund that the Coast Guard was authorized to administer. -- The Coast Guard notified agencies that would be involved in the spill cleanup to prepare "sufficient, complete, and correct11 reports for all cleanup costs, including those for personnel, equipment, travel, and purchases. Y 19 . MI-NT PROCESSWQER 31l(XL 1. Agencies submit costs to the Coast Guard for approva;l. 2. The Coast Guard passes approved costs on to Exxon. 3. Exxon reimburses the 311(k) fund for amounts approved by the Coast Guard. 4. The Coast Guard reimburses agencies from the 311(k) fund for the submitted and approved costs. . Fiaure 2.2. ReimbusRement Process Under 3ll(kl Federal agencies eubmlt costs b l Costs it approves from other to Coast Quard for approval agencies 0 Its own costs Exxon I Federal agencies receive reimbursement passed on by the Coast Quard receives I Coast Quard reimbursement from Exxon 20 0 Agreement between Exxon and the Forest Service (a Department of Agriculture agency) -- Signed on April 7, 1989, this agreement provided for payment of cleanup costs on national forest lands: reimbursement of salaries, travel, lodging, equipment, and supplies, plus an overhead reimbursement of 15.9 percent of direct costs. l Agreement between Exxon and four trustees--Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, and the Interior, and the State of Alaska -- Signed on April 13, 1989, this agreement provided for reimbursement of damage assessment costs. -- Exxon agreed to pay $15 million in total, with $8.5 million provided initially and the additional $6.5 million to be provided in $1 million increments whenever the advance balance becomes less than $300,000. -- The federal (Agriculture, Commerce, and the Interior) share of the agreement was $9.2 million of the full amount and $6.3 million of the first $8.5 million. Y 21 STATUS OF COST =X&BURSEMENT I III l Status of cost reimbursement as of November 15, 1989 -- The status of reimbursement falls into four categories. 1. Payments received from Exxon. 2. Bills being processed by agencies or Exxon. 3. Payments that are uncertain because (1) the Coast Guard or Exxon has determined that the costs reported may not be reimbursable, (2) Exxon has made no formal commitment to pay for a part of the damage assessment costs reported, and/or (3) an agency has not decided to bill Exxon for its costs. 4. Amounts that will not be billed because agencies do not plan to seek reimbursement. ] . Costs (as of Fovember 15, 3.989) Payment Uncertain ($21.6 million) .8% Amount That Will Not Be Billed ($1.O million) Bills Being Processed by Agencies or Exxon ($21.8 million) d Payment Received From Exxon ($80.8 million) Note: Estimated costs are those reported as of September 80,1969. Estimated costs for this period Y totaled $125.2 million. 22 Ixtnounts Anwrunt uncertain paid by or not m- $ 62.8 $41.5 $ 4.6 $16.7 1Departmentof !lkamportation 33.3 27.0 6.3 0 1Depaemmtofthe Interior 12.0 3.0 8.5 0.5 Departmentof 9.6 4.7 2.1 2.8 Department of Fqriculture 4.7 4.4 0.2 0.1 Envimmtal Protection Agency 1.5 0.2 0 1.3 1Departmentof Justice 0.7 0 0 0.7 1Deparhnentof HealthandHuman Services 0.5 0 0 0.5 Department of Labor 0.1 0 0.1 0 Total Q&i& $80.8 W& 23 PAYMENTUNCERTAIN 0 The approval of $21.6 million is uncertain for six agencies. s That Are Uncertain--Aaencies, Amounts. and Reasons Dollars in Millions Asencv Amount Reason Department $7.4 The Corps of Engineers of Defense provided two dredges, for removing oil from the water. Exxon wants to pay skimmer rates rather than the higher rates for dredges charged by the Corps, according to the Coast Guard. 7.1 The Coast Guard has asked for additional data to support the amounts billed for Navy barrack ships and landing craft and for Army oil spotting services. 1.8 The Army provided medical evacuation equipment and personnel in support of the cleanup effort. The Coast Guard maintains that the on-scene coordinator did not request or authorize these services. 0.4 The Air Force provided telecommunication services to coordinate the Department of Defense's activities, according to Department of Defense officials. The Coast Guard maintains that these services were not requested or authorized by the Coast Guard's on-scene coordinator. Departments $3.1 Exxon has made no formal commitment of Agriculture, to pay more than $15 million in the Interior, and damage assessment costs to federal Commerce agencies and the State of Alaska. As of September 30, 1989, damage assessment costs incurred by the federal agencies totaled $3.1 Y million more than their share of 24 Acrencv Amount Peasor! the $15 million Exxon had agreed to PaYe Department of 0.3 The Coast Guard wanted additional Commerce support for the amounts billed for fisheries, weather, and public affairs services. / Department of 0.7 According to agency officials, , Justice Justice does not normally seek reimbursement of its costs, but it is tracking and accumulating its costs pending any future litigation. Environmental 0.6 The Environmental Protection Protection Agency submitted a bill to the Agency Department of Transportation without any supporting data or documentation. The Coast Guard requested additional support for the bill. I I Department of 0.2 According to agency officials, the Health and Food and Drug Administration is Human Services seeking approval from the Coast Guard on-scene coordinator for costs related to its food inspection activities in the spill area: the Food and Drug Administration is preparing documentation to obtain this approval. Y 25 0 Two agencies will not submit bills for $1.0 million of their costs. le 3.3. . Costs That Federal Aaencies Will Not Bill--Amounts and PeasQns Dollars in Millions Aqencv Amount: Heason Department $0.7 Interior established a data base of the Interior for evaluating the impact the oil spill would have on its national park resources in Alaska, according to agency officials. These activities were initiated under Interior's authority; and because they were not coordinated with the Coast Guard's on-scene coordinator, Interior has no plan to submit them to the Coast Guard for reimbursement through the 311(k) fund. Department 0.3 According to agency officials, the of Health Indian Health Service and the and Human National Institute for Occupational Services Safety and Health did not obtain prior approval from the Coast Guard for their activities; hence, these organizations have not submitted bills because the Coast Guard would not approve them for reimbursement. Y 26 APPENDIX I APPENDIX I OR CONTmUTORji TO w.5 FACT SHE= OURczE;s.COmTY. AND ECONOMICDEVETOPMFNTDIVISION, PASHINGTON, D.C. Ronald J. Maccaroni, Assistant Director Steven R. Gazda, Evaluator-in-Charge Robert G. Taub, Evaluator OFFICE COUNSEL Jackie A. Goff, Senior Attorney Randall B. Williamson, Assignment Manager Ronald E. Thompson, Site Senior Stanley G. Stenersen, Evaluator (344451) Y 27 2 -- WC - J .A 2 _- -. Ii = zz 2-L ;I A
Coast Guard: Federal Costs Resulting From the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill
Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1990-01-26.
Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)