oversight

Food Stamp Program: Characteristics of Households Affected by Limit on the Shelter Deduction

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1997-05-14.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                  United States General Accounting Office

GAO               Report to the Ranking Minority Member,
                  Subcommittee on Children and Families,
                  Committee on Labor and Human
                  Resources, U.S. Senate

May 1997
                  FOOD STAMP
                  PROGRAM
                  Characteristics of
                  Households Affected
                  by Limit on the Shelter
                  Deduction




GAO/RCED-97-118
      United States
GAO   General Accounting Office
      Washington, D.C. 20548

      Resources, Community, and
      Economic Development Division

      B-276578

      May 14, 1997

      The Honorable Christopher J. Dodd
      Ranking Minority Member
      Subcommittee on Children and Families
      Committee on Labor and Human Resources
      United States Senate

      Dear Senator Dodd:

      The Food Stamp Program, the nation’s largest food assistance program,
      provided almost $22.5 billion in benefits to a monthly average of more than
      25 million low-income participants in fiscal year 1996. In 1996, the
      Congress made changes in the Food Stamp Program that, according to the
      Congressional Budget Office, will reduce program expenditures by a
      projected total of $23.1 billion for the 6-year period from fiscal year 1997
      through 2002. These changes were mandated by the Personal
      Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (P.L.
      104-193, Aug. 22, 1996), which overhauled the nation’s welfare system.

      One provision of this act affects how the income of a household that
      receives food stamps is considered in determining the dollar value of the
      household’s monthly food stamp benefit. Under the Food Stamp Program,
      the net monthly income of a household is one of the factors used to
      calculate the food stamp benefit. Net monthly income is determined by
      subtracting a number of approved deductions from the household’s gross
      monthly income. One of these deductions is for shelter expenses that
      exceed 50 percent of a household’s income after other allowable
      deductions have been taken. This deduction is known as the excess
      shelter expense deduction. Included among deductible shelter expenses
      are rent, mortgage payments, utility bills, property taxes, and insurance.
      The purpose of the excess shelter expense deduction is to take into
      consideration the effect of higher-than-average shelter costs on a
      low-income household’s ability to purchase an adequate amount of food.

      The welfare reform act retained an existing limit, or cap, on the amount of
      excess shelter expenses that can be deducted from income for households
      receiving food stamps without elderly or disabled members.1 In fiscal year
      1995, the cap on excess shelter expenses that could be deducted from




      1
       Elderly and disabled are defined in 7 CFR section 271.2.



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                   gross income was $231 a month.2 Under previous legislation, the cap was
                   scheduled to be removed on January 1, 1997.3 With the cap maintained,
                   some households without elderly or disabled members will receive a
                   smaller food stamp benefit than they would have received if the cap had
                   been removed. This is because these households are not allowed to deduct
                   all of their excess shelter expenses from their income used to calculate
                   their monthly food stamp benefit.

                   In October 1996, you asked us to study several issues related to the impact
                   of welfare reform on the Food Stamp Program. This report is the first in a
                   series addressing the legislative changes to the Food Stamp Program
                   mandated by the 1996 welfare reform act. In this report, we describe, for
                   fiscal year 1995, the (1) characteristics of households whose food stamp
                   benefits were limited because of the cap on their deduction for excess
                   shelter expenses and (2) extent to which food stamp benefits would have
                   been higher for these households if there had not been a cap.

                   To analyze the characteristics of households whose food stamp benefits
                   were limited by the cap, we used the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s
                   (USDA) database on the characteristics of food stamp households for fiscal
                   year 1995, the most current year for which data are available. Appendix II
                   contains a description of the USDA database used in our analysis,
                   information on sampling errors (margins of error), and further details on
                   our methodology.


                   In fiscal year 1995, households whose food stamp benefits were limited
Results in Brief   because of the cap on the deduction for excess shelter expenses differed
                   in several key respects from households not affected by this cap. Nearly all
                   households affected by the cap had children, while only slightly more than
                   half of households not affected by the cap had children. Moreover,
                   households affected by the cap were more likely to (1) be headed by a
                   single female, (2) have noncitizen members, (3) have earned income, and
                   (4) live in urban areas. Affected households also typically had more
                   household members and received more in food stamp benefits than those
                   not affected by the cap. Finally, households affected by the cap tended to
                   be located in the Northeast and West, while households not affected by the
                   cap tended to be located in the South.



                   2
                    The cap was $231 a month in the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia, $402 in Alaska,
                   $330 in Hawaii, $280 in Guam, and $171 in the Virgin Islands.
                   3
                    Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 (P.L. 103-66, Aug. 10, 1993).


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             In the absence of the cap on the excess shelter expense deduction in fiscal
             year 1995, the average monthly food stamp benefit for affected households
             would have been about 12 percent, or $31, higher. Total federal food stamp
             expenditures would have increased by 1.9 percent, for a total of
             $417 million in fiscal year 1995. The largest increase would have been for
             households in the Northeast, where average shelter costs are the highest.
             Nationwide, households in urban areas would have received larger
             increases than those in rural areas. Households in New York and
             California would have received almost half of these additional benefits.


             The Food Stamp Program helps low-income individuals and families
Background   obtain a more nutritious diet by supplementing the funds they have to
             spend on food with food stamp benefits. In fiscal year 1995, the average
             monthly food stamp benefit was $172 per household. These benefits are
             generally provided through coupons or electronically on debit cards
             (similar to a bank card) that may be used to purchase food at authorized
             stores.

             The Food Stamp Program is a federal-state partnership, with the federal
             government paying the full cost of the food stamp benefits and
             approximately half of the states’ administrative costs. USDA’s Food and
             Consumer Service administers the program at the federal level. States’
             responsibilities include certifying eligible households, calculating benefit
             amounts, and issuing benefits to participants who meet the income and
             asset standards set by the Congress.

             After a household is certified as being eligible for food stamps, the
             household’s monthly food stamp benefit is computed on the basis of
             several factors, including the household’s net monthly income. A
             household’s net monthly income is computed by subtracting six allowable
             deductions from the household’s gross monthly income: a standard
             deduction, an earned income deduction, a dependent care deduction, a
             medical deduction,4 a child support deduction, and an excess shelter
             expense deduction. A household’s monthly food stamp benefit is
             computed by subtracting 30 percent of the household’s net income from
             the maximum allowable food stamp benefit for the household’s size.5 This

             4
              The medical deduction allows households that contain elderly or disabled members to deduct all
             medical costs incurred by the elderly or disabled person that exceed $35 per month if these expenses
             are not paid by insurance or someone else.
             5
              In fiscal year 1995, the maximum food stamp benefit ranged from $115 for a household of one to $695
             for a household of eight. For each additional household member after eight, the benefit increased by
             $87 in the contiguous United States.



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                                        last step is based on two assumptions. First, the maximum food stamp
                                        benefit represents the amount a household with zero net income would
                                        need to purchase food for nutritious but inexpensive meals each month.
                                        Second, a household is expected to spend 30 percent of its net income to
                                        buy enough food for a month. See appendix I for an example of how the
                                        net monthly income and food stamp benefit were calculated for a single
                                        female-headed household with three children in fiscal year 1995.

                                        In fiscal year 1995, about two-thirds, or about 7.2 million, of the almost
                                        10.9 million food stamp households took the deduction for excess shelter
                                        expenses. Of the households taking the deduction, about 2.3 million were
                                        not subject to the deduction cap because they contained an elderly or
                                        disabled person. Of the remaining households taking the excess shelter
                                        expense deduction and subject to the cap, about 1.1 million households
                                        would have received more in food stamp benefits in the absence of the
                                        cap. These 1.1 million affected households, which represent about 10
                                        percent of all food stamp households, would have received more in food
                                        stamp benefits in the absence of the cap because they (1) had excess
                                        shelter expenses they could not deduct from their income and (2) were
                                        not receiving the maximum allowable food stamp benefit. In contrast,
                                        about 90 percent, or about 9.8 million households, were not affected by the
                                        cap on the excess shelter expense deduction in fiscal year 1995 because
                                        (1) they did not take the deduction, (2) they had household members who
                                        were elderly or disabled, (3) their excess shelter expenses were lower
                                        than the cap, or (4) they were already receiving the maximum allowable
                                        food stamp benefit even though they had excess shelter expenses that
                                        were greater than the $231 cap. Table 1 shows the number and percentage
                                        of households taking the excess shelter expense deduction, and table 2
                                        shows the number and percentage of households affected and not affected
                                        by the cap on the excess shelter expense deduction in fiscal year 1995.

Table 1: Number and Percentage of
Households Taking the Excess Shelter                                            Number of                Percent of
Expense Deduction in Fiscal Year 1995   Type of household                      households               households
                                        All food stamp households               10,882,782                     100.0
                                        Did not take excess shelter              3,636,530                      33.4
                                        expense deduction
                                        Took excess shelter expense              7,246,252                      66.6
                                        deduction




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Table 2: Number and Percentage of
Households Affected and Not Affected   Type of household                         Number of households                Percent of households
by the Cap on the Deduction for        Benefits affected by cap on                                1,115,583                             10.3
Excess Shelter Expenses, Fiscal Year   excess shelter expense
1995                                   deduction
                                       Benefits not affected by the                               9,767,199a                            89.7
                                       cap on excess shelter
                                       expense deduction
                                       Did not take shelter deduction                             3,636,530                             33.4
                                       Not subject to cap because                                 2,316,844                             21.3
                                       of elderly and disabled
                                       members
                                       Not affected by the $231 cap                               3,049,980                             28.0
                                       because households’ excess
                                       shelter expense deduction
                                       was less than the cap
                                       Not affected by the $231 cap                                 763,845                              7.0
                                       because household was
                                       receiving maximum benefit
                                       a
                                           9,767,199=3,636,530+2,316,844+3,049,980+763,845




                                       In fiscal year 1995, the 1.1 million households affected by the cap on the
Characteristics of                     deduction for excess shelter expenses differed in several aspects from
Households and                         households not affected by the cap. Appendix III provides more detailed
Participants Affected                  information on the characteristics of affected households. Below is a
                                       description of the characteristics of households affected by the cap in
by the Cap on Excess                   terms of their composition, income, shelter expenses, geographic location,
Shelter Expense                        and level of food stamp benefits.
Deduction
Household Composition                  In fiscal year 1995, households affected by the excess shelter cap were
                                       more likely than households not affected to (1) contain children, (2) be
                                       headed by a single female,6 (3) have more members, and (4) have more
                                       noncitizen members.7

                                       Children were members of about 93 percent of the 1.1 million food stamp
                                       households affected by the excess shelter cap. In contrast, children were
                                       members of about 56 percent of the food stamp households not affected
                                       by the cap. See figure 1.

                                       6
                                        By definition, a single female-headed household has one adult female age 18 or older plus one or more
                                       children.
                                       7
                                        A noncitizen (alien) is anyone not born in the United States or not a naturalized citizen.



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Figure 1: Percent of Affected and Not Affected Households With Children

                                      6.7%                                                                    Households without
                                      Households without                                                      children
                                      children




                                                                               44.2%
                                                                                             55.8%
                                                                                                              Households with
              93.3%                                                                                           children
                                       Households with
                                       children



         Affected Households                                                        Not Affected Households



                                          In total, affected households contained about 2.3 million children under
                                          the age of 18. These children represented about 17 percent of all children
                                          receiving food stamp benefits in fiscal year 1995. Moreover, slightly more
                                          than half of the affected households, 51.4 percent, contained preschool
                                          children, while about one-third, 32.2 percent, of households not affected
                                          by the cap on the excess shelter expense deduction contained preschool
                                          children.8

                                          Single females headed almost two-thirds of the food stamp households
                                          affected by the excess shelter cap in fiscal year 1995. In contrast, slightly
                                          more than one-third of the households not affected by the cap were
                                          headed by single females. (See fig. 2.)




                                          8
                                           Households with children less than 5 years old.



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Figure 2: Percent of Affected and Not
Affected Households Headed by a          75        Percent of households
Single Female                            70
                                         65           63.4

                                         60
                                         55
                                         50
                                         45
                                         40                       36.7
                                         35
                                         30
                                         25
                                         20
                                         15
                                         10
                                             5
                                             0
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                                         The average size of affected households was larger than not affected
                                         households, 3.4 and 2.4 members, respectively (see fig. 3). The difference
                                         was primarily due to the fact that a greater percentage of affected
                                         households had children.




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Figure 3: Average Size of Affected and
Not Affected Households                   4.0       Average number in household


                                          3.5          3.4


                                          3.0


                                          2.5                     2.4


                                          2.0


                                          1.5


                                          1.0


                                          0.5


                                              0
                                                        s



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                                          A higher percent of affected households, 18.2 percent, contained a
                                          noncitizen compared with 9.8 percent of not affected households (see fig.
                                          4). Under the 1996 welfare reform act, many noncitizens will no longer
                                          receive food stamp benefits.




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Figure 4 : Percent of Affected and Not Affected Households Containing Noncitizens



                                                                                                        9.8% Households with
                                                                                                             noncitizen member
                   18.2%           Households with
                                   noncitizen member




       81.8%                                                                      90.2%




                                    Households without                                                                Households without
                                    noncitizen member                                                                 noncitizen member


         Affected Households                                                      Not Affected Households


Income                                    Households affected by the cap tended to have more income than
                                          households not affected by the cap.9 In fiscal year 1995, a smaller
                                          percentage of affected households had gross monthly incomes equal to or
                                          below 50 percent of the poverty level than did not affected households,
                                          34.8 percent and 43.4 percent, respectively. Figure 5 shows these
                                          differences.




                                          9
                                           All affected households had gross income. However, 10.8 percent (+ or - .8% ) of not affected
                                          households had no gross income.



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Figure 5: Percent of Affected and Not Affected Households in Relationship to the Poverty Level




                   34.8%           Gross income is 50%
                                   of poverty level or less

                                                                                               43.4%               Gross income is 50%
                                                                             56.6%
                                                                                                                   of poverty level or less
       65.2%




                                    Gross income is over                                                            Gross income is over
                                    50% of poverty level                                                            50% of poverty level


         Affected Households                                                       Not Affected Households



                                           Households affected by the cap had higher average gross monthly incomes
                                           than households not affected by the cap, $643 and $500, respectively.
                                           Gross income can include both earned and unearned income. The sources
                                           of unearned income came from public assistance programs, such as Aid to
                                           Families With Dependent Children (AFDC),10 General Assistance,
                                           Supplemental Security Income, and Social Security. A greater percentage
                                           of affected households—about one-third—had earned income than not
                                           affected households—about one-fifth. (See fig. 6.)




                                           10
                                             P.L. 104-193 terminated AFDC and replaced it with block grants for temporary assistance for needy
                                           families (known as TANF).



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Figure 6: Percent of Affected and Not Affected Households With and Without Earned Income




                    32.4%            Earned income                                       20.2%                      Earned income




        67.6%                                                                  79.8%




                                     No earned income                                                               No earned income



          Affected Households                                                   Not Affected Households



                                         The percent of households with children having earned income was
                                         comparable for affected and not affected households, 31.3 percent and
                                         29.8 percent, respectively.11


Shelter Expenses                         Affected households had average shelter expenses more than twice as high
                                         as not affected households, $618 and $254, respectively. Affected
                                         households with children had average monthly shelter expenses of $621
                                         compared with $262 for not affected households with children. Figure 7
                                         shows the average monthly shelter expenses for affected and not affected
                                         households with and without children.




                                         11
                                          There is not a significant difference between the reported comparison of earned income for affected
                                         and not affected households.



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Figure 7: Average Monthly Shelter
Expenses for Affected and Not          Average monthly shelter expense (dollars)
Affected Households With and Without   650
                                             618                  621
Children
                                       600
                                                                                     568
                                       550
                                       500
                                       450
                                       400
                                       350
                                       300
                                                       254                    262
                                                                                             245
                                       250
                                       200
                                       150
                                       100
                                        50
                                         0

                                               All households      Households with    Households
                                                                   children           without children



                                                        Affected households

                                                        Not affected households




Geographic Location                    Households affected by the cap tended to be located in different parts of
                                       the nation than those not affected by the cap. Affected households tended
                                       to be concentrated in the Northeast, 37.5 percent, and West, 27.9 percent,
                                       while not affected households tended to be located in the South,
                                       41.5 percent. However, both affected and not affected households, 88.8
                                       and 76.4 percent, respectively, tended to be located in urban areas. Table 3
                                       shows the differences and similarities in the location of these households.




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Table 3: Percent of Affected and Not
Affected Households by Location                                                                Percent of                     Percent of
                                                                                                 affected                    not affected
                                       Locationa                                              households                     households
                                       Northeast                                                     37.5                              18.3
                                                   b
                                       Midwest                                                       18.0                              21.6
                                       South                                                         16.5                              41.5
                                       West                                                          27.9                              18.5
                                       Totalc                                                       100.0                             100.0
                                       Urban                                                         88.8                              76.4
                                       Rural                                                         11.2                              23.6
                                       Total                                                        100.0                             100.0
                                       a
                                        The Northeast includes Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New
                                       York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. The Midwest includes Illinois, Indiana, Iowa,
                                       Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and
                                       Wisconsin. The South includes Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Colombia, Florida,
                                       Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina,
                                       Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia. The West includes Alaska, Arizona, California,
                                       Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and
                                       Wyoming. A household is considered to be located in an urban area if the county in which its
                                       local food stamp agency is located is in a Metropolitan Statistical Area as defined by the Census
                                       Bureau. A household is considered to be located in a rural area if the county in which its local
                                       food stamp agency is located is not in a Metropolitan Statistical Area as defined by the Census
                                       Bureau.
                                       b
                                        There is not a significant difference between the reported comparison of affected and not
                                       affected households in the Midwest.
                                       c
                                           Totals do not add up to 100 percent due to rounding.



                                       Over half, 53.9 percent, of food stamp households affected by the cap,
                                       were located in four states—California, Michigan, New York, and
                                       Pennsylvania. In comparison 26 percent of households not affected by the
                                       cap were located in these four states.


Food Stamp Benefit                     Affected households had larger monthly food stamp benefits than not
Amounts                                affected households. The average monthly food stamp benefit for affected
                                       households was $261 compared with an average monthly food stamp
                                       benefit for not affected households of $162. This was also true for affected
                                       households with children compared with not affected households with
                                       children; $271 and $225 per month in food stamp benefits, respectively.
                                       Figure 8 shows the average monthly food stamp benefit for affected and
                                       not affected households with and without children.




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Figure 8: Average Monthly Food Stamp
Benefits for Affected and Not Affected   300   Average monthly food stamp benefit (dollars per month)
Households With and Without Children                               271
                                               261
                                         250
                                                                               225


                                         200

                                                        162

                                         150
                                                                                       121

                                         100
                                                                                                 81


                                          50



                                           0

                                                 All households      Households with     Households
                                                                     children            without children



                                                         Affected households

                                                         Not affected households




                                         In fiscal year 1995, almost 70 percent of affected households were
                                         receiving more than 75 percent but less than 100 percent of the allowable
                                         maximum food stamp benefit.


                                         Food stamp benefits for the 1.1 million households affected by the cap
Food Stamp Benefit                       would have increased by about 12 percent, on average, or about $31 per
Increases in Absence                     month, in absence of the cap in fiscal year 1995. Appendix III contains
of a Cap                                 detailed information on the characteristics of food stamp households that
                                         would have received increases in benefits in the absence of a cap.

                                         As a result of the increased benefit, an affected household’s average
                                         monthly food stamp benefit would have increased from $261 to $292 in
                                         fiscal year 1995. Food stamp benefits for affected households with
                                         children would have increased from $271 to $303.




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                                          By geographic location, affected households in the Northeast, where
                                          average shelter costs for households receiving food stamps were the
                                          highest at $688, would have received the largest average monthly increase,
                                          $41. Households in urban areas would have received larger average
                                          monthly increases, $32, than in rural areas, $25. Figure 9 shows the
                                          average monthly increase in food stamp benefits by state in absence of a
                                          cap on the excess shelter expense deduction in fiscal year 1995.


Figure 9: Average Monthly Increase in Food Stamp Benefits by State in Absence of the Cap in Fiscal Year 1995




                                                        Less than $20
                                                        $20 - < $30
                                                        $30 - < $40
                                                        $40 or more




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                                          In the absence of the cap, total federal food stamp expenditures would
                                          have increased by approximately 1.9 percent, or $34.7 million monthly, for
                                          a total of $417 million, in fiscal year 1995. More than 95 percent, or
                                          $400 million, of the total increase would have gone to households with
                                          children. Almost 80 percent of all additional benefits would have gone to
                                          households in 10 states. Of these 10 states, California and New York would
                                          have received almost half of these additional benefits. Table 4 shows the
                                          10 states that would have received the largest percentage share of the
                                          increases in benefits in absence of the cap in fiscal year 1995 and the
                                          percentage of food stamp benefits provided to those states in that fiscal
                                          year.

Table 4: The 10 States With the Largest
Percentage Share of the Increase in                                                                       Percent of total
Benefits in the Absence of the Cap on                                           Percent of total      food stamp benefits
the Excess Shelter Expense                                                  increase in benefits               received in
Deduction, Compared to States’ Share      State                           in absence of the cap           fiscal year 1995
of Total Fiscal Year 1995 Benefits        New York                                         32.3                        8.5
                                          California                                       17.2                      11.1
                                          Michigan                                          5.4                        3.7
                                          Massachusetts                                     4.7                        1.5
                                          Pennsylvania                                      4.2                        4.4
                                          Washington                                        3.9                        1.9
                                          Texas                                             3.3                      10.2
                                          New Jersey                                        3.2                        2.2
                                          Florida                                           3.1                        5.6
                                          Connecticut                                       2.7                        0.8



                                          We provided copies of this report to USDA for its review and comment. We
Agency Comments                           met with officials of the Department, including the Director of Family
                                          Programs Staff, Office of Analysis and Evaluation, Food and Consumer
                                          Service, who agreed with the data as presented in this report.

                                          We conducted our review from December 1996 through April 1997 under
                                          generally accepted government auditing standards. However, we not did
                                          verify the accuracy and reliability of the data from USDA’s database on
                                          households receiving food stamps in fiscal year 1995.


                                          As arranged with your office, unless you publicly announce its contents
                                          earlier, we plan no further distribution of this report until 7 days from the




                                          Page 16                                      GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
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date of this letter. At that time, we will send copies of this report to the
Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry; the House
Committee on Agriculture; other interested congressional committees; and
the Secretary of Agriculture. We will also make copies available upon
request.

If you have any questions about this report, I can be reached at
(202) 512-5138. Major contributors to this report are listed in appendix IV.

Sincerely yours,




Robert A. Robinson
Director, Food and
  Agriculture Issues




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Contents



Letter                                                                                           1


Appendix I                                                                                      22

Example of
Calculation of Food
Stamp Benefit
Appendix II                                                                                     24
                        USDA’s Database on Households Receiving Food Stamps                     24
Methodology             Estimating Benefits in Absence of the Cap on the Excess Shelter         25
                          Expense Deduction

Appendix III                                                                                    32

Detailed Information
on Households
Receiving Food
Stamps Affected by
the Cap on Excess
Shelter Expense
Deduction
Appendix IV                                                                                     52

Major Contributors to
This Report
Tables                  Table 1: Number and Percentage of Households Taking the                  4
                          Excess Shelter Expense Deduction in Fiscal Year 1995
                        Table 2: Number and Percentage of Households Affected and Not            5
                          Affected by the Cap on the Deduction for Excess Shelter
                          Expenses, Fiscal Year 1995
                        Table 3: Percent of Affected and Not Affected Households by             13
                          Location




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          Contents




          Table 4: The 10 States With the Largest Percentage Share of the           16
            Increase in Benefits in the Absence of the Cap on the Excess
            Shelter Expense Deduction, Compared to States’ Share of Total
            Fiscal Year 1995 Benefits
          Table I.1: Example of Calculation of Food Stamp Benefit                   23
          Table II.1: Sampling Errors for Number and Percent by Type of             26
            Household
          Table II.2: Sampling Errors for Estimates Reported Concerning             27
            Affected and Not Affected Households
          Table II.3: Sampling Errors for Estimates of Reported Food                29
            Stamp Benefit Increases in the Absence of the Cap
          Table II.4: Sampling Errors for Other Reported Estimates                  30
          Table III.1: Characteristics of All Affected Households, Fiscal           32
            Year 1995
          Table III.2: Characteristics of All Affected Households with              34
            Children, Fiscal Year 1995
          Table III.3: Characteristics of All Affected Households, by State,        36
            Fiscal Year 1995
          Table III.4: Characteristics of All Affected Households with              40
            Children, by State, Fiscal Year 1995
          Table III.5: Sampling Errors for Selected Monetary Amounts                44
            Presented in Table III.1 for All Affected Households, Fiscal Year
            1995
          Table III.6: Sampling Errors for Selected Monetary Amounts                46
            Presented in Table III.2 For All Affected Households with
            Children, Fiscal Year 1995
          Table III.7: Sampling Errors for Selected Monetary Amounts of             48
            All Affected Households, by State, Presented in Table III.3, Fiscal
            Year 1995
          Table III.8: Sampling Errors for Selected Monetary Amounts of             50
            All Affected Households With Children, by State, Presented in
            Table III.4, Fiscal Year 1995

Figures   Figure 1: Percent of Affected and Not Affected Households With             6
            Children
          Figure 2: Percent of Affected and Not Affected Households                  7
            Headed by a Single Female
          Figure 3: Average Size of Affected and Not Affected Households             8
          Figure 4: Percent of Affected and Not Affected Households                  9
            Containing Noncitizens




          Page 19                                    GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
Contents




Figure 5: Percent of Affected and Not Affected Households in            10
  Relationship to the Poverty Level
Figure 6: Percent of Affected and Not Affected Households With          11
  and Without Earned Income
Figure 7: Average Monthly Shelter Expenses for Affected and Not         12
  Affected Households With and Without Children
Figure 8: Average Monthly Food Stamp Benefits for Affected and          14
  Not Affected Households With and Without Children
Figure 9: Average Monthly Increase in Food Stamp Benefits by            15
  State in Absence of the Cap in Fiscal Year 1995




Abbreviations

AFDC       Aid to Families With Dependent Children
FCS        Food and Consumer Service
GAO        General Accounting Office
IQCS       Integrated Quality Control System
USDA       U.S. Department of Agriculture


Page 20                                  GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
Page 21   GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
Appendix I

Example of Calculation of Food Stamp
Benefit

              The following illustrates how the food stamp benefit was calculated in
              fiscal year 1995 for a single female-headed household with three children
              with monthly shelter expenses of $668. This household had a (1) gross
              monthly income of $1,168 per month (of which $1,115 was earned
              income), (2) standard deduction of $134, (3) dependent care deduction of
              $131, (4) earned income deduction of $223, and (5) shelter deduction of
              $231. This household was subject to the cap on the excess shelter expense
              deduction because none of the household members was disabled or
              elderly.




              Page 22                                  GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                       Appendix I
                                       Example of Calculation of Food Stamp
                                       Benefit




Table I.1: Example of Calculation of
Food Stamp Benefit                     Type of factor considered                                        Resulting amount
                                       Step 1: Determine adjusted gross monthly income before excess shelter expense
                                       deduction
                                       Monthly income, including $1,115 in earned                                 $1,168
                                       income
                                       Standard deduction, available to all                                        –134
                                       households
                                       Dependent care deduction for expenses                                       –131
                                       incurred in caring for children while
                                       household member worked
                                       Earned income deduction equal to 20% of                                     –223
                                       household’s monthly earnings (.20 x $1,115
                                       = $223)
                                       Adjusted gross monthly income before                                        $680
                                       excess shelter expense deduction
                                       Step 2: Determine excess shelter expense deduction
                                       Household’s monthly shelter expenses,                                       $668
                                       including rent and utilities
                                       Less 50% of adjusted gross monthly income                                   –340
                                       from step 1 (.50 x $680 = $340)
                                       Shelter expenses in excess of 50% of                                        $328
                                       adjusted gross monthly income that would
                                       qualify for deduction in absence of the cap
                                       Step 3: Determine household’s net monthly income
                                       Adjusted gross monthly income from step 1                                   $680
                                       Capped allowable excess shelter expense                                     –231
                                       deduction. This deduction is less than the
                                       excess shelter expense calculated in step 2
                                       because of the cap.
                                       Household’s net monthly income counted in                                   $449
                                       determining food stamp benefit
                                       Step 4: Calculate monthly food stamp benefit on the basis of net income
                                       Maximum monthly food stamp benefit for                                      $386
                                       household of 4 in 1995
                                       Amount of household’s income available for                                  –135
                                       food. Based on 30% of net monthly income
                                       ($449 x .30 = $135)
                                       Household’s monthly food stamp benefit                                      $251




                                       Page 23                                        GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
Appendix II

Methodology


                       This appendix presents information on the database we used to identify
                       the characteristics of households receiving food stamps whose benefits
                       were limited because of the cap on the deduction for excess shelter
                       expenses. This appendix also provides information on the methodology
                       we used to develop estimates.


                       To analyze the characteristics of households whose food stamp benefits
USDA’s Database on     were limited by the cap on the deduction for excess shelter expenses, we
Households Receiving   used the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) database on the
Food Stamps            characteristics of food stamp households for fiscal year 1995, the most
                       current year for which data are available. The USDA database we used
                       contains a representative sample of more than 50,000 food stamp
                       households nationwide. Therefore, the estimates presented in this report,
                       which are based on USDA’s data, are representative of the approximately
                       10.9 million participating food stamp households in an average month in
                       fiscal year 1995. For our analyses, we compared the characteristics of
                       households whose benefits were limited by the cap with those households
                       whose benefits were not affected by the cap. All reported differences
                       (except where noted) between households whose benefits were affected
                       by the cap and households not affected by the cap are statistically
                       significant.1 To determine the extent to which food stamp benefits would
                       have been higher in the absence of the cap, we recalculated the benefits
                       that affected food stamp households would have received with no cap in
                       place. We conducted our review between December 1996 and April 1997
                       under generally accepted government auditing standards; however, we did
                       not verify the accuracy of the USDA’s data.


Overview of Universe   To track changes in the characteristics and level of food stamp
                       participation, USDA’s Food and Consumer Service (FCS) relies on data from
                       the Food Stamp Program’s Integrated Quality Control System (IQCS)
                       database. The IQCS database contains a nationally representative sample of
                       over 50,000 food stamp units2 and is used to assess the accuracy of
                       eligibility determinations and benefit calculations for a state’s caseload for
                       the Food Stamp Program.



                       1
                        A statistically significant difference means that the difference between households affected by the cap
                       and those not affected by the cap are too large to be attributed to chance. We applied a standard t-test
                       at the p = .05 level for all comparisons.
                       2
                        A food stamp unit refers to the persons in a household who together are certified for and receive food
                       stamps; for purposes of this report, a food stamp unit is a household that receives food stamps.



                       Page 24                                                    GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                         Appendix II
                         Methodology




Weighting and Sampling   The database is a national sample of participating units and is stratified by
Design                   month and by the 50 states and the District of Columbia, Guam, and the
                         U.S. Virgin Islands. All results are based on weighted analyses, which take
                         into account the fact that individual food stamp units are sampled with a
                         known non-zero and unequal probability of selection. These weights allow
                         us to make inferences to the entire universe of active food stamp units.
                         Certain active cases are excluded from being sampled. These include
                         cases in which participants died or moved outside the state, received
                         benefits by a disaster certification authorized by the FCS, received benefits
                         under a 60-day continuation of certification, were under investigation for
                         Food Stamp Program fraud, were appealing a notice of adverse action and
                         the review date falls within the period covered by the continued
                         participation pending a hearing, or received restored benefits in
                         accordance with the FCS-approved state manual but were otherwise
                         ineligible.


                         We used the following procedure to identify those sampled households
Estimating Benefits in   whose benefits were affected by the cap and calculate what their monthly
Absence of the Cap on    food stamp benefit would have been in the absence of the cap. First, we
the Excess Shelter       identified those households in the database that met two criteria: The
                         household (1) had deductible monthly excess shelter expenses that
Expense Deduction        exceeded the cap and (2) was not already receiving the maximum monthly
                         food stamp benefit. Second, for each of these households, we recalculated
                         the household’s monthly net income using the household’s actual excess
                         shelter expense deduction instead of the $231 cap. Third, for each selected
                         household, we recalculated the household’s monthly food stamp benefit
                         using the adjusted net income. In performing the second and third steps,
                         we used existing USDA formulas.


Sampling Errors          Because we used a sample of 51,229 food stamp units to develop our
                         estimates, each estimate has a measurable precision, or sampling error,
                         that may be expressed as a plus or minus figure. A sampling error
                         indicates how closely we can reproduce from a sample the results that we
                         would obtain if we were to take a complete count of the universe using the
                         same measurement methods. By adding the sampling error to and
                         subtracting it from the estimate, we can develop upper and lower bounds
                         for each estimate. This range is called a confidence interval. Sampling
                         errors and confidence intervals are stated at a certain confidence level—in
                         this case, 95 percent. For example, at the 95-percent confidence level, in 95
                         out of 100 instances, the sampling procedure we used would produce a



                         Page 25                                     GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                             Appendix II
                                             Methodology




                                             confidence interval containing the universe values we are estimating.
                                             Standard formulas for the standard errors of estimates based on a simple
                                             random sample do not necessarily apply to estimates derived from more
                                             complex samples, such as the stratified sample of the IQCS. To adjust for
                                             the complex sampling design of the IQCS, we used an adjustment factor,
                                             also known as a design effect, that inflates the sampling error by a factor
                                             of two. The factor of two was based on the maximum design effect
                                             presented by FCS in its technical appendix.3

                                             Tables II.1 to II.4 show the sampling errors for the numbers presented in
                                             this report.


Table II.1: Sampling Errors for Number and Percent by Type of Household
                                                                                                                 Percent of
                                                                                Number of         Sampling      food stamp        Sampling
Type of household                                             Reported in      households            error      households           error
Did not take excess shelter expense deduction                 Tables 1            3,636,530           81,421            33.4%           .8%
                                                              and 2
Took excess shelter expense deduction                         Table 1             7,246,252           90,721            66.6%           .8%
Benefits affected by cap on excess shelter expense            Table 2             1,115,583           58,337            10.3%           .5%
deduction
Benefits not affected by cap on excess shelter expense        Table 2             9,767,199           58,377            89.7%            5%
deduction
Not subject to cap because of elderly and disabled            Table 2             2,316,844           70,660            21.3%           .7%
members
Benefits not affected by the cap because households’          Table 2             3,049,980           77,525            28.0%           .8%
excess shelter expense deduction was less than $231 cap
Benefits not affected by the $231 cap because household       Table 2               763,845           44,097              7.0%          .5%
was receiving maximum benefit




                                             3
                                             Characteristics of Food Stamp Households Summer 1994, Apr. 29, 1996, Mathematica Policy
                                             Research, Inc.



                                             Page 26                                                GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                            Appendix II
                                            Methodology




Table II.2: Sampling Errors for Estimates Reported Concerning Affected and Not Affected Households
                                                       Households affected by the cap Households not affected by the cap
Measure                                    Reported in       Value     Sampling error              Value    Sampling error
Children
Percent of households with children        Fig. 1              93.3%              1.5%              55.8%                .9%
Percent of households without children     Fig. 1               6.7%              1.5%              44.2%                .9%
Number of children in households           Text           2,330,041           89,247          11,552,633           390,688
Percent of households with preschool       Text                51.4%              3.0%              32.2%                .9%
children
Head of household
Percent of households with children and    Fig. 2              63.4%              2.9%              36.7%               .09%
single female head
Average household size                     Fig. 3               3.4               .08                2.4                .04
Citizenship
Percent of households with noncitizen      Fig. 4              18.2%              2.3%               9.8%              <.5%
member
Percent of households without noncitizen   Fig. 4              81.8%              2.3%              90.2%              <.5%
member
Income
Percent of households with gross income    Fig. 5              34.8%              2.8%              43.4%              <.9%
50% of poverty level or less
Percent of households with gross income    Fig. 5              65.2%              2.8%              56.6%              <.9%
over 50% of poverty level
Average monthly gross income               Text               $643            $13.30                $500              $6.56
Percent of households with earned income Fig. 6                32.4%              2.8%              20.2%              <.7%
Percent of households without earned       Fig. 6              67.6%              2.8%              79.8%              <.7%
income
Percent of households with earned income Text                  31.3%              2.8%              29.8%               1.1%
with children
Shelter expenses
Average monthly shelter expense            Fig. 7             $618              $8.56               $254              $3.56
Average monthly shelter                    Fig. 7             $621              $8.88               $262              $4.56
expense—households with children
Average monthly shelter                    Fig. 7             $568            $30.40                $245              $5.68
expense—households without children
                                                                                                        a                  a
Average monthly shelter costs—Northeast    Text               $688            $16.16
Geographic location
Northeast                                  Table 3             37.5%              2.9%              18.3%               <1%
Midwest                                    Table 3             18.0%              2.3%              21.6%               <1%
South                                      Table 3             16.5%              2.2%              41.5%               <1%
West                                       Table 3             27.9%              2.7%              18.5%               <1%
Urban                                      Table 3             88.8%              1.9%              76.4%               <1%
                                                                                                                (continued)


                                            Page 27                                      GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                           Appendix II
                                           Methodology




                                                             Households affected by the cap    Households not affected by the cap
Measure                                   Reported in              Value     Sampling error               Value     Sampling error
Rural                                     Table 3                   11.2%               1.9%               23.6%               <1%
Food stamp benefit—amount
Average monthly benefit                   Fig. 8                    $261              $5.88                $162              $2.12
Average monthly benefit— households       Fig. 8                    $271              $5.72                $225              $2.68
with children
Average monthly benefit— households       Fig. 8                    $121             $14.32                 $81              $1.48
without children
Food stamp benefit—level
                                                                                                               a                    a
Percent of households receiving more than Text                      69.0%               2.7%
75% of maximum benefit but less than
100%

                                           a
                                               Not applicable.




                                           Page 28                                             GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                                Appendix II
                                                Methodology




Table II.3: Sampling Errors for Estimates of Reported Food Stamp Benefit Increases in the Absence of the Cap
Measure of benefit increase                               Reported in                        Value             Sampling error
Average percent of monthly increase in benefits for affected    Text                          11.9%                        1.2%
households in absence of cap
Average monthly increase in food stamp benefit for affected     Text                           $31                       $6.12
households in absence of cap
Average monthly food stamp benefit in absence of cap for        Text                         $292                        $6.12
affected households
Average monthly food stamp benefit in absence of cap for        Text                         $303                        $5.92
affected households with children
Average monthly food stamp benefit in absence of cap for        Text                         $140                      $14.64
affected households without children
Average monthly increase in food stamp benefit in the           Text                           $41                       $3.28
absence of the cap for affected households in the Northeast
Average monthly increase in food stamp benefits in the          Text                           $32                       $1.76
absence of the cap for affected urban households
Average monthly increase in food stamp benefits in the          Text                           $25                       $2.84
absence of the cap for affected rural households
Percent of affected food stamp households located in four       Text                          53.9%                        4.4%
states—California, Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania
Percent of food stamp households not affected by the cap in Text                              26.0%                        1.6%
four states—California, Michigan, New York, and
Pennsylvania
Average monthly increase in food stamp benefits in the          Fig. 9                 See app. III               See app. III
absence of cap for affected households by state
Average percent increase in total food stamp benefits for       Text                           1.9%                          .4%
fiscal year 1995 in absence of the cap
Average monthly increase in total value of food stamp           Text                  $34.7 million                $6.8 million
benefits for fiscal year 1995 in absence of the cap
Total increase in value of food stamp benefit for fiscal year   Text                  $417 million               $81.6 million
1995 in absence of the cap
Increase in value of food stamp benefit for fiscal year 1995 in Text                  $400 million               $1.66 million
absence of the cap for households with children
Percent increase to affected households with children           Text                          95.9%                        2.0%
Percent of additional benefits that would have gone to 10       Text                          80.0%                        3.2%
states
Percent of additional benefits going to each of 10 states
with largest share of increase in benefits in absence of
cap
New York                                                        Table 4                       32.3%                        7.6%
California                                                      Table 4                       17.2%                        6.0%
Michigan                                                        Table 4                        5.4%                        1.6%
Massachusetts                                                   Table 4                        4.7%                        1.6%
Pennsylvania                                                    Table 4                        4.2%                        2.0%
                                                                                                                  (continued)


                                                Page 29                                   GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                                Appendix II
                                                Methodology




Measure of benefit increase                                   Reported in     Value            Sampling error
Washington                                                    Table 4            3.9%                      1.2%
Texas                                                         Table 4            3.3%                      2.4%
New Jersey                                                    Table 4            3.2%                      1.2%
Florida                                                       Table 4            3.1%                      1.6%
Connecticut                                                   Table 4            2.7%                      0.8%


Table II.4: Sampling Errors for Other Reported Estimates
Measure                                                       Reported in   Estimate           Sampling error
Average monthly food stamp benefit                            Text             $172                      $2.00
Percent of all children receiving food stamps living in       Text              17.0%                      1.6%
households affected by the excess shelter expense
deduction cap
Percent of total food stamp benefits provided in each of
10 states in table 4
New York                                                      Table 4            8.5%                      1.2%
California                                                    Table 4           11.1%                      1.6%
Michigan                                                      Table 4            3.7%                      0.4%
Massachusetts                                                 Table 4            1.5%                      0.4%
Pennsylvania                                                  Table 4            4.4%                      0.8%
Washington                                                    Table 4            1.9%                      0.4%
Texas                                                         Table 4           10.2%                      1.2%
New Jersey                                                    Table 4            2.2%                      0.4%
Florida                                                       Table 4            5.6%                      0.8%
Connecticut                                                   Table 4            0.8%                    <0.1%




                                                Page 30                     GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
Page 31   GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
Appendix III

Detailed Information on Households
Receiving Food Stamps Affected by the Cap
on Excess Shelter Expense Deduction

Table III.1: Characteristics of All Affected Households, Fiscal Year 1995

                                                                                      Average                 Average
                                            Number                    Percent         monthly                 monthly
Type of                                          of                        of            gross                     net
household                                households                households          income                  income
All                                        1,115,583                        100.0        $643                    $225
With children                              1,041,022                         93.3        $651                    $233
With children under age 5                    572,957                         51.4        $653                    $235
Headed by single female                      707,497                         63.4        $616                    $204
with children
One member                                    50,848                          4.6        $506                     $92
Two members                                  267,139                         23.9        $548                    $139
Three members                                330,347                         29.6        $617                    $200
Four members                                 266,613                         23.9        $691                    $269
Five or more members                         200,636                         18.0        $784                    $355
With noncitizens                             203,158                         18.2        $711                    $292
With earned income                           361,623                         32.4        $813                    $286
With gross income                          1,115,583                        100.0        $643                    $225
With net income                            1,115,583                        100.0        $643                    $225
Geographic location
Northeast                                    418,346                         37.5        $613                    $215
Midwest                                      201,254                         18.0        $604                    $181
South                                        184,173                         16.5        $720                    $231
West                                         311,811                         28.0        $664                    $263
Rural                                        124,883                         11.2        $629                    $191
Urban                                        990,419                         88.8        $645                    $229
Unknown urban/rural                              282                          0.0        $672                    $228
Benefit level
25% or less than maximum                       2,680                          0.2       $1,096                   $653
25% to 50% of maximum                         53,028                          4.8       $1,035                   $519
50% to 75% of maximum                        281,674                         25.2        $845                    $394
Above 75% of maximum                         778,202                         69.8        $542                    $142
Gross income as percentage of poverty
25% or less of poverty level                   2,220                          0.2        $427                     $51
25% to 50% of poverty level                  386,170                         34.6        $510                    $132
50% to 75% of poverty level                  518,676                         46.5        $631                    $234
Above 75% of poverty level                   208,517                         18.7        $922                    $377




                                            Page 32                                 GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                          Appendix III
                          Detailed Information on Households
                          Receiving Food Stamps Affected by the Cap
                          on Excess Shelter Expense Deduction




                                    Average                Average
e   Average    Average              monthly                monthly          Average                 Total
y   monthly    monthly                  food           food stamp           monthly              monthly
t     earned    shelter               stamp                  benefit       increase             increase
e    income       cost               benefit              if no cap        if no cap            if no cap
5      $219       $618                 $261                   $292              $31           $34,756,405
3      $214       $621                 $271                   $303              $32           $33,353,695
5      $207       $615                 $280                   $311              $31           $17,907,630
4      $168       $608                 $256                   $287              $31           $22,231,131

2      $249       $574                  $88                   $104              $17             $843,637
9      $175       $587                 $170                   $195              $25            $6,633,540
0      $202       $606                 $245                   $276              $31           $10,316,071
9      $226       $635                 $306                   $342              $36            $9,594,907
5      $291       $668                 $394                   $431              $37            $7,368,250
2      $238       $678                 $273                   $314              $40            $8,220,108
6      $677       $617                 $245                   $274              $29           $10,590,368
5      $219       $618                 $261                   $292              $31           $34,756,405
5      $219       $618                 $261                   $292              $31           $34,756,405


5      $146       $688                 $243                   $284              $41           $17,296,018
       $218       $556                 $286                   $309              $23            $4,553,028
       $514       $566                 $286                   $309              $23            $4,250,349
3      $144       $595                 $255                   $283              $28            $8,657,010
       $301       $565                 $280                   $305              $25            $3,149,607
9      $209       $624                 $259                   $291              $32           $31,596,511
8      $347       $596                 $301                   $338              $36              $10,287


3      $388       $870                  $48                   $104              $55             $147,943
9      $725       $739                 $113                   $151              $38            $2,004,789
4      $367       $687                 $241                   $281              $40           $11,334,275
2      $131       $584                 $279                   $307              $27           $21,269,397


        $60       $422                 $602                   $609               $7              $15,684
2       $64       $577                 $337                   $364              $26           $10,127,107
4      $142       $628                 $241                   $274              $33           $17,302,894
7      $701       $669                 $167                   $202              $35            $7,310,719




                          Page 33                                      GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                            Appendix III
                                            Detailed Information on Households
                                            Receiving Food Stamps Affected by the Cap
                                            on Excess Shelter Expense Deduction




Table III.2: Characteristics of All Affected Households With Children, Fiscal Year 1995

                                                                                            Average                 Average
                                           Number                    Percent                monthly                 monthly
Type of                                         of                        of                   gross                     net
household                               households                households                 income                  income
All                                        1,041,022                     100.0                 $651                    $233
With children under age 5                    572,957                      55.0                 $653                    $235
Headed by single female                      707,497                      67.9                 $616                    $204
with children
One member                                     4,582                       0.4                 $499                    $118
Two members                                  242,128                      23.3                 $544                    $138
Three members                                327,063                      31.4                 $617                    $200
Four members                                 266,613                      25.6                 $691                    $269
Five or more members                         200,636                      19.3                 $784                    $355
With noncitizen                              193,656                      18.6                 $719                    $301
With earned income                           326,046                      31.3                 $832                    $300
With gross income                          1,041,022                     100.0                 $651                    $233
With net income                            1,041,022                     100.0                 $651                    $233
Geographic location
Northeast                                    379,729                      36.5                 $626                    $228
Midwest                                      192,910                      18.5                 $605                    $183
South                                        169,535                      16.3                 $729                    $237
West                                         298,848                      28.7                 $667                    $269
Rural                                        115,887                      11.1                 $632                    $195
Urban                                        924,853                      88.8                 $653                    $238
Unknown urban/rural                              282                       0.0                 $672                    $228
Benefit level
25% or less than maximum                       2,680                       0.3                $1,096                   $653
25% to 50% of maximum                         43,549                       4.2                $1,084                   $568
50% to 75% of maximum                        264,590                      25.4                 $860                    $408
Above 75% of maximum                         730,202                      70.1                 $547                    $148
Gross income as percentage of poverty
25% or less of poverty level                   2,220                       0.2                 $427                     $51
25% to 50% of poverty level                  381,968                      36.7                 $511                    $133
50% to 75% of poverty level                  483,690                      46.5                 $644                    $246
Above 75% of poverty level                   173,144                      16.6                 $979                    $418




                                            Page 34                                       GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                          Appendix III
                          Detailed Information on Households
                          Receiving Food Stamps Affected by the Cap
                          on Excess Shelter Expense Deduction




                                    Average                Average
e   Average    Average              monthly                monthly          Average                 Total
y   monthly    monthly                  food           food stamp           monthly              monthly
t     earned    shelter               stamp                  benefit       increase             increase
e    income       cost               benefit              if no cap        if no cap            if no cap
3      $214       $621                 $271                   $303              $32           $33,353,695
5      $207       $615                 $280                   $311              $31           $17,907,630
4      $168       $608                 $256                   $287              $31           $22,231,131

8       $92       $626                  $82                   $103              $20              $92,041
8      $160       $588                 $171                   $196              $25            $6,041,468
0      $199       $607                 $244                   $276              $31           $10,257,030
9      $226       $635                 $306                   $342              $36            $9,594,907
5      $291       $668                 $394                   $431              $37            $7,368,250
       $234       $684                 $279                   $320              $41            $8,026,132
0      $684       $625                 $259                   $289              $30            $9,836,745
3      $214       $621                 $271                   $303              $32           $33,353,695
3      $214       $621                 $271                   $303              $32           $33,353,695


8      $144       $695                 $255                   $299              $44           $16,613,212
3      $210       $558                 $293                   $316              $23            $4,382,935
7      $524       $569                 $300                   $324              $23            $3,973,650
9      $130       $599                 $261                   $289              $28            $8,383,898
5      $292       $568                 $293                   $318              $26            $2,964,570
8      $204       $628                 $269                   $301              $33           $30,378,839
8      $347       $596                 $301                   $338              $36              $10,287


3      $388       $870                  $48                   $104              $55             $147,943
8      $722       $772                 $124                   $165              $41            $1,766,731
8      $367       $696                 $250                   $292              $41           $10,892,036
8      $128       $585                 $288                   $316              $28           $20,546,985


        $60       $422                 $602                   $609               $7              $15,684
3       $65       $579                 $339                   $365              $26           $10,077,374
6      $145       $630                 $248                   $283              $35           $16,757,229
8      $740       $693                 $183                   $220              $38            $6,503,408




                          Page 35                                      GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                            Appendix III
                                            Detailed Information on Households
                                            Receiving Food Stamps Affected by the Cap
                                            on Excess Shelter Expense Deduction




Table III.3: Characteristics of All Affected Households, by State, Fiscal Year 1995

                                                                                                            Average      Average
                     Number        Percent        Number         Average       Number           Number      monthly      monthly
                          of            of              of     household             of      of children       gross          net
State             households    households     individuals           size      children     under age 5      income       income
All                 1,115,583          100.0     3,744,572            3.4     2,330,041         797,274        $643         $225
Alabama                 6,148            0.6          22,678          3.7        14,717           4,326        $757         $228
Alaska                    632            0.1           1,749          2.8         1,017             441        $871         $227
Arizona                11,536            1.0          48,033          4.2        32,496          11,206        $669         $214
Arkansas                2,132            0.2           6,865          3.2         3,922             972        $676         $169
California            214,685           19.2       710,751            3.3       450,100         144,775        $667         $284
Colorado                9,743            0.9          36,231          3.7        23,716           8,035        $749         $251
Connecticut            21,598            1.9          64,749          3.0        41,451          15,816        $665         $279
Delaware                1,517            0.1           5,872          3.9         3,830           1,206        $723         $258
District of             1,834            0.2           6,633          3.6         4,563           2,483        $551         $176
Columbia
Florida                41,296            3.7       152,809            3.7        95,653          27,229        $762         $270
Georgia                19,446            1.7          65,262          3.4        41,045          13,148        $648         $200
Guam                       80            0.0            368           4.6             256            62      $1,121         $363
Hawaii                  2,472            0.2           8,281          3.3         5,053           1,958        $831         $263
Idaho                   2,109            0.2           7,296          3.5         4,400           1,234        $657         $198
Illinois               21,225            1.9          84,466          4.0        57,443          14,807        $574         $162
Indiana                 7,895            0.7          32,969          4.2        21,706           7,216        $729         $202
Iowa                    6,100            0.5          19,793          3.2        11,974           3,837        $621         $182
Kansas                  6,527            0.6          24,403          3.7        15,783           5,233        $580         $156
Kentucky                2,312            0.2           9,085          3.9         5,102           1,411        $575         $143
Louisiana               7,064            0.6          25,199          3.6        15,444           4,441        $644         $187
Maine                   9,461            0.8          30,836          3.3        18,227           5,864        $656         $225
Maryland               10,966            1.0          41,928          3.8        27,178           7,942        $592         $162
Massachusetts          36,209            3.2       113,366            3.1        73,129          30,839        $643         $255
Michigan               84,502            7.6       271,395            3.2       169,763          62,802        $584         $173
Minnesota              18,648            1.7          61,289          3.3        39,433          13,987        $669         $241
Mississippi             3,278            0.3           9,833          3.0         5,773           2,174        $704         $162
Missouri                9,507            0.9          33,806          3.6        21,026           7,089        $645         $175
Montana                 2,470            0.2           8,792          3.6         5,183           1,400        $636         $206
Nebraska                2,337            0.2           8,125          3.5         5,040           1,581        $600         $151
Nevada                  3,648            0.3          13,670          3.7         8,657           3,508        $767         $275
New Hampshire           2,281            0.2           6,988          3.1         4,248           1,507        $585         $189
New Jersey             32,913            3.0       125,570            3.8        81,947          22,760        $602         $188




                                            Page 36                                            GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                    Appendix III
                                    Detailed Information on Households
                                    Receiving Food Stamps Affected by the Cap
                                    on Excess Shelter Expense Deduction




                                       Average                Total         Average
e   Average    Average Average         monthly             monthly          monthly             Average              Total
y   monthly    monthly monthly             food                food      food stamp             monthly           monthly
t     earned    shelter   shelter        stamp               stamp         benefit if          increase          increase
e    income       cost deduction        benefit             benefit          no cap            if no cap         if no cap
5      $219       $618      $231          $261        $291,397,717              $292                $31        $34,756,405
8      $625       $533      $231          $289           $1,776,184             $305                $16           $98,620
7       $65       $802      $402          $289            $182,990              $309                $20           $12,551
4      $403       $581      $231          $331           $3,815,751             $354                $23          $267,245
9      $554       $506      $231          $268            $572,201              $284                $15           $32,629
4       $75       $592      $231          $239         $51,324,086              $267                $28         $5,986,991
       $546       $609      $231          $285           $2,778,736             $313                $28          $270,914
9       $98       $667      $231          $216           $4,656,798             $258                $43          $923,053
8      $478       $626      $231          $293            $444,547              $320                $27           $41,331
6       $51       $514      $231          $296            $543,223              $315                $19           $33,974

0      $533       $603      $231          $275         $11,348,593              $301                $26         $1,083,373
0      $337       $551      $231          $268           $5,206,482             $291                $23          $446,423
3      $841       $798      $280          $525              $41,930             $577                $53            $4,207
3      $244       $745      $330          $471           $1,164,905             $501                $29           $72,700
8      $407       $538      $231          $276            $582,037              $297                $21           $43,299
2      $243       $550      $231          $332           $7,048,842             $351                $19          $395,348
2      $493       $565      $231          $335           $2,644,983             $360                $25          $194,940
2      $278       $530      $231          $266           $1,621,420             $285                $20          $119,371
6      $269       $523      $231          $314           $2,050,159             $333                $18          $120,390
3      $337       $471      $231          $334            $771,179              $349                $16           $35,949
7      $405       $543      $231          $291           $2,052,433             $309                $18          $130,323
5      $274       $649      $231          $253           $2,396,657             $292                $39          $367,614
2      $265       $547      $231          $319           $3,499,573             $341                $22          $236,749
5      $103       $679      $231          $234           $8,471,913             $279                $45         $1,635,446
3      $156       $557      $231          $265         $22,361,451              $287                $22         $1,866,148
       $224       $593      $231          $250           $4,659,329             $280                $30          $561,812
2      $514       $496      $231          $251            $821,125              $268                $17           $57,299
5      $434       $537      $231          $291           $2,762,213             $311                $20          $192,840
6      $249       $546      $231          $282            $697,605              $305                $23           $56,027
       $318       $508      $231          $295            $689,384              $314                $19           $43,328
5      $472       $654      $231          $278           $1,014,321             $312                $34          $124,862
9      $159       $514      $231          $247            $563,713              $267                $19           $44,298
8      $232       $649      $231          $311         $10,250,705              $345                $34         $1,118,531
                                                                                                               (continued)


                                    Page 37                                             GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                        Appendix III
                                        Detailed Information on Households
                                        Receiving Food Stamps Affected by the Cap
                                        on Excess Shelter Expense Deduction




                                                                                                      Average      Average
                    Number       Percent      Number        Average        Number         Number      monthly      monthly
                         of           of            of    household              of    of children       gross          net
State            households   households   individuals          size       children   under age 5      income       income
New Mexico            3,457          0.3         12,610           3.6         7,428         2,878        $614         $170
New York            247,847         22.2      723,503             2.9      424,153        166,415        $607         $214
North Carolina        6,043          0.5         21,702           3.6        12,131         5,300        $682         $217
North Dakota          1,559          0.1          5,758           3.7         3,491         1,312        $767         $276
Ohio                 23,887          2.1         99,336           4.2        67,432        16,749        $562         $151
Oklahoma              7,049          0.6         25,198           3.6        15,123         4,677        $646         $178
Oregon               10,384          0.9         37,105           3.6        21,989         8,500        $712         $254
Pennsylvania         54,343          4.9      192,104             3.5      116,720         39,785        $596         $179
Rhode Island          7,280          0.7         23,004           3.2        14,661         5,715        $561         $168
South Carolina        2,815          0.3          9,487           3.4         5,745         1,383        $670         $185
South Dakota          1,120          0.1          3,724           3.3         2,359           930        $733         $234
Tennessee            13,785          1.2         49,784           3.6        32,149        10,703        $721         $226
Texas                45,632          4.1      179,847             3.9      111,378         32,526        $784         $259
Utah                  4,168          0.4         16,003           3.8         9,974         3,768        $745         $272
Vermont               6,415          0.6         19,828           3.1        11,315         4,432        $709         $300
U.S. Virgin             453          0.0          1,653           3.7         1,002           453        $786         $317
Islands
Virginia             10,730          1.0         38,333           3.6        23,558         6,670        $739         $244
Washington           45,098          4.0      155,623             3.5        94,625        36,926        $592         $197
West Virginia         2,124          0.2          7,384           3.5         4,449           622        $670         $202
Wisconsin            17,946          1.6         60,320           3.4        39,007        15,519        $632         $216
Wyoming                 876          0.1          3,178           3.6         2,075           716        $691         $210




                                       Page 38                                           GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                    Appendix III
                                    Detailed Information on Households
                                    Receiving Food Stamps Affected by the Cap
                                    on Excess Shelter Expense Deduction




                                       Average                Total         Average
e   Average    Average Average         monthly             monthly          monthly             Average              Total
y   monthly    monthly monthly             food                food      food stamp             monthly           monthly
t     earned    shelter   shelter        stamp               stamp         benefit if          increase          increase
e    income       cost deduction        benefit             benefit          no cap            if no cap         if no cap
0      $331       $533      $231          $304           $1,049,517             $322                $18           $63,829
4      $122       $725      $231          $227         $56,191,311              $272                $45        $11,233,878
7      $495       $548      $231          $285           $1,721,418             $302                $18          $106,296
6      $639       $594      $231          $272            $423,696              $300                $29           $44,497
       $191       $544      $231          $348           $8,324,503             $371                $22          $528,494
8      $418       $504      $231          $294           $2,075,047             $309                $15          $102,269
4      $428       $591      $231          $270           $2,804,815             $294                $24          $252,894
9      $223       $583      $231          $289         $15,725,088              $316                $27         $1,471,359
8      $110       $591      $231          $262           $1,910,511             $292                $29          $214,254
5      $535       $503      $231          $273            $767,435              $289                $16           $45,676
4      $516       $578      $231          $255            $285,194              $280                $26           $28,640
6      $473       $550      $231          $283           $3,897,302             $305                $23          $312,550
9      $688       $577      $231          $299         $13,634,542              $324                $25         $1,142,593
2      $482       $591      $231          $288           $1,199,443             $314                $26          $109,534
0      $216       $673      $231          $217           $1,389,066             $261                $45          $287,584
7      $640       $526      $171          $360            $162,892              $390                $31           $13,853

4      $530       $600      $231          $272           $2,915,693             $299                $28          $295,927
7      $148       $606      $231          $278         $12,517,278              $308                $30         $1,361,459
2      $494       $546      $231          $277            $588,843              $300                $23           $48,368
6      $173       $562      $231          $264           $4,746,181             $290                $25          $457,221
0      $475       $533      $231          $288            $252,475              $307                $19           $16,645




                                    Page 39                                             GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                            Appendix III
                                            Detailed Information on Households
                                            Receiving Food Stamps Affected by the Cap
                                            on Excess Shelter Expense Deduction




Table III.4: Characteristics of All Affected Households With Children, by State, Fiscal Year 1995

                                                                                             Number       Average      Average
                     Number        Percent        Number         Average       Number     of children     monthly      monthly
                          of            of              of     household             of        under         gross          net
State             households    households     individuals           size      children         age 5      income       income
All                 1,041,022          100.0     3,638,431            3.5     2,330,041       797,274        $651         $233
Alabama                 6,148            0.6          22,678          3.7        14,717         4,326        $757         $228
Alaska                    632            0.1           1,749          2.8         1,017             441      $871         $227
Arizona                11,238            1.1          47,593          4.2        32,496        11,206        $670         $216
Arkansas                1,958            0.2           6,516          3.3         3,922             972      $675         $162
California            205,694           19.8       697,920            3.4      450,100        144,775        $671         $291
Colorado                9,608            0.9          35,961          3.7        23,716         8,035        $750         $252
Connecticut            21,296            2.1          64,340          3.0        41,451        15,816        $666         $281
Delaware                1,395            0.1           5,628          4.0         3,830         1,206        $720         $260
District of             1,511            0.2           6,177          4.1         4,563         2,483        $557         $192
Columbia
Florida                37,021            3.6       147,305            4.0        95,653        27,229        $788         $288
Georgia                16,794            1.6          61,819          3.7        41,045        13,148        $652         $203
Guam                       80            0.0            368           4.6           256              62    $1,121         $363
Hawaii                  2,359            0.2           8,055          3.4         5,053         1,958        $827         $264
Idaho                   1,901            0.2           7,089          3.7         4,400         1,234        $672         $211
Illinois               20,938            2.0          83,894          4.0        57,443        14,807        $573         $163
Indiana                 7,719            0.7          32,793          4.2        21,706         7,216        $729         $202
Iowa                    5,577            0.4          19,010          3.4        11,974         3,837        $624         $187
Kansas                  6,203            0.6          24,011          3.9        15,783         5,233        $577         $156
Kentucky                2,312            0.2           9,085          3.9         5,102         1,411        $575         $143
Louisiana               6,174            0.6          23,630          3.8        15,444         4,441        $664         $202
Maine                   8,637            0.8          29,562          3.4        18,227         5,864        $661         $230
Maryland               10,278            1.0          40,552          3.9        27,178         7,942        $591         $159
Massachusetts          35,844            3.4       112,816            3.1        73,129        30,839        $645         $256
Michigan               82,389            7.9       266,867            3.2      169,763         62,802        $585         $174
Minnesota              18,256            1.8          60,640          3.3        39,433        13,987        $667         $241
Mississippi             2,803            0.3           9,200          3.3         5,773         2,174        $734         $175
Missouri                7,895            0.8          31,981          4.1        21,026         7,089        $662         $191
Montana                 2,421            0.2           8,693          3.6         5,183         1,400        $637         $208
Nebraska                2,190            0.2           7,878          3.6         5,040         1,581        $602         $151
Nevada                  3,367            0.3          13,317          4.0         8,657         3,508        $776         $281
New Hampshire           2,223            0.2           6,931          3.1         4,248         1,507        $588         $191
New Jersey             32,265            3.1       124,716            3.9        81,947        22,760        $601         $188




                                            Page 40                                          GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                    Appendix III
                                    Detailed Information on Households
                                    Receiving Food Stamps Affected by the Cap
                                    on Excess Shelter Expense Deduction




                                       Average                Total
e   Average    Average Average         monthly             monthly           Average             Average              Total
y   monthly    monthly monthly             food                food          monthly             monthly           monthly
t     earned    shelter   shelter        stamp               stamp             benefit          increase          increase
e    income       cost deduction        benefit             benefit         if no cap           if no cap         if no cap
3      $214       $621      $231          $271        $282,351,404              $303                 $32        $33,353,695
8      $625       $533      $231          $289           $1,776,184             $305                 $16           $98,620
7       $65       $802      $402          $289            $182,990              $309                 $20           $12,551
6      $397       $581      $231          $336           $3,780,609             $360                 $23          $261,609
2      $568       $508      $231          $280            $548,226              $296                 $16           $31,846
        $60       $597      $231          $244         $50,243,381              $272                 $28         $5,805,267
2      $544       $609      $231          $287           $2,757,318             $315                 $28          $265,391
        $99       $667      $231          $217           $4,628,330             $260                 $43          $912,440
0      $454       $634      $231          $306            $427,501              $334                 $28           $38,888
2        $0       $521      $231          $333            $503,058              $353                 $20           $30,723

8      $563       $611      $231          $294         $10,885,674              $321                 $27         $1,003,661
3      $325       $555      $231          $296           $4,966,461             $319                 $23          $384,233
3      $841       $798      $280          $525              $41,930             $577                 $53            $4,207
4      $222       $744      $330          $480           $1,132,964             $510                 $29           $69,450
       $403       $550      $231          $296            $562,636              $317                 $21           $40,822
3      $240       $551      $231          $334           $7,000,169             $353                 $19          $392,771
2      $488       $565      $231          $341           $2,635,123             $366                 $24          $188,602
7      $254       $536      $231          $279           $1,554,764             $299                 $20          $112,211
6      $248       $524      $231          $326           $2,020,946             $344                 $18          $112,695
3      $337       $471      $231          $334            $771,179              $349                 $16           $35,949
2      $421       $542      $231          $309           $1,905,874             $327                 $18          $110,867
0      $264       $652      $231          $266           $2,299,925             $306                 $40          $343,143
9      $269       $546      $231          $330           $3,396,126             $352                 $21          $220,269
6      $104       $679      $231          $235           $8,426,272             $280                 $45         $1,621,235
4      $156       $558      $231          $267         $21,976,708              $289                 $22         $1,811,955
       $213       $594      $231          $253           $4,617,413             $283                 $30          $552,330
5      $536       $507      $231          $273            $764,212              $291                 $18           $51,443
       $421       $549      $231          $330           $2,603,343             $352                 $23          $178,039
8      $243       $543      $231          $284            $688,603              $307                 $23           $54,543
       $322       $509      $231          $306            $669,111              $324                 $18           $39,743
       $473       $660      $231          $295            $992,168              $328                 $34          $113,804
       $164       $511      $231          $251            $558,938              $270                 $19           $42,457
8      $228       $646      $231          $316         $10,189,816              $349                 $34         $1,085,007
                                                                                                                (continued)


                                    Page 41                                              GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                        Appendix III
                                        Detailed Information on Households
                                        Receiving Food Stamps Affected by the Cap
                                        on Excess Shelter Expense Deduction




                                                                                         Number      Average      Average
                    Number       Percent      Number        Average        Number     of children    monthly      monthly
                         of           of            of    household              of        under        gross          net
State            households   households   individuals          size       children         age 5     income       income
New Mexico            3,025          0.3         11,747           3.9         7,428        2,878        $622         $182
New York            216,690         20.8      682,551             3.1      424,153       166,415        $629         $235
North Carolina        5,793          0.6         21,202           3.7        12,131        5,300        $691         $225
North Dakota          1,441          0.1          5,605           3.9         3,491        1,312        $772         $278
Ohio                 21,898          2.0         96,385           4.4        67,432       16,749        $558         $152
Oklahoma              6,545          0.6         24,075           3.7        15,123        4,677        $650         $179
Oregon                9,179          0.9         35,510           3.9        21,989        8,500        $717         $263
Pennsylvania         49,793          4.8      186,055             3.7      116,720        39,785        $591         $180
Rhode Island          7,070          0.7         22,794           3.2        14,661        5,715        $562         $167
South Carolina        2,292          0.2          8,689           3.8         5,745        1,383        $678         $195
South Dakota          1,074          0.1          3,678           3.4         2,359          930        $738         $239
Tennessee            12,554          1.2         47,927           3.8        32,149       10,703        $724         $225
Texas                44,417          4.3      176,762             4.0      111,378        32,526        $783         $257
Utah                  3,997          0.4         15,775           3.9         9,974        3,768        $749         $276
Vermont               5,911          0.6         19,046           3.2        11,315        4,432        $726         $317
U.S. Virgin             426          0.0          1,573           3.7         1,002          453        $800         $327
Islands
Virginia              9,560          0.9         36,695           3.8        23,558        6,670        $742         $249
Washington           44,073          4.2      153,833             3.5        94,625       36,926        $592         $198
West Virginia         1,978          0.2          7,238           3.7         4,449          622        $678         $211
Wisconsin            17,331          1.7         59,368           3.4        39,007       15,519        $634         $218
Wyoming                 846          0.1          3,148           3.7         2,075          716        $694         $213




                                       Page 42                                          GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                    Appendix III
                                    Detailed Information on Households
                                    Receiving Food Stamps Affected by the Cap
                                    on Excess Shelter Expense Deduction




                                       Average                Total
e   Average    Average Average         monthly             monthly           Average             Average              Total
y   monthly    monthly monthly             food                food          monthly             monthly           monthly
t     earned    shelter   shelter        stamp               stamp             benefit          increase          increase
e    income       cost deduction        benefit             benefit         if no cap           if no cap         if no cap
2      $299       $544      $231          $320            $969,369              $339                 $19           $57,456
5      $125       $740      $231          $241         $52,290,706              $291                 $50        $10,761,978
5      $496       $552      $231          $288           $1,670,619             $306                 $18          $104,044
8      $652       $596      $231          $288            $415,377              $317                 $28           $40,817
2      $166       $545      $231          $369           $8,088,932             $391                 $22          $475,087
9      $425       $506      $231          $303           $1,983,393             $317                 $14           $93,923
3      $407       $599      $231          $294           $2,697,522             $319                 $25          $228,392
0      $193       $586      $231          $307         $15,291,657              $334                 $27         $1,363,036
7      $113       $589      $231          $268           $1,897,543             $297                 $29          $202,978
5      $513       $505      $231          $307            $703,073              $323                 $16           $37,267
9      $512       $582      $231          $262            $281,636              $288                 $26           $27,751
5      $476       $552      $231          $301           $3,782,846             $324                 $23          $290,602
7      $690       $577      $231          $303         $13,437,650              $328                 $25         $1,122,915
6      $480       $596      $231          $296           $1,183,590             $323                 $27          $107,535
7      $208       $685      $231          $223           $1,318,345             $271                 $48          $280,940
7      $645       $537      $171          $361            $153,731              $393                 $32           $13,746

9      $508       $605      $231          $294           $2,808,825             $322                 $28          $271,498
8      $140       $605      $231          $281         $12,368,256              $311                 $30         $1,332,868
       $489       $555      $231          $291            $575,651              $315                 $24           $46,902
8      $172       $565      $231          $270           $4,674,521             $296                 $26          $450,935
3      $470       $536      $231          $296            $250,210              $315                 $19           $16,258




                                    Page 43                                              GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                           Appendix III
                                           Detailed Information on Households
                                           Receiving Food Stamps Affected by the Cap
                                           on Excess Shelter Expense Deduction




Table III.5: Sampling Errors for Selected Monetary Amounts Presented in Table III.1 for All Affected Households, Fiscal
Year 1995
                                                                                                                        Average
                             Average          Average          Average          Average               Average           monthly
Type                         monthly          monthly          monthly          monthly               monthly        food stamp
of                              gross              net           earned          shelter           food stamp        benefit if no
household                     income           income           income             cost                benefit                cap
All                             13.32            10.32            21.96                 8.56              5.88               6.12
With children                   13.80            10.68            22.68                 8.88              5.72               5.92
With children under             18.44            14.08            30.36                11.88              7.76               8.04
age 5
Headed by single                14.44            10.72            23.56                10.56              6.24               6.40
female with children
One member                      42.48            27.56           106.36                37.96              7.88               6.80
Two members                     20.36            14.12            38.48                18.24              4.32               3.60
Three members                   20.32            14.04            37.12                14.52              4.36               4.28
Four members                    27.56            20.88            46.36                16.84              6.44               6.60
Five or more members            35.92            29.12            61.64                20.72             11.24              11.56
With noncitizens                44.28            35.20            74.56                28.84             18.00              18.80
With earned income              24.56            19.40            32.60                13.52             10.24              10.44
With gross income               13.32            10.32            21.96                 8.56              5.88               6.12
With net income                 13.32            10.32            21.96                 8.56              5.88               6.12
Geographic location
Northeast                       22.60            18.00            34.88                16.16              9.92              10.88
Midwest                         24.96            17.92            39.44                12.64             11.08              11.40
South                           39.44            28.28            64.88                19.32             17.84              18.04
West                            24.20            20.40            36.56                14.56             10.40              11.12
Rural                           28.44            20.00            50.68                16.72             14.20              14.44
Urban                           14.96            11.68            24.36                 9.64              6.48               6.80
Unknown urban/rural            366.48           261.60           825.28           222.04                139.04            162.12
Benefit level
25% or less than               279.72           255.64           399.48           150.80                 24.96              60.88
maximum
25% to 50% of                   73.48            57.64           145.40                39.96             12.72              14.84
maximum
50% to 75% of                   24.76            18.16            57.76                16.72             10.68              11.56
maximum
Above 75% of                     9.16                6.64         18.24                 9.28              6.64               7.04
maximum
Gross income as percentage of poverty
25% or less of poverty          58.28            47.08           162.04                75.12             96.88              99.64
level
                                                                                                                      (continued)


                                           Page 44                                             GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                 Appendix III
                                 Detailed Information on Households
                                 Receiving Food Stamps Affected by the Cap
                                 on Excess Shelter Expense Deduction




                                                                                                              Average
                      Average       Average          Average          Average               Average           monthly
Type                  monthly       monthly          monthly          monthly               monthly        food stamp
of                       gross           net           earned          shelter           food stamp        benefit if no
household              income        income           income             cost                benefit                cap
25% to 50% of           10.88          10.44            17.08                12.64              7.56               8.24
poverty level
50% to 75% of           16.00          14.36            27.16                13.32              6.88               7.88
poverty level
Above 75% of povery     33.24          27.32            56.00                19.92              9.52              10.24
level




                                 Page 45                                             GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                           Appendix III
                                           Detailed Information on Households
                                           Receiving Food Stamps Affected by the Cap
                                           on Excess Shelter Expense Deduction




Table III.6: Sampling Errors for Selected Monetary Amounts Presented in Table III.2 for All Affected Households With
Children, Fiscal Year 1995
                                                                                                                          Average
                             Average          Average          Average          Average               Average             monthly
Type                         monthly          monthly          monthly          monthly               monthly         food stamp
of                              gross              net           earned          shelter           food stamp               benefit
household                     income           income           income             cost                benefit           if no cap
All                             13.80            10.68            22.68                 8.88              5.72                5.92
With children under             18.44            14.08            30.36                11.88              7.76                8.04
age 5
Headed by single                14.44            10.72            23.56                10.56              6.24                6.40
female with children
One member                     175.32           154.36           347.64           133.48                 34.00              33.64
Two members                     21.32            14.76            39.44                19.40              4.52                3.68
Three members                   20.36            14.04            37.08                14.56              4.36                4.28
Four members                    27.56            20.88            46.36                16.84              6.44                6.60
Five or more members            35.92            29.12            61.64                20.72             11.24              11.56
With noncitizens                45.52            35.92            76.96                29.24             18.00              18.60
With earned income              25.96            20.52            35.32                14.28             10.12              10.24
With gross income               13.80            10.68            22.68                 8.88              5.72                5.92
With net income                 13.80            10.68            22.68                 8.88              5.72                5.92
Geographic location
Northeast                       23.44            18.56            36.36                16.72              9.56              10.24
Midwest                         25.88            18.56            40.24                13.04             10.80              11.12
South                           41.68            29.92            68.24                20.48             17.44              17.60
West                            25.04            20.96            36.64                14.88             10.16              10.88
Rural                           30.08            21.04            52.76                17.28             13.60              13.80
Urban                           15.48            12.04            25.12                 9.96              6.28                6.56
Unknown urban/rural            366.48           261.60           825.28           222.04                139.04             162.12
Benefit level
25% or less than               279.72           255.64           399.48           150.80                 24.96              60.88
maximum
25% to 50% of                   79.64            58.04           174.28                39.12             12.32              13.92
maximum
50% to 75% of                   24.92            17.68            60.72                16.92             10.20              10.96
maximum
Above 75% of                     9.40                6.76         18.64                 9.56              6.44                6.80
maximum
Gross income as percentage of poverty
25% or less of poverty          58.28            47.08           162.04                75.12             96.88              99.64
level
                                                                                                                       (continued)




                                           Page 46                                             GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                  Appendix III
                                  Detailed Information on Households
                                  Receiving Food Stamps Affected by the Cap
                                  on Excess Shelter Expense Deduction




                                                                                                                 Average
                       Average       Average          Average          Average               Average             monthly
Type                   monthly       monthly          monthly          monthly               monthly         food stamp
of                        gross           net           earned          shelter           food stamp               benefit
household               income        income           income             cost                benefit           if no cap
25% to 50% of            10.96          10.48            17.24                12.68              7.52                8.20
poverty level
50% to 75% of            16.16          14.48            28.32                13.72              6.64                7.60
poverty level
Above 75% of poverty     32.80          28.16            62.28                21.16              9.60              10.08




                                  Page 47                                             GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                            Appendix III
                                            Detailed Information on Households
                                            Receiving Food Stamps Affected by the Cap
                                            on Excess Shelter Expense Deduction




Table III.7: Sampling Errors for Selected Monetary Amounts of All Affected Households, by State, Presented in Table III.3,
Fiscal Year 1995
                                                                                                                         Average
                                  Average           Average               Average               Average                  monthly
                                  monthly           monthly               monthly               monthly            food stamp
                                     gross               net                earned                shelter                  benefit
State                              income            income                income                   cost                if no cap
All                                 13.32               10.32                  21.96                  8.56                   5.88
Alabama                           190.28              127.84                  295.20                 67.84                  91.88
Alaska                            105.64              115.92                  266.36                 85.32                  90.80
Arizona                           116.36                80.08                 202.04                 53.88                  51.60
Arkansas                          168.20              112.80                  255.92                 69.92                  69.72
California                          57.96               52.72                  68.84                 37.80                  23.88
Colorado                          104.68                71.92                 179.52                 48.72                  38.76
Connecticut                         54.12               44.96                  73.08                 35.92                  18.44
Delaware                          261.12              192.68                  355.80                101.08                  92.92
District of Columbia                96.80             108.68                  159.60                 86.60                 119.60
Florida                           117.28                82.64                 184.80                 55.52                  51.68
Georgia                           107.12                76.04                 183.20                 57.08                  56.84
Guam                              507.00              287.44                  899.52                245.64                 142.76
Hawaii                            130.84              100.76                  261.56                 83.36                  66.04
Idaho                             134.68              107.64                  214.68                 66.84                  71.88
Illinois                          123.80                99.84                 194.32                 77.60                  48.16
Indiana                           155.84                81.16                 265.88                 73.88                  75.28
Iowa                                88.04               60.84                 143.20                 40.80                  39.64
Kansas                              88.28               64.76                 149.20                 42.12                  46.16
Kentucky                          125.36                99.40                 290.56                 81.80                  97.68
Louisiana                         127.24              118.36                  223.88                 69.08                  73.00
Maine                               72.60               51.36                 125.80                 43.28                  31.64
Maryland                          118.84                78.64                 194.24                 61.84                  56.48
Massachusetts                       50.20               40.96                  81.52                 39.48                  20.40
Michigan                            46.60               33.52                  67.16                 21.48                  17.48
Minnesota                           77.72               58.28                 123.16                 38.36                  28.00
Mississippi                       213.12              104.48                  328.56                 64.20                  94.40
Missouri                          153.08                99.60                 252.00                 72.48                  83.84
Montana                           116.84                87.80                 203.96                 66.96                  57.76
Nebraska                          123.24                63.36                 223.16                 46.36                  47.96
Nevada                            171.68              118.96                  311.52                 75.72                  67.36
New Hampshire                       67.12               49.12                 178.12                 49.96                  62.92
New Jersey                          79.28               56.16                 130.84                 44.76                  32.92
                                                                                                                       (continued)


                                            Page 48                                          GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                 Appendix III
                                 Detailed Information on Households
                                 Receiving Food Stamps Affected by the Cap
                                 on Excess Shelter Expense Deduction




                                                                                                        Average
                      Average              Average               Average          Average               monthly
                      monthly              monthly               monthly          monthly           food stamp
                         gross                  net                earned          shelter                benefit
State                  income               income                income             cost              if no cap
New Mexico             134.96                99.12                 232.00           62.56                 71.48
New York                54.56                44.12                  79.20           38.08                 21.80
North Carolina         216.72               157.60                 342.52          108.48                 68.68
North Dakota           202.28               139.88                 399.04           95.44                 89.60
Ohio                   123.32                90.44                 189.64           72.60                 64.60
Oklahoma               129.40                83.96                 217.28           51.72                 62.76
Oregon                 104.72                77.24                 165.40           48.32                 41.68
Pennsylvania            78.24                60.12                 135.92           47.20                 40.24
Rhode Island            58.80                46.00                  92.64           41.96                 32.52
South Carolina         167.60                95.60                 297.72           59.56                125.00
South Dakota           237.20               152.40                 378.36          121.24                 88.92
Tennessee              134.80                91.64                 247.60           52.64                 63.44
Texas                  124.08                95.44                 189.92           65.64                 53.28
Utah                   122.28                89.48                 204.64           59.08                 50.28
Vermont                 84.92                65.40                 141.24           50.96                 28.80
U.S. Virgin Islands    247.88               191.56                 388.16          124.76                110.60
Virginia               151.12               120.84                 244.44           79.04                 75.04
Washington              46.40                36.84                  70.08           28.96                 17.68
West Virginia          225.44               192.60                 329.08          139.88                119.04
Wisconsin               42.72                31.24                  68.04           21.96                 17.76
Wyoming                149.20               110.52                 266.12           69.72                 95.92




                                 Page 49                                     GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                           Appendix III
                                           Detailed Information on Households
                                           Receiving Food Stamps Affected by the Cap
                                           on Excess Shelter Expense Deduction




Table III.8: Sampling Errors for Selected Monetary Amounts of All Affected Households With Children, by State, Presented
in Table III.4, Fiscal Year 1995
                                                                                                                       Average
                                  Average           Average               Average              Average                 monthly
                                  monthly           monthly               monthly              monthly             food stamp
                                     gross               net                earned              shelter                  benefit
State                              income            income                income                  cost               if no cap
All                                13.80               10.68                  22.68                  8.88                  5.72
Alabama                           190.28              127.84                 295.20                 67.84                 91.88
Alaska                            105.64              115.92                 266.36                 85.32                 90.80
Arizona                           118.88               81.48                 206.44                 55.32                 50.32
Arkansas                          182.16              121.32                 257.04                 76.12                 67.32
California                         59.96               53.80                  65.24                 38.60                 23.04
Colorado                          105.84               72.68                 181.48                 49.24                 38.80
Connecticut                        54.40               45.12                  74.04                 36.32                 18.28
Delaware                          276.92              203.56                 375.16                101.48                 92.12
District of Columbia              111.96              111.96                   0.00                100.48                 99.52
Florida                           123.20               87.12                 194.84                 58.68                 51.04
Georgia                           121.24               85.68                 200.20                 63.76                 53.00
Guam                              507.00              287.44                 899.52                245.64                142.76
Hawaii                            136.44              104.56                 266.48                 87.32                 63.72
Idaho                             145.48              115.76                 233.56                 69.96                 70.12
Illinois                          125.56              101.28                 196.56                 78.48                 47.96
Indiana                           159.48               83.04                 271.36                 75.64                 72.44
Iowa                               94.16               64.36                 148.92                 42.92                 38.00
Kansas                             92.68               68.04                 152.08                 43.76                 43.24
Kentucky                          125.36               99.40                 290.56                 81.80                 97.68
Louisiana                         134.96              130.00                 238.08                 75.80                 72.68
Maine                              77.48               54.32                 132.64                 45.24                 30.72
Maryland                          124.84               80.04                 205.36                 64.24                 55.04
Massachusetts                      50.56               41.20                  82.28                 39.80                 20.32
Michigan                           47.64               34.28                  68.28                 21.92                 17.44
Minnesota                          78.68               59.00                 122.56                 38.84                 27.64
Mississippi                       236.56              117.48                 365.12                 69.52                 94.20
Missouri                          181.92              116.84                 297.88                 81.48                 79.68
Montana                           119.20               89.20                 206.32                 67.20                 58.36
Nebraska                          129.72               66.84                 231.56                 46.20                 43.96
Nevada                            183.64              127.36                 333.72                 75.00                 63.80
New Hampshire                      67.80               49.64                 181.92                 50.36                 62.20
New Jersey                         80.72               57.24                 132.64                 44.72                 31.96
                                                                                                                     (continued)


                                           Page 50                                         GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
                                 Appendix III
                                 Detailed Information on Households
                                 Receiving Food Stamps Affected by the Cap
                                 on Excess Shelter Expense Deduction




                                                                                                        Average
                      Average              Average               Average          Average               monthly
                      monthly              monthly               monthly          monthly           food stamp
                         gross                  net                earned          shelter                benefit
State                  income               income                income             cost              if no cap
New Mexico             153.32               110.88                 258.92           68.00                 75.32
New York                58.88                46.96                  87.72           40.28                 21.64
North Carolina         223.72               161.04                 357.68          111.56                 70.16
North Dakota           215.92               149.64                 424.32          102.48                 87.40
Ohio                   132.92                97.88                 193.08           78.92                 54.56
Oklahoma               137.92                89.44                 227.64           55.44                 64.12
Oregon                 113.12                83.12                 175.84           50.12                 37.20
Pennsylvania            83.28                64.64                 137.56           49.60                 35.76
Rhode Island            60.36                47.16                  95.24           42.04                 31.12
South Carolina         200.56               109.88                 360.48           70.44                131.48
South Dakota           247.12               158.20                 395.16          125.40                 86.84
Tennessee              141.52                96.84                 257.12           55.00                 57.12
Texas                  124.80                96.44                 189.64           67.36                 53.56
Utah                   125.52                92.00                 210.12           60.56                 48.44
Vermont                 87.52                65.72                 148.00           52.68                 29.16
U.S. Virgin Islands    256.92               199.48                 411.92          124.52                117.44
Virginia               166.40               132.84                 269.40           84.76                 72.72
Washington              47.28                37.52                  70.36           29.48                 17.40
West Virginia          239.16               203.24                 351.72          145.36                115.16
Wisconsin               43.76                31.88                  69.40           22.24                 17.04
Wyoming                154.40               114.04                 275.24           71.40                 94.08




                                 Page 51                                     GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
Appendix IV

Major Contributors to This Report


               Thomas E. Slomba, Assistant Director
               Andrea Wamstad Brown, Project Leader
               Mitchell B. Karpman
               Carol Herrnstadt Shulman




(150268)       Page 52                                GAO/RCED-97-118 Food Stamp Program
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