oversight

Welfare Reform: State and Local Responses to Restricting Food Stamp Benefits

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1997-12-18.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                 United States General Accounting Office

GAO              Report to the Ranking Minority Member,
                 Subcommittee on Children and Families,
                 Committee on Labor and Human
                 Resources, U.S. Senate

December 1997
                 WELFARE REFORM
                 State and Local
                 Responses to
                 Restricting Food
                 Stamp Benefits




GAO/RCED-98-41
      United States
GAO   General Accounting Office
      Washington, D.C. 20548

      Resources, Community, and
      Economic Development Division

      B-278575

      December 18, 1997

      The Honorable Christopher J. Dodd
      Ranking Minority Member
      Subcommittee on Children and Families
      Committee on Labor and Human Resources
      United States Senate

      Dear Senator Dodd:

      In August 1996, the enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work
      Opportunity Reconciliation Act1—commonly called the Welfare Reform
      Act—overhauled the nation’s welfare system, and made significant
      changes to the Food Stamp Program. This program—administered by the
      U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)—is the nation’s largest food
      assistance program and provided about $22.5 billion in benefits for a
      monthly average of more than 25 million low-income participants in fiscal
      year 1996. According to the Congressional Budget Office, the changes to
      the Food Stamp Program, brought about by the Welfare Reform Act, will
      reduce the program’s expenditures by a projected total of more than
      $23 billion over 6 years, from fiscal year 1997 through fiscal 2002.

      Among other things, the Welfare Reform Act reduced food stamps for
      many participants2 and eliminated them, except under certain conditions,
      for two groups—able-bodied adults without dependents and legal
      immigrants.3 Able-bodied adults without dependents can receive benefits
      only for 3 months in a 3-year period unless they meet work or training
      requirements. Legislation made most legal immigrants ineligible for food
      stamps as of August 22, 1997. While these two groups of individuals
      represented only 10 percent of all Food Stamp Program participants for
      fiscal year 1995, the Congressional Budget Office estimates that the
      savings realized from these actions represent over 37 percent, or about
      $8.8 billion, of the over $23 billion in net savings expected in the Food
      Stamp Program from welfare reform.

      You asked us to study several issues concerning the impact of welfare
      reform on the Food Stamp Program. This report is the second in a series

      1
       P.L. 104-193, Aug. 22, 1996.
      2
       Food stamp benefits may be provided though coupons redeemed at the check-out counter or through
      an electronic card similar to a bank card. For this report, we refer to both as food stamps.
      3
       We use the term “legal immigrant” throughout this report rather than the term used in the
      legislation—“qualified alien”—because USDA’s guidance often uses the terms interchangeably.



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                   responding to that request.4 It focuses on the two groups of individuals
                   that were the most likely to lose their food stamp benefits—able-bodied
                   adults without dependents and legal immigrants. Specifically, we describe
                   the (1) actions, if any, that states have taken to assist those individuals
                   who lose eligibility for the Food Stamp Program and (2) related actions, if
                   any, taken by other organizations in selected localities—local governments
                   and nonprofit organizations—to assist those individuals who lose their
                   eligibility for the Food Stamp Program.

                   As part of our review, we surveyed the 50 states and the District of
                   Columbia on the actions they are taking, if any, in response to the changes
                   in the Food Stamp Program. All 50 states and the District of Columbia
                   responded to our survey. (See app. I for the results of the survey.) In
                   addition, we visited with government officials and representatives of
                   nonprofit organizations in five localities5 to obtain their views on what
                   effect the changes to the Food Stamp Program may have on their agencies’
                   or organizations’ ability to meet demand for their food assistance services.
                   Appendix II discusses our methodology in more detail.


                   Most states are taking a variety of measures to address the changes in the
Results in Brief   Food Stamp Program as a result of welfare reform. For able-bodied adults
                   without dependents, many states are providing employment and training
                   assistance. This assistance, although primarily intended to move these
                   individuals toward self-sufficiency, may still allow them to qualify for food
                   stamp benefits if they meet both the income and work requirements.
                   Additionally, most states have obtained the authority from USDA, if they
                   choose to exercise it, to continue providing food stamp benefits for
                   individuals in areas with high unemployment or in areas with an
                   insufficient number of jobs. Twenty states are providing or plan to provide
                   legal immigrants with information on how to become U.S. citizens.
                   However, because it takes over 1 year on average to process citizenship
                   applications at the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), many
                   legal immigrants lost their food stamp benefits as of August 22, 1997.
                   USDA’s Food and Nutrition Service estimated that 935,000 legal immigrants
                   had lost their federal food stamp benefits. In addition, some states have
                   existing programs that provide food assistance for the needy—such as
                   food pantries—that able-bodied adults without dependents and legal

                   4
                    Our first report is entitled Food Stamp Program: Characteristics of Households Affected by Limit on
                   the Shelter Deduction (GAO/RCED-97-118, May 14, 1997). We will report at a later date on the
                   Simplified Food Stamp Program.
                   5
                   The localities that we visited were Denver, Colorado; Detroit, Michigan; Hartford, Connecticut;
                   Houston, Texas; and Los Angeles, California.



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             immigrants who have lost their food stamps already had access to. Some
             states have developed new programs to specifically meet the needs of
             individuals who lose their food stamps. For example, 10 states—including
             4 states estimated to have about 70 percent of the legal immigrants who
             receive food stamps in the United States—are purchasing or planning to
             purchase federal food stamps with their own funds—primarily for legal
             immigrant children and the elderly. In December 1997, the states involved
             indicated that about 241,000 of these individuals are now receiving food
             stamp benefits funded by the states. However, the extent to which any of
             these actions will meet the food assistance needs of those affected
             remains unknown.

             In the five localities we visited, government officials are implementing
             their state’s efforts to address changes in the Food Stamp Program and, in
             some cases, are working with local nonprofit organizations to plan for an
             expected increase in the need for food assistance. Most of the nonprofit
             organizations we visited said that it is too early to assess the impact of
             welfare reform on their food assistance programs. However, the
             organizations fear that their limited resources may be insufficient to meet
             the needs of the individuals who have lost their food stamps, which
             included the basic foods that the program provided. These organizations
             do not believe that they can replace the long-term assistance that food
             stamps provided.


             The Food Stamp Program helps low-income households (individuals and
Background   families) obtain a more nutritious diet by supplementing their income with
             food stamp benefits. In fiscal year 1996, the average monthly food stamp
             benefit was $73 per person. These benefits are generally provided through
             coupons or electronically on a debit card (similar to a bank card) that may
             be used to purchase food at stores authorized to receive food stamps.

             The Food Stamp Program is a federal-state partnership, in which the
             federal government pays the full cost of the food stamp benefits and
             approximately half of the states’ administrative costs. USDA’s Food and
             Nutrition Service (FNS)—formerly, the Food and Consumer
             Service—administers the program at the federal level. The states’
             responsibilities include certifying eligible households, calculating the
             amount of benefits, and issuing benefits to participants who meet the
             requirements set by law.




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The Welfare Reform Act overhauled the nation’s welfare system and
significantly changed the Food Stamp Program. In addition, the Fiscal
Year 1997 Supplemental Appropriations Act (P.L. 105-18, June 12,
1997) included new authority allowing the states to purchase federal food
stamps to provide state-funded food assistance for legal immigrants and
able-bodied adults without dependents who are no longer eligible for
federal food stamps under the Welfare Reform Act. Under the
supplemental act, states are required to receive approval from FNS to
distribute additional food stamps and to fully reimburse the federal
government in advance for all costs associated with providing the benefits.
In addition, the states’ food stamp programs must be cost-neutral to the
federal government.

Changes to the Food Stamp Program included imposing time limits on
those able-bodied individuals between the ages of 18 and 50 without
dependents who were not working at least 80 hours a month or
participating in certain kinds of employment and training programs.6 This
work requirement was effective not later than November 22, 1996. States
were required to terminate food stamps for these nonworking able-bodied
adults without dependents after 3 months within any 36-month period.
Disabled individuals, if they meet eligibility requirements, can still receive
assistance. The act allows FNS to grant waivers to states for exempting
able-bodied adults without dependents from the work requirement if they
live in an area where unemployment is over 10 percent or in an area with
an insufficient number of jobs. FNS generally grants waivers for a 1-year
period. Once approved, these waivers may be renewed if the areas covered
continue to have high unemployment or insufficient jobs. Once the
waivers are approved, the states or localities can choose to either
implement them in whole or in part, or choose not to implement them at
all. In addition, The Balanced Budget Act (P.L. 105-33, Aug. 5, 1997) gives
states the discretion to exempt certain types of able-bodied adults without
dependents from the work requirement—up to 15 percent of those not
otherwise waived. The Balanced Budget Act also provided an additional
$131 million for each of the next 4 years to the Food Stamp Program—80
percent of it is designated for employment and training opportunities for
these adults. According to data from FNS for fiscal year 1995—the latest
year for which data were available—in an average month, the Food Stamp
Program provided benefits for 27 million people. Of these, 2.5 million were
able-bodied adults between the ages of 18 and 50 without dependents. An

6
 These programs may involve the participation of both the public and private sectors. For example,
Workfare, which is a federal program, requires individuals to work in a public service capacity in order
to receive federal food stamps. Some states allow participants to meet these work requirements by
volunteering at nonprofit organizations.



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                             estimated one-half of these adults, about 1.3 million, are subject to the
                             3-month time limit.7

                             In addition, the Welfare Reform Act and the Supplemental Appropriations
                             Act allowed immigrants with legal status as of August 22, 1996, to retain
                             food stamps up to August 22, 1997. However, if legal immigrants have 40
                             quarters or more of work history in the United States or are veterans or
                             active duty members of the U.S. military, they may continue to retain food
                             stamps. Spouses and minor children of veterans are also eligible.8


                             At the time of our survey of states in the summer of 1997, the states were
Most States Taking           pursuing a variety of options to address changes in the Food Stamp
Actions to Address           Program that affected able-bodied adults without dependents and legal
Changes in Food              immigrants. Some state actions, such as job training assistance, although
                             primarily intended to move individuals toward self-sufficiency, may have
Stamp Program                the effect of allowing some able-bodied adults without dependents to
                             retain food stamps by meeting the act’s work requirements. Twenty states
                             provided legal immigrants with information on how to become citizens so
                             that they can be eligible for food stamps. Other state actions are intended
                             to replace the food stamp benefits that individuals have lost.


States Are Pursuing          According to our survey results, when the states notified able-bodied
Several Options That Allow   adults without dependents that they were subject to the work
Some Individuals to Keep     requirements in order to retain food stamps, many states told us that they
                             chose to also notify these adults of job placement and/or training services
Benefits                     that were available. Although these programs are intended primarily to
                             move individuals toward self-sufficiency, participants may still receive
                             food stamps if income and other requirements are met. For example, our
                             survey indicated that Texas provided information on jobs and/or
                             employment resources and training. Thirty-two states provided
                             information about jobs and/or employment resources; 29 provided
                             information on training; 19 provided information on workfare. In addition,

                             7
                              The 1.3 million figure includes those adults who could be exempt from the requirements by the states
                             obtaining waivers from FNS. The source of these data is Characteristics of Childless Unemployed
                             Adult and Legal Immigrant Food Stamp Participants: Fiscal Year 1995, Mathematica Policy Research,
                             Inc. (Feb. 13, 1997).
                             8
                              Under the Welfare Reform Act, three other groups—refugees, individuals seeking asylum, and
                             individuals granted a stay of deportation—remain eligible for food stamps for up to 5 years. After 5
                             years, members of all of these groups are subject to the same restrictions as legal immigrants unless
                             they have become U.S. citizens. Under the Balanced Budget Act, certain groups—including
                             Amerasians, Cubans, and Haitians—had their food stamp benefits restored for up to 5 years, and
                             World War II Filipino veterans were given status allowing them to receive food stamps if they meet
                             income and work requirements.



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20 states helped assess an individual’s employment skills. The states also
offered one or more ways to meet the work requirements: 25 states
counted volunteer work, 25 counted workfare, and 33 counted
employment training that leads to a job.

In addition, as allowed under the Welfare Reform Act, our survey indicated
that 43 states had applied for, and 42 received, authority to waive the work
requirement for able-bodied adults without dependents in areas where
unemployment exceeded 10 percent or in areas with insufficient jobs. (See
app. III for the waiver status of each state.) FNS estimated that as many as
35 percent of the affected able-bodied adults without dependents would
retain their eligibility through a waiver.

However, 8 of the 43 states were not planning to implement their
waivers—either in their entirety or in part. In seven states—California,
Indiana, Nevada, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Virginia—waivers were
approved for selected regions but the local governments, which are
authorized to implement the waivers, did not plan to do so. Texas planned
to implement its waiver only in localities with an unemployment rate of
over 10 percent. Two of the eight states or their localities had not fully
implemented the waivers because they believed that it was unfair to
exempt able-bodied adults without dependents from the work requirement
while single mothers receiving federal assistance, like Temporary
Assistance for Needy Families (TANF),9 are required to participate in work
activities.

At the time of our survey, 20 states provided or planned to provide legal
immigrants—who were scheduled to lose their food stamps—with
information on how to become U.S. citizens. In May 1997, we reported that
it took between 112 and 678 days (with an average of 373 days) to process
applications for citizenship at INS between June of 1994 and June of 1996.10
 For example, it took just over 1 year to process a request for citizenship in
Los Angeles—a city with one of the largest immigrant populations in the
nation—and almost 2 years to process an application in Houston. INS
officials told us that among the reasons for the significant increase in the
number of applications that INS has received since fiscal year 1989 is that
there are incentives to becoming a citizen because of the benefits that can


9
 This block grant program replaces Aid to Families with Dependent Children. It is intended to provide
temporary financial assistance for families and, like the Food Stamp Program, has work requirements
as a condition for receiving assistance.
10
 See Alien Applications: Processing Differences Exist Among INS Field Units, (GAO/GGD-97-47,
May 20, 1997).



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                             be derived. Because it takes an average of over 1 year to process
                             applications for citizenship and legal immigrants were not eligible to
                             receive food stamps after August 22, 1997, many legal immigrants have lost
                             their federal food stamp benefits. FNS’ most current estimate is that 935,000
                             legal immigrants lost their federal food stamps under the welfare reform
                             provisions. However, as of December 1997, estimates are that over
                             one-quarter, or about 241,000, of these individuals are receiving food
                             stamps funded by the states.


States Are Taking Some       For those individuals who lose federal food stamp benefits, 20 states were
Actions to Offer Food        taking one or more actions to provide state-funded food assistance. (App.
Assistance to Those Losing   IV identifies the 20 states with food assistance programs that serve
                             able-bodied adults without dependents and/or legal immigrants.) Ten
Benefits                     states11 decided to purchase federal food stamps with their own funds for
                             certain legal immigrants—primarily children and the elderly. According to
                             FNS and the states, 9 of the 10 states have estimated that about 241,000
                             legal immigrants are now receiving state-funded food stamps.12 Among
                             these states are California, Florida, New York, and Texas, which,
                             according to an FNS report, had about 70 percent of the legal immigrants
                             receiving food stamps in fiscal year 1995—the latest year for which data
                             were available. These states will generally use the Food Stamp Program’s
                             infrastructure and benefit structure to deliver food assistance, according
                             to FNS. For example, Washington State appropriated just over $60 million
                             for fiscal years 1998-99 to fully restore benefits to an estimated 38,000 legal
                             immigrants—all of whom were slated to become ineligible for federal food
                             stamps. Households eligible for participation receive the same benefits
                             that they did under the federal program. However, FNS also told us that,
                             unlike Washington State’s, most states’ eligibility standards are likely to
                             apply to only certain categories of legal immigrants. California, for
                             example, recently appropriated $34.6 million to provide food stamps for
                             legal immigrants who are children or elderly.




                             11
                               These states are California, Florida, Massachusetts, Maryland, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York,
                             Rhode Island, Texas, and Washington. With the exception of Nebraska, Rhode Island, and Washington,
                             these states are assisting certain categories of the legal immigrant population. Nebraska and Rhode
                             Island have pledged to provide food stamps for all immigrants who had legal status as of August 22,
                             1996. Washington is providing food stamps for all legal immigrants regardless of when they received
                             legal status.
                             12
                               FNS estimated that 223,000 legal immigrants received state-funded food stamps in 8 of the 10 states.
                             In addition, Massachusetts estimated that about 18,000 legal immigrants are receiving state-funded
                             food stamps. One state—Texas—had not initiated its food stamp program for legal immigrants.



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Thirteen of the 20 states13 reported that they were using their own
state-funded food assistance programs, and 2 of the 13 states created
programs in response to welfare reform. These two states—Colorado and
Minnesota—developed state-funded food assistance programs to aid those
legal immigrants losing their federal food stamp eligibility as a result of
welfare reform. Colorado, for example, has appropriated $2 million to
provide emergency assistance, including food, for legal immigrants.
Minnesota has allocated just over $4.7 million for two programs to provide
food assistance for legal immigrant families in that state.

The remaining 11 states had food assistance programs—created before the
Welfare Reform Act was passed—that ranged from those that provide
individuals with cash directly to those that provide funds for local food
banks and food pantries that serve, among others, both able-bodied adults
without dependents and legal immigrants.14 A program with significant
funding is Pennsylvania’s State Food Purchase Program, which provided
about $13 million in fiscal year 1997 and $13.6 million in fiscal 1998 to
counties for the purchase of food. This program is intended to supplement
the efforts of food pantries, shelters for the homeless, soup kitchens, food
banks, and similar organizations to reduce hunger.

Two states with state-funded programs are also providing existing state or
local programs with additional funding to assist able-bodied adults without
dependents and legal immigrants. Rhode Island appropriated $250,000 in
fiscal year 1998 for a community-run food bank. Massachusetts increased
the funding it provides for local food banks and food pantries from just
under $1 million to $3 million in fiscal year 1998 in anticipation of an
increased need by both groups.

Seven of the 20 states15 reported that they had allocated additional money
to federally funded programs that assist groups of individuals, which may
include those losing food stamp benefits. Programs identified by the states
in our survey include The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP)



13
 These states are Colorado, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, Minnesota, Nebraska, New York,
Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia.
14
 Food banks collect and distribute a variety of food products to various organizations, such as food
pantries and soup kitchens. Food pantries may provide temporary food assistance for those in crisis.
Soup kitchens provide meals on-site for those in need. They often serve the homeless; the mentally,
socially, and/or physically disabled; the unemployed; the elderly of fixed incomes; transients; single
parents; families in crisis; and the working poor.
15
  Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, New York, South Carolina, South Dakota, and Texas.



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                             and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and
                             Children (WIC).16


                             In the five localities we visited, government officials reported that their
Assistance in Five           assistance largely consists of implementing state programs. Most nonprofit
Localities Is Largely        organizations that we contacted said that although it is too soon to assess
Focused on                   the impact of welfare reform, they anticipate an increased need for their
                             services. Given their limited resources, however, these organizations are
Implementing State           concerned that the supplemental assistance they provide will not
Initiatives, While           compensate for the basic food assistance provided by the federal program.
                             (See apps. V-IX for information about food assistance programs in these
Nonprofit                    localities.)
Organizations Are
Assessing Future
Needs
Assistance at the Local      In the five localities we visited—Denver, Detroit, Hartford, Houston, and
Level Is Generally Limited   Los Angeles—employment and training programs were offered to
to Implementing State        able-bodied adults without dependents through existing or expanded
                             programs. Although these programs are intended to promote
Programs                     self-sufficiency, they may also help participants to retain food stamps if
                             they meet income and work requirements.

                             For example, in Hartford, Connecticut, able-bodied adults without
                             dependents can participate in the statewide Connecticut Works System.
                             This program’s objective is to enhance the state’s economy by helping to
                             match the needs of businesses with workers’ skills. The Connecticut
                             Works System brings together state, regional, and local organizations to
                             provide job listings, job search assistance, access to training and
                             education programs, resume assistance, interviewing, and networking
                             assistance.

                             In Detroit, Michigan, able-bodied adults without dependents can
                             participate in a new state employment and training assistance program
                             that specifically targets this population; about one-half of these adults live
                             in the greater Detroit area. For fiscal year 1998, the state will receive
                             $13.4 million from FNS to expand work programs for this population.



                             16
                               TEFAP provides low-income households with commodities such as canned fruit, vegetables, and
                             meat. WIC provides certain women and children with specific food items, such as milk, cheese, and
                             infant formula, generally from retail vendors.



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                           For legal immigrants, three out of the five localities—Denver, Houston,
                           and Los Angeles—had plans to offer limited food assistance through
                           state-funded programs. California passed legislation to provide food
                           stamps for legal immigrant children and the elderly by purchasing federal
                           food stamps. Similarly, Colorado passed legislation that provides legal
                           immigrant families with special emergency assistance. As a result, families
                           in Denver can receive, among other things, food coupons redeemable at
                           designated food pantries. Finally, Texas is planning to offer food
                           assistance to elderly and disabled legal immigrants.

                           In addition, Los Angeles County launched two special efforts on behalf of
                           legal immigrants after the passage of welfare reform. First, Los Angeles
                           initiated a countywide citizenship campaign that brought together 200
                           public and nonprofit organizations whose goal was to assist legal
                           immigrants in obtaining citizenship. Los Angeles County coordinated the
                           efforts of these organizations, worked with the local district office of the
                           INS, and directly contacted 400,000 potentially affected legal immigrants.
                           However, Los Angeles officials told us that (1) because of the time it takes
                           to process applications for citizenship—including the fact that criminal
                           background checks are required on all applicants—and (2) because many
                           of the applications remain unprocessed owing to the volume of
                           applications received by the INS, they estimate that about 91,000 legal
                           immigrants lost their food stamps. Los Angeles County officials said they
                           continue to encourage legal immigrants to become U.S. citizens and, for
                           those who do become citizens, hope to restore benefits to those who meet
                           the Food Stamp Program’s requirements. Second, Los Angeles County and
                           the local United Way jointly sponsored the efforts of a local referral
                           service to provide information on food assistance. Information on how to
                           contact this referral service was enclosed with termination notices to legal
                           immigrants.


Nonprofit Organizations    In every locality that we visited, nonprofit organizations—including food
Expect an Increased Need   banks, food pantries, soup kitchens, and religious
That They Cannot Meet      organizations—generally serve anyone who needs their services, including
                           able-bodied adults without dependents and legal immigrants. Historically,
                           these organizations provide supplemental food assistance on an
                           emergency basis, perhaps once or twice a month. According to these
                           nonprofit organizations, food stamp recipients—even before welfare
                           reform—had turned to them for assistance.




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              These organizations generally expect an increase in the need for their
              services—both in terms of the numbers of people and frequency of
              visits—as a result of welfare reform. For example, in Denver, one
              organization was getting 40 to 50 more applicants for food assistance per
              week in August 1997. Furthermore, the organizations were generally
              concerned that they could not replace the long-term, sustained assistance
              that food stamps provided.

              At the time of our visits in the late summer of 1997, however, most
              organizations had not experienced this anticipated increase. Our visits
              occurred before benefits were cut off for legal immigrants and before the
              usual increase in the need for food assistance in the winter months.

              The organizations are unsure how they will meet the expected increase
              because they have limited resources. Furthermore, these organizations are
              competing for these limited resources, and officials told us that they do
              not anticipate larger contributions as a result of welfare reform. While
              most organizations were waiting to see the full impact of welfare reform,
              some were developing contingency plans to handle the expected increase.
              For example, in Detroit, a kosher food pantry surveyed its existing
              clientele to determine which individuals would lose their benefits. The
              pantry learned that it would need about $100,000 the first year to serve its
              existing population. According to officials from the food pantry, this effort
              is not likely to be duplicated by other organizations because, unlike most
              other organizations, the kosher food pantry serves a known group of legal
              immigrants. More typically, most organizations are unsure how they will
              sustain a long-term increase in the number of people needing their
              services because they typically provide assistance on an emergency basis
              for anyone in need, and their resources are already limited. These
              organizations are considering strategies that would restrict eligibility, such
              as limiting eligibility to serve children or the elderly, in order to
              accommodate the anticipated increase and/or reduce their existing levels
              of service in order to accommodate the needs of more individuals.


              It is too soon to assess how able-bodied adults without dependents and
Conclusions   legal immigrants will fare in the long term under welfare reform. However,
              many states have taken actions that could result in continuing food
              assistance, under certain conditions, for some of these individuals. For
              able-bodied adults, some of these actions—employment assistance and
              training—may help move these individuals towards self-sufficiency. For
              legal immigrants, citizenship could restore federal food stamps to those



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                  who meet income and work eligibility requirements. However, because of
                  the amount of time it takes to process citizenship applications, many
                  individuals have likely lost their food stamps.


                  We provided USDA with a copy of a draft of this report for review and
Agency Comments   comment. We met with FNS officials, including the Acting Deputy
                  Administrator for the Food Stamp Program. USDA concurred with the
                  accuracy of the report but stated that while some states are providing or
                  will provide food assistance for legal immigrants with state funds, in many
                  cases, the assistance will not replace federal benefits because it generally
                  targets only certain portions of the legal immigrant population, such as the
                  elderly or children. USDA officials indicated that about one-quarter of the
                  935,000 legal immigrants that they estimated would lose food stamp
                  benefits are now being covered under state funded programs. The USDA
                  officials also pointed out that while many states are offering employment
                  and training services for able-bodied adults without dependents, often, the
                  services offered are job search activities, which do not satisfy the work
                  requirements under the Welfare Reform Act and, thus, do not qualify these
                  individuals for food stamps. We expanded our discussion of these points
                  where appropriate and made some additional minor clarifications to the
                  report on the basis of USDA’s comments.


                  As arranged with your office, unless you publicly announce its contents
                  earlier, we plan no further distribution of this report until 30 days from the
                  date of this letter. At that time, we will send copies of this report to the
                  Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry; the House
                  Committee on Agriculture; other interested congressional committees, and
                  the Secretary of Agriculture. We will also make copies available upon
                  request.




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If you have any questions about this report, I can be reached at
(202) 512-5138. Major contributors to this report are listed in appendix X.

Sincerely yours,




Robert A. Robinson
Director, Food and
  Agriculture Issues




Page 13                                          GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Contents



Letter                                                      1


Appendix I                                                 18

Results of GAO’S
Survey of States’
Responses to Changes
in Food Stamp
Programs
Appendix II                                                25

Objectives, Scope,
and Methodology
Appendix III                                               27

States That Have
Applied For, Planned
to Apply For, And/Or
Received Waivers for
Areas in Their State
Where Employment
Opportunities Are
Limited
Appendix IV                                                28

States With New or
Existing Food
Assistance Programs
Serving Able-Bodied
Adults Without
Dependents And/Or
Legal Immigrants


                       Page 14   GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
                         Contents




Appendix V                                                                                        29
                         County Profile                                                           29
Food Assistance in       Approach to Providing Food Assistance                                    30
Los Angeles County,      Nonprofit Organizations’ Efforts in Providing Food Assistance            31
California
Appendix VI                                                                                       34
                         County Profile                                                           34
Food Assistance in       Approach to Providing Food Assistance                                    35
Denver, Colorado         Nonprofit Organizations’ Efforts in Providing Food Assistance            36

Appendix VII                                                                                      38
                         Area Profile                                                             38
Food Assistance in       Approach to Providing Food Assistance                                    39
Hartford, Connecticut    Nonprofit Organizations’ Efforts in Providing Food Assistance            40
                         Other Observations Regarding Local Food Assistance Efforts               42

Appendix VIII                                                                                     43
                         Area Profile                                                             43
Food Assistance in       Approach to Providing Food Assistance                                    44
the Detroit Tri-County   Nonprofit Organizations’ Efforts in Providing Food Assistance            44
                         Other Observations on Nonprofit Efforts to Provide Food                  47
Area                       Assistance

Appendix IX                                                                                       49
                         County Profile                                                           49
Food Assistance in       Approach to Providing Food Assistance                                    50
Houston, Texas           Nonprofit Organizations’ Efforts in Providing Food Assistance            50

Appendix X                                                                                        53

Major Contributors to
This Report
Tables                   Table V.1: Nonprofit Organizations We Contacted Concerned                32
                           With Food Assistance in Los Angeles County
                         Table VI.1 Nonprofit Organizations We Contacted Concerned                36
                           With Food Assistance in Denver County




                         Page 15                                        GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
          Contents




          Table VII.1: Nonprofit Organizations We Contacted Concerned             41
            With Food Assistance in Hartford, Connecticut
          Table VIII.1: Nonprofit Organizations We Contacted Concerned            46
            With Food Assistance in the Tri-County Area
          Table IX.1: Nonprofit Organizations We Contacted Concerned              51
            With Food Assistance in Houston, Texas

Figures   Figure V.1: Los Angeles County, California                              29
          Figure VI.1: Denver County, Colorado                                    34
          Figure VII.1: Greater Hartford, Connecticut                             38
          Figure VIII.1: Greater Detroit, Michigan                                43
          Figure IX.1: Harris County, Texas                                       49




          Abbreviations

          DDSS       Denver Department of Social Services
          DPSS       Los Angeles County Department of Public Social Services
          DSS        Department of Social Services (Connecticut)
          FEMA       Federal Emergency Management Agency
          FIA        Family Independence Agency (Michigan)
          FNS        Food and Nutrition Service
          GAO        General Accounting Office
          INS        Immigration and Naturalization Service
          TANF       Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
          TDHS       Texas Department of Human Services
          TEFAP      The Emergency Food Assistance Program
          USDA       U.S. Department of Agriculture
          WIC        Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants,
                          and Children


          Page 16                                       GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Page 17   GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Appendix I

Results of GAO’S Survey of States’
Responses to Changes in Food Stamp
Programs




              Page 18          GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Appendix I
Results of GAO’S Survey of States’
Responses to Changes in Food Stamp
Programs




Page 19                              GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Appendix I
Results of GAO’S Survey of States’
Responses to Changes in Food Stamp
Programs




Page 20                              GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Appendix I
Results of GAO’S Survey of States’
Responses to Changes in Food Stamp
Programs




Page 21                              GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Appendix I
Results of GAO’S Survey of States’
Responses to Changes in Food Stamp
Programs




Page 22                              GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Appendix I
Results of GAO’S Survey of States’
Responses to Changes in Food Stamp
Programs




Page 23                              GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Appendix I
Results of GAO’S Survey of States’
Responses to Changes in Food Stamp
Programs




Page 24                              GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Appendix II

Objectives, Scope, and Methodology


              In October 1996, the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on
              Children and Families, Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources,
              asked us to study several issues concerning the impact of welfare reform
              on the Food Stamp Program. This report focuses on the two groups of
              individuals most likely to lose their food stamp benefits—able-bodied
              adults without dependents and legal immigrants. Specifically, we describe
              the (1) actions, if any, that states have taken to assist those individuals
              who lose eligibility for the Food Stamp Program and (2) related actions, if
              any, taken by other organizations in selected localities—local governments
              and nonprofit organizations—to assist those individuals who lose their
              eligibility for the Food Stamp Program.

              To address the first objective, we surveyed and received responses from
              the 50 states and the District of Columbia. We also updated our results as
              appropriate. The tabulated results of the survey are included as appendix
              I.

              To address the second objective, we visited five localities. These localities
              were selected using the following criteria regarding the states in which
              they are located: (1) whether the states offered general relief to
              able-bodied adults without dependents and (2) whether the states had
              filed waivers precluding able-bodied adults without dependents from
              meeting the work requirement because of high unemployment or an
              insufficient number of jobs. We then selected states within these
              categories by (1) those with the highest food stamp participation of
              able-bodied adults without dependents and legal immigrants and
              (2) geographic diversity. Within the states, we chose the locality, usually a
              county, with the highest participation in the Food Stamp Program.

              We visited these localities in the late summer of 1997. We contacted
              several organizations that were significantly involved in providing the
              localities with food assistance. We also met with government officials
              responsible for food stamps and other officials involved in welfare reform.
              In several localities, we also met with officials affiliated with the Federal
              Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) because of their expertise in
              providing emergency food assistance after natural disasters. We also
              visited nonprofit organizations, such as community action agencies; food
              banks; church-affiliated food assistance providers, such as soup kitchens;
              local advocacy groups; local United Way affiliates; and food pantries. (See
              apps. V-IX for individual reports on the food assistance provided in these
              localities.)




              Page 25                                          GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Appendix II
Objectives, Scope, and Methodology




In addition, we contacted several national organizations that provide local
communities with food assistance, including Catholic Charities USA;
Lutheran Social Services; Second Harvest; World Share, Inc.; and the
United Way of America. We also attended a conference sponsored by
Second Harvest on the implications of welfare reform on food assistance.
Additionally, we attended the American Public Welfare Association’s
National Conference for Food Stamp Directors to obtain information on
current state and local food assistance programs. Finally, we met with
officials from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Food and
Nutrition Service (FNS) to obtain program information and statistics.

We performed our work in accordance with generally accepted
government auditing standards from March through December 1997.




Page 26                                         GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Appendix III

States That Have Applied For, Planned to
Apply For, And/Or Received Waivers for
Areas in Their State Where Employment
Opportunities Are Limited




                                                                       District of Columbia
                                                                       waiver approved




               Applied for and approved for waviers
               Responded that they plan to apply for waivers
               Planning not to implement the waiver
               Waiver status unknown

                          Source: GAO’s analysis




                          Page 27                              GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Appendix IV

States With New or Existing Food
Assistance Programs Serving Able-Bodied
Adults Without Dependents And/Or Legal
Immigrants



                                                                                                            Rhode Island




              State funded food assistance programs
              States providing assistance to legal immigrants (primarily children & elderly)
              States providing assistance to able-bodied adults without dependents



                           Source: GAO’s analysis




                           Page 28                                                             GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Appendix V

Food Assistance in Los Angeles County,
California

Figure V.1: Los Angeles County,
California




                                  Los Angeles County had a population of about 9.1 million in 1995. In 1996,
County Profile                    its unemployment rate was 8.3 percent, and its poverty rate for 1995-96
                                  averaged 18.7 percent. In comparison, the state’s unemployment rate was
                                  7 percent, and the poverty rate for 1995-96 averaged 16.8 percent.
                                  Nationwide, unemployment was 5.4 percent and the poverty rate for
                                  1995-96 averaged 13.8 percent.1

                                  In January 1997, as states were beginning to implement the Welfare
                                  Reform Act, over 1 million individuals participated in the Food Stamp
                                  Program in Los Angeles County. Of this total, over 189,000 were legal
                                  immigrants, and an estimated 56,400 were able-bodied adults without
                                  dependents. As of September 1997, after many changes to the Food Stamp


                                  1
                                   Statistics presented are the latest available. Population and poverty rates come from Census Bureau
                                  data for 1995 and 1996, respectively. Unemployment rates come from Bureau of Labor Statistics data
                                  for 1996.



                                  Page 29                                                          GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
                 Appendix V
                 Food Assistance in Los Angeles County,
                 California




                 Program were implemented, the county had about 870,000 food stamp
                 participants of which about 31,000 were able-bodied adults without
                 dependents and about 24,000 were legal immigrants. In addition, 29,000
                 legal immigrant children and elderly were receiving state-funded food
                 stamps.


                 The Los Angeles County Department of Public Social Services (DPSS)
Approach to      administers the Food Stamp Program, with guidance from the California
Providing Food   Health and Welfare Agency. DPSS officials told us that they assist both
Assistance       able-bodied adults without dependents and legal immigrants in retaining
                 food stamp benefits to the extent possible.

                 For able-bodied adults without dependents, local officials were providing
                 employment and training experiences through workfare. The county has
                 expanded its workfare program to include from 80 percent of these adults
                 prior to welfare reform to 100 percent. Officials were concerned that if
                 these adults were not offered workfare to meet the work requirement, they
                 would lose their food stamp benefits.

                 For legal immigrants losing food stamp benefits, DPSS had an extensive
                 notification process to advise them of their impending change in status for
                 the Food Stamp Program as a result of welfare reform. DPSS sent out
                 notification flyers entitled “You May Lose Your Food Stamp Benefits” to
                 legal immigrants on five occasions and in several languages. The flyers
                 described the process for obtaining citizenship. DPSS is providing
                 assistance through a countywide effort in partnership with 200 public and
                 nonprofit organizations. Activities have included providing assistance with
                 applications for U.S. citizenship, including completing forms, and offering
                 classes in English as a second language and in American government.
                 However, because of the time needed to process citizenship applications
                 by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), including the fact that
                 the INS has to do criminal background checks on all applicants for U.S.
                 citizenship, Los Angeles officials indicated that about 91,000 legal
                 immigrants lost their federal food stamp benefits. These officials
                 indicated, however, that the citizenship campaign continues and they hope
                 to be able to restore food stamps to those who qualify once they become
                 U.S. citizens.

                 At the time of our visit, DPSS was also considering what state and federal
                 assistance could be provided. DPSS officials were awaiting the outcome of
                 pending state legislation that would assist legal immigrants who were



                 Page 30                                         GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
                         Appendix V
                         Food Assistance in Los Angeles County,
                         California




                         losing food stamps. In August 1997, the state legislature restored food
                         stamps by purchasing federal food stamps for legal immigrants who are
                         elderly or are children. County officials believed it was important to
                         restore food stamps and other benefits to legal immigrants—particularly
                         because they represent 15-20 percent of the population in Los Angeles
                         County.


                         Nonprofit organizations in Los Angeles County, some of which are
Nonprofit                affiliated with national groups, provide direct and indirect food assistance
Organizations’ Efforts   through a well-established network.2 These organizations are also
in Providing Food        connected with federal, state, and local government agencies to provide
                         services. Officials in different organizations told us that this locality’s food
Assistance               assistance providers are effective in their efforts because of their
                         experience in providing assistance following natural disasters, such as
                         earthquakes, brush fires, and land slides, and because of experiences with
                         rioting. These organizations generally expected to see an increase in the
                         number of people needing their services as a result of welfare reform.
                         Officials expressed concern that they would not be able to provide more
                         services if their current level of resources remained the same.
                         Additionally, several officials told us that resources for food and funding
                         were diminishing. Accordingly, the organizations had developed the
                         following approaches for handling the anticipated increase in needed
                         services: (1) seeking additional donations for funds and food,
                         (2) considering decreasing the amount of services that each recipient
                         receives, and (3) targeting certain populations, such as the elderly, for
                         services. Table V.1 describes the nonprofit organizations that we
                         contacted.




                         2
                          For the purpose of this report, organizations providing direct food assistance include those nonprofit
                         organizations with a role in distributing food to needy individuals. Organizations providing indirect
                         food assistance include those that provide funds, distribute information, and provide advocacy or bulk
                         food for direct food assistance providers.



                         Page 31                                                           GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
                                        Appendix V
                                        Food Assistance in Los Angeles County,
                                        California




Table V.1: Nonprofit Organizations We
Contacted Concerned With Food           Organization                   Type                             Role in food assistance
Assistance in Los Angeles County        Catholic Charities of Los      Religious-based social           Distributes food through its
                                        Angeles                        service nonprofit (local         community centers to about
                                                                       affiliate of Catholic Charities) 90,000 individuals twice a
                                                                                                        week.
                                        LA Regional Foodbank           Food bank (local affiliate of    Distributes food to 750
                                                                       Second Harvest)                  charitable organizations at
                                                                                                        14¢ per pound. These
                                                                                                        organizations distribute
                                                                                                        food to an estimated
                                                                                                        200,000 individuals per
                                                                                                        week; also distributes
                                                                                                        federal agricultural
                                                                                                        commodities.

                                        New City Parish                Religious organization (a        Distributes bags of
                                                                       local affiliate of Lutheran      groceries and hot meals to
                                                                       Social Services)                 more than 2,500 families.
                                        San Fernando Valley            Interfaith/Religious social      Distributes food through
                                        Interfaith Council             service nonprofit                programs such as food
                                                                       (represents over 300             pantries, meals-on-wheels,
                                                                       denominations and temples)       “homebound meals,” and
                                                                                                        nutrition sites.
                                        FEMA’s Emergency Food          Federally and state-funded       Distributes funding to and
                                        and Shelter Program            program administered             purchases food for food
                                                                       through the United Way of        pantries, soup kitchens,
                                                                       Los Angeles                      food banks, and homeless
                                                                                                        shelters.
                                        United Way of Los Angeles      Community social service         Donates funding for food
                                                                       agency (local affiliate of the   assistance to 15 food
                                                                       United Way)                      service providers. Estimates
                                                                                                        serving 408,000 clients with
                                                                                                        food and meals service.
                                        INFO LINE of Los Angeles       Social service information       Provides the needy with
                                                                       and referral system              information about food
                                                                                                        pantries and soup kitchens
                                                                                                        throughout the Los Angeles
                                                                                                        area. Handles about 150
                                                                                                        food assistance inquiries
                                                                                                        per day.
                                        Los Angeles Coalition to End   Advocacy group for hunger Provides advocacy
                                        Hunger and Homelessness        and homelessness issues   assistance for the poor in
                                                                                                 representing their views to
                                                                                                 local political officials on a
                                                                                                 number of issues, including
                                                                                                 food assistance.

                                        Most organizations did not have specific eligibility requirements for
                                        recipients of their food assistance services and did not keep demographic




                                        Page 32                                                      GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Appendix V
Food Assistance in Los Angeles County,
California




information on those they served. Generally, they serve anyone in need,
including able-bodied adults without dependents and legal immigrants.
Officials told us that their organizations serve the working poor, including
single mothers with children and grandparents raising young children.

The resources available to these organizations included federal, state, and
local government grants, philanthropic grants, private donations, and
in-kind donations, such as voluntary services and housing. For example,
the city of Los Angeles provides some of these organizations with funding
from its federal Community Development Block Grant.




Page 33                                          GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Appendix VI

Food Assistance in Denver, Colorado


Figure VI.1: Denver County, Colorado




                                       The population of Denver County in 1995 was approximately 500,000. In
County Profile                         May 1996, the unemployment rate for the Denver metropolitan area1 was
                                       3.9 percent. At the state level, the unemployment rate was 4.3 percent in
                                       May 1996, and the poverty rate for 1995-96 averaged 9.7 percent.2
                                       Nationally, in May 1996, the unemployment rate was 5.4 percent, and the
                                       poverty rate for 1995-96 averaged 13.8 percent.3

                                       In January 1997, as states were beginning to implement the Welfare
                                       Reform Act, about 56,000 individuals participated in the Food Stamp
                                       Program. By September 1997, after many changes to the Food Stamp
                                       Program were implemented, participation had declined to approximately
                                       47,000. Between January and September, the number of able-bodied adults


                                       1
                                        Denver County is contained within the Denver metropolitan area.
                                       2
                                        Data for 1996 on the poverty rate for Denver were unavailable.
                                       3
                                        Statistics presented are the latest available. Population and poverty rates come from Census Bureau
                                       data for 1995 and 1996, respectively. Unemployment rates come from Bureau of Labor Statistics data
                                       for 1996.



                                       Page 34                                                           GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
                 Appendix VI
                 Food Assistance in Denver, Colorado




                 without dependents with food stamps decreased from about 1,600 to about
                 300. According to an official with the Denver Department of Social
                 Services (DDSS), most of these adults lost food stamp benefits because they
                 did not attend a required orientation session informing them of their work
                 requirements under welfare reform. The information on this session was
                 publicized through fliers at food pantries and soup kitchens as well as in
                 the food stamp office. Although the number of legal immigrants on food
                 stamps is unknown, a 1996 study by the Colorado Department of Human
                 Services estimated that, statewide, approximately 5,700 immigrants would
                 lose their benefits as a result of welfare reform.


                 DDSS administers the Food Stamp Program in Denver County with
Approach to      supervision from the Colorado Department of Human Services. To assist
Providing Food   able-bodied adults without dependents in meeting the Food Stamp
Assistance       Program’s work requirements, DDSS provides employment and training
                 assistance through Denver Employment First. This program helps these
                 adults prepare for jobs by teaching them resume writing, interviewing
                 techniques, and appropriate dress. The program also offers General
                 Educational Developmental (GED) self-study courses to move adults
                 without a high school education toward earning a high school equivalency
                 diploma. The program also operates the county workfare program for
                 able-bodied adults without dependents and maintains a list of approved
                 nonprofit agencies at which participants can meet their work
                 requirements.

                 In addition, DDSS is administering an emergency assistance program for
                 legal immigrants in Denver County who lost federal food stamps. Colorado
                 appropriated $2 million for emergency assistance to legal immigrants from
                 July 1997 to June 1998. Under this program, legal immigrants can receive
                 assistance, including food vouchers, that can be redeemed at designated
                 food pantries. In order to receive this special emergency food assistance,
                 the legal immigrants’ participation must be approved by DDSS. With DDSS’
                 approval, legal immigrants can continue to receive this emergency
                 assistance on a monthly basis as long as they continue to be in an
                 emergency situation.




                 Page 35                                        GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
                                        Appendix VI
                                        Food Assistance in Denver, Colorado




                                        Nonprofit organizations in Denver County provide direct and indirect food
Nonprofit                               assistance.4 Most of the organizations we visited were affiliated with
Organizations’ Efforts                  national groups; others were state or local. In the last several years, these
in Providing Food                       nonprofit organizations and some government agencies have established a
                                        network to discuss food assistance problems. Several organizations
Assistance                              expected the number of individuals requesting services to increase as a
                                        result of welfare reform. Most organizations reported that they were
                                        already experiencing an increased demand, with one organization
                                        reporting 40 to 50 more applicants per week.

                                        Although many of the nonprofit organizations we contacted expect more
                                        individuals to request services, none are sure how they will deal with the
                                        expected increase. They are also concerned about their ability to meet an
                                        increased need for their services because of their limited resources. A few
                                        of them also reported that they would try to raise additional money
                                        through fund-raising activities and grants. Two officials also voiced
                                        concern about their ability to meet the demand for emergency food
                                        assistance in an economic downturn. Table VI.1 describes the nonprofit
                                        organizations that we contacted.

Table VI.1 Nonprofit Organizations We
Contacted Concerned With Food           Organization                        Type                              Role in food assistance
Assistance in Denver County             Metro CareRing                      Provides emergency                Provides bags of food to
                                                                            services, including food, to      clients. Serves
                                                                            the poor                          approximately 26,000
                                                                                                              individuals per year.
                                        FEMA Emergency Food and             Federally funded program   Provides funding for local
                                        Shelter Program                     administered by the Denver food assistance programs.
                                                                            Foundation

                                        Colorado Coalition for the          Advocacy group for the            Provides advocacy on
                                        Homeless                            homeless                          issues, including food
                                                                                                              assistance, in Colorado.
                                        Food Bank of the Rockies            Foodbank serving                  Serves approximately 750
                                                                            metropolitan Denver,              hunger- relief programs,
                                                                            northern Colorado, and            including, for example, a
                                                                            Wyoming (local affiliate of       program to pick up surplus
                                                                            Second Harvest)                   prepared foods and a “kid’s
                                                                                                              cafe” providing food for
                                                                                                              children in Denver’s inner
                                                                                                              city.
                                                                                                                                  (continued)


                                        4
                                         For the purpose of this report, organizations providing direct food assistance include those nonprofit
                                        organizations with a role in distributing food to needy individuals. Organizations providing indirect
                                        food assistance include those that provide funds, distribute information, and provide advocacy or bulk
                                        food for direct food assistance providers.



                                        Page 36                                                           GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Appendix VI
Food Assistance in Denver, Colorado




Organization                      Type                            Role in food assistance
Jewish Family Service of          A religious human service       Manages a kosher food
Colorado                          and resource agency             pantry that provides food
                                                                  for those who meet income
                                                                  requirements. Serves
                                                                  approximately 250 people
                                                                  per month.
Mile High United Way              Community social service        Provides a variety of
                                  agency                          services, including funding
                                                                  for approximately 13
                                                                  emergency food assistance
                                                                  programs.
Statewide Coalition on Hunger Group of government and             Provides advocacy on food
                              nonprofit food assistance           assistance in Colorado.
                              providers sharing
                              information about food
                              assistance in Colorado
Catholic Charities and            A religious organization        Provides food through a
Community Services                (local member of Catholic       network of emergency
                                  Charities)                      assistance centers in the
                                                                  Denver metropolitan area; a
                                                                  food bank, which pools
                                                                  together the resources of 22
                                                                  food banks to buy food in
                                                                  bulk at lower cost; the
                                                                  SHARE program;a and
                                                                  meals at a temporary
                                                                  shelter for the homeless.

a
 The SHARE Colorado Program is a unique food distribution and community building program. It
offers a monthly food package of meats, fresh fruits, vegetables, and staples worth double or
triple their retail value for $13 and 2 hours of community service.



The nonprofit organizations we contacted generally required their clients
to meet some type of eligibility requirement in order to receive services.
The organizations said that they serve many different groups of people
besides legal immigrants and able-bodied adults without dependents,
including the working poor, single mothers with children, and the elderly.

The organizations use various resources to fund their operations,
including federal government grants, foundation grants, individual
contributions, and volunteer services. For example, one organization
received approximately $264,000 in volunteer services and $1.4 million in
in-kind food pantry donations during the last year.




Page 37                                                       GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Appendix VII

Food Assistance in Hartford, Connecticut


Figure VII.1: Greater Hartford,
Connecticut




                                  The greater Hartford area had a population of approximately 835,000 in
Area Profile                      1995. The area consists of three jurisdictions—the city of Hartford and the
                                  towns of East and West Hartford. In May 1996, the unemployment rate for
                                  the Hartford area was 5.9 percent.1 By comparison, the state’s
                                  unemployment rate was 5.5 percent in May 1996, and the poverty rate for
                                  1995-96 averaged 10.7 percent. Nationally, in May 1996, the unemployment
                                  rate was 5.4 percent, and the poverty rate for 1995-96 averaged
                                  13.8 percent.2

                                  In August 1996, before the Welfare Reform Act was implemented, over
                                  219,000 individuals were participating in the federal Food Stamp Program
                                  statewide, according to Connecticut officials. (Statistics were not available
                                  for the greater Hartford area.) Of this total, about 5,800 were able-bodied
                                  adults without dependents. Furthermore, as of August 1996, an estimated
                                  9,700 food stamp participants were legal immigrants. By September 1997,
                                  after many changes to the Food Stamp Program were implemented,

                                  1
                                   Data for 1996 on the poverty rate for Hartford were unavailable.
                                  2
                                   Statistics presented are the latest available. Population and poverty rates come from Census Bureau
                                  data for 1995 and 1996, respectively. Unemployment rates come from Bureau of Labor Statistics data
                                  for 1996.



                                  Page 38                                                             GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
                 Appendix VII
                 Food Assistance in Hartford, Connecticut




                 participation had declined to about 202,000. Of this total, about 5,400 were
                 able-bodied adults without dependents, and about 7,100 were legal
                 immigrants.


                 Connecticut’s Department of Social Services (DSS) administers the Food
Approach to      Stamp Program throughout the state. At the time of our visit, DSS officials
Providing Food   told us that they did not have and did not plan to develop outreach
Assistance       services to help individuals retain their food stamps. In August 1997,
                 however, the state received approval for a waiver of the work requirement
                 for areas with limited employment opportunities and began to notify
                 able-bodied adults without dependents who lost benefits because of
                 welfare reform that their benefits could be restored. DSS’ goal is to provide
                 access to information and services for employment and training. However,
                 if participants in these programs meet income and work requirements,
                 they may still qualify for food stamps. In addition, the state has developed
                 a referral system to provide individuals with information on available food
                 assistance.

                 Able-bodied adults without dependents can participate in employment and
                 training in a number of ways. For example, they can obtain training
                 through the Connecticut Works System, which offers a “one-stop”
                 approach to employment services and unemployment benefits. In addition,
                 able-bodied adults without dependents can participate in the Self-Initiated
                 Food Stamp Community Service Program/Working for In-Kind Income. In
                 this state program, an able-bodied adult without dependents can meet
                 workfare requirements by participating in a community service activity.
                 The state will provide these adults with information on potential
                 community service opportunities. Individuals accepting these community
                 service positions will be able to maintain their eligibility for food stamps.

                 State officials told us they had not made plans to provide outreach
                 programs/services for legal immigrants losing food stamps because they
                 were uncertain how many legal immigrants would become ineligible for
                 the food stamp program. However, the state provided legal immigrants
                 with information about obtaining U.S. citizenship when they were notified
                 about changes in their eligibility for food stamps.




                 Page 39                                          GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
                         Appendix VII
                         Food Assistance in Hartford, Connecticut




                         The nonprofit organizations at work in the greater Hartford area provide
Nonprofit                food assistance directly and indirectly through food banks, food pantries,
Organizations’ Efforts   shelters, and soup kitchens.3 These organizations are affiliated with a
in Providing Food        network overseen by the local board of FEMA. The local board provides an
                         opportunity for nonprofit organizations to communicate and coordinate
Assistance               the efforts or services they provide.

                         Several of the organizations noted that it was too soon to clearly
                         determine the effects of welfare reform. Nevertheless, they expected an
                         increased need for food assistance because of the loss of eligibility for
                         food stamps and were concerned about their ability to respond to that
                         increase with little or no additional funding. Organizations told us that
                         they plan to (1) seek additional funding and food donations and (2) make
                         adjustments with the amounts and/or types of services they normally
                         provide. Table VII.1 lists the nonprofit organizations we contacted.




                         3
                          For the purpose of this report, organizations providing direct food assistance include those nonprofit
                         organizations with a role of distributing food to needy individuals. Organizations providing indirect
                         food assistance include those that provide funds, distribute information, and provide advocacy or bulk
                         food for direct food assistance providers.



                         Page 40                                                           GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
                                       Appendix VII
                                       Food Assistance in Hartford, Connecticut




Table VII.1: Nonprofit Organizations
We Contacted Concerned With Food       Organization                   Type                            Role in food assistance
Assistance in Hartford, Connecticut    Community Renewal Team of Community action agency              Distributes funding to five
                                       Greater Hartford, Inc.                                         agencies to provide food
                                                                                                      assistance.
                                       Foodshare                      Food bank (local affiliate of   Distributes donated food to
                                                                      Second Harvest)                 over 200 private, nonprofit
                                                                                                      programs that feed the
                                                                                                      hungry (e.g., food pantries,
                                                                                                      soup kitchens, shelters).
                                       Center City Churches           Religious Organization          Serves meals to
                                       (Center for Hope)                                              approximately 1,200 to
                                                                                                      1,400 individuals and
                                                                                                      provides referrals to other
                                                                                                      food assistance programs.
                                       Connecticut Association for Statewide advocacy                 Conducts research,
                                       Human Services/Anti-Hunger organization                        outreach, training,
                                       Coalition                                                      advocacy, and provides
                                                                                                      referrals to other food
                                                                                                      assistance.
                                       Community Soup Kitchen         Soup kitchen                    Serves meals or provides
                                                                                                      bags of food.
                                       Connecticut Food Bank          Food bank (local affiliate of   Provides donated food to
                                                                      the Second Harvest)             450 private, nonprofit
                                                                                                      feeding agencies.
                                       Jewish Federation              Religious organization (local Provides kosher lunches for
                                       Association of Connecticut     affiliate of Jewish           approximately 300 to 350
                                                                      Federation)                   individuals.

                                       FEMA’s Emergency Food          Federally funded program        Distributes funding to the
                                       and Shelter Program            administered through the        local food bank to service
                                                                      United Way of Connecticut       shelters, food pantries, and
                                                                                                      soup kitchens.
                                       Salvation Army                 Community Social Service        Provides food vouchers,
                                                                                                      Senior meal programs, hot
                                                                                                      meals, home-meal delivery
                                                                                                      for the elderly, seasonal
                                                                                                      meal programs, and
                                                                                                      part-time soup kitchens.
                                       United Way Infoline of         Information referral service    Makes referrals to food
                                       Connecticut                                                    assistance programs.
                                       Lutheran Social Services of    Religious organization (local Provides referrals to food
                                       New England                    affiliate of Lutheran Social  assistance for refugees and
                                                                      Services)                     immigrants.

                                       These nonprofit organizations have no or minimal eligibility requirements
                                       for participation, such as picture identification and documentation of
                                       income. Currently, the nonprofit organizations receive funding from




                                       Page 41                                                   GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
                       Appendix VII
                       Food Assistance in Hartford, Connecticut




                       federal, state, and local government grants; individual and corporate
                       contributions; and volunteer services.


                       Two municipalities—the town of West Hartford and the town of East
Other Observations     Hartford—maintain town food pantries where the needy can obtain either
Regarding Local Food   bags of groceries or food vouchers redeemable at local grocery stores. In
Assistance Efforts     East Hartford, participants must show a photo identification, which
                       includes a social security number and date of birth; provide verification of
                       income for all family members; and sign a “Client Information Form” that
                       provides proof of dependents.




                       Page 42                                          GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Appendix VIII

Food Assistance in the Detroit Tri-County
Area

Figure VIII.1: Greater Detroit, Michigan




                                           The Detroit Tri-County area—Macomb, Oakland, and Wayne
Area Profile                               counties—had a population of about 3.9 million people in 1995—about
                                           41 percent of Michigan’s population. In May 1996, the Detroit metropolitan
                                           area had an unemployment rate of 4.3 percent.1 In comparison, the state
                                           unemployment rate in May 1996 was 4.6 percent, and the poverty rate for
                                           1995-96 averaged 11.7 percent. Nationally, in May 1996, the unemployment
                                           rate was 5.4 percent and the poverty rate for 1995-96 averaged
                                           13.8 percent.2

                                           In November 1996, as states were beginning to implement the Welfare
                                           Reform Act, about 427,600 persons received food stamps in the tri-county

                                           1
                                            Data on the poverty rate in Detroit for 1996 were unavailable.
                                           2
                                            Statistics presented are the latest available. Population and poverty rates come from Census Bureau
                                           data for 1995 and 1996, respectively. Unemployment rates come from Bureau of Labor Statistics data
                                           for 1996.



                                           Page 43                                                           GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
                         Appendix VIII
                         Food Assistance in the Detroit Tri-County
                         Area




                         area. Of this total, about 29,500 were able-bodied adults without
                         dependents. According to a Michigan state official, the agency does not
                         track the number of legal immigrants receiving food stamps. As of
                         September 1997, after many changes to the Food Stamp Program were
                         implemented, about 381,500 individuals were receiving food stamps.


                         Michigan’s Family Independence Agency (FIA) administers the Food Stamp
Approach to              Program in all counties, including Macomb, Oakland, and Wayne. An FIA
Providing Food           official told us that FIA was assisting able-bodied adults without
Assistance               dependents with employment and training so that they can become
                         self-sufficient while meeting work requirements that allow them to
                         continue receiving food stamps. According to an FIA official, the state is
                         not planning to create a new food assistance program to assist legal
                         immigrants who lost food stamp benefits.

                         Able-bodied adults without dependents have several opportunities to
                         participate in employment and training and meet the Food Stamp
                         Program’s work requirements. They can participate in a state-approved
                         employment training program, work 20 hours a week, or perform 25 hours
                         of public service at a nonprofit agency. Effective October 1, 1997, the
                         number of community service hours must equal the benefit divided by the
                         minimum wage ($5.15 per hour). In addition, in 1996, Michigan established
                         the Food Stamp Community Service Program, which focuses on
                         able-bodied adults without dependents. In fiscal year 1998, the state will
                         receive $13.4 million from USDA’s FNS to expand work programs for this
                         population.


                         Nonprofit organizations in greater Detroit, Michigan, some of which are
Nonprofit                affiliated with national groups, provide direct and indirect food assistance
Organizations’ Efforts   through an established network that includes soup kitchens, food pantries,
in Providing Food        and food banks.3 According to officials of 10 nonprofit agencies,
                         able-bodied adults without dependents and legal immigrants who lose
Assistance               their food stamps as a result of welfare reform will look for food
                         assistance from these nonprofit organizations. Several of these officials
                         told us that they had already experienced an increased need for their
                         services as a result of welfare reform. They expressed concern about their
                         ability to provide these additional services because of limited funding.

                         3
                          For the purpose of this report, organizations providing direct food assistance include those nonprofit
                         organizations with a role of distributing food to needy individuals. Organizations providing indirect
                         food assistance include those that provide funds, distribute information, and provide advocacy or bulk
                         food for direct food assistance providers.



                         Page 44                                                           GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Appendix VIII
Food Assistance in the Detroit Tri-County
Area




However, several organizations we visited have developed strategies to
increase the supply of food. These strategies include (1) raising additional
money through fund-raising activities, (2) seeking more government and
corporate grants, (3) encouraging Michigan to apply for federal food stamp
waivers, (4) raising funds for target groups of legal immigrants, and
(5) improving the emergency provider infrastructure. Table VIII.1
describes the nonprofit organizations that we contacted.




Page 45                                         GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
                                        Appendix VIII
                                        Food Assistance in the Detroit Tri-County
                                        Area




Table VIII.1: Nonprofit Organizations
We Contacted Concerned With Food        Organization                   Type                         Role in food assistance
Assistance in the Tri-County Area       Gleaners Community Food        Food bank (a Second          Serves about 300
                                        Bank of Detroit                Harvest affiliate)           emergency food providers,
                                                                                                    including soup kitchens and
                                                                                                    food pantries.
                                        Wayne-Metro Community          Community action agency      Refers clients to 124 soup
                                        Service Agency                                              kitchens and food pantries
                                                                                                    in Wayne County and
                                                                                                    provides technical
                                                                                                    assistance for emergency
                                                                                                    food providers.
                                        Forgotten Harvest              Perishable food salvage      Retrieves perishable food
                                                                       organization                 from restaurants and other
                                                                                                    food service organizations.
                                                                                                    Each month transports
                                                                                                    60,000 pounds of food to
                                                                                                    tri-county soup kitchens
                                                                                                    and shelters.
                                        Yad Ezra                       Food pantry                  Provides about 500,000
                                                                                                    pounds of food per year to
                                                                                                    about 1,100 Jewish families
                                                                                                    in the metropolitan area.
                                        Hunger Action Coalition of     Policy advocacy              Establishes about 20 new
                                        Michigan                       organization                 emergency food assistance
                                                                                                    providers each year. Since
                                                                                                    1991, the coalition has
                                                                                                    received about $1.8 million
                                                                                                    in grants which it distributed
                                                                                                    to about 270 emergency
                                                                                                    food providers.
                                        Capuchin Soup Kitchen          Religious organization       Provides 7 days of food for
                                                                                                    needy families. Also serves
                                                                                                    two meals daily for the
                                                                                                    homeless in downtown
                                                                                                    Detroit.
                                        Focus: Hope                    Human rights organization    Manages USDA’s
                                                                                                    Commodity Supplemental
                                                                                                    Food Program, providing
                                                                                                    groceries for mothers,
                                                                                                    infants, preschool children,
                                                                                                    and seniors over the age of
                                                                                                    60 meeting certain income
                                                                                                    guidelines.

                                        Many nonprofit organizations had eligibility requirements for individuals
                                        to receive their food assistance services. One required a certain qualifying
                                        income level but frequently made exceptions. Some providers serve only
                                        people within certain geographical boundaries. Others will provide food
                                        for anyone who asks. A few groups provide groceries for people on special



                                        Page 46                                                  GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
                       Appendix VIII
                       Food Assistance in the Detroit Tri-County
                       Area




                       diets; for example, an Oakland County food pantry provides groceries for
                       those who keep kosher kitchens. Other providers primarily serve specific
                       groups such as Hmong, Vietnamese, and migrant farm workers.

                       Detroit’s emergency food assistance providers depend upon a variety of
                       resources to fund their operations: grants from large corporate
                       foundations; federal, state, and local governments; and community
                       fund-raising activities that donate food and money. Community-based
                       organizations also depend upon volunteers to manage and staff their food
                       pantries and soup kitchens.


                       According to the emergency food providers we interviewed, food is
Other Observations     generally available for soup kitchens and food pantries, but additional
on Nonprofit Efforts   funding for infrastructure is needed. The supply of food available for
to Provide Food        emergency food services does not depend only on the number of people
                       needing emergency food services or the amount of food available for
Assistance             donation. The availability of funding for infrastructure—transportation
                       and storage space, including refrigeration, and staff—is key to a successful
                       food assistance operation. For example, many smaller soup kitchens and
                       food pantries lack refrigeration and storage space, which prevents them
                       from obtaining and keeping donated meats, vegetables, fruits, or dairy
                       products.

                       Furthermore, these organizations anticipate an increase in individuals and
                       families needing their services. For example, early in 1997, one food
                       pantry—Yad Ezra—realized that welfare reform would affect a number of
                       Russian Jewish immigrants and that some means had to be found to
                       replace the food stamps that would no longer be available. A Yad Ezra
                       survey indicated that 212 of the 1,006 families currently being assisted
                       would be affected by welfare reform and that many of the families are
                       elderly and sick. Therefore, their ability or desire to learn English and gain
                       citizenship is doubtful. Only 39 percent of the surveyed immigrants are
                       taking citizenship classes.

                       Specifically, to assist the 212 families, Yad Ezra will need $100,000 to
                       augment the food pantry’s current year’s budget of $680,000. Each
                       subsequent year, the organization will need to raise additional money to
                       assist needy legal immigrants. Any additional money could exceed
                       $100,000 each year, since Yad Ezra did not attempt to identify any new
                       families or individuals whom it was not currently serving and who could
                       be affected by welfare reform. Officials from Yad Ezra believe that Yad



                       Page 47                                           GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Appendix VIII
Food Assistance in the Detroit Tri-County
Area




Ezra’s effort to replace food stamps for its legal immigrants is not likely to
be duplicated by other food pantries because, unlike most other
organizations, Yad Ezra serves a specific group of legal immigrants and
was able to obtain the necessary resources to meet its needs.




Page 48                                           GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Appendix IX

Food Assistance in Houston, Texas


Figure IX.1: Harris County (Houston),
Texas




                                        Houston, Texas (Harris County) had a population of 3.1 million in 1995. In
County Profile                          May 1996, the unemployment rate was 5.1 percent in Houston,1 while the
                                        state unemployment rate was 5.4 percent. The poverty rate in 1995-96
                                        averaged 17 percent. Nationally, in May 1996, the unemployment rate was
                                        5.4 percent, and the poverty rate for 1995-96 averaged 13.8 percent.2

                                        In February 1997, as states were beginning to implement the Welfare
                                        Reform Act, over 333,000 individuals in Houston received food stamps. Of
                                        this population, about 14,000 were able-bodied adults without dependents,
                                        and about 17,000 were legal immigrants. As of September 1997, after many
                                        changes to the Food Stamp Program were implemented, the number of
                                        able-bodied adults without dependents receiving food stamps had


                                        1
                                         Data for 1996 on the poverty rate for Houston were unavailable.
                                        2
                                         Statistics presented are the latest available. Population and poverty rates come from Census Bureau
                                        data for 1995 and 1996, respectively. Unemployment rates come from Bureau of Labor Statistics data
                                        for 1996.



                                        Page 49                                                            GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
                         Appendix IX
                         Food Assistance in Houston, Texas




                         decreased to about 4,900, and the number of legal immigrants had
                         decreased to about 2,700.


                         The Texas Department of Human Services (TDHS) administers USDA’s Food
Approach to              Stamp Program. Texas had obtained a waiver of the work requirement for
Providing Food           selected counties; however, it decided not to implement the waiver in
Assistance               Houston because the unemployment rate was less than 10 percent.
                         Therefore, all able-bodied adults in Houston are required to participate in
                         employment and training activities in order to continue receiving food
                         stamps. According to TDHS officials, activities meeting these work
                         requirements include regular employment; self-employment; volunteer
                         work with a business, government entity, or nonprofit organization; and/or
                         participation in the Job Training Partnership Act or the Trade Adjustment
                         Assistance Act Program. In addition, these adults can obtain assistance
                         from the Texas Workforce Commission’s Food Stamp Employment and
                         Training Program. The purpose of this program is to move welfare
                         recipients to work as quickly as possible. However, participation in the job
                         search and the job search training component of this program does not
                         satisfy the work requirement.

                         For legal immigrants, Texas is providing, effective February 1998, targeted
                         food assistance to elderly and disabled legal immigrants who were
                         receiving food stamp benefits as of August 22, 1996, and lost benefits
                         because of welfare reform. Texas is providing about $18 million for this
                         effort. Benefits will range from $10 to $122 per month per individual.


                         The nonprofit organizations that provide direct and indirect food
Nonprofit                assistance—including food banks and food pantries—in Houston generally
Organizations’ Efforts   operate independently of each other.3 At the time of our visit, most of the
in Providing Food        organizations reported that their ability to provide food assistance for
                         those needing it had not yet been affected by welfare reform. However,
Assistance               most organizations told us that they expected the amount of food
                         assistance provided by them to increase within the next 2 to 3 years
                         because of welfare reform. In addition, many organizations’ officials
                         expressed concern that they may have difficulty in providing food
                         assistance in the future. One organization attributed this difficulty to the
                         fact that so many organizations were competing for the same monetary

                         3
                          For the purpose of this report, organizations providing direct food assistance include those nonprofit
                         organizations with a role of distributing food to needy individuals. Organizations providing indirect
                         food assistance include those that provide funds, distribute information, provide advocacy or bulk
                         food to direct food assistance providers.



                         Page 50                                                           GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
                                         Appendix IX
                                         Food Assistance in Houston, Texas




                                         and food donation resources. Most organizations did not have planned
                                         approaches for dealing with the expected increase in the need for their
                                         services. However, one organization is considering a reduction in the
                                         number of items that it distributes in bags of groceries in order to meet the
                                         expected increased need for its services. Table IX.1 list the nonprofit
                                         organizations that we contacted.

Table IX.1: Nonprofit Organizations We
Contacted Concerned With Food            Organization                  Type                            Role in food assistance
Assistance in Houston, Texas             Gulf Coast Community          Community service agency        Provides supplemental food
                                         Services Association                                          for low-income families in
                                                                                                       emergency situations.
                                         Houston Food Bank             Food bank (local affiliate of   Distributes food to local
                                                                       Second Harvest)                 charities that care for the
                                                                                                       needy.
                                         United Way of the Texas Gulf Community social service         Distributes funds to
                                         Coast                        agency (local affiliate of       community groups that
                                                                      United Way)                      target hunger.
                                         Target Hunger                 Community-based                 Distributes food in
                                                                       Organization                    low-income neighborhoods
                                                                                                       through volunteers who
                                                                                                       operate food pantries and
                                                                                                       community gardens.
                                         Research & Development        Community-based                 Distributes rice, instant
                                         Institute                     Organization                    noodles, and canned food
                                                                                                       within the Vietnamese
                                                                                                       community.
                                         Community Alliance United in Umbrella organization for        Conducts fund-raising
                                         Service                      social ministry coalitions       activities for member
                                                                                                       coalitions that provide food
                                                                                                       assistance.
                                         FEMA Emergency Food and       Federally funded program    Provides funding that
                                         Shelter Program               administered by the United supplements local food
                                                                       Way of the Texas Gulf Coast assistance programs.
                                         End Hunger Network            Advocacy group                  Provides food support for
                                                                                                       30 agencies and 110 food
                                                                                                       pantries.
                                         Associated Catholic Charities Religious-based                 Provides emergency food
                                         of the Diocese of             organization                    assistance and bags of
                                         Galveston-Houston                                             groceries once a month for
                                         (Guadalupe Social Services)                                   senior citizens and disabled
                                                                                                       persons.

                                         Most organizations had income eligibility requirements for their food
                                         assistance services, and several limited their assistance to individuals
                                         residing in certain areas. In addition, one organization focused its efforts
                                         in the Vietnamese community.



                                         Page 51                                                   GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Appendix IX
Food Assistance in Houston, Texas




Funding sources for the nonprofit organizations we visited varied. Most
received funding from federal, state, and local government grants and
donations from religious organizations and individuals.




Page 52                                        GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
Appendix X

Major Contributors to This Report


               Robert E. Robertson, Associate Director
               Patricia Gleason, Assistant Director
               Tracy Kelly Solheim, Project Leader
               Carolyn Boyce, Senior Social Science Analyst
               Carol H. Shulman, Communications Analyst
               Kathy Alexander
               Renee McGhee-Lenart
               Janice Turner
               Sheldon Wood, Jr.
               Patricia A. Yorkman




(150271)       Page 53                                        GAO/RCED-98-41 Welfare Reform
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