oversight

Land Management: The Forest Service's and BLM's Organizational Structures and Responsibilities

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1999-07-29.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                  United States General Accounting Office

GAO               Report to the Chairman,
                  Committee on the Budget,
                  House of Representatives


July 1999
                  LAND MANAGEMENT
                  The Forest Service’s
                  and BLM’s
                  Organizational
                  Structures and
                  Responsibilities




GAO/RCED-99-227
      United States
GAO   General Accounting Office
      Washington, D.C. 20548

      Resources, Community, and
      Economic Development Division

      B-282951

      July 29, 1999

      The Honorable John R. Kasich
      Chairman, Committee on the Budget
      House of Representatives

      Dear Mr. Chairman:

      In response to your request, we are reporting on (1) the operational and demographic profiles
      of the Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management and (2) our observations on the
      major similarities and differences emerging from this information.

      As arranged with your office, unless you publicly announce its contents earlier, we plan no
      further distribution of this report until 14 days after the date of this letter. At that time, we will
      send copies of this report to the Honorable Bruce Babbitt, Secretary of the Interior; Tom Fry,
      Acting Director, Bureau of Land Management; the Honorable Daniel R. Glickman, Secretary of
      Agriculture; Mike Dombeck, Chief, Forest Service; appropriate congressional committees; and
      the Honorable Jacob J. Lew, Director, Office of Management and Budget. We will make copies
      available to others upon request.

      Please call me on (206) 287-4810 if you or your staff have any questions on this report.

      Sincerely yours,




      James K. Meissner
      Associate Director, Energy,
        Resources, and Science Issues
Executive Summary


                   Managing federal lands and the natural resources contained on them
Purpose            raises significant controversy between the appropriate levels of
                   consumption and the appropriate need to conserve these lands and
                   resources for generations to come. The Bureau of Land Management and
                   the Forest Service are two of the largest land management agencies
                   responsible for implementing national policy on the consumption and
                   conservation of natural resources. Debates continue among interested
                   parties—the Congress, federal agencies, state agencies, and private
                   interests—concerning the most efficient and effective means of
                   accomplishing the goals of the federal government’s land management
                   agencies. But the final decisions must flow from the Congress, which must
                   decide how much funding—and for what programs—the land management
                   agencies receive compared with the pressing needs of all government
                   programs.

                   To provide the Congress with sufficient information for making these land
                   management decisions, the Chairman, House Committee on the Budget,
                   requested that GAO (1) provide a comprehensive demographic and
                   organizational profile of the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest
                   Service, including information about each agency’s managed lands;
                   mission, goals, structure, roles, and responsibilities; location, type, and
                   number of offices; activities and obligations; and receipts generated; and
                   (2) provide observations on the major similarities and differences
                   emerging from this information.


                   Federal agencies manage about 650 million acres of land nationwide. Most
Background         of these federally managed acres are under the jurisdiction of two
                   agencies—the Bureau of Land Management, within the Department of the
                   Interior, and the Forest Service, within the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
                   Each of these agencies has specific legislation guiding how its lands are to
                   be used, and each manages its lands under the principle of multiple-use,
                   sustained yield, which assumes a continued high level of resource outputs
                   without impairing the productivity of the lands. That is, both agencies
                   manage their lands for such uses as mining, grazing, timber harvesting, and
                   recreation, and no one use is considered to be primary.


                   The Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management manage their
Results in Brief   federal lands for multiple uses through a multilevel—headquarters and
                   field office—organizational structure. The agencies are responsible for
                   managing the same types of natural resources—such as, timber, minerals,



                   Page 2                      GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
Executive Summary




grazing, recreation, and wildlife—on about 70 percent of all public lands.
These lands represent about 21 percent of the nation’s total surface
area—primarily in the West. The agencies’ lands are mostly contiguous,
and some of their 1,064 offices are in the same location or in close
proximity. With over 44,000 multidisciplined permanent and temporary
employees, the agencies’ workforces are primarily white collar; a large
portion of the employees are in scientific disciplines such as the biological
sciences, the physical sciences, engineering and architecture. The total
obligations for these agencies amounted to $4.2 billion in fiscal year 1998,
and their largest appropriations fund similar budget categories dealing
with the management of rangelands and forestlands, wildlife and fisheries,
and recreation. During fiscal year 1998, the Forest Service generated about
$576 million in receipts from the sale or use of natural resources, and the
Bureau of Land Management generated about $140 million.1

The organizational and demographic profiles of the Forest Service and the
Bureau of Land Management are similar in many respects, including the
agencies’ missions and goals, the amount of land managed in the lower 48
states, the purposes for which the lands are managed, the types of
employees hired, the location and type of offices maintained, the budget
categories incurring the largest obligations, the activities performed under
these budget categories, and the types of receipts generated. Yet while
these similarities exist, the agencies differ in terms of their magnitude and
emphasis. For example, the Forest Service is a much larger organization in
most of the attributes we examined, and each agency emphasizes different
resource uses—most of Forest Service’s lands are forests while most of
Bureau of Land Management’s lands are rangelands. In addition, each of
the agencies has several unique functions. For example, the Forest Service
has a large forest and rangeland research program and the Bureau of Land
Management has certain governmentwide programs that do such things as
administering mining laws and making “Payments in Lieu of Taxes” for
the entire government.2




1
 In addition to the receipts collected by the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service, the
Minerals Management Service (within the Department of the Interior) collected almost $1.1 billion in
receipts generated from Bureau of Land Management lands and $59 million in receipts generated from
Forest Service lands during fiscal year 1998.
2
The Bureau of Land Management compensates counties to provide Payments in Lieu of Taxes that
would have been received by these jurisdictions if the federal lands were privately owned.



Page 3                                GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                           Executive Summary




GAO’s Analysis

Organizational and         The Bureau of Land Management, established in 1946 within the
Demographic Profiles       Department of the Interior, manages about 264 million acres of public
                           lands—nearly 12 percent of the nation’s total surface area and about 40
                           percent of all federal lands. The Bureau’s lands are primarily in the 11
                           western states and Alaska, but the Bureau also manages an additional
                           300 million acres of subsurface mineral resources located throughout the
                           country. The Bureau’s workforce includes more than 10,000 permanent
                           and temporary employees located in 189 offices, which include
                           headquarters, national centers, and field offices. Annually, the Bureau
                           spends about $1.2 billion to operate and manage its organization and lands
                           and generates about $140 million in receipts from its various operations.

                       •   Among the budget categories with the largest obligations in fiscal year
                           1998 were Land Resources, at $133 million; Payments in Lieu of Taxes, at
                           $120 million; and Workforce and Organizational Support, at $119 million.
                           When taken together, the Wildland Fire Preparedness and Wildland Fire
                           Operations obligations totaled almost $168 million. These obligations used
                           about 5,275 full-time equivalents in fiscal year 1998.3

                       •   The Bureau’s state offices and associated field offices with the largest
                           obligations included Oregon, with $193 million; Alaska, with $87 million;
                           and California, with $80 million.

                       •   Among the receipts generated, timber sales totaled almost $54 million,
                           mineral leases and permits totaled almost $46 million, and grazing fees
                           totaled about $14 million. Oregon, Nevada, and Wyoming generated the
                           largest amounts of receipts.

                           The Forest Service, established in 1905 within the U.S. Department of
                           Agriculture, manages about 192 million acres of public lands in national
                           forests and grasslands—about 9 percent of the nation’s total surface area
                           and about 29 percent of all federal lands. Forest Service lands are located
                           in 44 states, the Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico. The Forest Service’s
                           workforce includes more than 34,000 permanent and temporary
                           employees located in a total of 875 offices, including headquarters,
                           regional, forest, ranger district, research, Job Corps Centers, and other
                           offices in 45 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia. Annually,

                           3
                            Full-time equivalent, or FTE, generally consists of one or more employed individuals who collectively
                           complete 2,080 work hours in a given year.



                           Page 4                                GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                          Executive Summary




                          the Forest Service spends about $3 billion to operate and manage its
                          organization and lands and generates about $576 million in receipts from
                          its various operations.

                      •   Among the Forest Service’s budget categories with the largest obligations
                          in fiscal year 1998 were Fire Presuppression and Suppression and
                          Rehabilitation, at about $532 million; General Administration, at
                          $239 million; Forestland Management, at about $232 million; and
                          Recreation Use, at about $195 million. These activities employed about
                          18,255 full-time equivalents in fiscal year 1998.

                      •   The regions with the largest obligations were the Pacific Southwest
                          Region, at about $454 million; the Southern Region, at $364 million; and
                          the Pacific Northwest Region, at about $334 million.

                      •   Among the receipts generated, timber sales and timber-related activities
                          accounted for about $495 million, or 86 percent of the Forest Service’s
                          receipts. Recreation activities accounted for about $43 million, and
                          minerals activities accounted for another $20 million. The states with the
                          largest amounts of receipts were Oregon, California, and Idaho.


Observations on the       The organizational and demographic profiles of the Forest Service and the
Agencies’ Profiles        Bureau of Land Management are similar, but the agencies differ in terms of
                          magnitude and emphasis. For example, the Forest Service is a much larger
                          organization in that it has 3 times the number of employees, 3 times the
                          amount of appropriations and obligations, more than 3 times the amount
                          of receipts generated, and over 4 times as many offices throughout the
                          country. Conversely, in a comparison of total acres managed by these
                          agencies, the Bureau of Land Management’s lands are significantly vaster
                          than the lands managed by the Forest Service, because of the former’s
                          holdings in Alaska. However, the amount of land managed within the
                          contiguous 48 states is about the same for the two agencies; most of the
                          Forest Service’s lands are forests, and most of the Bureau of Land
                          Management’s lands are rangelands. Finally, the Forest Service’s and
                          Bureau of Land Management’s funding structures are similar in that both
                          agencies are funded through annual and permanent appropriations and
                          trust funds—as part of the overall Interior and Related Agencies
                          appropriation. Overall, the agencies’ descriptions of the tasks performed
                          under each of their budget categories are similar, if not identical, for 18 of
                          the 41 major budget categories. For example, both agencies have an




                          Page 5                       GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                  Executive Summary




                  appropriation entitled Wildland Fire Management that includes two budget
                  categories for wildland fire preparedness and wildland fire operations.

                  While the Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management share many
                  similarities in their organizational and demographic profiles, each agency
                  has unique functions that contribute to its overall mission and goals and
                  differentiate the agencies. For example, the Forest Service has several
                  functions that the Bureau of Land Management does not, such as a large
                  forest and rangeland research organization with 85 research offices
                  nationwide and a separate, nationwide state and private forestry
                  organization. Similarly, the Bureau of Land Management is responsible for
                  certain activities that the Forest Service is not, such as maintaining the
                  nation’s public lands and realty data, administering mining laws, and
                  making the Payments in Lieu of Taxes for the entire government.

                  Because of decreased agency budgets and decreased staffing through
                  governmentwide downsizing coupled with an increased emphasis on
                  improving customer service, the Bureau of Land Management and the
                  Forest Service have increased the number and types of shared initiatives
                  that they undertake. The agencies’ most notable joint initiative relates to
                  the multi-million-dollar efforts to prevent, control, and extinguish the
                  nation’s wildland fires on state and federal lands. Other shared initiatives
                  include conducting local efforts to improve customer service, jointly
                  conducting watershed analyses, jointly managing fish habitats, jointly
                  examining abandoned mines for reclamation-planning purposes,
                  coordinating and cooperating on the implementation of the President’s
                  Pacific Northwest Forest Plan, and cosponsoring courses dealing with the
                  design of recreation environments.


                  GAO   is not making recommendations in this report.
Recommendations
                  GAO provided the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service with
Agency Comments   a draft of this report for comment. The Forest Service commented that the
                  report accurately and fairly represents the information collected about the
                  Forest Service. The Bureau of Land Management had no comments other
                  than certain technical clarifications, which GAO incorporated in this report.




                  Page 6                       GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
Page 7   GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
Contents



Executive Summary                                                                                        2


Chapter 1                                                                                               10
                         Objectives, Scope, and Methodology                                             10
Introduction             Agency Comments                                                                11

Chapter 2                                                                                               12
                         BLM-Managed Lands                                                              12
Profile of the Bureau    Organizational Mission and Structure                                           13
of Land Management       Location, Type, and Number of BLM Offices                                      22
                         Funding Structure, Obligations, and Full-Time Equivalents                      24
                         Receipts Generated                                                             27

Chapter 3                                                                                               29
                         Forest Service-Managed Lands                                                   29
Profile of the Forest    Organizational Mission and Structure                                           30
Service                  Location, Type, and Number of Forest Service Offices                           42
                         Funding Structure, Obligations, and Full-Time Equivalents                      44
                         Receipts Generated                                                             47

Chapter 4                                                                                               49
                         Similarities                                                                   49
Observations on the      Differences Between BLM and the Forest Service                                 57
Profiles of the Forest   Shared Initiatives                                                             57
Service and the
Bureau of Land
Management
Appendixes               Appendix I: Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management                       62
                           Employees by Job Series, Fiscal Year 1998
                         Appendix II: Types of Forest Service and Bureau of Land                        76
                           Management Offices by State
                         Appendix III: Bureau of Land Management’s Activities                           86
                         Appendix IV: Bureau of Land Management’s Obligations by                        94
                           Budget Activity for Major Organizational Units, Fiscal Year 1998
                         Appendix V: Forest Service’s Activities                                       102
                         Appendix VI: Forest Service’s Obligations by Budget Line Item for             112
                           Major Organizational Units, Fiscal Year 1998




                         Page 8                      GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
          Contents




          Appendix VII: Receipts Generated by the Forest Service and                    120
            Bureau of Land Management, by State, Fiscal Year 1998
          Appendix VIII: Objectives, Scope, and Methodology                             122

Tables    Table 2.1: BLM State Offices’ Locations and Jurisdictions                      19
          Table 2.2: BLM’s Obligations and FTEs by Budget Activity, Fiscal               25
            Year 1998
          Table 2.3: Obligations by Major BLM Office, Fiscal Year 1998                   26
          Table 2.4: BLM’s Receipts by Source, Fiscal Year 1998                          27
          Table 3.1: Forest Service’s Obligations and FTEs by Budget Line                45
            Item, Fiscal Year 1998
          Table 3.2: Forest Service’s Obligations Incurred by Major Units,               46
            Fiscal Year 1998
          Table 3.3: Forest Service’s Receipts by Source, Fiscal Year 1998               47

Figures   Figure 2.1: Acres of Land Managed by BLM in Each State                         13
          Figure 2.2: BLM’s Administrative Jurisdictions                                 16
          Figure 2.3: BLM’s Organizational Structure, Fiscal Year 1998                   17
          Figure 2.4: Geographic Dispersion of BLM’s Offices                             23
          Figure 3.1: Acres of Land Managed by the Forest Service in Each                30
            State
          Figure 3.2: Forest Service’s Regional Administrative Jurisdictions             33
          Figure 3.3: Forest Service’s Research Administrative Jurisdictions             34
          Figure 3.4: Forest Service’s Organizational Structure, Fiscal Year             36
            1998
          Figure 3.5: Geographic Dispersion of the Forest Service’s Offices              43
          Figure 4.1: Forest Service and BLM Lands                                       50
          Figure 4.2: Location of the Forest Service’s and BLM’s Offices                 52
          Figure 4.3: Forest Service’s and BLM’s Offices in California                   54
          Figure 4.4: Forest Service’s and BLM’s Offices in Oregon and                   55
            Washington




          Abbreviations

          BLM        Bureau of Land Management
          FTEs       full-time equivalents
          GAO        General Accounting Office


          Page 9                      GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
Chapter 1

Introduction


                     Federal agencies manage about 650 million acres of land nationwide,
                     which are managed mostly by the agencies within the Department of the
                     Interior and the Forest Service. About 70 percent of these federally
                     managed lands are under the jurisdiction of two agencies—the Bureau of
                     Land Management (BLM), within the Department of the Interior and the
                     Forest Service, within the U.S. Department of Agriculture. These lands
                     represent about 21 percent of the nation’s total surface—primarily in the
                     West. These agencies, with over 44,000 employees, spent about $4.2 billion
                     in fiscal year 1998 to manage their lands and operations. Both of these
                     agencies have specific legislation guiding how their lands are to be used,
                     and both manage their lands under the principle of multiple-use, sustained
                     yield. That is, both agencies manage their lands for such uses as mining,
                     grazing, timber harvesting, and recreation, and no one use is considered to
                     be primary.

                     While the uses of the federal lands are many, considerable controversy
                     surrounds these uses and how the agencies manage their lands currently
                     and for future generations to come. The Congress faces a multitude of
                     decisions—from how much to fund these agencies during the annual
                     appropriations process to how these agencies manage specific programs.
                     The Congress must balance the pressures and demands of greater use of
                     the nation’s natural resources and current consumption levels with the
                     need to conserve and protect them for future generations. Coupling these
                     decisions with limited funding for all national programs, the Congress
                     faces some tough choices annually.


                     As an initial step in developing a larger body of information upon which
Objectives, Scope,   the Congress can make these decisions, the Chairman, House Committee
and Methodology      on the Budget, requested that we provide (1) a comprehensive
                     demographic and organizational profile of two of the largest land
                     management agencies—the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest
                     Service—including information about each agency’s managed lands;
                     mission, goals, structure; organizational roles and responsibilities;
                     location, type, and number of offices; activities and obligations; and
                     receipts generated; and (2) observations on the major similarities and
                     differences emerging from this information.

                     This report provides information on both agencies separately and
                     concludes with observations on the major similarities and differences of
                     the agencies, which are based on their demographic and organizational
                     profiles. Chapter 2 discusses the profile of BLM, while chapter 3 provides



                     Page 10                     GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                  Chapter 1
                  Introduction




                  the profile of the Forest Service. Chapter 4 provides our observations on
                  the major similarities and differences and a discussion of joint BLM/Forest
                  Service initiatives currently under way. The text of the report is
                  supplemented by a series of appendixes that provide detailed information
                  on the BLM and Forest Service dealing with occupational job series; the
                  number, type, and location of offices; a description of the activities
                  undertaken under each budget category; obligations and full-time
                  equivalents (FTEs); and receipts generated.

                  To obtain much of the information presented in this report, we relied on
                  agency publications such as manuals, budget justifications, and annual
                  reports. In some instances, we asked the agency to provide us with
                  sufficient information that would allow us to prepare the various segments
                  of the demographic and organizational profiles. In other instances, we
                  asked the agencies for the raw data and reformatted the data to present
                  the results. Appendix VIII provides a detailed discussion of our scope and
                  methodology.

                  We conducted our work from November 1998 through June 1999 in
                  accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. Key
                  contributors to this report were Linda L. Harmon; John P. Murphy, Jr.;
                  Judy K. Pagano; and June M. Foster.


                  We provided the Forest Service and BLM with a draft of this report for
Agency Comments   comment prior to its issuance. The Forest Service commented that the
                  report accurately and fairly represents the information collected about the
                  Forest Service. The Bureau of Land Management had no comments other
                  than certain technical clarifications, which we incorporated in this report.




                  Page 11                     GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
Chapter 2

Profile of the Bureau of Land Management


                    Established in 1946 within the Department of the Interior, BLM manages
                    about 264 million acres of public lands—about 12 percent of the nation’s
                    total surface area and about 40 percent of all federal lands. BLM’s lands are
                    primarily in the 11 western states and Alaska, but the agency also manages
                    an additional 300 million acres of subsurface mineral resources located
                    throughout the country. BLM’s workforce includes more than 10,000
                    permanent and temporary employees located in 189 offices including
                    headquarters, national centers, and field offices. Annually, BLM spends
                    about $1.2 billion to operate and manage its organization and lands and
                    generates about $140 million in receipts from its various operations.


                    In fiscal year 1998, BLM managed about 264 million acres of land—about
BLM-Managed Lands   one-eighth of the land in the United States—more than any other federal
                    agency. BLM also manages 300 million additional acres of subsurface
                    mineral resources. Most of the land that BLM manages is located in the 11
                    western states and Alaska and is dominated by extensive grasslands,
                    forests, high mountains, arctic tundra, and deserts. BLM manages these
                    lands for a wide variety of resources and uses, including energy and
                    minerals; timber; forage; wild horse and burro populations; fish and
                    wildlife habitat; wilderness areas; archaeological, paleontological, and
                    historical sites; and other natural heritage values. Figure 2.1 shows the
                    acres of lands managed by BLM in each state.




                    Page 12                      GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                                        Chapter 2
                                                        Profile of the Bureau of Land Management




Figure 2.1: Acres of Land Managed by BLM in Each State



                  WA
                372,446
                                             MT                      ND
                                          8.0 million               59,717
               OR                                                                  MN
           16.2 million                                                          151,253
                              ID                                                               WI
                          11.9 million                                SD                     160,137
                                                  WY                279,670                                  MI
                                              18.4 million                                                 74,854
                                                                                        IA
                    NV                                                NE               378
                47.8 million       UT                                6,580                            IL
                               22.9 million                                                          225
                                                      CO
           CA                                      8.4 million                           MO
       14.6 million                                                                     2,161


                               AZ                                             OK
                           14.2 million            NM                        2,126       AR
                                               12.8 million                            291,166
                                                                                                        AL
                                                                                                  MS 110,923
                                                                                                 57,211
                                                                                             LA
                                                                                           309,611
                                                                                                                              FL
                                    AK                                                                                      25,277
                                86.6 million




                                                        Note: This map shows only the surface areas of each state managed by BLM and does not
                                                        include the 300 million acres of subsurface minerals located throughout the country.

                                                        Source: GAO’s presentation of BLM’s data.



                                                        In conjunction with other Department of the Interior agencies, BLM is
Organizational                                          responsible for protecting and providing access to the nation’s natural and
Mission and Structure                                   cultural heritage.1 In this role, BLM manages land in the United States in

                                                        1
                                                        The other Interior agencies are the National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Minerals
                                                        Management Service, the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, and the Bureau of
                                                        Reclamation.



                                                        Page 13                                 GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                               Chapter 2
                               Profile of the Bureau of Land Management




                               cooperation with a variety of partners at the federal, state, and local levels.
                               According to BLM, its multilevel organization—which consists of national,
                               state, and field offices—is structured to carry out a variety of programs
                               and activities that will facilitate the preservation of the nation’s natural
                               resources for future generations.


Mission and Goals              The basic authority for BLM’s activities is the Federal Land Policy and
                               Management Act of 1976, as amended (43 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.). The act
                               established the principle that public lands be retained in federal ownership
                               and provided for the management, protection, development, and
                               enhancement of the public lands under the principles of multiple-use and
                               sustained yield.2

                               According to BLM, its mission is to sustain the health, diversity, and
                               productivity of the public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and
                               future generations. Pursuant to this mission, BLM’s goals are to

                           •   restore and maintain the health of the land,
                           •   serve current and future publics and encourage sound use practices,
                           •   promote collaborative leadership and foster more inclusive decisions and
                               better accountability,
                           •   improve the way that BLM does business, and
                           •   recruit, develop, and retain a quality and diverse workforce.

                               In carrying out its mission, BLM aims to provide the public with a wide
                               variety of products and services, including healthy productive lands;
                               opportunities for a variety of commercial activities such as sales of
                               materials, timber, or leasing mineral rights; opportunities for recreation
                               and leisure activities; the preservation of significant cultural and natural
                               features; the provision of land resource and title information; and the
                               protection of public health, safety, and natural resources.


Roles and Organizational       BLM’sorganizational structure includes national, state, and field
Structure                      organizations. The national organization includes its headquarters’
                               operations and national centers having specific assigned service and
                               support responsibilities. The state organization consists of 12 state offices,

                               2
                                Under the multiple-use principle, the agencies plan for six renewable surface uses—outdoor
                               recreation, rangeland, timber, watersheds and water flows, wilderness, and wildlife and fish. Under the
                               sustained-yield principle, the agencies are required to manage their lands to provide high levels of
                               these uses to current users while sustaining, undiminished, the lands’ ability to produce these uses for
                               future generations.



                               Page 14                                GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
Chapter 2
Profile of the Bureau of Land Management




which are responsible for implementing BLM’s activities in one or more
state jurisdictions. The field organization consists of 175 field offices,
which provide direct customer services and execute “on-the-ground”
management of the public lands and resources within BLM’s jurisdiction,
under the supervision of a BLM state office. BLM staffs these offices with
about 10,500 employees in various occupational classifications.

Figure 2.2 shows the administrative jurisdictions and locations of BLM’s
national headquarters, national centers, states offices, and national
interagency fire center.




Page 15                         GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                                 Chapter 2
                                                 Profile of the Bureau of Land Management




Figure 2.2: BLM’s Administrative Jurisdictions




                                          MT
          Portland
             OR                           Billings
                            ID


                          Boise               WY
                                          Cheyenne
                Reno
  Sacramento
                     NV
                             Salt Lake                                                       Eastern                         Washington, D.C.
                               City            CO
          CA                                                                                 States
                               UT                                                                                   VA
                                                   Denver                                                      Springfield


                            AZ
                           Phoenix        Sante Fe
                                            NM

                                                   NM




                                     AK


                                  Anchorage




                                                        National headquarters
                                                        State offices
                                                        National centers

                                                        National Interagency Fire Center
                                                        Administrative boundaries


                                                 Source: BLM.




                                                 Page 16                               GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                                      Chapter 2
                                                      Profile of the Bureau of Land Management




                                                      Figure 2.3 shows the organizational structure of BLM and its field
                                                      components.



Figure 2.3: BLM’s Organizational Structure, Fiscal Year 1998


                                                                               Director
                                                                    Principal Deputy Director                            Chief of Staff Counselor
                                                                         Deputy Director



                                                                                                                                        Office of Fire and
             State Offices                                                                                                               Aviation Policy

                                                                                                                                        National Interagency
                                                                                                                                            Fire Center
                                               Native American                                             Office of
              Field Offices                                                                           Helium Resources
                                                    Offices



Assistant Director          Assistant Director       Assistant Director           Assistant Director           Assistant Director             Assistant Director
Renewable Resources         Minerals, Realty, and    Information Resources             Communications            Business Fiscal               Human Resources
    and Planning            Resource Protection           Management                                               Resources                     Management



• Planning, Assessment,     •   Fluid Minerals      • IRM Policy                  •   Public Affairs          • Management Systems           • Executive Initiatives
  and Community Support     •   Solid Minerals      • Information Services        •   Legislative Affairs     • Property, Acquisition,       • Equal Employment
• Fish, Wildlife, and       •   Lands and Realty    • Directives and Records      •   Regulatory Affairs        and Headquarters               Opportunity
  Forests                                                                                                       Services
                            •   Protection and                                    •   Intergovernmental                                      • National Human
• Rangelands, Soils,            Response            • National Information            Education and           • Budget                         Resources
  Water, and Wild Horses                              Resources Management            Volunteers                                               Management Center
  Burros                                                                                                      • National Business
                            • National Law            Center                                                                                 • National Training
                                                                                                                Center
• Cultural Heritage,          Enforcement Office                                                                                               Center
  Wilderness, Special                                                                                         • Finance Liaison Staff
  Areas, and Paleontology
• Recreation

• National Applied
  Resource Science
  Center


                                                      Source: BLM.




Role of the National                                  The national headquarters and its seven national centers provide strategic
Organization                                          direction, policy leadership, legislative and regulatory involvement, and
                                                      oversight and evaluation of its operations, and provide internal and
                                                      external audiences with communications regarding BLM’s multiple




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                               operations and activities. Specifically, the national organization does the
                               following:

                           •   Identifies/articulates BLM’s mission, goals, and priority program efforts and
                               the nature of BLM’s activities, including trends, challenges, and issues.
                               Headquarters prepares the BLM Strategic Plan and Performance Plans
                               under the Government Performance and Results Act and develops
                               strategic analyses and action plans, budgets, and guidance documents that
                               articulate BLM’s goals, objectives, and directions for the future.

                           •   Initiates efforts to develop, revise, and refine BLM’s policies; resolves policy
                               issues whether the source is external or internal; and explains and
                               documents how policies will be implemented.

                           •   Communicates BLM’s policies, needs, and accomplishments at the national
                               level to the media, Members of Congress, national organizations, partners,
                               stakeholders, and customers.

                           •   Develops bureauwide resource budgets and allocates the funds among the
                               major operating components of BLM for budget execution.

                           •   Facilitates legislative and regulatory changes needed to accomplish BLM’s
                               mission.

                           •   Evaluates program effectiveness bureauwide and the accountability of
                               field office mangers in implementing program policy, using among other
                               types of input, performance measures and customer research data.


Role of the State Office       BLM’s 12 state offices—which are BLM’s equivalent to regional offices—are
                               each headed by a State Director. Each state office is responsible for
                               carrying out BLM’s mission within a specific geographical jurisdiction
                               consisting of one or more states as shown in table 2.1.




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Table 2.1: BLM State Offices’
Locations and Jurisdictions     State office                  Location                    Jurisdiction
                                Alaska                        Anchorage                   State of Alaska
                                Arizona                       Phoenix                     State of Arizona, plus a
                                                                                          narrow strip of the California
                                                                                          side of the Colorado River
                                California                    Sacramento                  State of California, less the
                                                                                          portion administered by the
                                                                                          Arizona State Office, plus a
                                                                                          portion of northwestern
                                                                                          Nevada
                                Colorado                      Denver                      State of Colorado
                                Eastern States Office         Springfield, Va.            All states bordering on or
                                                                                          east of the Mississippi River
                                Idaho                         Boise                       State of Idaho
                                Montana                       Billings                    States of Montana, North
                                                                                          Dakota, and South Dakota
                                Nevada                        Reno                        State of Nevada, except
                                                                                          that portion administered by
                                                                                          the California State Office
                                New Mexico                    Santa Fe                    States of New Mexico,
                                                                                          Oklahoma, Kansas, and
                                                                                          Texas
                                Oregon                        Portland                    States of Oregon and
                                                                                          Washington
                                Utah                          Salt Lake City              State of Utah
                                Wyoming                       Cheyenne                    States of Wyoming and
                                                                                          Nebraska
                                Source: BLM.



                                The state offices provide BLM’s regional mission direction and leadership;
                                identify BLM’s regional goals, objectives, and priority efforts under BLM’s
                                “Corporate Agenda”; provide input for national leadership efforts; and
                                communicate the administration’s, the Department of the Interior’s, and
                                BLM’s priorities to the field offices. State offices provide statewide policy
                                interpretation, resolve policy implementation issues, and provide
                                leadership in developing, revising and refining BLM’s policies affecting the
                                state’s activities, whether the source is internal or external. State offices
                                are responsible for communicating policies, priorities, and
                                accomplishments at the state level to the public, the media, state
                                governmental organizations, and BLM partners. In addition, state offices
                                conduct interagency coordination with other federal and state agencies,
                                and, when feasible, share resources across agency jurisdictions to support




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                        common missions and achieve efficiencies in customer service, resource
                        utilizations, and/or administrative operations.

                        The state offices provide field offices, national teams, and task forces with
                        technical resource management expertise. State offices provide quality
                        assurance processes for field activities and customer service delivery and
                        evaluate the effectiveness of BLM’s products and services delivery, its
                        customer service responsiveness, and field performance in the
                        achievement of goals for improving the condition of resources. In addition,
                        the state offices provide selected BLM product and service components
                        (e.g., public room operations, land and mineral records and case
                        adjudication, land appraisals, cartography and mapping support, and
                        criminal investigations) where economies of scale support efficiency in
                        centralization at that level. Finally, state offices provide administrative
                        support services for the statewide organization, such as budget
                        management and the acquisition of reimbursable and nonfederal funds,
                        the servicing of personnel office and equal employment opportunity
                        operations, procurement and contracting support, and information
                        resource management.


Role of Field Offices   Traditionally, BLM has numerous resource area offices reporting to district
                        offices, which in turn reported to state offices—commonly referred to as a
                        three-tier field structure. However, BLM is in the process of reorganizing its
                        field structure to a two-tier operation, generally composed of only state
                        and field offices. Under this structure, all field offices would report to their
                        respective state office. BLM plans to complete the reorganization of its field
                        structure by the end of fiscal year 1999.

                        Field offices staff are organized on a multidisciplinary basis and have full
                        responsibility for managing public land resources, the delivery of BLM’s
                        products and services, and customer service to land users and the public
                        for a designated portion of the geographic area under the jurisdiction of a
                        state office. The field offices manage a wide variety of resources and uses
                        to sustain and improve the health and productivity of the public lands. In
                        managing the public lands, the field offices perform a variety of functions,
                        which include taking inventory of the resources; preparing land use plans
                        and assessing environmental impacts; conducting land surveys; issuing
                        leases and use authorizations to public land users; enforcing permit
                        conditions; designing and constructing roads and other improvements;
                        restoring fish and wildlife habitat; identifying significant natural, cultural,
                        and recreational resources; and monitoring resource conditions.



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                           In addition, field offices conduct operational functions, such as the
                           maintenance of roads and recreation facilities or fire fighting, except
                           where economies of scale warrant centralization at a different level. The
                           field offices serve as the primary local point of contact for BLM’s customers
                           and stakeholders—that is, local governments, public land users, the
                           general public, and other federal and state agencies. The field offices
                           communicate BLM’s Corporate Agenda goals, as well as the
                           administration’s, the Department of the Interior’s and BLM’s policies,
                           priorities, procedures, and accomplishments at the local level to the
                           public, the media, local organizations, and partner groups. Field offices
                           also conduct local administrative support tasks such as the collection of
                           receipts, purchasing, and property management and share resources
                           across either field office and/or agency jurisdictions when feasible to
                           support common missions and achieve efficiencies in customer service,
                           resource utilization, and administrative operations.


Types of Occupations       In fiscal year 1998, BLM had employees in 203 different types of
                           occupational classifications. About 83 percent of the jobs were classified
                           as white collar jobs, and the remainder were classified under the Federal
                           Wage System for trades and labor occupations in the federal government.
                           BLM had a total of 10,456 employees in the various occupational
                           classifications—8,910 employees were permanent, and 1,546 employees
                           were temporary.

                           A few occupational groups contained the majority of the permanent
                           employee job series, including the following:

                       •   The Biological Sciences Group included 2,322 employees in various job
                           series including 509 in General Biological Science, 451 Range Technicians,
                           352 in Rangeland Management, 190 in Forestry, 315 Forestry Technicians,
                           and 232 in Wildlife Biology.

                       •   The General Administration, Clerical, and Office Services Group included
                           2,090 employees in various series including miscellaneous administration,
                           clerks, assistants, receptionists, and secretaries; computer operations,
                           computer specialists, and clerks; and program management and
                           management and program analysis.

                       •   The Physical Sciences Group had 806 employees in various series
                           including General Physical Science, Geology; Cartography and




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                          Cartographic Technician, and Land Surveying.

                      •   The Engineering and Architecture Group had 590 jobs in various series
                          including Engineering Technician, Petroleum Engineering, Civil
                          Engineering, and Mining Engineering.

                          Appendix I provides a complete listing of all BLM occupational groupings
                          by job series and includes the number of permanent and temporary
                          employees as of the end of fiscal year 1998.


                          At the end of fiscal year 1998, BLM had 189 offices nationwide located in 20
Location, Type, and       states and the District of Columbia, the preponderance of which are
Number of BLM             located in the 12 western states. The national organization had two
Offices                   facilities at the headquarters level and seven national technical centers.
                          Twelve state offices and a field organization included 92 field offices, 38
                          resources area offices, and 27 district offices. The remaining 11 offices
                          included project offices and the Alaska fire service and related offices.
                          Figure 2.4 shows the geographic dispersion of the BLM offices.




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Figure 2.4: Geographic Dispersion of BLM’s Offices




    BLM office
    More than one BLM office in the same Zip Code



                                                    Source: GAO’s analysis of BLM’s data.



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                        At times, BLM houses more than one organizational unit in the same
                        building and these were treated the same as separate BLM offices. For
                        example, if a district office and a resource area office were located in the
                        same building, a box with a star is shown. Appendix II provides
                        information on the number and type of offices by state. As previously
                        mentioned, some state offices have jurisdiction over more than one state.


                        In fiscal year 1998, BLM’s sources of funding included 10 appropriations
Funding Structure,      and various permanent and trust funds. BLM’s largest
Obligations, and        appropriation—Management of Lands and Resources—had obligations of
Full-Time Equivalents   $645.1 million and 7,790 FTEs. These obligations and FTEs were charged to
                        various budget activities, including Land Resources, Wildlife and Fisheries,
                        Recreation Management, Energy and Minerals, Realty and Ownership
                        Management, Resource Protection and Maintenance, and Workforce and
                        Organizational Support. Each of the appropriations and other funding
                        sources were further divided into budget activities for BLM’s various
                        programs. BLM’s fiscal year 1998 obligations totaled about $1.2 billion and
                        included FTEs of 12,676 in the 41 major budget activities as shown in
                        appendix IV.3 However, for ease of presentation, we combined all budget
                        activities with obligations of less than $10 million in table 2.2.




                        3
                         On the basis of our discussions with BLM budget officials, we agreed to display BLM’s obligations and
                        FTEs for fiscal year 1998 by the 41 major budget activities.



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Table 2.2: BLM’s Obligations and FTEs
by Budget Activity, Fiscal Year 1998    Budget activity name                                            Obligations        FTEsa
                                        Land Resources                                                 $133,299,607       1,879.9
                                        Payments in Lieu of Taxes                                       120,000,000           1.3
                                        Workforce and Organizational Support                            119,137,402         843.3
                                        Wildland Fire Preparedness                                        92,179,142      1,456.3
                                        Western Oregon Resources Management                               85,908,693      1,183.3
                                        Wildland Fire Operations                                          75,644,943      1,095.3
                                        Energy and Minerals                                               74,530,821      1,155.2
                                        Realty and Ownership Management                                   70,629,078      1,023.7
                                        Resource Protection and Maintenance                               70,425,475        848.9
                                        Recreation Management                                             49,757,656        789.6
                                        Automated Land and Minerals Records System                        39,485,856        101.6
                                        Mining Law Administration                                         37,012,175        488.5
                                        Wildlife and Fisheries                                            29,726,326        379.0
                                        Working Capital Fund                                              19,598,424         20.9
                                        Threatened and Endangered Species                                 17,936,530        234.4
                                        Reimbursables                                                     16,560,265        139.0
                                        Land Acquisition                                                  15,514,408         46.6
                                        Western Oregon Facilities Maintenance                             14,598,471        134.1
                                        Helium Fund and Operations                                        12,158,087        141.6
                                        Western Oregon Construction and Acquisition                       11,317,973         50.0
                                        Jobs in the Woods                                                 10,184,731         33.9
                                        Miscellaneous Trust Funds                                         10,009,302         86.6
                                        Other Activity Items                                              56,224,688        542.8
                                        Total                                                        $1,181,840,053      12,675.8
                                        a
                                        The FTE amount includes both regular and overtime hours in the calculation.

                                        Source: GAO’s analysis of BLM’s data.



                                        The geographic dispersion of BLM’s obligations is consistent with the
                                        location of its offices. With the exception of its Washington Office
                                        headquarters, the 11 western states and Alaska incurred about 98 percent
                                        of the total obligations as shown in table 2.3.




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Table 2.3: Obligations by Major BLM
Office, Fiscal Year 1998              Reporting office                                               Obligations                FTEs
                                      Washington Officea                                            $282,782,185              2,006.5
                                      Oregon State Office                                            192,859,283              2,208.6
                                      Operating Centers                                              133,902,228                941.0
                                      Alaska State Office                                             87,149,492                976.7
                                      California State Office                                         80,428,465              1,030.4
                                      Nevada State Office                                             57,365,689                767.6
                                      Utah State Office                                               55,629,691                646.0
                                      Idaho State Office                                              51,710,307                788.0
                                      New Mexico State Office                                         49,916,723                651.1
                                      Wyoming State Office                                            45,507,934                671.6
                                      Colorado State Office                                           43,662,287                599.4
                                      Montana State Office                                            42,213,023                580.0
                                      Arizona State Office                                            40,824,644                547.5
                                      Eastern States                                                  17,888,100                261.3
                                      Total                                                       $1,181,840,053            12,675.8
                                      a
                                       Washington Office obligations include $232,223,986 of Bureau-wide costs (leave surcharges,
                                      unemployment insurance, workmen’s compensation, and nationwide Payments in Lieu of Taxes).
                                      Actual Washington Office FTE usage, when Bureau-wide leave surcharges are taken out, is about
                                      401.

                                      Source: GAO’s analysis of BLM’s data.



                                      With total obligations of $192.9 million, the state office with the largest
                                      amount of obligations was the Oregon State Office, which covers
                                      Washington and Oregon. The office’s largest amount of obligations
                                      included $75.6 million for Western Oregon Resources Management,
                                      $13.8 million for Western Oregon Facilities Maintenance, $11.9 million for
                                      Land Resources, and $11.0 million for Western Oregon Construction and
                                      Acquisition. These budget activities accounted for about 61 percent of the
                                      office’s FTEs.

                                      The Alaska State Office, which covers only Alaska, had total obligations of
                                      $87.1 million. The office’s largest obligations included $26.6 million for
                                      Realty and Ownership Management, $16.8 million for Wildland Fire
                                      Operations, $13.4 million for Wildland Fire Preparedness, and $4.9 million
                                      for Energy and Minerals. These budget activities accounted for about
                                      79 percent of the office’s FTEs.

                                      The California State Office, which covers California and a small portion of
                                      Nevada, had total obligations of $80.4 million. The office’s largest amount



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                                       of obligations included $9.8 million for Recreation Management, $8 million
                                       for Land Resources, $6.8 million for Resource Protection and
                                       Maintenance, and $6.7 million for Wildland Fire Preparedness. These
                                       budget activities accounted for about 50 percent of the office’s FTEs.

                                       Appendix III provides a detailed description of the 41 budget activities
                                       under each of BLM’s appropriations, permanent funds, and trust funds.
                                       Appendix IV shows a more detailed breakdown of obligations for the 41
                                       budget activities and FTEs by major BLM unit.


                                       As part of its land management activities, BLM generates receipts from its
Receipts Generated                     mineral leases and permits, sales of timber, sales of land and materials,
                                       and grazing fees. During fiscal year 1998, BLM generated receipts totaling
                                       about $140 million as shown in table 2.4.4

Table 2.4: BLM’s Receipts by Source,
Fiscal Year 1998                       Dollars in thousands
                                       Source of receipt                                                                            Amount
                                       Sale of timber                                                                             $53,643.3
                                       Mineral leases and permits                                                                  45,527.5
                                       Grazing fees                                                                                14,349.2
                                       Sales of land and materials                                                                   9,046.3
                                       Rights-of-way                                                                                 7,756.3
                                       Recreation fees                                                                               6,107.2
                                       Rent of land                                                                                  1,949.8
                                       Fees and commissions                                                                          1,067.9
                                       Other sources                                                                                   765.4
                                       Total                                                                                    $140,212.9
                                       Source: BLM’s Public Land Statistics, 1998.



                                       The 11 western states and Alaska generated about 99 percent of the
                                       receipts during fiscal year 1998. BLM lands in Oregon generated the largest
                                       amount of receipts at $57.6 million, of which, $52.6 million was from
                                       timber sales, $1.5 million was from recreation fees, and $1.2 million was
                                       from grazing fees. BLM lands in Nevada generated $10 million in receipts,
                                       including $3.4 million from the sales of land and materials, $2.3 million
                                       from rights-of-way, and $2.2 million from grazing fees. BLM lands in

                                       4
                                        In addition to the receipts collected by BLM, the Minerals Management Service (within the
                                       Department of the Interior) collected almost $1.1 billion in receipts generated from BLM lands during
                                       fiscal year 1998.



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Wyoming generated $4.8 million, including $2.2 million from grazing fees,
about $752,000 from the sales of land and materials, and about $683,000
from rights-of-way. Appendix VII provides the amount of receipts
generated by state.

By law, BLM shares a portion of these receipts derived from the use,
extraction, or sale of natural resources from federal lands located within
the boundaries of certain states, counties, or territories. BLM also
compensates counties by providing Payments in Lieu of Taxes that would
have been received by these jurisdictions if the federal lands were
privately owned. In fiscal year 1998, BLM shared about $72.4 million with
states and local jurisdictions on the basis of the receipts generated and an
additional $118.8 million under the Payments in Lieu of Taxes provisions.5




5
For a further description of BLM’s revenue-sharing programs, see Land Management Agencies:
Revenue Sharing Payments to States and Counties (GAO/RCED-98-261, Sept. 17, 1998).



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Chapter 3

Profile of the Forest Service


                  The Forest Service, established in 1905 within the U.S. Department of
                  Agriculture, manages about 192 million acres of public lands in national
                  forests and grasslands—about 9 percent of the nation’s total surface area
                  and about 29 percent of all federal lands. Forest Service lands are located
                  in 44 states, the Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico. The Forest Service’s
                  workforce includes more than 34,000 permanent and temporary
                  employees located in a total of 875 offices, which include headquarters,
                  regional, forest, ranger district, research, Job Corps Centers, and other
                  offices in 45 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia.1,2 Annually,
                  the Forest Service spends about $3 billion to operate and manage its
                  organization and lands and generates about $576 million in receipts from
                  its various operations.


                  In fiscal year 1998, the Forest Service managed about 192 million acres of
Forest            land known as the National Forest System—about 29 percent of all federal
Service-Managed   land—and the largest amount outside the Department of the Interior.
Lands             Forest Service lands are located in 44 states, the Virgin Islands, and Puerto
                  Rico and are clearly concentrated in the West. However, the Forest
                  Service manages more federal land in the East than all other federal
                  agencies combined. The National Forest System includes 155 national
                  forests with 187.4 million acres, or 97.7 percent of the system; 20 national
                  grasslands with 3.8 million acres, or 2 percent of the system, and other
                  minor specialized areas. The Forest Service manages its lands for a wide
                  variety of resources and uses, including timber, forage, recreation,
                  wilderness areas, fish and wildlife habitats, and areas with historical and
                  heritage value. Figure 3.1 shows the acres of land managed by the Forest
                  Service in each state.




                  1
                   The Forest Service has a research office in Massachusetts but does not have any national forests or
                  grasslands in the state.
                  2
                   Through an agreement with the Department of Labor, the Forest Service operates Job Corps Centers,
                  which provide basic education and job training to disadvantaged youth between the ages of 16 and 24.



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Figure 3.1: Acres of Land Managed by the Forest Service in Each State



               WA
            9.2 million
                                                                                                                                                   ME
                                             MT                     ND                                                                            53,040
                                         16.9 million            1.1 million
          OR                                                                        MN                                         VT
      15.7 million                                                               2.8 million                                 366,406
                                                                                                   WI                                                        NH
                              ID                                                               1.5 million                                 NY
                                                                     SD                                                                                    724,740
                          20.5 million         WY                                                                                        16,068
                                                                 2.0 million                                   MI
                                            9.2 million                                                      2.9 million                                     CT
                                                                                                                                    PA                       24
                 NV                                                    NE                            IL                           513,264
             5.8 million                                             352,133                                           OH
                                                                                                   277,506     IN
                                  UT                                                                       195,625 227,187 WV
       CA                     8.1 million           CO                                                                      1.0
   20.6 million                                 14.5 million             KS                MO                              million    VA
                                                                                                                    KY
                                                                       108,175          1.5 million                               1.7 million
                                                                                                                  693,126
                                                                                                                                     NC
                              AZ                                                                               TN                1.2 million
                          11.3 million                                      OK              AR              634,073
                                                NM                        392,211       2.6 million                              SC
                                             9.3 million                                             MS                       612,390
                                                                                                 1.2 million              GA
                                                                                                                AL
                                                                                                                        864,942
                                                                                                             664,889
                                                                    TX
                                                                  754,983
                                                                                            LA
                                                                                          604,138
                                                                                                                               FL
                                                                                                                           1.1 million
                       HI
                     1 acre


                                                   AK
                                               22.0 million
                                                                                                                           Puerto Rico Virgin Islands
                                                                                                                             27,831         147




                                                           Source: GAO’s presentation of the Forest Service’s data.



                                                           The Forest Service is responsible for the protection, management, and use
Organizational                                             of its forests and grasslands for current and future generations. In this
Mission and Structure                                      role, the Forest Service manages about one-twelfth of the land in the
                                                           United States with a multileveled organization in cooperation with a




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                        variety of federal, state, and local organizations. With 85 research offices
                        located throughout the nation, the Forest Service conducts one of the
                        largest forest and rangeland research programs in the world. In addition,
                        through technical and financial assistance, the Forest Service assists state
                        and private landowners to help them practice good stewardship and
                        improve the natural environment of cities and communities.


Mission and Goals       The basic management goals for the National Forest System were
                        identified in the Organic Administration Act of 1897 and were further
                        articulated in the Multiple-Use Sustained-Yield Act of 1960 (16 U.S.C.
                        528-531). The Act of 1960 directs national forest management for the
                        combination of uses that will best meet the needs of the American people.
                        The Forest and Rangelands Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974, as
                        amended by the National Forest Management Act of 1976, also guides the
                        management of the National Forest System. Together, these laws
                        encourage foresight in using the nation’s renewable resources and
                        establish long-range strategic-planning processes for Forest Service
                        management. The Forest Service’s State and Private Forestry programs are
                        authorized by The Cooperative Forestry Assistance Act of 1978, and its
                        Research programs are authorized by The Forest and Rangeland
                        Renewable Resources Research Act of 1978.

                        According to the Forest Service, its mission is to sustain the health,
                        productivity, and diversity of the land to meet the needs of present and
                        future generations. It accomplishes its mission through three major areas.

                    •   National Forest System—provides for the protection, management, and
                        utilization of national forests and grasslands for a wide variety of purposes
                        and values. Programs run the spectrum from the preservation of
                        wilderness areas to intensive resource utilization for timber harvest or
                        developed recreation areas.

                    •   Forest and Rangeland Research—discovers, develops, and disseminates
                        knowledge and technology to sustain the health, productivity, and
                        diversity of all lands for present and future generations. The Forest Service
                        conducts and sponsors basic and applied scientific research.




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                           •   State and Private Forestry—enhances the health and sustainable
                               management of the nation’s urban and rural forests and related economies
                               in partnership with federal, state, and local organizations. The Forest
                               Service’s programs provide technical and cost-sharing assistance to help
                               ensure the sound stewardship and use of state and private forest lands.

                               Pursuant to its mission, the Forest Service’s goals are to

                           •   ensure sustainable ecosystems,
                           •   provide multiple benefits for people within the capabilities of ecosystems,
                               and
                           •   ensure organizational effectiveness.

                               In carrying out its goals, the Forest Service provides a wide variety of
                               products and services to the public, including healthy aquatic, forested,
                               and rangeland ecosystems; opportunities for recreation and leisure
                               activities; opportunities for a variety of commercial activities such as the
                               sales of timber and materials, grazing allotments, and minerals; and the
                               protection and restoration of heritage resources.

Roles and Organizational       The Forest Service’s headquarters organizational level has overall
Structure                      responsibility for the agency and divides its operations into three major
                               organizations—the National Forest System, Research, and State and
                               Private Forestry. The National Forest System is by far the largest of the
                               triad and is managed at three field levels—regional offices, forest offices,
                               and district offices. Research operations are managed at two field
                               levels—research stations and field laboratories. The State and Private
                               Forestry field management is usually collocated at regional offices.

                               The National Forest System includes 9 regional offices, 115 forest offices,
                               and 588 district offices while the Research operations have 7 research
                               stations and 78 laboratories.3 The Forest Service staffs these offices with
                               about 34,400 employees in various occupational classifications. Figure 3.2
                               shows the jurisdictions and locations of the Forest Service’s headquarters
                               and regional offices. Figure 3.3 shows the jurisdictions and locations of the
                               Forest Service’s headquarters, research stations, and other research
                               facilities.




                               3
                                By law, the National Forest System has 155 proclaimed national forests; however, for administrative
                               convenience, the Forest Service often manages two to six forests as a single unit. We use the term
                               forest offices to include national forests and administrative units.



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Figure 3.2: Forest Service’s Regional Administrative Jurisdictions




                                Missoula
         Portland                     MT          Northern
           OR
        Pacific
        Northwest
                                                                                        WI
                                                                                    Milwaukee

                                             Rocky Mountain                                                          PA
                            Ogden                                                                                   Radnor
      CA
                               UT                                                           Eastern
                                                                                                                             Washington, D.C.
 San Francisco      Intermountain            CO
                                              Denver
       Pacific
       Southwest
                             Southwestern
                                    Albuquerque
                                        NM
                                                                                            Southern
                                                                                                          Atlanta
                                                                                                            GA


         Hawaii



                                    Alaska

                                                                                                 Puerto    Virgin
                                                                                                  Rico    Islands
                                                  Juneau


                                                   National headquarters
                                                   Regional headquarters
                                                   Northeastern State and Private
                                                   Forestry Office


                                                  Source: Forest Service.




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Figure 3.3: Forest Service’s Research Administrative Jurisdictions




        Portland

        Pacific
        Northwest                                                      St. Paul
                                                                                    Madison                            Northeastern
                                                                                         FPL
                                         Rocky Mountain
                           Ogden                                                                                      Radnor
     Albany
                                                                                              North
                                       Fort Collins                                                                            Washington, D.C.
                   Intermountain                                                             Central

       Pacific
       Southwest
                                                                                                                Asheville



                                                                                             Southern




                                                                                                        Rio Piedras
                                              National headquarters
                                              Regional station headquarters
                                              Forest Products Laboratory
                                              International Institute of Tropical Forestry


                                           Source: Forest Service.




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The Forest Service uses a combination of line and functional staffs in four
organizational levels to carry out its programs. With delegations of
authority and responsibility to the lowest level of the organization, the
Forest Service traditionally has been a very decentralized organization.
According to the Forest Service, the organizational structure was set up to
provide for the clear and efficient transmission of policy, information, and
instructions from the top to the bottom of the organization and for the
flow of information and feedback from the bottom to the top of the
organization. Figure 3.4 presents the Forest Service’s organizational
structure.




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Figure 3.4: Forest Service’s Organizational Structure, Fiscal Year 1998


                                                                                Office
                                                                             of the Chief



                   Law
             Enforcement and                                                                                                                 Civil Rights
              Investigations

                                Chief Operating                                                                      Associate Chief,
                                    Officer                                                                         Natural Resources



        Deputy Chief,              Deputy Chief,               Deputy Chief,              Deputy Chief,                Deputy Chief,             Deputy Chief,
    Chief Financial Officer     Business Operations             Policy and                Research and                National Forest           State and Private
                                                                Legislation               Development                     System                    Forestry
      Associate Deputy             Associate Deputy
            Chief                        Chief               Associate Deputy            Associate Deputy            2 Associate Deputy         Associate Deputy
                                                                   Chief                       Chief                       Chiefs                     Chief



   Office of                                 Human             Legislative         6 Forest and             9 National            State and Private    International
                          Financial
   Communications                            Resources         Affairs             Range Experiment         Forest System         Forestry,            Programs
                          Management
                                             Management                            Stations                 Regions               Northeastern
                                                                                                                                  Area
                                             Information         Policy            Science, Policy                                                     International
                          Financial                                                                         Engineering
                                             Resources           Analysis          Planning and                                                        Institute of
   Reinvention            Repairs                                                                                                 Fire and
                                             Managenent                            Information                                                         Tropical
                          and Analysis                                                                                            Aviation
                                                               Strategic                                    Lands                                      Forestry
                                             Acquisition       Planning            Resource
                                                                                   Valuation and Use                              Cooperative
                          Budget             Management        and Resource                                 Recreation,
                                                                                   Research                                       Forestry
                                                               Assessment                                   Heritage and
                                                                                                            Wilderness
                          Financial          Senior, Youth                         Vegetation                                     Forest Health
                                                                                                            Resources
                          Systems            and Volunteer                         Management and                                 Protection
                                             Programs                              Protection
                                                                                                            Minerals and
                                                                                   Research
                                                                                                            Geology
                                                                                                            Management
                                                                                   Wildlife, Fish and
                                                                                   Watershed
                                                                                                            Range
                                                                                   Research
                                                                                                            Management

                                                                                   Forest Products          Forest
                                                                                   Laboratory               Management

                                                                                                            Watershed
                                                                                                            and Air
                                                                                                            Management

                                                                                                            Wildlife, Fish
                                                                                                            and Rare Plants

                                                                                                            Ecosystem
                                                                                                            Management
                                                                                                            Coordination


                                                       Source: Forest Service.




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Role of the Headquarters       At the headquarters level, the Chief, assisted by an Associate Chief for
Organization                   Natural Resources and a Chief Operating Officer, provides the Forest
                               Service with overall direction. Six Deputy Chiefs report to the Chief
                               through the Associate Chief or the Chief Operating Officer and serve as the
                               primary management link with Regional Foresters, Station Directors, and
                               the State and Private Area Directors on broad operational and
                               administrative matters. These headquarters units are responsible for

                           •   managing relationships with national- and international-level interests,
                               such as collaboration and cooperation with the U.S. Department of
                               Agriculture, tribal governments, other agencies, scientific communities,
                               and the public;
                           •   conducting national-level strategic planning and assisting in the
                               formulation of long-range plans and programs, and planning and budgeting
                               alternatives that reflect the objectives and priorities of the Forest Service;
                           •   providing technical direction and assistance on unusually complex
                               problems that are national in scope;
                           •   determining and maintaining national standards for inventory, assessment,
                               and monitoring and developing implementing instructions for field units;
                           •   reviewing field programs to ensure acceptable levels or program quality,
                               effectiveness, and accomplishment;
                           •   providing leadership and expertise to the agency in the areas of financial
                               systems management, nationwide policy management, quality assurance
                               and compliance review, financial analysis, national financial operations
                               management, the preparation of financial statements, financial
                               management audits and carrying out agency business and human resource
                               programs; and
                           •   providing coordination and leadership for intergovernmental resource
                               programs for technical and financial assistance to improve and protect
                               state and privately owned forest resources and urban and community
                               forestry.


Role of the Regional           The Forest Service has nine regional offices covering broad geographic
Offices                        areas, usually several states. According to the Forest Service, the regional
                               organization covers most of the same functions as the headquarters office
                               but allows a reasonable span of control (10 to 20 forests in a region versus
                               155 servicewide) to carry out regional functions. The regions also carry
                               out the Forest Service’s State and Private Forestry programs within their
                               geographic area except for the eastern region, where it is a separate office.




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                                According to the Forest Service, regional foresters and their staff are the
                                key links in gathering, analyzing, synthesizing, and disseminating
                                information between the forests and the headquarters offices, work with
                                State Foresters in developing information for State and Private Forestry
                                programs, and cooperating with Station Directors in providing information
                                for analysis. Each region is responsible for

                            •   providing integrated regional leadership in partnership with stakeholders
                                of the region;
                            •   managing relationships with regional interests such as collaborating and
                                cooperating with state governors and state agencies, tribal governments,
                                bargaining units, other agencies, and partners;
                            •   conducting regional strategic planning that ensures that forest plans
                                contribute to regional and national goals;
                            •   managing issues specific to the region or major ecosystems within or
                                between regions;
                            •   participating in the formulation of national policies, programs, and
                                objectives by submitting information and advice to the Deputy Chiefs and
                                to the Chief’s Staff;
                            •   translating national direction into regional policies, programs, and
                                objectives;
                            •   managing the regional budget process by preparing, presenting, and
                                allocating the integrated regional budget; and
                            •   providing subordinate units with technical and administrative assistance
                                and oversight.


Role of the Forest Office       The National Forest System includes 155 national forests and 20
                                grasslands. Forest offices administer ranger districts, national grasslands,
                                or national recreation areas, and generally, each forest includes four to
                                seven subunits. The Forest Supervisor reports to the Regional Forester or
                                Deputy Regional Forester and is responsible for

                            •   managing ecosystems in context with regional plan(s),
                            •   participating in regional planning and policies,
                            •   meeting regionally allocated objectives and targets for accomplishing
                                coordinated land-use planning and the production of goods and services
                                from the National Forest System lands,
                            •   delivering goods and services to the general public,
                            •   allocating budgeted funds for individual activities,
                            •   providing technical and administrative assistance and oversight of a
                                forestwide nature,



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                              •   translating national and regional policies and programs into action, and
                              •   managing relationships with county, state, and local parties and convening
                                  public input into the forest plan and projects.


Role of the Ranger District       Forest offices include 588 ranger districts, each with a staff of 10 to 100
Offices                           people. The districts vary in size from 50,000 to more than 1 million acres.
                                  The Forest Service’s on-the-ground program delivery, including such
                                  functions as trail construction and maintenance, operation of
                                  campgrounds and recreational facilities, and management of vegetation
                                  and wildlife, occurs in the ranger districts.

                                  Each ranger district is responsible for implementing projects in
                                  accordance with the objectives, standards, and guides in the forest plan.
                                  Ranger districts also

                              •   participate in formulating the forest plan and forest policies,
                              •   identify and resolve district issues,
                              •   develop and maintain relationships with local entities,
                              •   coordinate with adjacent landowners and land managers on common
                                  issues and activities, and
                              •   promote land management education.


Role of the Research              The Forest Service has six research stations, a Forest Products Lab, and
Stations                          the International Institute of Tropical Forestry. The research stations
                                  conduct and oversee research in broad geographic areas and coordinate
                                  and oversee research projects/work units/labs conducted at 8 to 20 sites
                                  within their geographic area. The Station Director reports to the Deputy
                                  Chief for Research and Development and is responsible for

                              •   coordinating the development of research programs with appropriate
                                  regions, the area, and other stations; formulating new natural resource and
                                  social research programs; and advising the Chief on new research needs
                                  and requirements;
                              •   providing overall leadership in meeting the Forest Service’s research
                                  objectives within the station’s geographical area of responsibility or at the
                                  Forest Product Lab or International Institute of Tropical Forestry;4
                              •   establishing standards and systems to control and evaluate the quality and
                                  quantity of research accomplishments;

                                  4
                                   While the International Institute of Tropical Forestry conducts research, it reports to the Chief
                                  through the International Programs Director.



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                            •   translating national direction into station policies, programs, and
                                objectives;
                            •   releasing completed research results and promoting the prompt
                                application of research findings through close liaison with key
                                administrators in federal, state, and industrial forestry organizations;
                            •   managing the research budget process by preparing, presenting, and
                                allocating the integrated station budget; and
                            •   providing subordinate units with technical and administrative assistance
                                and oversight.


Role of Research Work           Research work units are established to conduct basic or applied research
Units                           on a specific research topic and are headed by a Project Leader, who has
                                responsibility for

                            •   planning the research program and activities within the unit and providing
                                input into the station’s research plans,
                            •   preparing problem analyses and approving study plans in each problem
                                analysis,
                            •   conducting the approved research programs of the units,
                            •   collaborating with other researchers from other organizations on joint
                                research, and
                            •   preparing manuscripts to document the results of research conducted by
                                the unit.


Role of State and Private       The Forest Service’s State and Private Forestry offices are colocated at the
Offices                         regional offices with the exception of the programs within the Forest
                                Service’s eastern region which are managed by the Northeastern Area
                                Office located in Radnor, Pennsylvania. State and Private Forestry has
                                basically two major activities, forest health management and cooperative
                                forestry. Under forest health management, the offices are responsible for
                                managing forest insects and diseases and protecting the health of forest
                                ecosystems. The program provides national leadership and professional
                                assistance for forest insect and disease management in the protection and
                                restoration of forest health in national forests and lands managed by other
                                federal agencies, as well as in state and private lands. Under cooperative
                                forestry, the offices are responsible for providing technical and financial
                                assistance to help rural and urban citizens, including private landowners,
                                care for forests and sustain the communities where they live, work, and
                                play.




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                           The Northeastern Area office and its counterparts at the regional offices
                           are responsible for coordinating all the State and Private functional
                           services to the states and private landowners. The offices provide
                           coordination and leadership for intergovernmental resource programs for
                           technical and financial assistance to improve and protect state and
                           privately owned forest resources and urban and community forestry. The
                           offices

                       •   provide leadership, coordinated with regional offices and research
                           stations, on state and private forestry matters;
                       •   assist state and private forest landowners in the development,
                           management, and administration of natural and human resources;
                       •   accomplish the Forest Service’s objectives associated with coordinated
                           land-use planning and the production of goods and services from private
                           and public lands through state and private cooperators;
                       •   provide states and private cooperators with technical and financial
                           assistance;
                       •   monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of state, cooperative, and technical
                           assistance programs; and
                       •   participate in the formulation of national programs, budgets, and plans
                           related to State and Private Forestry services.


Types of Occupations       In fiscal year 1998, the Forest Service had employees in 245 different types
                           of occupational classifications. About 76 percent of the jobs were
                           classified as white collar jobs, and the remainder were classified under the
                           Federal Wage System for trades and labor occupations in the federal
                           government. The Forest Service had a total of 34,367 employees in the
                           various job occupations—28,280 permanent employees and 6,087
                           temporary employees.

                           A few occupational groups contained the majority of permanent employee
                           job series, including the following:

                       •   The Biological Sciences Group had 13,399, or 47 percent, of the permanent
                           employees in various job series, including 6,472 Forestry Technicians,
                           3,205 in Forestry, 990 in General Biological Science, 734 in Wildlife
                           Biology, 361 in Rangeland Management, and 355 in Fishery Biology.




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                      •   The General Administration, Clerical, and Office Services Group had 4,194
                          employees in various series, including Miscellaneous Administration,
                          Clerks, Assistants, Secretaries, Computer Specialists, Clerks and
                          Assistants, Program Management, and Support Services.

                      •   Engineering and Architecture Group had 2,222 employees in various
                          series, including Engineering Technician, Civil Engineering, Landscape
                          Architecture, and Electronics Technician.

                      •   The Physical Sciences Group had 1,049 employees in various series,
                          including Hydrology and Hydrologic Technician, Cartography and
                          Cartographic Technician, Land Surveying, and Geology.

                          Appendix I provides a complete listing of all Forest Service occupational
                          groupings by job series and includes the number of permanent and
                          temporary employees as of the end of fiscal year 1998.

                          At the end of fiscal year 1998, the Forest Service had 875 offices located in
Location, Type, and       45 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia. The offices are
Number of Forest          concentrated in the West—about 67 percent of the offices are in the 12
Service Offices           western states. The national level has two offices at the headquarters level
                          and five technical centers. The nine regional offices and the field
                          organization consist of 115 forest offices, 588 district ranger offices, 85
                          research offices, and 19 Job Corps Centers. The remaining 52 offices
                          include nurseries, state and private forestry offices, and other specialty
                          offices. Figure 3.5 shows the geographic dispersion of the Forest Service’s
                          offices.




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Figure 3.5: Geographic Dispersion of the Forest Service’s Offices




     Forest Service office
     More than one Forest Service office in the same Zip Code



                                                        Source: GAO’s analysis of the Forest Service’s data.



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                        At times, the Forest Service houses more than one organizational unit in
                        the same building and these cases were treated the same as separate
                        Forest Service offices within one Zip Code. For example, if a forest office
                        and a ranger district office were located in the same building, a dot within
                        the circle is shown. Appendix II provides information on the number and
                        type of offices by state.


                        In fiscal year 1998, the Forest Service’s sources of funding included eight
Funding Structure,      appropriations and various permanent and trust funds. Its largest
Obligations, and        appropriation—the National Forest System—had obligations of $1.2 billion
Full-Time Equivalents   and 16,270 FTEs. These obligations and FTEs were charged to various budget
                        activities, including general administration, forestland management,
                        recreation, infrastructure management, wildlife and fisheries habitat
                        management, and inventory and monitoring. Each of the appropriations
                        and other funding sources is further divided into budget line items for
                        implementing the Forest Service’s programs. The Forest Service’s fiscal
                        year 1998 obligations totaled about $3 billion and included FTEs of 39,719 in
                        the 41 major budget line items as shown in appendix VI.5 However, for
                        ease of presentation, we combined all budget line items of less than
                        $60 million and included them in Other Budget Line Items in table 3.1.




                        5
                         On the basis of our discussions with Forest Service budget officials, we agreed to display the Forest
                        Service’s obligations and FTEs for fiscal year 1998 by the 41 major budget line items.



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Table 3.1: Forest Service’s Obligations
and FTEs by Budget Line Item, Fiscal      Dollars in thousands
Year 1998                                 Budget line item                                                     Obligations                 FTEsa
                                          Fire Presuppression and Fuels                                         $290,010.5                4,602.7
                                          Fire Suppression and Rehabilitation                                     241,517.9               3,763.0
                                          General Administration                                                  239,448.5               2,805.5
                                          Forestland Management                                                   231,772.9               4,027.1
                                          Recreation Use                                                          194,671.9               3,056.2
                                          Forest and Rangeland Research                                           182,251.2               2,352.8
                                          Timber Salvage Sales Fund                                               124,814.3               2,340.8
                                          Human Resources                                                         119,321.9               3,035.0
                                                                           b
                                          Knutson-Vandenberg Fund                                                 115,490.7               1,799.1
                                          Land Acquisition                                                         96,750.1                104.4
                                          Infrastructure Management                                                93,914.9               1,166.7
                                          Cooperative Forestry                                                     90,094.6                303.5
                                          Wildlife and Fisheries Habitat Management                                80,557.1               1,205.1
                                          Inventory and Monitoring                                                 76,717.7               1,036.4
                                          Reimbursable Activities                                                  72,891.0               1,081.1
                                          Forest Health Management                                                 72,781.6                353.7
                                          Road Construction                                                        70,466.8                871.7
                                          Transfer Funds                                                           68,993.4                293.4
                                          Natural Disaster Funding                                                 67,232.6                591.6
                                          Rangeland Management                                                     61,738.3                654.3
                                          Other Budget Line Items                                                 430,871.0               4,274.9
                                          Total                                                               $3,022,308.9               39,719.0
                                          a
                                          FTEs include both regular and overtime hours.
                                          b
                                              A trust fund for reforestation, timber stand improvement, and other renewable resources.

                                          Source: GAO’s analysis of the Forest Service’s data.



                                          Excluding the obligations for the Washington State headquarters, the
                                          western regions and research stations incurred about 74 percent of the
                                          total obligations. Table 3.2 shows the total obligations incurred by the
                                          major units of the Forest Service.




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Table 3.2: Forest Service’s Obligations
Incurred by Major Units, Fiscal Year      Dollars in thousands
1998                                      Major Forest Service Unit                                    Obligations            FTEsa
                                          Pacific Southwest Region                                        $453,666           6,589.2
                                          Southern Region                                                  364,192           4,342.1
                                          Pacific Northwest Region                                         333,790           7,307.3
                                          Washington Office Activities                                     333,668           1,118.3
                                          Northern Region                                                  280,242           4,029.2
                                          Intermountain Region                                             250,134           3,360.5
                                          Southwestern Region                                              216,245           3,084.1
                                          Research Stations                                                214,527           2,845.4
                                          Eastern Region                                                   179,817           2,505.9
                                          Rocky Mountain Region                                            177,484           2,413.9
                                          Job Corps Centers                                                  91,470          1,006.3
                                          Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry                       66,415            170.3
                                          Alaska Region                                                      60,659            946.5
                                          Total                                                         $3,022,309          39,719.0
                                          a
                                          FTEs include both regular and overtime hours.

                                          Source: GAO’s analysis of the Forest Service’s data.



                                          With total obligations of $453.7 million, the region with the largest amount
                                          of obligations was the Pacific Southwest Region, which covers the state of
                                          California. The region’s largest amount of obligations included
                                          $101.6 million for Fire Presuppression and Fuels, $40.1 million for
                                          Forestland Management, $36.5 million for General Administration, and
                                          $34.7 million for Recreation Use. These budget line items accounted for
                                          about 45 percent of the region’s FTEs.

                                          The Southern Region, which covers 13 states in the southeastern quadrant
                                          of the nation, had obligations of $364.2 million. The region’s largest
                                          amount of obligations included $60.9 million for Fire Suppression and
                                          Rehabilitation, $37.3 million for Forestland Management, $24.9 million for
                                          General Administration, and $21.6 million for Recreation Use. These
                                          budget line items accounted for about 37 percent of the region’s FTEs.

                                          The Pacific Northwest Region, which covers Washington and Oregon, had
                                          obligations of $333.8 million. The region’s largest amount of obligations
                                          included $41.6 million for Forestland Management, $34.7 million for
                                          Natural Disaster Funding, $29.5 million for the Timber Salvage Sale Fund,




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                                          and $21.5 for Fire Presuppression and Fuels. These budget line items
                                          accounted for about 41 percent of the region’s FTEs.

                                          Appendix V provides a detailed description of the 41 budget line items
                                          under each of the Forest Service’s appropriations, permanent funds, and
                                          trust funds. Appendix VI shows a more detailed breakdown of the
                                          obligations for the 41 budget line items and FTEs by major Forest Service
                                          unit.


                                          As part of its land management activities, the Forest Service generates
Receipts Generated                        receipts from its various commercial activities on the national forests and
                                          grasslands, including power, minerals, land uses, timber, grazing, and
                                          recreation fees. During fiscal year 1998, the Forest Service generated
                                          receipts totaling about $576 million as shown on table 3.3.6

Table 3.3: Forest Service’s Receipts by
Source, Fiscal Year 1998                  Dollars in thousands
                                          Source of receipt                                                                     Total receipts
                                          Timber                                                                                    $204,782.4
                                          Timber Salvage Sales                                                                       136,551.2
                                                                               a
                                          Knutson-Vandenberg Deposits                                                                114,150.5
                                          Timber Purchaser Road Credit                                                                 38,974.2
                                          Recreation—Special Uses                                                                      37,349.4
                                          Minerals                                                                                     20,330.1
                                          Land Uses                                                                                     9,329.6
                                          Grazing                                                                                       6,949.7
                                          Recreation—User Fees                                                                          5,502.1
                                          Power                                                                                         2,434.6
                                                              b
                                          Quartz Crystals                                                                                   13.0
                                          Total                                                                                     $576,366.8
                                          a
                                           Portions of timber sales receipts are deposited in the Knutson-Vandenberg Trust Fund, and the
                                          amounts are considered receipts for the purposes of the 25-percent payment to the states. By
                                          law, the Forest Service is required to share 25 percent of the receipts derived from the use,
                                          extraction, or sale of natural resources from national forests and grasslands.
                                          b
                                              Quartz crystals are minerals mined on the Quachita National Forest.

                                          Source: GAO’s analysis of the Forest Service’s data.




                                          6
                                           In addition to the receipts collected by the Forest Service, the Minerals Management Service (within
                                          the Department of the Interior) collected an additional $59 million in receipts generated from Forest
                                          Service lands during fiscal year 1998.



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Our analysis of receipt data showed that Forest Service lands in Oregon
generated the largest amount of receipts, at $118.1 million, of which,
$46.6 million was from the sale of timber, $37.3 million was from timber
salvage sales, and $24.3 million was from Knutson-Vandenberg deposits.
Forest Service lands in California generated $75.9 million in receipts,
including $20.7 million from the sale of timber, $17.4 million from timber
salvage sales, and $16.9 million from Knutson-Vandenberg deposits. Forest
Service lands in Idaho generated $49.9 million, including $26.5 million
from timber salvage sales, $11.4 million from the sale of timber, and
$4.9 million from Knutson-Vandenberg deposits.

By law, the Forest Service shares a portion of these receipts derived from
the use, extraction, or sale of natural resources from national forests and
grasslands.7 During fiscal year 1998, the Forest Service shared about
$110.3 million with the states and counties and an additional $124.8 million
from the special spotted owl guarantee appropriation.8 Appendix VII
provides the amount of receipts generated by state.




7
For a further description of the Forest Service’s revenue-sharing programs, see Land Management
Agencies: Revenue Sharing Payments to States and Counties (GAO/RCED-98-261, Sept. 17, 1998).
8
 This special payment amount is for selected counties to compensate them for the decline in timber
harvests due to the protection of the northern spotted owl’s habitat.



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Chapter 4

Observations on the Profiles of the Forest
Service and the Bureau of Land
Management
                   The organizational and demographic profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                   are similar but differ in terms of magnitude and emphasis. These agencies,
                   with practically identical missions, are responsible for managing the same
                   types of natural resources on about 70 percent of all public lands, which
                   represent about 21 percent of the nation’s total surface area. When
                   comparing the major components of the agencies’ profiles, the Forest
                   Service is a much larger organization in that it has 3 times the number of
                   employees, 3 times the amount of appropriations and obligations, more
                   than 3 times the amount of receipts generated, and over 4 times as many
                   offices as BLM throughout the country. Conversely, in a comparison the
                   total land area managed by these agencies, the lands managed by BLM are
                   significantly larger than the lands managed by the Forest Service because
                   of the former’s large holdings in Alaska. However, the amount of land
                   managed within the contiguous 48 states is about the same; most Forest
                   Service lands are forests, and most BLM lands are rangelands. Regardless of
                   the similarities and differences between the agencies, the Forest Service
                   and BLM have begun to increase the number and types of shared initiatives
                   they undertake in order to improve customer service and efficiency.


               •   Mission and Goals—BLM and the Forest Service are land management
Similarities       agencies with almost identical mission statements and many of the same
                   goals. By law, each agency’s lands must be managed on a multiple-use and
                   sustained-yield basis. Many environmental and land-use laws apply to both
                   agencies, such as the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Air
                   Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, and the
                   annual Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, which funds
                   both agencies. However, each agency has specific laws dealing with its
                   operations that do not apply to the other agency.

               •   Lands and Land Uses—Although the Forest Service and BLM manage lands
                   in 44 and 27 states, respectively, their lands are concentrated in the West
                   and, to a large extent, are contiguous. The Forest Service is the only major
                   land manager outside the Department of the Interior. Figure 4.1 shows the
                   proximity of Forest Service and BLM lands.




                   Page 49                     GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                           Chapter 4
                                           Observations on the Profiles of the Forest
                                           Service and the Bureau of Land
                                           Management




Figure 4.1: Forest Service and BLM Lands




           Bureau of Land Management

           Forest Service




                                           Source: GAO’s analysis of the U.S. Geological Survey’s data.




                                           Most of BLM’s 264 million acres are in rangelands, whereas most of the
                                           Forest Service’s 192 million acres are forested. Each agency manages the
                                           lands for practically the same purposes, namely, timber, grazing,
                                           recreation, minerals, wilderness, and fish and wildlife habitat.

                                       •   Types of Occupations—Between the two agencies, a total of 286 job series,
                                           as defined by the Office of Personnel Management, are used. In fiscal year
                                           1998, the Forest Service, with more than 3 times as many permanent
                                           employees as BLM, had 28,280 permanent employees compared with BLM’s




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    Chapter 4
    Observations on the Profiles of the Forest
    Service and the Bureau of Land
    Management




    8,910 permanent employees. Of the 286 job series, 169, or 59 percent, were
    common to both agencies. A large majority of the occupations were white
    collar occupations, and the majority of those employees were in the
    scientific disciplines relating to the management of natural resources. The
    combined totals for the agencies’ four largest occupational groups were
    15,721 in Biological Sciences; 6,284 in General Administration, Clerical,
    and Office Services; 2,812 in Engineering and Architecture; and 1,855 in
    the Physical Sciences.

    In both agencies, the largest four occupational groups for permanent
    employees were the same and represented about 74 percent of the Forest
    Service’s permanent employees and about 65 percent of BLM’s permanent
    employees. The Forest Service’s largest number of permanent employees
    were in two job series: 3,205 employees in the Forestry job series and
    6,472 employees in the Forestry Technician job series, whereas BLM
    employed 505 persons in these categories. Under BLM’s largest category of
    permanent employees, 507 employees were in the Miscellaneous
    Administration and Program series and 509 were in the General Biological
    Science series, while the Forest Service employed 192 and 990 in these
    categories, respectively.

•   Location, Type, and Number of Offices—The Forest Service organization
    has a four-tier structure, that is, headquarters, regional offices, forest
    offices, and ranger district offices, which comprise about 80 percent of its
    offices. In addition, the Forest Service has a large research organization
    and other specialty offices. The BLM organization has a three-tier structure;
    that is, headquarters, state offices, and field offices, which comprise about
    90 percent of BLM’s offices. In addition, BLM has national technical centers
    and other specialty offices.

    In fiscal year 1998, the Forest Service and BLM had 875 and 189 offices
    nationwide, respectively. The Forest Service’s offices were located in 45
    states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia; whereas, BLM’s offices
    were located in 20 states and the District of Columbia. However, the
    preponderance of BLM’s offices—about 94 percent—and a clear
    concentration of the Forest Service’s offices—67 percent—were located in
    the 11 western states and Alaska. Figure 4.2 shows the locations of Forest
    Service and BLM offices.




    Page 51                           GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                                      Chapter 4
                                                      Observations on the Profiles of the Forest
                                                      Service and the Bureau of Land
                                                      Management




Figure 4.2: Location of the Forest Service’s and BLM’s Offices




     Forest Service offices

     BLM offices
     Locations where Forest Service and BLM have one or more offices in the same Zip Code


                                                                                                                          (Figure notes on next page)



                                                      Page 52                               GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
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Observations on the Profiles of the Forest
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Management




Note: At times, the Forest Service and BLM house more than one organizational unit in the same
building. In those cases, only a single notation was made on the map.

Source: GAO’s analysis of the Forest Service’s and BLM’s data.




The Forest Service and BLM each had two or more units located at the
same location or Zip Code in 108 and 26 instances, respectively. Overall,
both the Forest Service and BLM had one or more offices located at the
same location or Zip Code in 62 instances, nationwide.

We also noted that two BLM state offices and two Forest Service regions
had identical geographic boundaries. The Forest Service’s Pacific
Northwest Region and BLM’s Oregon State Office are responsible for lands
in Oregon and Washington. Similarly, the Forest Service’s Pacific
Southwest Region and BLM’s California State Office are responsible for
lands in California. Figures 4.3 and 4.4 show the similarities of the offices
in the three states.




Page 53                              GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                         Chapter 4
                                         Observations on the Profiles of the Forest
                                         Service and the Bureau of Land
                                         Management




Figure 4.3: Forest Service’s and BLM’s
Offices in California




                                                      Forest Service offices
                                                      BLM offices
                                                      Locations where Forest Service and BLM have one or more offices in the same Zip Code



                                         Source: GAO’s analysis of the Forest Service’s and BLM’s data.




                                         Of the total of 133 offices in California, the Forest Service had 116 offices
                                         and BLM had 17 offices. Overall, in California, the Forest Service, and BLM
                                         had one or more offices located at the same location or Zip Code in seven
                                         instances.



                                         Page 54                                GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                         Chapter 4
                                         Observations on the Profiles of the Forest
                                         Service and the Bureau of Land
                                         Management




Figure 4.4: Forest Service’s and BLM’s
Offices in Oregon and Washington




                                                      Forest Service offices
                                                      BLM offices
                                                      Locations where Forest Service and BLM have one or more offices in the same Zip Code



                                         Source: GAO’s analysis of the Forest Service’s and BLM’s data.




                                         Of the total of 117 offices in Oregon, the Forest Service had 84 offices and
                                         BLM had 33 offices. Overall, in Oregon, the Forest Service and BLM had one
                                         or more offices located at the same location or Zip Code in seven
                                         instances. Of the total of 43 offices in Washington, the Forest Service had



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    Management




    40 offices and BLM had 3 offices. Overall, in Washington, the Forest Service
    and BLM had one or more offices located at the same location or Zip Code
    in one instance.

•   Funding Structure, Obligations, and Full-Time Equivalents—The Forest
    Service’s and BLM’s funding structure is similar, in that, both are funded
    through 8 to 10 annual appropriations, various permanent appropriations,
    and trust funds. Both of these agencies are under the jurisdiction of the
    Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Subcommittees in both
    Houses of Congress. Total obligations for these agencies amounted to
    $4.2 billion and included 52,395 FTEs. The Forest Service had obligations of
    $3 billion and 39,719 FTEs, and BLM had obligations of $1.2 billion and
    12,676 FTEs.

    The Forest Service and BLM further divide their appropriations and other
    funding sources into budget line items and budget activities, respectively.1
    Many of these agencies’ budget categories are very similar, if not identical.
    Take, for example, the obligations dealing with wildland fires. In fiscal
    year 1998, each agency had an appropriation entitled Wildland Fire
    Management and each had two budget categories—one dealing with
    wildland fire preparedness and the other dealing with wildland operations.
    The combined obligations for wildland fire management for each agency
    represented the largest amount of obligations for a single
    purpose—$167.8 million for BLM and $531.5 million for the Forest Service.

    The National Forest System appropriation is the Forest Service’s largest
    appropriation, and the Management of Lands and Resources appropriation
    is BLM’s largest appropriation. In fiscal year 1998, both appropriations had
    similar budget categories and funded the similar types of activities,
    including Wildlife and Fisheries Management; Recreation Management;
    Threatened and Endangered Species Management; Rangeland
    Management; and Forestland Management.

    Overall, each agency had 41 major budget categories but not necessarily
    the same categories. On the basis of our review of the agencies’
    descriptions of the tasks performed under each of the budget categories,
    18 of the 41 categories had similar, if not identical, tasks or activities under
    each.




    1
     These terms are synonymous budgetary terms, but for sake of simplicity, we use the term budget
    categories.



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                          Service and the Bureau of Land
                          Management




                      •   Receipts Generated—Both agencies generated receipts for the sale or use
                          of the resources on their lands, and these receipts totaled $716.6 million in
                          fiscal year 1998. The Forest Service had $576.4 million and BLM had
                          $140.2 million. The receipts from the Forest Service’s and BLM’s lands in
                          Oregon generated the largest amount, at $175.7 million—the Forest
                          Service had $118.1 million and BLM had $57.6 million. Overall, the receipts
                          for the sale of timber and timber-related activities were the highest in both
                          agencies—Forest Service had about $495 million and BLM had
                          $53.6 million. Finally, both agencies, by law, share a portion of these
                          receipts derived from the use, extraction, or sale of natural resources from
                          their lands with the states or counties surrounding the federal lands.


                          While a wide range of similarities exist between the two agencies, unique
Differences Between       budget categories, functions, and operations differentiated these agencies
BLM and the Forest        in fiscal year 1998 as shown below:
Service
                      •   The Forest Service had a forest and rangeland research organization with
                          85 research offices nationwide, obligations of $214.5 million, and 2,845
                          FTEs. BLM did not have a research function.
                      •   The Forest Service had a nationwide state and private forestry
                          organization with obligations of $163 million and 663 FTEs. BLM did not have
                          a similar organization.
                      •   The Forest Service operated 19 Job Corps Centers with obligations of
                          $91.5 million and 1,006 FTEs; BLM did not.
                      •   BLM was responsible for administering the mineral resources on public
                          lands managed by BLM, the Forest Service, and other surface management
                          agencies.
                      •   BLM made Payments in Lieu of Taxes with obligations of $120 million and 1
                          FTE for the entire government. The Forest Service made payments to
                          states and counties on its own behalf.
                      •   BLM had mining law administration operations with obligations of
                          $37 million and FTEs of 489; the Forest Service did not.
                      •   BLM had a helium fund and operations with obligations of $12.2 million and
                          FTEs of 142; the Forest Service did not.



                          Because of decreased agency budgets and decreased staffing through
Shared Initiatives        governmentwide downsizing coupled with an increased emphasis on
                          improving customer service, BLM and the Forest Service have increased the
                          number and types of shared initiatives that they undertake. These
                          initiatives range from small local efforts for improving customer service to



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                             Management




                             multi-million-dollar initiatives to fight fires on state and federal lands. The
                             following briefly describes some of the initiatives we identified.


Joint Firefighting Efforts   The most notable of the joint initiatives relates to BLM’s and the Forest
                             Service’s efforts to prevent, control, and extinguish the nation’s wildland
                             fires. The Boise Interagency Fire Center, established in 1965, evolved from
                             separate efforts by BLM and the Forest Service to improve fire and aviation
                             support throughout much of the West. The efforts became successful
                             enough for the National Weather Service, the National Park Service, the
                             Fish and Wildlife Service and the Bureau of Indian Affairs to join the initial
                             organization created by BLM and the Forest Service.

                             In a cooperative effort, these agencies share firefighting supplies,
                             equipment, and personnel to make the wildland firefighting tasks more
                             efficient and cost-effective. Through the Boise Center and 11 regional
                             coordinating centers, the federal efforts to extinguish wildland fires are
                             coordinated with local forest offices and BLM field offices.2

                             At a more local level, some Forest Service and BLM field units share
                             facilities, equipment, and human resources and work in a cooperative
                             effort to achieve the goal of containing wildland fires with a minimum of
                             damage and expense. In some instances, employees from both agencies
                             staff dispatch centers, supply warehouses, or work for a supervisor from
                             either BLM or the Forest Service. In other instances, both BLM’s and the
                             Forest Service’s wildland and fire staff are colocated in the same building
                             or in the same general vicinity. According to officials from both agencies,
                             the cooperative fire initiatives work extremely well and are considered
                             some of the best cooperative efforts in government.


Service First Program        Frequently, BLM and the Forest Service manage federal lands in the same
                             geographical location and may have offices within a few blocks of each
                             other in many small towns. However, the two agencies often carry out
                             their jobs under different rules, use different administrative processes,
                             charge different user fees for similar services, and take different
                             approaches to customer service—all of which may result in confusion for
                             the customers and may waste resources. As a result, in March 1996, BLM
                             and the Forest Service announced the Service First program and initiated
                             two pilot projects in Colorado and Oregon as a means to provide

                             2
                              For a more detailed discussion of BLM’s and the Forest Service’s efforts in prepositioning fire
                             resources before the onset of the fire season, see Federal Wildfire Activities: Current Strategy and
                             Issues Needing Attention (GAO/RCED-99-233, to be issued in the summer of 1999).



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                                Chapter 4
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                                Service and the Bureau of Land
                                Management




                                customers with “one-stop shopping” under one roof. These initiatives
                                share resources, interagency teams, and cooperative ventures and focus
                                on the “boundaryless” management of the lands.

                                These pilot initiatives have three primary objectives:

                            •   Provide customers shared by BLM and the Forest Service with seamless
                                service —for example, one-stop shopping for permits and services.
                            •   Reduce red tape by using the same procedures in both agencies.
                            •   Reduce costs by sharing resources (personnel, facilities, and skills) and
                                eliminating business processes that do not add value.

                                In addition to the two formal pilot projects, BLM identified 36 additional
                                locations that could be potentially included in the Service First initiative
                                because the respective offices were in the same town or were already
                                colocated, or because plans were under way for a future colocation
                                between BLM and the Forest Service.


Other Cooperative Efforts       According to BLM’s and the Forest Service’s budget justifications and
                                annual reports, the agencies undertake other initiatives of a cooperative,
                                shared, or reimbursable nature including the following:

                            •   Managing salmon, steelhead, and sea-run cutthroat trout in watersheds
                                with both threatened or endangered-listed stocks and other stocks of
                                anadromous fish on the 19,500 miles of spawning and rearing streams in
                                Alaska, California, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Also, the agencies are
                                restoring the health of the entire riverine systems and the native fish
                                species in areas where local communities have developed comprehensive
                                watershed management plans.
                            •   Conducting examinations of abandoned mine lands in Alaska to quantify
                                hazardous conditions, if any, and other damages for reclamation planning.
                                Reclaiming abandoned mines under an interagency initiative to coordinate
                                the efforts of all land managers and owners to efficiently and
                                comprehensively address entire watersheds rather than “spot treating”
                                individual sites.
                            •   Coordinating on fostering economic activity by facilitating energy and
                                mineral development on National Forest System lands. BLM issues the
                                leases, and the Forest Service ensures the preparation of additional,
                                site-specific, environmental documents and monitors and inspects the
                                operations until final reclamation.




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•   BLM’s  conducting of land surveys when requested by the Forest Service. In
    fiscal year 1998, it was estimated that the BLM would perform 42 projects
    involving 880 miles for the Forest Service.
•   Coordinating and cooperating in implementing the President’s Northwest
    Forest Plan. In addition, the time-dependent and broad-level surveys, in
    addition to the monitoring needed to determine the effectiveness of
    actions throughout the 24-million-acre region, requires extensive training
    and contract coordination between the two agencies. Workers in the
    Forest Workforce Pilot Program also completed projects on both BLM and
    Forest Service lands.
•   Continuing cooperative seed orchard programs to reduce private seed
    orchards’ operational costs.
•   BLM is working with a Forest Service research station to accurately identify
    the economic impact of recreation on communities adjacent to public
    lands.
•   Cosponsoring a course that focused on the design of recreation
    environments to ensure that the programs and facilities would be available
    to the widest range of customers, including those with disabilities. Also,
    both agencies cosponsored workshops on collaborative stewardship. In
    addition, BLM, the Forest Service, and other partners established the
    Partners for Resource Education to promote interagency collaboration for
    environmental education.
•   BLM, the Forest Service, and other partners joined together to develop
    trailheads and related recreational facilities in high-use areas of the
    Yellowstone Ecosystem. They also hosted National Public Lands Day to
    encourage all Americans to pitch in to protect the nation’s treasures while
    providing an opportunity for children, families, young adults, and seniors
    to participate in volunteer and educational activities linked to the public
    lands.
•   Coordinating land-use planning and management where agency
    boundaries meet or overlap, and providing for social and economic needs
    without undue harm to natural systems in southeastern Utah.
•   Accomplishing a series of actions to improve system coordination
    between the Forest Service and BLM, including
    telecommunications/network sharing, Internet firewalls and shared
    network access, E-mail connectivity, shared computer helpdesks, shared
    local area networks and colocation, data standards and applications,
    Forest Service and BLM contract sharing, and hardware/software licensing.




    Page 60                           GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
Page 61   GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
Appendix I

Forest Service and Bureau of Land
Management Employees by Job Series,
Fiscal Year 1998

                                                                                           Forest Service       Forest Service
                                                        BLM permanent   BLM temporary         permanent             temporary
Job series number   Series title                            employees      employees          employees            employees
Miscellaneous Occupations
0018                Safety and Occupational
                    Health Management                              22                1                  38                   0
0019                Safety Technician                               5                0                   4                   0
0020                Community Planning                              3                0                  13                   2
0021                Community Planning
                    Technician                                      0                0                   4                   0
0023                Outdoor Recreation Planning                   232                5                 116                   7
0025                Park Ranger                                    66             129                    1                   0
0028                Environmental Protection
                    Specialist                                     90                2                   0                   0
0029                Environmental Protection
                    Assistant                                       1                0                   0                   0
0080                Security Administration                         2                0                   0                   0
0085                Security Guard                                  3                0                   0                   0
0090                Guide                                           0                0                  18                  22
0099                General Student Trainee                        11                2                   0                   2
                    Total                                         435             139                  194                  33
Social Science, Psychology, and Welfare
0101                Social Science                                  2                0                  66                   8
0102                Social Science Aide and
                    Technician                                      4               28                  47                  91
0110                Economist                                      19                0                  43                   5
0119                Economics Assistant                             0                0                   0                   3
0142                Manpower Development                            0                0                  36                   0
0150                Geography                                       6                0                  19                   6
0160                Civil Rights Analysis                           1                0                   0                   0
0170                History                                         3                1                   9                   5
0180                Psychology                                      0                0                   4                   0
0184                Sociology                                       1                0                   2                   0
0185                Social Work                                     0                0                   2                   0
0186                Social Services Aide and
                    Assistant                                       0                0                 293                  33
0187                Social Services                                 0                0                   2                   0
0188                Recreation Specialist                           0                0                  20                   1
0189                Recreation Aide and Assistant                   5               15                  20                   2
0190                General Anthropology                            2                0                   1                   0
0193                Archeology                                    135                8                 316                  72
                                                                                                                   (continued)


                                              Page 62                    GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                               Appendix I
                                               Forest Service and Bureau of Land
                                               Management Employees by Job Series,
                                               Fiscal Year 1998




                                                                                                Forest Service       Forest Service
                                                         BLM permanent      BLM temporary          permanent             temporary
Job series number    Series title                            employees         employees           employees            employees
0199                 Social Science Student
                     Trainee                                         11                   0                   2                   8
                     Total                                          189                  52                 882                 234
Personnel Management and Industrial Relations
0201                 Personnel Management                            61                   0                 282                   1
0203                 Personnel Clerical and
                     Assistance                                      52                   1                 332                  14
0212                 Personnel Staffing                                8                  0                  11                   0
0221                 Position Classification                           5                  0                   7                   0
0223                 Salary and Wage
                     Administration                                    0                  0                   5                   0
0230                 Employee Relations                              10                   0                  36                   0
0233                 Labor Relations                                   1                  0                   7                   0
0235                 Employee Development                              5                  0                  20                   0
0260                 Equal Employment
                     Opportunity                                     33                   0                  75                   0
0299                 Personnel Management
                     Student Trainee                                   3                  0                   0                   4
                     Total                                          178                   1                 775                  19
General Administration, Clerical, and Office Services
0301                 Miscellaneous Administration
                     and Program                                    507                  11                 192                   6
0303                 Miscellaneous Clerk and
                     Assistant                                      217                  53                 600                 132
0304                 Information Receptionist                        17                  11                 220                 161
0305                 Mail and File                                   44                   5                  76                  14
0318                 Secretary                                      195                   8                 219                   9
0322                 Clerk-Typist                                      5                  2                  16                  50
0326                 Office Automation Clerical
                     and Assistance                                  61                  29                 370                 249
0332                 Computer Operation                              10                   0                  51                   1
0334                 Computer Specialist                            376                   6                 634                  28
0335                 Computer Clerk and Assistant                    68                   8                 336                  97
0340                 Program Management                             241                   4                 520                   0
0341                 Administrative Officer                          33                   0                 182                   1
0342                 Support Services
                     Administration                                  26                   0                 442                   2
0343                 Management and Program
                     Analysis                                       126                   4                 152                   2
                                                                                                                        (continued)




                                               Page 63                        GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                             Appendix I
                                             Forest Service and Bureau of Land
                                             Management Employees by Job Series,
                                             Fiscal Year 1998




                                                                                              Forest Service       Forest Service
                                                       BLM permanent      BLM temporary          permanent             temporary
Job series number     Series title                         employees         employees           employees            employees
0344                  Management and Program
                      Clerical and Assistance                      39                   3                  17                   0
0346                  Logistics Management                           2                  0                   0                   0
0350                  Equipment Operator                           16                   0                  16                   0
0351                  Printing Clerical                              1                  0                   1                   0
0356                  Data Transcriber                               1                  0                   0                   0
0357                  Coding                                         0                  0                   1                   0
0360                  Equal Opportunity
                      Compliance                                     1                  0                   4                   0
0361                  Equal Opportunity Assistance                   6                  1                   4                   1
0382                  Telephone Operating                            0                  0                   2                   0
0391                  Telecommunications                           77                   0                 138                   3
0399                  Administration and Office
                      Support Student Trainee                      21                   5                   1                   7
                      Total                                     2,090                150                4,194                 763
Biological Sciences
0401                  General Biological Science                  509                  20                 990                  38
0403                  Microbiology                                   0                  0                  17                   2
0404                  Biological Science Technician                19                114                  350                 710
0408                  Ecology                                      32                   1                 213                  43
0413                  Physiology                                     0                  0                   0                   1
0414                  Entomology                                     0                  0                 114                   5
0415                  Toxicology                                     1                  0                   0                   0
0430                  Botany                                       42                  10                 133                  49
0434                  Plant Pathology                                0                  0                  79                   1
0435                  Plant Physiology                               0                  0                  33                   5
0437                  Horticulture                                   2                  0                   7                   1
0440                  Genetics                                       0                  0                  18                   5
0454                  Rangeland Management                        352                   2                 361                  14
0455                  Range Technician                            451                412                  107                  79
0457                  Soil Conservation                              3                  0                   0                   0
0460                  Forestry                                    190                   2               3,205                  85
0462                  Forestry Technician                         315                152                6,472               2,431
0470                  Soil Science                                 38                   2                 190                  15
0480                  General Fish and Wildlife
                      Administration                                 2                  0                   3                   0
0482                  Fishery Biology                              69                   9                 355                  48
0486                  Wildlife Biology                            232                  22                 734                 126
                                                                                                                      (continued)



                                             Page 64                        GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                              Appendix I
                                              Forest Service and Bureau of Land
                                              Management Employees by Job Series,
                                              Fiscal Year 1998




                                                                                               Forest Service       Forest Service
                                                        BLM permanent      BLM temporary          permanent             temporary
Job series number    Series title                           employees         employees           employees            employees
0487                 Animal Science                                   1                  0                   0                   0
0499                 Biological Science Student
                     Trainee                                        58                   1                  18                 121
                     Total                                       2,322                747               13,399               3,779
Accounting and Budget
0501                 Financial Administration and
                     Program                                          8                  1                 137                   0
0503                 Financial Clerical and
                     Assistance                                     27                   2                 100                   0
0505                 Financial Management                             2                  0                  39                   0
0510                 Accounting                                     20                   1                 133                   5
0511                 Auditing                                         0                  0                  13                   0
0525                 Accounting Technician                          46                   1                 273                  15
0530                 Cash Processing                                  3                  0                   0                   0
0540                 Voucher Examining                              15                   1                  37                   6
0544                 Civil Pay                                        2                  1                  43                   5
0560                 Budget Analysis                                46                   0                 196                   2
0561                 Budget Clerical and
                     Assistance                                     12                   0                  35                   0
0599                 Financial Management
                     Student Trainee                                  0                  0                   0                   3
                     Total                                         181                   7               1,006                  36
Medical, Hospital, Dental, and Public Health
0610                 Nurse                                            0                  0                  25                   3
0620                 Practical Nurse                                  0                  0                   5                   1
0640                 Health Aide and Technician                       0                  0                   2                   0
0688                 Sanitarian                                       0                  0                   0                   1
0690                 Industrial Hygiene                               1                  0                   0                   0
                     Total                                            1                  0                  32                   5
Veterinary Medical Science
0704                 Animal Health Technician                         1                  0                   0                   0
                     Total                                            1                  0                   0                   0
Engineering and Architecture
0801                 General Engineering                            12                   0                  80                   1
0802                 Engineering Technician                        242                  22                 941                  87
0803                 Safety Engineering                               2                  0                   0                   0
0807                 Landscape Architecture                           7                  0                 210                  12
0808                 Architecture                                     4                  0                  21                   1
0809                 Construction Control                             0                  0                  14                   2
                                                                                                                       (continued)


                                              Page 65                        GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                              Appendix I
                                              Forest Service and Bureau of Land
                                              Management Employees by Job Series,
                                              Fiscal Year 1998




                                                                                               Forest Service       Forest Service
                                                        BLM permanent      BLM temporary          permanent             temporary
Job series number   Series title                            employees         employees           employees            employees
0810                Civil Engineering                               79                   0                 681                  12
0817                Surveying Technician                            39                115                   73                  44
0818                Engineering Drafting                              1                  0                   9                   1
0819                Environmental Engineering                         4                  2                  20                   0
0830                Mechanical Engineering                            2                  0                  21                   2
0850                Electrical Engineering                            2                  0                   3                   0
0855                Electronics Engineering                           2                  0                   9                   0
0856                Electronics Technician                          38                   3                 107                   9
0861                Aerospace Engineering                             0                  0                   1                   0
0880                Mining Engineering                              59                   0                   8                   0
0881                Petroleum Engineering                           83                   1                   1                   0
0890                Agricultural Engineering                          0                  0                   1                   0
0893                Chemical Engineering                              0                  0                  11                   2
0896                Industrial Engineering                            0                  0                   1                   0
0899                Engineering and Architecture
                    Student Trainee                                 14                   2                  10                  14
                    Total                                          590                145                2,222                 187
Legal and Kindred
0905                General Attorney                                  1                  2                   0                   0
0930                Hearings and Appeals                              1                  0                   0                   0
0950                Paralegal Specialist                              5                  2                  14                   0
0962                Contact Representative                          79                  18                   0                   0
0963                Legal Instruments Examining                     64                   2                  54                   1
0965                Land Law Examining                             243                   1                  22                   0
0986                Legal Clerical and Assistance                  100                   7                  11                   0
0990                General Claims Examining                          0                  0                  13                   0
0998                Claims Clerical                                   0                  0                   2                   0
0999                Legal Occupations Student
                    Trainee                                           2                  0                   0                   0
                    Total                                          495                  32                 116                   1
                                                                                                                       (continued)




                                              Page 66                        GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                                Appendix I
                                                Forest Service and Bureau of Land
                                                Management Employees by Job Series,
                                                Fiscal Year 1998




                                                                                                 Forest Service       Forest Service
                                                          BLM permanent      BLM temporary          permanent             temporary
Job series number      Series title                           employees         employees           employees            employees
Information and Arts
1001                   General Arts and Information                   27                   5                 397                 103
1010                   Exhibits Specialist                              0                  0                   3                   0
1015                   Museum Curator                                   2                  0                   2                   0
1016                   Museum Specialist and
                       Technician                                       2                  0                   2                   1
1020                   Illustrating                                     1                  0                   4                   0
1035                   Public Affairs                                 80                   1                 252                  11
1060                   Photography                                      4                  0                  12                   1
1071                   Audiovisual Production                         14                   0                  11                   2
1082                   Writing and Editing                            29                   4                  36                   9
1083                   Technical Writing and Editing                    3                  5                  24                   5
1084                   Visual Information                             22                   0                  49                   5
1087                   Editorial Assistance                             7                  3                  28                   6
1099                   Information and Arts Student
                       Trainee                                          2                  0                   0                   2
                       Total                                         193                  18                 820                 145
Business and Industry
1101                   General Business and
                       Information                                    38                   6                 510                  21
1102                   Contracting                                    79                   0                 225                   1
1104                   Property Disposal                                2                  2                   4                   0
1105                   Purchasing                                     52                   0                 279                   2
1106                   Procurement Clerical and
                       Technician                                     10                   1                 103                   0
1107                   Property Disposal Clerical
                       and Technician                                   2                  0                   1                   0
1170                   Realty                                        290                   4                 141                   1
1171                   Appraising                                     33                   1                  33                   2
1176                   Building Management                              2                  0                   0                   0
1199                   Business and Industry
                       Student Trainee                                  4                  0                   0                   1
                       Total                                         512                  14               1,296                  28
Copyright, Patent, and Trademark
1221                   Patent Advisor                                   0                  0                   2                   3
                       Total                                            0                  0                   2                   3
Physical Sciences
1301                   General Physical Science                       66                   3                  73                   5
1310                   Physics                                          0                  0                   1                   1
                                                                                                                         (continued)


                                                Page 67                        GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                                Appendix I
                                                Forest Service and Bureau of Land
                                                Management Employees by Job Series,
                                                Fiscal Year 1998




                                                                                                 Forest Service       Forest Service
                                                          BLM permanent      BLM temporary          permanent             temporary
Job series number      Series title                           employees         employees           employees            employees
1311                   Physical Science Technician                    13                  15                  31                  35
1313                   Geophysics                                       2                  0                   0                   0
1315                   Hydrology                                      52                   3                 288                  27
1316                   Hydrologic Technician                            1                 18                  69                  92
1320                   Chemistry                                        2                  0                  51                   4
1340                   Meteorology                                      0                  0                  21                   0
1341                   Meteorological Technician                        0                  0                   2                  12
1350                   Geology                                       244                   9                 117                  19
1370                   Cartography                                    45                   2                  69                   0
1371                   Cartographic Technician                       106                  17                 155                  57
1372                   Geodesy                                          8                  0                   0                   0
1373                   Land Surveying                                254                   7                 137                   1
1380                   Forest Products Technology                       0                  0                  33                   1
1399                   Physical Science Student
                       Trainee                                        13                   1                   2                   9
                       Total                                         806                  75               1,049                 263
Library and Archives
1410                   Librarian                                        4                  0                   7                   1
1411                   Library Technician                               7                  0                  12                   6
1412                   Technical Information
                       Services                                         1                  0                   9                   1
1421                   Archives Technician                              1                  0                   0                   0
1499                   Library and Archives Student
                       Trainee                                          1                  1                   0                   0
                       Total                                          14                   1                  28                   8
Mathematics and Statistics
1515                   Operations Research                              1                  0                  35                   0
1520                   Mathematics                                      0                  0                   5                   1
1529                   Mathematical Statistician                        0                  0                  30                   2
1530                   Statistician                                     0                  0                  12                   3
1531                   Statistical Assistant                            3                  2                   9                   2
1550                   Computer Science                                 0                  0                   4                   0
                       Total                                            4                  2                  95                   8
Equipment, Facilities, and Services
1601                   General Facilities and
                       Equipment                                        5                  0                   2                   0
1640                   Facility Management                              1                  0                  13                   0
1654                   Printing Management                            12                   0                   8                   0
                                                                                                                         (continued)



                                                Page 68                        GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                             Appendix I
                                             Forest Service and Bureau of Land
                                             Management Employees by Job Series,
                                             Fiscal Year 1998




                                                                                              Forest Service       Forest Service
                                                       BLM permanent      BLM temporary          permanent             temporary
Job series number   Series title                           employees         employees           employees            employees
1670                Equipment Specialist                           11                   0                  27                   1
                    Total                                          29                   0                  50                   1
Education
1701                General Education and
                    Training                                         5                  0                   7                   0
1702                Education and Training
                    Technician                                     11                   1                  31                  16
1710                Education and Vocational
                    Training                                         0                  0                 114                  10
1712                Training Instruction                           11                   0                  19                   2
1740                Education Services                               0                  0                  30                   1
1750                Instructional Systems                            7                  0                   0                   0
1799                Education Student Trainee                        0                  0                   0                   1
                    Total                                          34                   1                 201                  30
Investigation
1801                General Inspection,
                    Investigation, and
                    Compliance                                    161                   0                   6                   2
1802                Compliance Inspection and
                    Support                                        32                   2                 476                   2
1811                Criminal Investigating                         54                   0                 138                   0
1825                Aviation Safety                                  0                  0                   1                   0
1899                Investigation Student Trainee                  10                   0                   0                   2
                    Total                                         257                   2                 621                   6
Quality Assurance, Inspection, and Grading
1910                Quality Assurance                                9                  0                   0                   0
                    Total                                            9                  0                   0                   0
                                                                                                                      (continued)




                                             Page 69                        GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                              Appendix I
                                              Forest Service and Bureau of Land
                                              Management Employees by Job Series,
                                              Fiscal Year 1998




                                                                                               Forest Service       Forest Service
                                                        BLM permanent      BLM temporary          permanent             temporary
Job series number    Series title                           employees         employees           employees            employees
Supply
2001                 General Supply                                 18                   0                   9                   0
2003                 Supply Program Management                        2                  0                   9                   0
2005                 Supply Clerical and
                     Technician                                     43                   4                  77                   6
2010                 Inventory Management                             3                  0                   0                   0
2099                 Supply Student Trainee                           0                  0                   0                   1
                     Total                                          66                   4                  95                   7
Transportation
2101                 Transportation Specialist                      17                   0                  33                   0
2102                 Transportation Clerk and
                     Assistant                                        3                  0                  15                   0
2130                 Traffic Management                               1                  0                   0                   0
2150                 Transportation Operations                      10                   0                  47                   0
2151                 Dispatching                                      0                  0                   8                   1
2181                 Aircraft Operation                               9                  0                  65                   0
                     Total                                          40                   0                 168                   1
Wire Communications, Equipment Installation, and Maintenance
2502                 Telecommunications
                     Mechanic                                         0                  0                   1                   0
                     Total                                            0                  0                   1                   0
Electronic Equipment Installation and Maintenance
2604                 Electronic Mechanic                              7                  1                   3                   0
2606                 Electronic Industrial Controls
                     Mechanic                                         4                  0                   0                   0
2608                 Electronic Digital Computer
                     Mechanic                                         3                  0                   0                   0
2610                 Electronic Integrated
                     Systems Mechanic                                 2                  0                   0                   0
                     Total                                          16                   1                   3                   0
Electrical Installation and Maintenance
2805                 Electrician                                      1                  1                  19                   0
                     Total                                            1                  1                  19                   0
Instrument Work
3314                 Instrument Making                                0                  0                   1                   0
3359                 Instrument Mechanic                              0                  1                   0                   0
                     Total                                            0                  1                   1                   0
Machine Tool Work
3414                 Machining                                        0                  0                   4                   0
                                                                                                                       (continued)


                                              Page 70                        GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                              Appendix I
                                              Forest Service and Bureau of Land
                                              Management Employees by Job Series,
                                              Fiscal Year 1998




                                                                                               Forest Service       Forest Service
                                                        BLM permanent      BLM temporary          permanent             temporary
Job series number    Series title                           employees         employees           employees            employees
                     Total                                            0                  0                   4                   0
General Services and Support Work
3501                 Miscellaneous General
                     Services and Support                             0                  0                   0                   1
3502                 Laboring                                         3                 16                  41                 345
3506                 Summer Aid/Student Aid                           0                  0                   0                   1
3511                 Laboratory Working                               0                  0                   2                   0
3566                 Custodial Working                                0                  0                   7                  12
                     Total                                            3                 16                  50                 359
Structural and Finishing Work
3602                 Cement Finishing                                 0                  0                   1                   0
3603                 Masonry                                          1                  1                   4                   0
3653                 Asphalt Working                                  0                  0                   1                   0
                     Total                                            1                  1                   6                   0
Metal Processing
3703                 Welding                                          2                  0                  15                   0
                     Total                                            2                  0                  15                   0
Painting and Paper
4102                 Painting                                         0                  1                   1                   0
4104                 Sign Painting                                    4                  0                   3                   0
                     Total                                            4                  1                   4                   0
Plumbing and Pipefitting
4204                 Pipefitting                                      0                  0                   1                   0
                     Total                                            0                  0                   1                   0
Printing
4401                 Miscellaneous                                    4                  0                   1                   0
4402                 Bindery Working                                  3                  0                   0                   0
4414                 Offset Photography                               2                  0                   2                   0
4417                 Offset Press Operating                           0                  0                   5                   0
                     Total                                            9                  0                   8                   0
Wood Work
4604                 Wood Working                                     0                  0                   2                   0
4605                 Wood Crafting                                    0                  0                   4                   0
4607                 Carpentry                                        6                  1                  21                   4
                     Total                                            6                  1                  27                   4
General Maintenance and Operation Work
4701                 Miscellaneous General
                     Maintenance                                      0                  0                   4                   0
                                                                                                                       (continued)


                                              Page 71                        GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                             Appendix I
                                             Forest Service and Bureau of Land
                                             Management Employees by Job Series,
                                             Fiscal Year 1998




                                                                                              Forest Service       Forest Service
                                                       BLM permanent      BLM temporary          permanent             temporary
Job series number   Series title                           employees         employees           employees            employees
4714                Model Making                                     0                  0                   1                   0
4737                General Equipment Mechanic                       0                  0                   2                   0
4742                Utility Systems
                    Repairing-Operating                              2                  0                   4                   1
4745                Research Laboratory
                    Mechanic                                         0                  0                   2                   0
4749                Maintenance Mechanic                           99                  35                 180                  28
                    Total                                         101                  35                 193                  29
Plant and Animal Work
5001                Fire Retardant Mixer
                    Operating                                        3                  0                  12                   5
5003                Gardening                                        8                  1                  17                   2
5026                Pest Controlling                                 0                  0                   1                   0
5035                Livestock
                    Ranching/Wrangling                             11                   8                   0                   0
5042                Tree Trimming and Removing                       0                  0                   3                   0
5048                Animal Caretaking                                2                  0                   2                   2
5201                Miscellaneous Occupations                        0                  0                   2                   1
                    Total                                          24                   9                  37                  10
Industrial Equipment Maintenance
5306                Air Conditioning Equipment
                    Mechanic                                         0                  0                   4                   0
5352                Industrial Equipment
                    Mechanic                                         2                  2                   0                   0
5378                Powered Support Systems
                    Mechanic                                         0                  2                   0                   0
                    Total                                            2                  4                   4                   0
Industrial Equipment Operating
5402                Boiler Plant Operating                           0                  2                   1                   0
5406                Utility Systems Operating                        0                  0                   8                   0
5408                Wastewater Treatment Plant
                    Operating                                        0                  0                   5                   0
5409                Water Treatment Plant
                    Operating                                        0                  0                   8                   1
5413                Fuel Distribution System
                    Operating                                        3                  4                   0                   0
5433                Gas Generating Plant
                    Operating                                        4                  8                   0                   0
                    Total                                            7                 14                  22                   1
                                                                                                                      (continued)




                                             Page 72                        GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                               Appendix I
                                               Forest Service and Bureau of Land
                                               Management Employees by Job Series,
                                               Fiscal Year 1998




                                                                                                Forest Service       Forest Service
                                                         BLM permanent      BLM temporary          permanent             temporary
Job series number   Series title                             employees         employees           employees            employees
Transportation/Mobile Equipment Operation
5701                Miscellaneous Transportation
                    Equipment Operating                                0                  0                   0                   1
5703                Motor Vehicle Operating                          12                  12                  26                  15
5704                Fork Lift Operating                                0                  0                   3                   3
5705                Tractor Operating                                  3                  1                  31                   9
5716                Engineering Equipment
                    Operating                                       162                  37                 344                  64
5729                Drill Rig Operating                                0                  0                   0                   1
5786                Small Craft Operating                              0                  0                   3                   1
                    Total                                           177                  50                 407                  94
Transportation/Mobile Equipment Maintenance
5801                Miscellaneous Transportation
                    Maintenance                                        0                  0                   2                   0
5803                Heavy Mobile Equipment
                    Mechanic                                         10                   4                   7                   0
5806                Mobile Equipment Servicing                         1                  0                   1                   0
5823                Automotive Mechanic                                6                  0                  96                   7
                    Total                                            17                   4                 106                   7
Ammunition, Explosives, and Toxic Materials Work
6502                Explosives Operating                               0                  0                   1                   0
                    Total                                              0                  0                   1                   0
Warehousing and Stock Handling
6904                Tools and Parts Attending                          0                  0                   2                   0
6907                Materials Handler                                79                  14                  45                   9
6968                Aircraft Freight Loading                           2                  0                   0                   0
                    Total                                            81                  14                  47                   9
Packing and Processing
7002                Packing                                            0                  0                   2                   0
                    Total                                              0                  0                   2                   0
Food Preparation and Serving
7404                Cooking                                            2                  0                  71                  17
                    Total                                              2                  0                  71                  17
Engine Overhaul
8610                Small Engine Mechanic                              4                  0                   5                   0
                    Total                                              4                  0                   5                   0
Aircraft Overhaul
8852                Aircraft Mechanic                                  1                  0                   1                   0
                                                                                                                        (continued)



                                               Page 73                        GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                         Appendix I
                                         Forest Service and Bureau of Land
                                         Management Employees by Job Series,
                                         Fiscal Year 1998




                                                                                                  Forest Service         Forest Service
                                                   BLM permanent           BLM temporary             permanent               temporary
Job series number   Series title                       employees              employees              employees              employees
8862                Aircraft Attending                              6                      4                      0                       0
                    Total                                           7                      4                      1                       0
                    Grand total                                 8,910                 1,546                 28,280                  6,087

                                         Notes: Series 0345 was abolished and rolled into series 0343 in August 1990. Series 0393 was
                                         abolished and rolled into series 0391 in March 1990. Series 3506 was abolished and permanently
                                         removed from the job series in December 1994.

                                         Source: Forest Service and BLM.




                                         Page 74                             GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
Page 75   GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
Appendix II

Types of Forest Service and Bureau of Land
Management Offices by State


                                                                                                           Ranger
States/                Headquarters      Regional      State           Forest          District            district
organization                offices        offices   offices          officesa         offices             officesb
Alabama
  Forest Service                 0              0         0                 1                 0                   6
  BLM                            0              0         0                 0                 0                   0
Alaska
  Forest Service                 0              1         0                 1                 0                  16
  BLM                            0              0         1                 0                 0                   0
Arizona
  Forest Service                 1              0         0                 6                 0                  28
  BLM                            0              0         1                 0                 0                   0
Arkansas
  Forest Service                 0              0         0                 2                 0                  16
  BLM                            0              0         0                 0                 0                   0
California
  Forest Service                 1              1         0                17                 0                  74
  BLM                            0              0         1                 0                 1                   0
Colorado
  Forest Service                 0              1         0                 6                 0                  43
  BLM                            0              0         1                 0                 4                   0
Connecticut
  Forest Service                 0              0         0                 0                 0                   0
  BLM                            0              0         0                 0                 0                   0
District of Columbia
  Forest Service                 1              0         0                 0                 0                   0
  BLM                            2              0         0                 0                 0                   0
Florida
  Forest Service                 0              0         0                 1                 0                   5
  BLM                            0              0         0                 0                 0                   0
Georgia
  Forest Service                 0              1         0                 1                 0                   7
  BLM                            0              0         0                 0                 0                   0
Hawaii
  Forest Service                 0              0         0                 0                 0                   0
  BLM                            0              0         0                 0                 0                   0




                                      Page 76                  GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                      Appendix II
                      Types of Forest Service and Bureau of Land
                      Management Offices by State




          Resource                           National
  Field        area    Research             technical              Job corps           Other
offices     offices     officesc              centers                centers          offices            Total


     0           0              2                    0                     0                0                9
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              2                    0                     0                4               24
     6           0              0                    0                     0                3               10


     0           0              1                    0                     0                1               37
     6           0              0                    1                     0                1                9


     0           0              1                    0                     2                0               21
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              9                    0                     0               14              116
    15           0              0                    0                     0                0               17


     0           0              2                    0                     1                2               55
     2           9              0                    4                     0                2               22


     0           0              1                    0                     0                0                1
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                1
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                2


     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                6
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              1                    0                     0                0               10
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              3                    0                     0                0                3
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0
                                                                                                   (continued)




                      Page 77                            GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                  Appendix II
                                  Types of Forest Service and Bureau of Land
                                  Management Offices by State




                                                                                                               Ranger
States/            Headquarters      Regional              State           Forest          District            district
organization            offices        offices           offices          officesa         offices             officesb
Idaho
  Forest Service             1                0                0                9                 0                  47
  BLM                        0                0                1                0                 1                   0
Illinois
  Forest Service             0                0                0                1                 0                   5
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
Indiana
  Forest Service             0                0                0                1                 0                   2
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
Kansas
  Forest Service             0                0                0                0                 0                   1
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
Kentucky
  Forest Service             0                0                0                1                 0                   6
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
Louisiana
  Forest Service             0                0                0                1                 0                   5
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
Maine
  Forest Service             0                0                0                0                 0                   1
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
Massachusetts
  Forest Service             0                0                0                0                 0                   0
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
Michigan
  Forest Service             0                0                0                3                 0                  18
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
Minnesota
  Forest Service             0                0                0                2                 0                   8
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
Mississippi
  Forest Service             0                0                0                1                 0                   7
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
Missouri
  Forest Service             0                0                0                1                 0                   7
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0




                                  Page 78                          GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                      Appendix II
                      Types of Forest Service and Bureau of Land
                      Management Offices by State




          Resource                           National
  Field        area    Research             technical              Job corps           Other
offices     offices     officesc              centers                centers          offices            Total


     0           0              2                    0                     0                3               62
     5          13              0                    1                     0                0               21


     0           0              1                    0                     1                0                8
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              2                    0                     0                0                5
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                1
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              0                    0                     2                0                9
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              1                    0                     0                1                8
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              1                    0                     0                0                2
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              1                    0                     0                0                1
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              3                    0                     0                1               25
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              3                    0                     0                2               15
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              5                    0                     0                0               13
     1           0              0                    0                     0                0                1


     0           0              3                    0                     0                0               11
     0           0              0                    0                     0                1                1
                                                                                                   (continued)




                      Page 79                            GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                  Appendix II
                                  Types of Forest Service and Bureau of Land
                                  Management Offices by State




                                                                                                               Ranger
States/            Headquarters      Regional              State           Forest          District            district
organization            offices        offices           offices          officesa         offices             officesb
Montana
  Forest Service             1                1                0                9                 0                  39
  BLM                        0                0                1                0                 3                   0
North Carolina
  Forest Service             0                0                0                1                 0                  10
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
North Dakota
  Forest Service             0                0                0                0                 0                   3
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 1                   0
Nebraska
  Forest Service             0                0                0                1                 0                   2
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
Nevada
  Forest Service             0                0                0                1                 0                   8
  BLM                        0                0                1                0                 0                   0
New Hampshire
  Forest Service             0                0                0                1                 0                   4
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
New Mexico
  Forest Service             0                1                0                5                 0                  25
  BLM                        0                0                1                0                 0                   0
New York
  Forest Service             0                0                0                1                 0                   0
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
Ohio
  Forest Service             0                0                0                1                 0                   3
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
Oklahoma
  Forest Service             0                0                0                0                 0                   4
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
Oregon
  Forest Service             0                1                0               13                 0                  55
  BLM                        0                0                1                0                 9                   0
Pennsylvania
  Forest Service             0                0                0                1                 0                   3
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0




                                  Page 80                          GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                      Appendix II
                      Types of Forest Service and Bureau of Land
                      Management Offices by State




          Resource                           National
  Field        area    Research             technical              Job corps           Other
offices     offices     officesc              centers                centers          offices            Total


     0           0              4                    0                     2                2               58
     0           7              0                    0                     0                0               11


     0           0              5                    0                     2                0               18
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                3
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                1


     0           0              1                    0                     1                1                6
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              1                    0                     0                0               10
     8           0              0                    0                     0                0                9


     0           0              1                    0                     0                1                7
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              1                    0                     0                0               32
    11           0              0                    0                     0                0               12


     0           0              1                    0                     0                0                2
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              1                    0                     0                0                5
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                4
     2           0              0                    0                     0                0                2


     0           0              4                    0                     3                8               84
    23           0              0                    0                     0                0               33


     0           0              2                    0                     0                2                8
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0
                                                                                                   (continued)




                      Page 81                            GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                  Appendix II
                                  Types of Forest Service and Bureau of Land
                                  Management Offices by State




                                                                                                               Ranger
States/            Headquarters      Regional              State           Forest          District            district
organization            offices        offices           offices          officesa         offices             officesb
Puerto Rico
  Forest Service             0                0                0                1                 0                   0
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
South Carolina
  Forest Service             0                0                0                1                 0                   6
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
South Dakota
  Forest Service             0                0                0                1                 0                  10
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
Tennessee
  Forest Service             0                0                0                1                 0                   6
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
Texas
  Forest Service             0                0                0                1                 0                   5
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
Utah
  Forest Service             1                1                0                6                 0                  24
  BLM                        0                0                1                0                 3                   0
Vermont
  Forest Service             0                0                0                1                 0                   3
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
Virginia
  Forest Service             1                0                0                1                 0                  11
  BLM                        0                0                1                0                 0                   0
Washington
  Forest Service             0                0                0                6                 0                  27
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 1                   0
West Virginia
  Forest Service             0                0                0                1                 0                   6
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
Wisconsin
  Forest Service             0                1                0                2                 0                   9
  BLM                        0                0                0                0                 0                   0
Wyoming
  Forest Service             0                0                0                4                 0                  23
  BLM                        0                0                1                0                 4                   0




                                  Page 82                          GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                      Appendix II
                      Types of Forest Service and Bureau of Land
                      Management Offices by State




          Resource                           National
  Field        area    Research             technical              Job corps           Other
offices     offices     officesc              centers                centers          offices            Total


     0           0              0                    0                     0                1                2
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              2                    0                     0                1               10
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              1                    0                     1                0               13
     0           1              0                    0                     0                0                1


     0           0              0                    0                     1                1                9
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              1                    0                     0                0                7
     1           0              0                    1                     0                0                2


     0           0              4                    0                     0                1               37
     3           8              0                    0                     0                2               17


     0           0              1                    0                     0                0                5
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              1                    0                     1                2               17
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                1


     0           0              4                    0                     1                2               40
     2           0              0                    0                     0                0                3


     0           0              3                    0                     0                1               11
     0           0              0                    0                     0                0                0


     0           0              2                    0                     1                1               16
     1           0              0                    0                     0                0                1


     0           0              1                    0                     0                0               28
     6           0              0                    0                     0                2               13
                                                                                                   (continued)




                      Page 83                            GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                Appendix II
                                Types of Forest Service and Bureau of Land
                                Management Offices by State




                                                                                                             Ranger
States/          Headquarters      Regional              State           Forest          District            district
organization          offices        offices           offices          officesa         offices             officesb
Forest Service
total                      7                9                0               115                0                588
BLM total                  2                0               12                0               27                    0
Grand total                9                9               12               115              27                 588




                                Page 84                          GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                      Appendix II
                      Types of Forest Service and Bureau of Land
                      Management Offices by State




          Resource                              National
  Field        area       Research             technical              Job corps                Other
offices     offices        officesc              centers                centers               offices                Total

     0           0              85                       0                     19                   52                    875
    92          38                0                      7                       0                  11                    189
    92          38              85                       7                     19                   63               1,064
                      a
                       The Forest Service has 155 proclaimed national forests. However, since some of the forests are
                      small, the Forest Service combines some of the forests into administrative units for accounting
                      purposes.
                      b
                       District offices include work centers and stations and some proclaimed national forests and
                      grasslands that have been designated as districts for administrative purposes.
                      c
                      Research offices include stations, laboratories, and specialized research centers and institutes.

                      Source: GAO’s analysis of the Forest Service’s and BLM’s data.




                      Page 85                                GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
Appendix III

Bureau of Land Management’s Activities



Budget activity                               Activities include
Management of Lands and Resources
Land Resources                                Providing for the integrated management of certain public land
                                              renewable resources and cultural resources including soil, water,
                                              and air; rangelands; forests; riparian lands or wetlands; cultural
                                              resources; and wild horses and burros. Major activities include
                                              establishing ecological site baseline data; identifying and
                                              quantifying the uses of water resources; monitoring watersheds
                                              and airsheds to determine if intended objectives are met; issuing
                                              grazing permits and leasings; evaluating the condition, trend, and
                                              health of wetlands and aquatic areas; promoting the public’s
                                              awareness and appreciation of archaeological, historical,
                                              paleontological, and environmental resources through interpretive
                                              and educational programs; and maintaining preparation facilities
                                              for wild horses and burros prior to adoption.
Wildlife and Fisheries                        Managing, restoring, and protecting fish and wildlife habitat on
                                              public lands. Major activities include emphasizing partnership
                                              efforts with other agencies and private partners to manage fish
                                              and wildlife habitats, implementing visitor enhancement activities
                                              at wildlife-viewing sites through improved directional and
                                              interpretive signs, conducting project work, and developing
                                              site-specific plans.
Threatened and Endangered Species             Working collaboratively with other federal, state, and local
                                              agencies and private landowners to develop conservation
                                              strategies and agreements for declining plant and animal
                                              populations and implementing priority protection and restoration
                                              actions for special habitats in designated areas. Major activities
                                              include monitoring population trends and habitat conditions to
                                              determine if management prescriptions are promoting species
                                              recovery, and inventorying threatened and endangered
                                              species—including proposed and candidate species—to develop
                                              and implement conservation strategies and recovery plans.
Recreation Management                         Providing resource-related recreational activities and quality visitor
                                              services while minimizing natural and cultural resource damage
                                              and ensuring that the public receives fair market value for any
                                              commercial ventures from public lands. Major activities include
                                              preparing wilderness management plans, monitoring resource
                                              conditions and trends on these lands, and conducting studies
                                              during land and resource management planning revisions;
                                              identifying boundaries, setting survey monuments, installing signs,
                                              and updating public land records; developing brochures, maps,
                                              and media coverage about new wilderness areas; providing visitor
                                              information and quality services, working with the state and local
                                              tourism industry, and seeking cost recovery for recreational
                                              services provided by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM);
                                              issuing permits for the use of river systems, trails, hunting,
                                              backpacking, competitive events, and individual recreation use;
                                              identifying and mapping trails and providing visitor information;
                                              and maintaining sites and facilities in fee areas.
                                                                                                        (continued)




                                    Page 86               GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                      Appendix III
                                      Bureau of Land Management’s Activities




Budget activity                                            Activities include
Energy and Minerals                                        Providing mineral resources from public lands while minimizing
                                                           natural resource damage and ensuring a fair return for any
                                                           minerals produced from public lands. Major activities include
                                                           making land available for oil, gas, and coal production by
                                                           processing and issuing permits and leases; conducting on-site
                                                           inspections of permittees and lessees; screening nearly all
                                                           onshore wells drilled to determine whether a potential drainage
                                                           situation exists; performing inspection and enforcement activities
                                                           for both producing and nonproducing coal leases; and assessing
                                                           Alaskan mineral resources on federal lands to identify land use
                                                           management alternatives and policy options.
Realty and Ownership Management                            Providing lands, realty, and cadastral survey products and
                                                           services involving public lands; maintaining current land title
                                                           records; and managing and processing realty and right-of-way
                                                           authorizations on public lands. Major activities include recording,
                                                           automating, and preserving land survey records; maintaining the
                                                           Geographic Coordinate Data Base; and providing land managers
                                                           with cadastral surveys, including the locating and marking of
                                                           boundaries; responding to public inquiries about surveys, public
                                                           land status, use, and availability; issuing right-of-way grants to
                                                           authorize the construction, operation. and maintenance of a wide
                                                           range of projects on public lands; monitoring land use
                                                           authorizations and conveyances to maintain compliance with terms
                                                           and conditions; and maintaining a program to prevent or detect
                                                           the unauthorized use of public lands.
Communication Sites                                        Managing communication sites for both commercial and private
                                                           users under the right-of-way authorization. Major activities include
                                                           processing authorizations and conducting the subsequent
                                                           management of the communication site use of public lands.
Resource Protection and Maintenance                        Protecting the health and safety of users or activities on public
                                                           lands (1) through the maintenance of buildings and transportation
                                                           and recreation facilities and (2) from criminal or other unlawful
                                                           activities. Major activities include preparing, approving, and
                                                           revising land management plans; maintaining and/or improving
                                                           buildings, water systems, recreational facilities, and transportation
                                                           systems on public lands; conducting project surveys, designs, or
                                                           other engineering or architectural services; protecting resources
                                                           from theft or degradation; investigating crimes occurring on or
                                                           relating to public lands; reducing the cultivation, manufacture,
                                                           distribution, and possession of illegal drugs on public lands; and
                                                           protecting public lands and the environment from the effects of
                                                           hazardous materials and wastes.
Emergency Operations                                       Providing immediate response for emergency grasshopper and
                                                           cricket control operations and repairing or replacing government
                                                           property destroyed or damaged by catastrophic acts of nature.
                                                           Major activities include assessing the extent of damage or loss,
                                                           documenting the nature of immediate repair work or replacement
                                                           needed, and determining what additional actions may be
                                                           necessary; assisting with the inspections of public lands where
                                                           potential outbreaks of pests may occur; and developing and
                                                           implementing control plans.
                                                                                                                     (continued)



                                      Page 87                         GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                            Appendix III
                                            Bureau of Land Management’s Activities




Budget activity                                                  Activities include
Workforce and Organizational Support                             Providing internal support relating to automated systems, human
                                                                 resources management, procurement, property management, and
                                                                 financial resources management. Major activities include providing
                                                                 operations and maintenance support for the automation of certain
                                                                 administration processes and exploring new technology;
                                                                 developing public affairs actions and recommending them to
                                                                 managers; developing agency budgets; processing financial
                                                                 documents and maintaining BLM’s system of accounts and
                                                                 financial management reports; managing mail, uniforms, and
                                                                 printing programs; and developing policies and guidelines for
                                                                 personnel management activities. This category also includes
                                                                 bureauwide fixed costs, such as rental space, communications,
                                                                 security, and required employee payments.
Mining Law Administration                                        Administering mining laws on federal lands where mining claims
                                                                 are involved. Major activities include determining the validity of
                                                                 unpatented mining claims, preparing mineral patents for review,
                                                                 preparing mineral potential reports, enforcing surface
                                                                 management and environmental requirements, enforcing bonding
                                                                 requirements to ensure that proper reclamation occurs after a site
                                                                 has been mined, and collecting location and annual maintenance
                                                                 fees.
Automated Land and Mineral Records System                        Making federal land and mineral records electronically accessible
                                                                 to the public, private corporations, other agencies, and state and
                                                                 local governments. Major activities include improving the speed
                                                                 and accuracy of land and mineral record-processing activities;
                                                                 preserving deteriorating land and mineral records; and linking
                                                                 legal land descriptions, geographic coordinates, land and mineral
                                                                 ownership, and resource data to provide a picture of the lands’
                                                                 current uses and availability.
Wildland Fire Management
Wildland Fire Preparedness                                       Developing and implementing the wildland fire management
                                                                 programs and planning to apply wildland fire to protect, maintain,
                                                                 and enhance resources and to reduce hazardous fuels. Major
                                                                 activities include procuring, in advance of fire emergencies, the
                                                                 resources that will be needed to respond when a fire occurs;
                                                                 hiring, training, and equipping the fire suppression and support
                                                                 personnel; inspecting and servicing fire equipment; inventorying
                                                                 and stocking fire supply caches; operating firefighting dispatch
                                                                 centers; providing communications equipment, networks, and
                                                                 facilities; operating the National Interagency Fire Center that
                                                                 coordinates fire efforts nationally; planning and managing
                                                                 prescribed fires for both planned and unplanned ignitions, and
                                                                 planning and managing mechanical treatments to restore and
                                                                 maintain the environment, protect resources, and reduce
                                                                 hazardous fuels that could produce catastrophic fires; monitoring
                                                                 the effects of prescribed fires on vegetation; and conducting
                                                                 research to improve firefighting methods and safety.
                                                                                                                         (continued)




                                            Page 88                         GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                              Appendix III
                                              Bureau of Land Management’s Activities




Budget activity                                                    Activities include
Wildland Fire Operations                                           Suppressing destructive wildland fires occurring on or threatening
                                                                   Department of the Interior’s managed lands or protected lands to
                                                                   protect natural resources and applying wildland fires and
                                                                   mechanical treatments to protect, maintain, and enhance
                                                                   resources and reduce hazardous fuels. Major activities include
                                                                   suppressing wildland fires through personnel, aircraft, and other
                                                                   equipment and supplies; providing emergency rehabilitation
                                                                   projects after a fire to stabilize soils, structures, or other damage
                                                                   caused by the fires; applying fire and mechanical treatments to
                                                                   enhance resources and reduce hazardous fuels including the use
                                                                   of aerial reconnaissance flights and the mobilization and transport
                                                                   of crews to fire sites; and replacing routine supplies and
                                                                   equipment.
Central Hazardous Materials Fund
Central Hazardous Materials Fund                                   Conducting remedial investigations or feasibility studies and
                                                                   cleanups at hazardous substance release sites for which the
                                                                   Department of the Interior is liable. Major activities include
                                                                   conducting hazardous material cleanups and the subsequent
                                                                   maintenance and monitoring of the remedial actions, and pursuing
                                                                   aggressive cost-recovery actions from the parties responsible for
                                                                   contaminating the federal lands.
Construction and Access
Construction                                                       Constructing and/or rehabilitating buildings, recreation sites, fire
                                                                   stations, roads, and trails.
Land Acquisition
Land Acquisition and Acquisition Management                        Providing opportunities to acquire properties that protect
                                                                   threatened resource values and benefit the public’s need for
                                                                   outdoor recreation. Major activities include processing actions
                                                                   necessary to complete land acquisitions and exchanges, including
                                                                   title searches, appraisals, surveys, and program coordination with
                                                                   other program areas or local governments.
Oregon and California Grant Lands
Western Oregon Construction and Acquisition                        Providing for the acquisition of easements and the development of
                                                                   facilities to provide continued legal access to lands for forest
                                                                   management purposes and to maintain access to recreation sites
                                                                   for public use. Major activities include planning and administering
                                                                   construction projects, developing and maintaining transportation
                                                                   plans, designing access roads for general resource management,
                                                                   including rock excavation and stabilization work; and acquiring
                                                                   easements to complete Oregon and California grant lands timber
                                                                   management plans.
Western Oregon Facilities Maintenance                              Maintaining office buildings, warehouse and storage structures,
                                                                   shops, greenhouses, recreation sites, and transportation systems.
                                                                   Major activities include upgrading infrastructure needs to
                                                                   accommodate increasing public use; disposing of garbage;
                                                                   repairing and maintaining facilities; planning, surveying, and
                                                                   design work; contract supervision and the inventorying of facilities;
                                                                   and inspecting, repairing, and maintaining forest roads, trails, and
                                                                   bridges.
                                                                                                                              (continued)



                                              Page 89                          GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                             Appendix III
                                             Bureau of Land Management’s Activities




Budget activity                                                   Activities include
Western Oregon Resources Management                               Providing for the management of forest lands in western Oregon to
                                                                  meet the objectives of the President’s Forest Plan. Major activities
                                                                  include designing and administering timber sales; monitoring
                                                                  ecological impacts and resource trends; developing site-specific
                                                                  and watershed-level prescriptions; maintaining current inventories
                                                                  of sites available for reforestation and forest development; planting
                                                                  high-quality, genetically superior seedlings; fertilizing, pruning,
                                                                  and performing precommercial thinning to improve growth;
                                                                  monitoring soil, water, and air quality to determine the
                                                                  effectiveness of mitigation measures; developing and maintaining
                                                                  databases of wildlife, fish, and plant species and their habitat on
                                                                  public lands; maintaining and improving vegetative conditions on
                                                                  grazed lands; and developing and maintaining land use plans.
Western Oregon Information and Resource Data System               Providing for the acquisition, operation, and maintenance of the
                                                                  automated data support systems required for managing the
                                                                  President’s Forest Plan. Major activities include developing,
                                                                  operating, monitoring, and supporting automated system
                                                                  applications, hardware, software, and databases; providing
                                                                  technical user support for spatial data management; acquiring
                                                                  graphic, analog, or digital data; producing base or thematic maps;
                                                                  and developing data models.
Jobs in the Woods                                                 Creating family-wage job opportunities for displaced forest
                                                                  workers and stimulating economic growth for local communities.
                                                                  Major activities include contracting with the private sector in
                                                                  response to the President’s initiative to provide stimulus to local
                                                                  economies and employment opportunities.
Range Improvements
Range Improvements                                                Restoring ecosystems or improving the productivity of public
                                                                  rangeland ecosystems to benefit livestock, fish, and wildlife habitat
                                                                  and watershed protection. Major activities include managing the
                                                                  administration of the range improvements on public lands,
                                                                  including project planning, engineering and design, and project
                                                                  monitoring; planning, constructing, and developing projects to
                                                                  prevent resource damage or relieve conflicts in resource use; and
                                                                  initiating prescribed burns and wildlife/livestock water
                                                                  developments.
Service Charges, Deposits, and Forfeitures
Rights of Way Process                                             Processing applications for rights-of-way. Major activities include
                                                                  processing applications, granting compliance, and monitoring.
Adopt-a-Horse Program                                             Conducting the adoptions for wild horses and burros on public
                                                                  lands. Major activities include feeding, caring for, and transporting
                                                                  wild horses or burros from public lands; collecting data through
                                                                  inventory studies, research, monitoring, and animal census; and
                                                                  planning, developing, and maintaining land use plans and herd
                                                                  management plans.
Repair of Damaged Lands                                           Collecting for land damage by users who have not fulfilled the
                                                                  requirements of contracts or bonds.
                                                                                                                            (continued)




                                             Page 90                         GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                            Appendix III
                                            Bureau of Land Management’s Activities




Budget activity                                                  Activities include
Cost Recoverable Realty Cases                                    Performing realty work on a cost-recoverable basis. Major activities
                                                                 include conducting exploratory programs to determine the type
                                                                 and amount of mineral deposits, establishing fair market values of
                                                                 the mineral interests to be conveyed, and preparing conveyance
                                                                 documents.
Timber Contract Expenses                                         Performing certain rehabilitation work on forest land after the
                                                                 completion of timber sales. This work is funded by cash deposits
                                                                 made by the timber purchaser. Major activities include performing
                                                                 slash disposal, reforesting harvested lands, and preparing the
                                                                 lands before reforestation.
Copy Fees                                                        Providing copies of official public land records. Major activities
                                                                 include researching the documents and printing them.
Miscellaneous Permanent Payment Appropriations/Payment in Lieu of Taxes
Payments in Lieu of Taxes                                        Compensating local units of government for the presence of
                                                                 federal lands within their boundaries. Major activities include
                                                                 calculating the amounts due to the counties, transmitting the
                                                                 moneys to the counties, communicating with the counties, and
                                                                 maintaining a system of records to account for the disbursements
                                                                 made to the counties.
Permanent Operating Funds
Quarters Maintenance                                             Maintaining and repairing employee-occupied quarters. Major
                                                                 activities include planning maintenance activities, preparing
                                                                 contracts, performing condition surveys or inspections, and
                                                                 scheduling corrective maintenance.
Recreation Fee Collections                                       Collecting and retaining recreation receipts to offset fee collection
                                                                 costs. Major activities include collecting recreation fees at
                                                                 designated sites, collecting fees for special recreation permits and
                                                                 federal recreation passports, and purchasing and maintaining fee
                                                                 collection equipment.
Recreational Fee Demonstration Sites, BLM                        Developing pilot recreation fee demonstration projects. Major
                                                                 activities include working with local communities and recreation
                                                                 users to determine the kinds of services desired and the
                                                                 corresponding fees to be charged and cleaning, maintaining, and
                                                                 improving the designated recreation site.
Forest Ecosystem Health and Recovery Fund                        Providing BLM field offices with funding for planning, preparing,
                                                                 administering, and reforesting salvage timber sales. Major
                                                                 activities include selling salvage timber, performing subsequent
                                                                 site preparation and reforestation, and maintaining the sales areas.
Road Maintenance Deposits                                        Collecting money for road maintenance from commercial users of
                                                                 public lands and the public domain lands transportation system.
                                                                 Major activities include planning for the reconstruction, repair,
                                                                 survey and design, and architectural and engineering and/or
                                                                 contract preparation for road maintenance; completing normally
                                                                 scheduled maintenance on all roads; and completing maintenance
                                                                 resulting from some abnormal situation that requires immediate
                                                                 corrective action.
                                                                                                                           (continued)




                                            Page 91                          GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                  Appendix III
                                  Bureau of Land Management’s Activities




Budget activity                                        Activities include
Pipeline Restoration Funds                             Providing for the deposit and use of fees collected by BLM for the
                                                       sales of green timber pursuant to legislative timber salvage
                                                       provisions. Major activities include preparing timber sales on BLM
                                                       lands and eliminating the backlog of recreation projects on BLM
                                                       lands.
Miscellaneous Trust Funds
Miscellaneous Trust Funds                              Providing for the resource development, protection, and
                                                       management improvement of the public lands. Permanent
                                                       appropriations for rangeland improvement efforts, surveying
                                                       property boundaries, and surveying and deeding recordation of
                                                       town lots in Alaska.
Helium Fund and Operations
Helium Fund and Operations                             Providing refined helium to meet current demands and providing
                                                       crude helium for future requirements. Major activities include
                                                       storing and transmitting helium in the helium storage system,
                                                       administering the sale of crude helium, and overseeing and
                                                       collecting payment for the helium produced from federal lands.
Other Categories of Obligations
Working Capital Fund                                   Operating and maintaining the motorized fleet, integrated
                                                       appropriation/cost accounting system, BLM signs, and
                                                       departmental forms.
Reimbursables                                          Funding of BLM activities by another entity. Major activities include
                                                       completing cadastral survey projects, processing mineral patent
                                                       applications, recording new mining claims, processing location
                                                       notices, processing appeals notices, and fighting fires.
Miscellaneous Transfer Accounts                        Using money transferred to BLM from other government agencies.
                                                       Major activities include performing damage assessments,
                                                       restoring resources on public lands, developing guidance for
                                                       damage assessment, developing and reviewing restoration plans,
                                                       and acquiring land; performing emergency road and bridge
                                                       repairs, performing condition surveys, supporting administrative
                                                       costs; detecting and controlling forest pests; and collecting,
                                                       updating, and providing geographic coordinates.




                                  Page 92                         GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
Page 93   GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
Appendix IV

Bureau of Land Management’s Obligations
by Budget Activity for Major Organizational
Units, Fiscal Year 1998

Dollars in thousands


                                   BLM total                     Washington Office                 Operating Centers
Budget activity             Obligations              FTEsa    Obligationsb           FTEsc      Obligations             FTEs
Land Resources              $133,299.6              1,879.9     $26,111.2            340.9         $4,731.8              42.5
Wildlife and Fisheries         29,726.3              379.0         5,364.8            69.9          1,086.8              11.3
Threatened and
Endangered Species             17,936.5              234.4         2,340.4            37.2            753.7               5.3
Recreation Management          49,757.7              789.6         6,878.0           135.9          1,027.5               8.0
Energy and Minerals            74,530.8             1,155.2       14,480.5           202.1          2,270.2              28.4
Realty and Ownership
Management                     70,629.1             1,023.7       11,985.2           178.1          2,468.8              33.6
Communication Sites             3,110.3               45.4          358.2              7.6             73.2               0.4
Resource Protection and
Maintenance                    70,425.5              848.9        11,605.0           162.6          6,745.3              67.7
Emergency Operations               39.8                 0.4            5.9             0.1                 0                0
Workforce and
Organizational Support        119,137.4              843.3        49,507.4           301.0         15,876.1             166.8
Mining Law Administration      37,012.2              488.5         6,117.0            73.1          1,947.9               9.9
Automated Land and
Minerals Records System        39,485.9              101.6         1,487.8            16.4         37,578.0              77.0
Wildland Fire
Preparedness                   92,179.1             1,456.3        9,937.6           212.0         26,398.6             207.7
Wildland Fire Operations       75,644.9             1,095.3        1,055.9            28.7         10,857.6              85.7
Central Hazardous
Materials Fund                   762.7                   0           (52.5)              0                 0                0
Construction                    6,844.7               17.0          111.5              2.6                 0                0
Land Acquisition and
Acquisition Management         15,514.4               46.6          508.6              8.1             40.5                 0
Western Oregon
Construction and
Acquisition                    11,318.0               50.0          327.5              7.8                 0                0
Western Oregon Facilities
Maintenance                    14,598.5              134.1          756.0             17.7                 0                0
Western Oregon
Resources Management           85,908.7             1,183.3        9,297.1           159.1            981.5              11.0
Western Oregon
Information and Resource
Data System                     2,255.4               14.8          146.6              2.4            129.5               2.2
Jobs in the Woods              10,184.7               33.9          194.8              4.6                 0                0
Range Improvements              9,899.8               90.1         1,088.5            14.6                 0                0
Rights of Way Process           6,355.5               70.2            46.4               0                 0                0




                                          Page 94                        GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                               Appendix IV
                               Bureau of Land Management’s Obligations
                               by Budget Activity for Major Organizational
                               Units, Fiscal Year 1998




      Alaska                 Arizona                          California                         Colorado
      State                   State                             State                             State
      Office                  Office                           Office                             Office
Obligations    FTEs    Obligations         FTEs       Obligations              FTEs      Obligations             FTEs
   $2,047.4     18.9      $6,995.8         104.2          $8,030.7            123.8         $10,277.1            149.6
    3,049.1     27.4       1,835.0          19.5           1,908.9              33.4          1,604.3             25.1

     202.6       2.1       1,603.5          25.0           2,301.6              31.1            644.1               9.5
    1,920.9     21.1       5,716.0          86.6           9,826.6            151.5           2,729.1             45.1
    4,919.0     36.5        540.9            8.3           3,246.4              56.2          6,060.4             94.6

   26,566.0    310.5       2,137.0          32.2           4,134.6              66.3          3,253.4             59.2
        1.6       0         322.6            6.1             724.1              10.2            121.4               2.0

    4,212.0     33.0       4,809.1          62.1           6,815.7              88.1          3,649.3             45.8
         0        0             0              0                  0                0                0                0

    5,873.2     34.1       4,418.3          24.9           6,415.1              37.3          3,562.9             28.3
    2,278.7     23.3       2,876.8          48.2           3,614.3              52.7          1,946.6             25.8

         0        0            1.0             0                0.1                0              0.4                0

   13,422.6    216.5       2,122.8          41.8           6,669.6            148.3           2,237.4             46.7
   16,769.1    206.6       2,693.6          45.0           5,579.6            112.2           2,226.4             39.1

         0        0             0              0             704.8                 0                0                0
     432.2       0.9        272.4            0.8           1,412.9               4.5            546.7               0.8

        1.1       0         257.3            3.2           6,138.6               9.3          1,426.2               4.9


         0        0             0              0                  0                0                0                0

         0        0             0              0                  0                0                0                0

         0        0             0              0                  0                0              0.1                0


         0        0             0              0                  0                0                0                0
         0        0             0              0           1,853.3               1.3                0                0
         0        0         311.4            4.3             248.7               2.3            393.6               3.4
    3,432.6     36.3          15.2           0.3           1,473.9              12.9            383.8               3.6
                                                                                                            (continued)



                               Page 95                           GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                            Appendix IV
                                            Bureau of Land Management’s Obligations
                                            by Budget Activity for Major Organizational
                                            Units, Fiscal Year 1998




Dollars in thousands


                                    BLM total                        Washington Office                   Operating Centers
                                                             a               b                  c
Budget activity              Obligations                FTEs     Obligations               FTEs       Obligations             FTEs
Adopt-a-Horse Program             1,495.3                  0.5           279.5                 0               6.7                0
Repair of Damaged Lands           1,296.8                  8.7               0                 0                 0                0
Cost Recoverable Realty
Cases                              468.9                   6.7               0                 0                 0                0
Timber Contract Expenses           249.8                   2.3               0                 0                 0                0
Copy Fees                         2,060.7                16.9                0                 0            727.5               0.6
Payments in Lieu of Taxes      120,000.0                   1.3      119,960.0                 1.2            40.0                 0
Quarters Maintenance               374.7                   1.9             1.3                 0                 0                0
Recreation Fee Collections         336.2                   7.7            27.7                1.2                0                0
Recreation Fee
Demonstration Sites, BLM          1,543.0                16.0             (0.7)                0                 0                0
Forest Ecosystem Health
and Recovery Fund                 7,578.6               129.8            716.7              19.5                 0                0
Road Maintenance
Deposits                          1,452.9                15.4                0                 0                 0                0
Pipeline Restoration Funds        4,474.1                37.9             89.9                2.3                0                0
Miscellaneous Trust Funds        10,009.3                86.6                0                 0            195.2                 0
Helium Fund and
Operations                       12,158.1               141.6              1.5                 0         12,149.9             141.5
Working Capital Fund             19,598.4                20.9          1,706.7                 0          2,037.5              11.3
Reimbursables                    16,560.3               139.0            336.6                 0          5,665.8              28.5
Miscellaneous Transfer
Accounts                          5,625.6                61.1              3.3                 0            112.8               1.6
Total                        $1,181,840.2             12,675.8     $282,782.2             2,006.5      $133,902.2             941.0




                                            Page 96                            GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                               Appendix IV
                               Bureau of Land Management’s Obligations
                               by Budget Activity for Major Organizational
                               Units, Fiscal Year 1998




      Alaska                 Arizona                          California                         Colorado
      State                   State                             State                             State
      Office                  Office                           Office                             Office
Obligations    FTEs    Obligations         FTEs       Obligations              FTEs      Obligations             FTEs
         0        0           21.4             0             114.7                 0             30.5                0
         0        0         166.9            1.6             149.6               0.3             50.9              0.1

        1.1       0         232.8            3.2              88.7               1.7             57.9              0.4
         0        0            7.9           0.2                  0                0                0                0
       71.9      2.1          70.5           1.9              65.9                 0            179.4              4.5
         0        0             0              0                  0                0                0                0
     126.2       0.7           7.5             0              43.7               0.3                0                0
        6.5      0.1          62.3           2.7              18.4               0.4             15.8              0.1

        1.8       0           42.1           0.1                6.7                0             25.0                0

         0        0         257.6            5.1             105.8               2.9             29.2              0.3

         0        0            4.0           0.1                0.4                0              3.9                0
         0        0             0              0                  0                0                0                0
       71.5      0.3        929.0            5.6           4,937.1              53.9            611.9              3.0

         0        0             0              0                  0                0                0                0
     150.0       0.1       1,102.0             0           2,127.8               1.2            856.2                0
    1,362.7      6.2        801.3           11.1             895.9              11.4            606.7              4.5

     229.7        0         191.0            3.4             774.2              16.9            129.8              3.4
  $87,149.5    976.7     $40,824.6         547.5         $80,428.5           1,030.4        $43,662.3            599.4




                               Page 97                           GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                          Appendix IV
                                          Bureau of Land Management’s Obligations
                                          by Budget Activity for Major Organizational
                                          Units, Fiscal Year 1998




                                Eastern States                     Idaho State Office                Montana State Office
Budget activity             Obligations              FTEs       Obligations             FTEs       Obligations              FTEs
Land Resources                 $2,528.2               30.3        $10,261.5             173.7         $9,799.5              135.3
Wildlife and Fisheries           251.3                 3.3           2,907.5             43.4          1,632.4               24.6
Threatened and
Endangered Species                 47.6                0.5           2,551.7             35.7            602.2                7.4
Recreation Management            142.5                 1.1           2,239.2             36.3          2,070.1               36.0
Energy and Minerals             3,864.4               64.8             471.5              7.6          5,014.7               97.5
Realty and Ownership
Management                      3,506.2               60.3           2,207.7             41.3          2,724.0               46.1
Communication Sites                  0                   0             325.0              2.8             15.6                0.3
Resource Protection and
Maintenance                      783.9                11.2           5,402.8             71.0          3,119.9               46.4
Emergency Operations                 0                   0               4.8              0.1                 0                0
Workforce and
Organizational Support          3,179.4               32.4           3,692.1             45.4          3,005.7               17.9
Mining Law Administration        742.0                 2.1           1,520.1             17.3          1,775.0               33.9
Automated Land and
Minerals Records System             0.3                  0                 0                0                 0                0
Wildland Fire
Preparedness                     419.4                12.9           5,083.3            130.4          5,191.8               62.4
Wildland Fire Operations         252.1                14.8           6,887.4            134.6          2,558.0               40.5
Central Hazardous
Materials Fund                       0                   0              27.0                0                 0                0
Construction                         0                   0           2,502.4              4.8            280.6                 0
Land Acquisition and
Acquisition Management               0                   0             276.0              3.2            211.4                1.7
Western Oregon
Construction and
Acquisition                          0                   0                 0                0                 0                0
Western Oregon Facilities
Maintenance                          0                   0                 0                0                 0                0
Western Oregon
Resources Management                 0                   0                 0                0                 0                0
Western Oregon
Information and Resource
Data System                          0                   0                 0                0                 0                0
Jobs in the Woods                    0                   0                 0                0                 0                0
Range Improvements                   0                   0           1,327.6              9.7          1,850.2               18.8
Rights of Way Process                0                   0              20.3              0.4               5.7                0
Adopt-a-Horse Program            503.5                   0                 0                0                 0                0
Repair of Damaged Lands              0                   0              24.2                0               8.4                0




                                          Page 98                           GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                         Appendix IV
                                         Bureau of Land Management’s Obligations
                                         by Budget Activity for Major Organizational
                                         Units, Fiscal Year 1998




   New Mexico
   State Office           Nevada State Office       Oregon State Office          Utah State Office          Wyoming State Office
Obligations       FTEs    Obligations     FTEs      Obligations     FTEs       Obligations       FTEs      Obligations        FTEs
   $9,260.1       132.1     $11,610.2     173.5       $11,862.9     167.0        $10,494.8       132.9        $9,288.4        155.2
    1,823.4        28.6       1,075.8      16.3         3,168.4      28.2           2,220.5       21.9         1,798.1         26.2

     761.3          5.9       1,171.6      13.4         2,293.3      28.4           2,161.9       25.7          501.1            7.3
    3,446.4        54.2       2,415.8      38.7         3,964.1      62.8           5,399.4       82.9         1,982.3         29.5
   13,215.6       206.1       1,274.2      22.3          727.6       11.4           4,913.4       79.4        13,532.1        240.0

    2,654.6        50.1       2,412.0      39.9         2,026.5      33.6           2,384.9       38.6         2,168.2         34.1
    2,500.0         1.4        523.4        9.9          116.7         1.7            107.5          1.2        171.0            1.9

    3,104.3        30.2       4,476.2      52.6         6,829.5      72.5           5,005.2       59.9         3,867.2         45.7
         0           0            2.2           0          15.0           0            11.8          0.2            0              0

    4,587.9        36.0       4,077.9      23.5         6,892.7      30.4           3,918.3       31.3         4,130.8         34.1
    1,757.1        15.1       6,092.1      98.5         2,462.8      34.5           2,287.5       33.4         1,594.3         21.0

     385.6          7.0          (0.2)          0           0.3           0             0.4           0           32.0           1.1

    1,638.6        34.4       6,406.8     128.4         7,482.5     125.4           3,661.5       57.4         1,506.8         32.0
    1,355.1        22.7       9,075.1     117.4        10,742.7     171.6           4,475.6       55.8         1,116.9         20.7

       79.7          0             0            0           3.6           0               0           0             0              0
     115.7          0.4        128.4        0.1          615.0         1.6            183.6          0.5        243.3              0

     702.3          2.3        186.0        2.3          841.2         8.2          4,705.7          2.4        219.6            0.9


         0           0             0            0      10,990.5      42.2                 0           0             0              0

         0           0             0            0      13,842.5     116.4                 0           0             0              0

        0.2          0            2.5           0      75,625.3   1,013.1                 0           0             0              0


         0           0             0            0       1,979.2      10.3                 0           0             0              0
         0           0             0            0       8,136.6      28.1                 0           0             0              0
    1,162.6         4.4        949.5       11.5          811.0         5.2            670.5          7.0       1,086.2           9.1
     276.2          5.2          69.8       1.2          139.1         1.4            189.6          3.1        302.9            5.9
       45.9          0            1.3           0        424.8         0.1             32.7           0           34.4           0.4
     121.8          1.6        465.4        2.4          240.7         2.5             42.5          0.2          26.5             0
                                                                                                                         (continued)


                                         Page 99                              GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                           Appendix IV
                                           Bureau of Land Management’s Obligations
                                           by Budget Activity for Major Organizational
                                           Units, Fiscal Year 1998




                                 Eastern States                     Idaho State Office                Montana State Office
Budget activity              Obligations              FTEs       Obligations             FTEs       Obligations              FTEs
Cost Recoverable Realty
Cases                                1.4                  0               6.3              0.1               0.1                0
Timber Contract Expenses              0                   0                 0                0                 0                0
Copy Fees                           78.0                0.3             153.0              1.4             84.6                 0
Payments in Lieu of Taxes             0                   0                 0                0                 0                0
Quarters Maintenance                  0                   0               3.8                0               4.0                0
Recreation Fee Collections            0                   0               8.4              0.1                 0                0
Recreation Fee
Demonstration Sites, BLM              0                   0              29.6              0.1                 0                0
Forest Ecosystem Health
and Recovery Fund                     0                   0             437.8              8.7            176.9                2.3
Road Maintenance
Deposits                              0                   0              24.9                0               9.7                0
Pipeline Restoration Funds            0                   0                 0                0                 0                0
Miscellaneous Trust Funds           94.5                1.5             585.4              4.5            202.3                0.9
Helium Fund and
Operations                            0                   0                 0                0                 0                0
Working Capital Fund              179.0                   0           1,503.5                0          1,274.8                 0
Reimbursables                    1,092.7               22.4           1,062.3             11.8            441.4                4.7
Miscellaneous Transfer
Accounts                          221.7                 3.6             163.3              3.7            153.9                3.4
Total                          $17,888.1              261.3        $51,710.3             788.0        $42,213.0              580.0




                                           Page 100                          GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                         Appendix IV
                                         Bureau of Land Management’s Obligations
                                         by Budget Activity for Major Organizational
                                         Units, Fiscal Year 1998




   New Mexico
   State Office           Nevada State Office       Oregon State Office             Utah State Office             Wyoming State Office
Obligations       FTEs    Obligations     FTEs      Obligations         FTEs      Obligations          FTEs     Obligations              FTEs

         0           0            4.3        0.1             0.6             0            75.8            1.2                0                  0
         0           0             0            0         241.9            2.1                0             0                0                  0
     135.5          1.1          40.4           0         173.8            0.4           110.0            1.4           170.3               3.2
         0           0             0            0              0             0                0             0                0                  0
         0           0         137.8         0.5            29.8           0.2            20.6            0.2                0                  0
        6.6          0            1.6           0           66.8           1.2            92.3            1.9            29.6                   0

        3.8         0.1        822.5         3.3          550.3          11.0             61.9            1.4                0                  0

         0           0             0            0       5,836.0          90.8                 0             0            18.5               0.2

        0.4          0           17.4        0.2        1,328.7          14.3             63.2            0.9              0.3                  0
         0           0             0            0       4,384.2          35.6                 0             0                0                  0
     417.9          0.9        689.2         6.0          666.6            7.6           483.8            1.8           125.1               0.8

        6.7         0.1            0            0              0             0                0             0                0                  0
    1,428.4          0        2,053.7           0       2,563.3            8.4         1,390.4              0         1,225.2                   0
     977.6          8.1       1,054.2        4.9        1,508.4          19.9            446.8            3.3           307.9               2.1

     195.5          3.4        128.6         0.7        3,274.7          20.7             17.8            0.1            29.1               0.3
  $49,916.7       651.1     $57,365.7     767.6     $192,859.3        2,208.6       $55,629.7          646.0       $45,507.9             671.6
                                         a
                                          FTEs (full-time equivalents) include overtime hours, which will not agree with BLM Budget
                                         Justifications, and official FTE usage for BLM. The total regular-hour FTE usage in fiscal year 1998
                                         was 10,001.
                                         b
                                          This amount includes $232,223,986 of Bureau-wide costs such as the leave taken by the entire
                                         BLM workforce, workmen’s compensation, unemployment insurance, and nationwide Payments in
                                         Lieu of Taxes.
                                         c
                                          Leave surcharge—that is, nonwork benefits such as vacation time, sick leave, or holidays—is
                                         managed centrally. For the purpose of this report, it has been added to the Washington Office
                                         total in order to fully account for all funds and FTE usage. Approximately 80 percent of the FTE
                                         usage represents leave taken by the entire BLM workforce; the remaining 20 percent represents
                                         leave taken by the employees in the Washington Office. If the leave portion for the rest of BLM
                                         were taken out of the amount of FTEs, the Washington Office’s total would be approximately 401,
                                         which includes its portion of the FTE usage including leave.

                                         Source: GAO’s analysis of BLM’s data.




                                         Page 101                                GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
Appendix V

Forest Service’s Activities



Budget line item                           Activities include
Forest and Rangeland Research
Forest and Rangeland Research              Developing and communicating scientific information and
                                           technology needed to protect, manage, and use the natural
                                           resources of America’s forests and rangelands. The resulting
                                           studies provide data for focusing on research issues and needs,
                                           including the support for ecosystem management. Research
                                           activities are divided into four broad areas: Vegetation
                                           Management and Protection; Wildlife, Fish, Watershed, and
                                           Atmospheric Sciences Research; Resource Valuation and Use;
                                           and Forest Resources Inventory and Monitoring. Activities include
                                           developing land management (silvicultural) alternatives,
                                           management guides, and harvesting systems for major forest
                                           types; developing growth and yield prediction systems and
                                           models; prescribing ways to reduce the impacts of unwanted
                                           forest fires, insects, and diseases; analyzing watershed processes
                                           and functions, freshwater aquatic communities and habitat, and
                                           the restoration of riparian (adjacent aquatic) communities,
                                           conditions, trends and capabilities of forest and rangeland
                                           resources; estimating current and anticipated demands for these
                                           resources; promoting the conservation and sustainability of forest
                                           products through improved processing methods, the design and
                                           treatment for durable long-lasting materials, and recycling to
                                           reduce demand on natural resources; and providing long-term
                                           baseline resource data and a scientific basis to assess the current
                                           extent, condition, and outlook for the forest resources.
State and Private Forestry
Forest Health Management                   Coordinating forest health protection, including insect and disease
                                           management, across federal, tribal, state, and private lands.
                                           Activities include providing professional forest health assistance,
                                           including detection surveys and evaluations, for all federal forest
                                           lands; preventing and suppressing forest insects and diseases on
                                           all federal and tribal lands and coordinating with state agencies
                                           when treatment projects include intermingled private lands;
                                           providing presuppression and post-suppression surveys to assess
                                           the effectiveness of the treatments; and developing, improving,
                                           and demonstrating new technologies, materials, methods, and
                                           strategies to improve the efficiency of forest pest management. In
                                           addition to pest management activities, staff also participate in
                                           cooperative fire protection. This program provides states and local
                                           fire agencies with technical and financial assistance to protect
                                           federal, state, and private lands from wildfire. The activities include
                                           providing program assistance to improve the efficiencies of states’
                                           basic fire protection programs by sharing resources and
                                           exchanging technologies and information on historical data for
                                           planning and analysis, loaning excess federal personal property to
                                           state foresters and rural communities, and providing nationwide
                                           fire prevention programs through public service advertisements,
                                           educational and other promotional activities.
                                                                                                      (continued)




                                Page 102               GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                             Appendix V
                             Forest Service’s Activities




Budget line item                                    Activities include
Cooperative Forestry                                Providing nonindustrial private forest landowners with technical
                                                    and stewardship planning assistance and supplying high-quality,
                                                    genetically improved tree seed and planting stock for reforestation.
                                                    Activities include providing assistance in developing long-term
                                                    forest stewardship plans to guide the management of private
                                                    forestlands, working with private owners to implement the best
                                                    forest management practices, and providing state, private, and
                                                    federal nurseries with information, technology, and training on
                                                    forest nursery management, tree improvement, tree planting
                                                    methodology, seedling culture, and equipment development. This
                                                    category also includes participation in many cooperative and
                                                    cost-share programs, including the stewardship incentives
                                                    program, the forest legacy program, the urban and community
                                                    forestry program, the economic action programs, and the Pacific
                                                    Northwest Assistance Programs.
Emergency Pest Suppression                          Meeting emergency pest suppression needs in excess of
                                                    appropriated amounts for forest pest management. Major activities
                                                    include detecting and evaluating insect epidemics on federal
                                                    lands, providing federal land managers with assistance and status
                                                    information on integrated pest management, monitoring forest
                                                    health, consulting with states on forest health protection strategies,
                                                    and performing pre- and post-suppression surveys to identify
                                                    treatment areas and assess treatment effectiveness.
National Forest System
Land Management Planning                            Planning the management of all resources on national forest
                                                    system lands to fulfill the requirements of the National Forest
                                                    Management Act. The ongoing planning process results in forest
                                                    plans that provide programmatic guidance for on-the-ground
                                                    natural resources management. The forest plans integrate various
                                                    laws and regulations governing the management of the national
                                                    forests and site-specific project decisions. Major activities include
                                                    gathering data on all natural resources on a particular parcel of
                                                    land and determining, through public input and professional
                                                    management evaluations, the best use of the land and resources
                                                    on it.
Inventory and Monitoring                            Inventorying and assessing the resources on national forest
                                                    system lands to provide a basis for forest plans. Inventorying
                                                    activities include collecting data to analyze the status or conditions
                                                    of forest resources as well as the physical characteristics of the
                                                    forest. Monitoring activities include preparing annual reports by the
                                                    individual forests to document the monitoring reports required by
                                                    forest plans, providing information on the effectiveness of forest
                                                    management activities, and suggesting cost-effectiveness
                                                    improvements. Regional offices compile the information from
                                                    individual forests and annually prepare a report to document how
                                                    their particular management approach is moving forests and
                                                    grassland ecosystems toward desired conditions.
                                                                                                              (continued)




                             Page 103                          GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                            Appendix V
                                            Forest Service’s Activities




Budget line item                                                   Activities include
Recreation Use                                                     Supporting community and state efforts to diversify their economic
                                                                   base through sustainable tourism activities. Activities include
                                                                   preparing, administering, and managing cultural and recreational
                                                                   activities; constructing and maintaining recreation sites and
                                                                   facilities; planning for and managing proposed and designated
                                                                   Wild and Scenic Rivers in national forests; conducting trail
                                                                   improvement activities including constructing and maintaining
                                                                   trails; conducting visual resource improvement activities and visual
                                                                   resource operations; managing and monitoring wilderness uses
                                                                   and conditions; identifying, evaluating, protecting, and interpreting
                                                                   the heritage resources on national forest lands; and providing
                                                                   interpretive services for the public to better understand
                                                                   conservation issues on public lands.
Wildlife and Fisheries Habitat Management                          Providing organizational leadership to coordinate activities for
                                                                   productive and useful wildlife and fisheries habitat in cooperation
                                                                   with state and federal agencies, organizations, and partners. Major
                                                                   activities include protecting, restoring, and improving wildlife and
                                                                   fish habitats; providing opportunities for consumptive and
                                                                   commercial uses, including hunting and trapping; increasing
                                                                   wildlife viewing/appreciation opportunities; preparing for,
                                                                   constructing, maintaining, and managing anadromous (for
                                                                   example, salmon) fish habitat, inland fish habitats, and
                                                                   improvements to threatened, endangered, and sensitive species
                                                                   habitats; and leading conservation, inventorying, and restoration
                                                                   actions to benefit the plant component of biological diversity.
Rangeland Management                                               Enhancing and restoring rangeland ecosystems, providing for
                                                                   multiple-use values, and achieving forest plan objectives through
                                                                   the administration of permitted livestock grazing. Major activities
                                                                   include the issuance and administration of grazing permits and the
                                                                   application of sound management practices on grazing allotments;
                                                                   monitoring grazing allotments to determine the effectiveness of
                                                                   allotment management plans in achieving objectives for
                                                                   vegetation, water quality, soils, threatened and endangered
                                                                   species habitat, and other resource elements and monitoring
                                                                   permittees’ compliance with the terms and conditions of grazing
                                                                   permits; managing rangeland vegetation to achieve conditions
                                                                   prescribed in forest plans and monitoring to ensure that the
                                                                   conditions are maintained; providing for the protection,
                                                                   management, and control of wild horses and burros on forest
                                                                   lands; and managing the infestation of noxious weeds and
                                                                   preventing further infestations.
                                                                                                                            (continued)




                                            Page 104                          GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                  Appendix V
                                  Forest Service’s Activities




Budget line item                                         Activities include
Forestland Management                                    Using timber sales as a means of implementing forest plan
                                                         objectives and maintaining healthy ecosystems. Major activities in
                                                         timber sale management include (1) performing silvicultural
                                                         examinations that involve reviewing, analyzing, and treating timber
                                                         stand conditions to meet land and resource management
                                                         objectives and desired future conditions; (2) preparing and
                                                         administering timber sales (which include designing timber sales
                                                         to implement forest plan objectives, offering the timber for sale,
                                                         awarding the contract, monitoring the contractor to minimize
                                                         adverse environmental impacts, and ensuring that harvesting is in
                                                         accordance with the contract’s provisions) and treating the sale
                                                         area after the contract’s completion through brush disposal,
                                                         reforestation, stand improvement initiatives, and other resource
                                                         coordination activities identified in the sale area design plan; (3)
                                                         providing the public with fuelwood and other miscellaneous
                                                         products; and (4) administering appeals and litigation arising from
                                                         timber sales. Major activities in forestland vegetation management
                                                         include the reforestation of harvested lands with appropriated
                                                         money; timber stand improvement activities to improve the health
                                                         of the forest and maintain the rapid growth of harvested lands;
                                                         providing appropriate genetic material to restore, maintain, and
                                                         enhance the genetic quality of seed and planting stock used on
                                                         forest lands; and operating nursery operations to produce
                                                         high-quality seeds and seedlings to meet reforestation needs.
Soil, Water and Air Management                           Protecting and enhancing soil quality and productivity, air quality,
                                                         water quality and quantity, and the timing of waterflows. Major
                                                         activities include providing soil, water, and air quality and weather
                                                         information to sustain healthy ecosystems; monitoring existing soil
                                                         and water improvements to ensure their continued effectiveness
                                                         and plan for future improvements; identifying and quantifying water
                                                         requirements and filing for water rights; installing, constructing,
                                                         and maintaining structural and nonstructural watershed
                                                         improvements; protecting sensitive areas from the effects of air
                                                         pollution and providing mitigation measures for management
                                                         activities; developing interagency training and application tools for
                                                         weather and climate applications courses; and collecting data
                                                         from automated weather stations. The watershed improvement
                                                         program involves implementing treatments to bring watersheds
                                                         back to a fully productive level and maintaining treatments in
                                                         previous years to ensure their continued productivity.
Minerals and Geology Management                          Facilitating energy and mineral development on forest lands;
                                                         protecting ecosystems by requiring appropriate design, mitigation,
                                                         and reclamation measures; reclaiming abandoned mines; and
                                                         monitoring and inspecting operations to ensure compliance. Major
                                                         activities include exploring, developing, and producing energy
                                                         and minerals within forest lands to contribute to economic growth;
                                                         creating jobs in rural communities; and raising revenues for the
                                                         U.S. Treasury and states; providing information for land
                                                         management decisions, inventorying and assessing geologic
                                                         conditions, and identifying and managing significant geologic
                                                         resources.
                                                                                                                  (continued)




                                  Page 105                          GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                             Appendix V
                             Forest Service’s Activities




Budget line item                                    Activities include
Land Ownership Management                           Authorizing forest land uses that benefit the general public and
                                                    administering these uses for the protection of the public and
                                                    natural resource values. Major activities include administering
                                                    special use applications, amendments, transfers, inspections,
                                                    terminations, suspensions, and fee reviews; preparing for,
                                                    surveying, maintaining, and managing landlines, rights-of-way,
                                                    and land acquisitions; locating, surveying, and posting property
                                                    boundaries; performing rights-of-way acquisition activities;
                                                    purchasing, donating, exchanging, transferring, selling, granting,
                                                    and selecting land; and providing forest managers and others with
                                                    maps, geospatial data, and technical services.
Infrastructure Management                           Operating and maintaining the forest road system to provide
                                                    needed access for resource program activities and forest users.
                                                    Major activities include collecting and analyzing data on road use
                                                    and the physical condition of the road system; determining road
                                                    jurisdiction and resolving jurisdictional problems; managing
                                                    rights-of-way and administering all construction, maintenance, and
                                                    use agreements; administering agreements with counties, states,
                                                    and cities to jointly develop and maintain roads for mutual benefit;
                                                    obliterating roads no longer needed; inspecting roads and bridges
                                                    to determine maintenance needed; and performing road
                                                    maintenance work. In addition to road system activities, this
                                                    account also includes the maintenance and improvements to
                                                    facilities used for fire and administrative purposes.
Law Enforcement Operations                          Working with state and local governments to enforce state and
                                                    local laws, rules, and regulations within the national forest system.
                                                    Major activities include investigating criminal activities occurring
                                                    on forest lands—such as timber theft, archaeological violations,
                                                    wildfire arson, and other resource violations—and eliminating the
                                                    illicit cultivation, manufacture, or distribution of controlled
                                                    substances on forest lands.
General Administration                              Providing general management, strategic direction, and
                                                    administrative support to accomplish the organizational mission
                                                    efficiently and upholding the laws governing administrative
                                                    activities. This budget item includes those costs not readily
                                                    identified with a single project and involves line management,
                                                    program support, and common services. The costs include,
                                                    among other things, salary, travel, vehicle use, training, secretarial
                                                    support, rent, supplies, communications, computer and other
                                                    office equipment, mail and postage, and National Finance Center
                                                    costs. Administrative functions funded by this budget item include
                                                    legislative affairs, program development and budget, personnel
                                                    management, civil rights, policy and management analysis, fiscal
                                                    and accounting services, information systems and technology, and
                                                    office management.
                                                                                                              (continued)




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                                      Appendix V
                                      Forest Service’s Activities




Budget line item                                             Activities include
Wildland Fire Management
Fire Presuppression and Fuels                                Planning and preparing for the protection of life, property, and
                                                             natural resources on the 191 million acres of national forest system
                                                             lands and an additional 20 million acres of adjacent state and
                                                             private lands. Preparedness activities occur before the onset of a
                                                             fire, and major activities include planning for the upcoming fire
                                                             year and providing prevention and detection information and
                                                             education; providing training, equipment, and supplies in
                                                             readiness for future fires; assisting states and other federal
                                                             agencies by providing training, planning assistance, sharing
                                                             equipment, and providing interagency coordination fire centers;
                                                             and determining, through various modeling techniques, the
                                                             resource needs for the upcoming fire season.
Fire Suppression and Rehabilitation                          Protecting life, property, and natural resources on national forest
                                                             system lands and adjacent state and private lands through
                                                             suppression operations and the emergency rehabilitation of
                                                             burned areas. Major activities include suppressing wildfires on
                                                             forest lands or those threatening the lands under fire protection
                                                             agreements and providing funds for the emergency rehabilitation
                                                             of severely burned forest lands to stabilize soil, control water
                                                             runoff, minimize sediment and debris movement, and minimize
                                                             threats to human life and property. Fire operations include
                                                             hazardous fuel reduction activities, including planning and
                                                             implementing mechanical treatments and prescribed fires, and
                                                             monitoring fuel-treatment accomplishments.
Reconstruction and Construction
Facility Construction                                        Constructing, reconstructing, and acquiring buildings and other
                                                             facilities. Major activities include planning for and rehabilitating,
                                                             renovating, replacing, improving, reconstructing, or constructing
                                                             laboratories and other research, fire, administrative, or nursery
                                                             facilities; and repairing and rehabilitating existing recreation facility
                                                             infrastructure to eliminate health and safety problems.
Road Construction                                            Providing safe, efficient, and environmentally sound access for the
                                                             multiple uses of forest lands, including recreation, commercial
                                                             resource protection, and administrative activities. Major activities
                                                             include administering, surveying, designing, reconstructing, and
                                                             constructing roads and bridges; purchasing rights-of-way; and
                                                             obliterating unneeded roads.
Trail Construction                                           Reconstructing and repairing trails, bridges, and other
                                                             components of the existing trail system to better serve the growing
                                                             demand for hiking, backpacking, horseback riding, and biking.
                                                             Major activities include upgrading trails, replacing nonfunctional
                                                             drainage structures, and removing facilities that no longer provide
                                                             quality customer service.
                                                                                                                         (continued)




                                      Page 107                           GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                           Appendix V
                                           Forest Service’s Activities




Budget line item                                                  Activities include
Land Acquisition
Land Acquisition                                                  Acquiring lands, waters, and related interests within the national
                                                                  forest system for public outdoor recreation, the conservation of
                                                                  habitat, the protection of cultural resources, and the protection of
                                                                  ecological areas, and acquiring lands to replace lands acquired
                                                                  by state, county, or municipal governments or public school
                                                                  authorities in land exchanges. Major activities include
                                                                  administering the land acquisition program; planning,
                                                                  coordinating, and preparing for land ownership adjustments; and
                                                                  executing land withdrawals, revocations, and inspections of partial
                                                                  interests, land title claims, and encroachments.
Other Appropriations
Range Betterment Fund                                             Arresting range deterioration and improving range forage
                                                                  conditions with benefits to livestock production, watershed
                                                                  protection, and wildlife. The program is financed from grazing fee
                                                                  receipts in 16 western states. Major activities include conducting
                                                                  rangeland vegetation management operations and improvement
                                                                  activities and noxious weed management and treatment costs;
                                                                  preparing for and conducting rangeland inventory and monitoring
                                                                  for compliance with forest land and resource management plans;
                                                                  and preparing, constructing, maintaining, and managing structural
                                                                  and nonstructural rangeland vegetation improvements.
Gifts, Donations, Bequests—Research                               Funding of forest and rangeland research activities. Major
                                                                  activities include accepting, holding, and administering gifts,
                                                                  donations, and bequests of money, real property, or personal
                                                                  property to establish or operate a research facility or perform
                                                                  authorized research activities.
Permanent Appropriations
Licensee Programs                                                 Preventing forest fires and promoting environmental quality. Major
                                                                  activities include furthering a nationwide forest fire prevention
                                                                  campaign and promoting the wise use of the environment and
                                                                  programs that foster the maintenance and improvement of
                                                                  environmental quality.
Brush Disposal                                                    Disposing of brush and other debris resulting from cutting
                                                                  operations on timber sale areas to protect and maintain forest
                                                                  resources. Major activities include crushing, chipping, and/or the
                                                                  burning of brush.
Restoration of Forest Lands and Improvements                      Completing all necessary work to return national forest lands to
                                                                  optimum production in a timely manner because purchasers failed
                                                                  to complete tasks called for in their contracts. Major activities
                                                                  involve reforesting lands, repairing roads, and repairing
                                                                  watersheds.
Recreation Fee for Collection Support                             Withholding up to 15 percent of all Land and Water Conservation
                                                                  recreation fees collected to recover the costs associated with
                                                                  collecting recreation, admission, and user fees. Major activities
                                                                  include collecting fees from recreation activities.
Recreation Fee Demonstration                                      Testing the collection, retention, and investment of new recreation
                                                                  admission and user fees. Major activities include restoring and
                                                                  upgrading recreation facilities.
                                                                                                                           (continued)



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                                  Appendix V
                                  Forest Service’s Activities




Budget line item                                         Activities include
Timber Roads Purchaser Election                          Allowing timber purchasers qualifying as “small business
                                                         concerns” to elect to have the permanent roads engineered and
                                                         built by the Forest Service. The activities involved would be similar
                                                         to those undertaken for the roads construction discussed above in
                                                         addition to actually building or contracting the building of the
                                                         roads.
Ten Percent Road and Trail Fund                          Correcting road and trail problems that adversely affect forest,
                                                         rangeland, and aquatic ecosystems on forest lands. Beginning in
                                                         fiscal year 1998, these funds (10 percent of receipts in the Forest
                                                         Service’s National Forest Fund) were used in addition to regular
                                                         appropriations for road and trail maintenance and reconstruction.
                                                         Major activities would be similar to the road and trail construction
                                                         discussed above.
Timber Salvage Sale Fund                                 Providing the timely harvest of trees that are dead, insect or
                                                         disease infested, windthrown, or imminently susceptible to insect
                                                         attack. Receipts from the sales of salvage timber may be placed in
                                                         the Salvage Sale Fund to be used to prepare and administer future
                                                         salvage sales. The major activities involved generally would be
                                                         similar to those used in the regular forestland management
                                                         program discussed above.
Quarters Maintenance                                     Operating and maintaining employee quarters. Funds are used in
                                                         addition to the maintenance of facilities funds discussed above.
                                                         The activities would be similar to maintain, operate, and manage
                                                         water, wastewater disposal systems, and similar services normally
                                                         provided by a landlord.
Trust Funds
Knutson-Vandenberg Fund                                  Reforesting harvested lands, improving timber growth and product
                                                         quality, and protecting and improving other resources. Funds from
                                                         timber sales may be deposited in the Knutson-Vandenberg Fund
                                                         and used to accomplish these activities on the sale areas. Major
                                                         activities include growing trees for planting, planting trees, sowing
                                                         seeds, removing weeds and other competing vegetation, and
                                                         preventing animal damage; thinning trees to enhance growth;
                                                         performing prescribed burns to enhance wildlife habitat and
                                                         rangeland ecosystems; planting riparian vegetation; removing
                                                         barriers to fish passage and stabilizing stream banks; constructing
                                                         birds’ nest boxes or tree cavities and water catchments; and
                                                         installing gates, signs, and traffic control barriers.
Cooperative Work, Other                                  Protecting and improving the resources of the national forest
                                                         system. Deposits from cooperators are used for the construction,
                                                         reconstruction, and maintenance of roads, trails, and other
                                                         improvements and for scaling services, fire protection, and other
                                                         resource purposes. Activities involved would be similar to the
                                                         roads and trails and fire programs discussed above.
                                                                                                                   (continued)




                                  Page 109                          GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                  Appendix V
                                  Forest Service’s Activities




Budget line item                                         Activities include
Reforestation Trust Fund                                 Preventing the backlog of reforestation and timber stand
                                                         improvement work, enhancing forest health, and reducing
                                                         hazardous fuel loads of forest stands. Funds generated by tariffs
                                                         on imported solid wood products are used in conjunction with
                                                         Knutson-Vandenberg funds and annual appropriations to reforest
                                                         harvested lands and for other reforestation-related projects. Major
                                                         activities would be similar to those listed for the Cooperative
                                                         Work—Knutson-Vandenberg Fund and for the forestland
                                                         vegetation discussed above.
Other Categories of Obligations
Natural Disaster Funding                                 Carrying out natural resource restoration and maintenance work in
                                                         response to flood, landslide, and related damages cause by the
                                                         severe weather events during the winter of 1995-96. Major
                                                         activities include watershed restoration, reforestation, insect and
                                                         disease control, road and trail maintenance and reconstruction,
                                                         and facility reconstruction as a result of a natural disaster. This
                                                         category of obligations involves various supplemental
                                                         appropriations of an emergency nature.
Human Resources Programs                                 Administering and hosting programs in work, training, and
                                                         education for the unemployed, underemployed, elderly, young,
                                                         and others with special needs. The Forest Service participates in
                                                         these human resource programs frequently in conjunction with the
                                                         Department of Labor and other organizations. The major human
                                                         resource programs include the Job Corps; the Senior Community
                                                         Service Employment Program; the Youth Conservation Corps;
                                                         Volunteers in the National Forests; Keep America Beautiful, Inc.;
                                                         and Youth Forest Camps.
Reimbursable Activities                                  This category includes one-time work performed for others. This
                                                         category includes reimbursements to four major Forest Service
                                                         appropriations for services performed for other units within the
                                                         Forest Service or other federal agencies. The four appropriations
                                                         are construction, research, national forest system activities, and
                                                         fire.
Transfer Funds                                           Performing work for or managing programs of another federal
                                                         agency. Examples include the management of Job Corps Centers
                                                         for the Department of Labor or performing major emergency road
                                                         or facility repairs for the Federal Highway Administration because
                                                         of floods or hurricanes.
Holding and Clearing                                     This category is a financial account and not a program or activity.
                                                         It relates to funds that are held because the specific fund to which
                                                         they apply is not known; moneys for which the government is
                                                         acting solely as a banker, fiscal agent, or custodian are returned to
                                                         the depositor; moneys are in dispute because ownership is in
                                                         doubt; and unidentified remittances that presumably are not for
                                                         credit are placed in budget accounts. This category also includes
                                                         incorrect or erroneous accounting for salary costs that are
                                                         included as a payroll force release until the correct account can be
                                                         identified and the charges are cleared from the holding and
                                                         clearing account.




                                  Page 110                          GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
Page 111   GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
Appendix VI

Forest Service’s Obligations by Budget Line
Item for Major Organizational Units, Fiscal
Year 1998

Dollars in thousands
                              Forest Service total             Washington Office activities           Northern Region
Budget line item            Obligations               FTEsa     Obligations             FTEs      Obligations             FTEs
Forest and Rangeland
Research                    $182,251.2               2,352.8       $11,973.1             73.6           $52.0               0.1
Forest Health Management       72,781.6               353.7          6,199.9             41.6         3,878.9              40.6
Cooperative Forestry           90,094.6               303.5         11,613.9             34.1         2,041.0               5.2
Emergency Pest
Suppression                      521.5                   5.4               0                  0          67.6               1.2
Land Management
Planning                       32,980.9               451.0          1,955.0             16.9         2,599.1              35.0
Inventory and Monitoring       76,717.7              1,036.4         9,038.4             39.5         8,190.1             128.6
Recreation Use                194,671.9              3,056.2        14,704.5             81.9        16,471.3             267.7
Wildlife and Fisheries
Habitat Management             80,557.1              1,205.1         7,964.8             36.2         8,072.2             119.3
Rangeland Management           61,738.3               654.3          4,107.7             23.5         5,873.2              93.6
Forestland Management         231,772.9              4,027.1        15,549.0             79.7        20,005.5             310.0
Soil, Water, and Air
Management                     43,195.7               563.8          3,824.2             21.6         6,352.3              61.0
Minerals and Geology
Management                     33,002.3               467.1          3,327.4             23.9         5,483.4              78.6
Land Ownership
Management                     54,198.9               763.6          8,992.1             67.3         6,223.7              94.4
Infrastructure Management      93,914.9              1,166.7         4,886.7             27.0        10,806.6             132.5
Law Enforcement
Operations                     15,656.8                74.0          1,287.4              2.9         1,190.0               3.6
General Administration        239,448.5              2,805.5        35,147.7           192.0         22,600.6             304.0
Fire Presuppression and
Fuels                         290,010.5              4,602.7        24,659.8           158.3         32,627.3             541.7
Fire Suppression and
Rehabilitation                241,517.9              3,763.0        49,018.2             12.7        38,953.6             610.9
Facility Construction          39,414.4               172.7            949.5              2.9         1,670.5               8.4
Road Construction              70,466.8               871.7          5,536.5             27.8         6,923.4              77.4
Trail Construction             21,543.4               278.1          1,103.5              2.9         3,530.0              36.6
Land Acquisition               96,750.1               104.4         65,473.9              3.9         1,423.4               8.8
Range Betterment Fund           7,339.3                35.3                0                  0         350.7               3.3
Gifts/Donations Forest
Service                         1,206.3                  4.6             8.1                  0          29.3               0.3
Recreation Fees for
Collection Support               598.2                 11.1                0                  0          44.4               0.4
Timber Roads Purchaser
Election                        1,279.3                  4.0            19.2              0.3            40.7               0.1




                                          Page 112                         GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                    Appendix VI
                                    Forest Service’s Obligations by Budget Line
                                    Item for Major Organizational Units, Fiscal
                                    Year 1998




Rocky Mountain Region            Southwest Region                Intermountain Region          Pacific Southwest Region
Obligations         FTEs       Obligations            FTEs        Obligations         FTEs       Obligations          FTEs

        $0                0         $19.8                0.4           $148.9            0.2             $8.1             0
    4,015.5             30.7       2,292.9             17.4           2,427.2          24.0           5,139.4          40.1
    3,295.1              4.2       2,375.1               4.3          2,170.8            5.9          6,226.8          13.4

       14.7              0.5          40.5               0.9              52.0           0.5              1.7             0

    4,888.0             74.4       3,060.6             43.5           6,196.8          72.3           2,672.8          20.1
    6,943.0         101.7          7,074.2            104.6           8,709.6         100.7          12,645.2         118.4
   20,430.0         327.9         19,167.2            278.7          25,352.7         371.9          34,735.3         474.7

    5,898.6             75.2       6,996.0             92.1           9,533.1         130.6          12,605.7         153.8
    7,411.5         108.8          9,339.4            140.0           8,910.7         131.4           3,455.2          48.1
   15,815.7         246.8         10,708.3            166.6          16,429.5         232.5          40,098.5         571.5

    4,123.1             47.4       6,408.8             87.9           4,263.6          51.2           6,519.0          75.2

    2,803.6             40.0       2,751.7             37.8           6,437.3          82.5           4,424.2          56.8

    5,675.9             75.9       4,830.7             68.9           4,601.6          62.9           7,127.4          90.5
    9,175.8         108.0          9,742.7            105.9           9,894.8         113.5          19,444.2         193.3

    1,018.0              4.0       1,326.8               4.1          1,410.8            4.2          3,841.1          21.5
   20,300.3         247.1         21,416.7            263.5          22,888.4         307.3          36,542.3         327.1

   12,676.7         182.1         35,688.8            607.6          31,602.5         470.5        101,565.1        1,589.6

   12,244.7         209.4         30,786.5            557.6          22,259.9         342.4           5,231.2         953.8
    3,434.7             18.4       5,896.5             24.0           4,560.2          28.2           2,562.5          12.4
    5,215.2             50.9       7,152.2             61.8           6,202.4          70.2          10,915.0         106.5
    3,567.6             27.7       2,366.6             41.5           2,340.1          34.3           3,843.6          40.0
    2,391.2              6.8       2,358.0               5.2          1,473.7            5.7          8,030.8          11.2
      589.0              6.7        719.2                5.6            913.6          13.1             163.0           2.5

      106.0              2.0          19.7                 0              46.9           0.4             76.2             0

       32.8              0.3          39.6               0.5              82.6           1.3             64.6           0.7

         0                0             0                  0            104.7            1.3            478.5           0.5
                                                                                                                (continued)



                                    Page 113                          GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                            Appendix VI
                                            Forest Service’s Obligations by Budget Line
                                            Item for Major Organizational Units, Fiscal
                                            Year 1998




Dollars in thousands
                                Forest Service total              Washington Office activities           Northern Region
                                                             a
Budget line item             Obligations                FTEs       Obligations             FTEs      Obligations             FTEs
10 Percent Road and Trail
Fund                             27,202.9               159.2                 0                  0       2,777.8              22.4
Timber Salvage Sales
Fund                           124,814.3               2,340.8          4,286.4             30.5        28,370.7             473.3
Brush Disposal Fund              13,234.6               292.8             590.4               3.2        3,335.6              59.1
Licensee Programs                    99.9                   0              99.9                  0              0                0
Restoration of Forestlands
and Improvements                  1,283.8                  9.6                0                  0          88.3               0.7
Quarters Maintenance             17,528.4                66.4             101.0               1.4          537.3               5.8
Recreation Fee
Demonstration                    12,569.4               287.1                 0                  0         216.1               4.2
Knutson-Vandenberg Fund        115,490.7               1,799.1          3,797.4             27.0        15,408.0             216.8
Cooperative Work-Other           38,924.5               454.4             398.1               3.3        4,679.7              33.1
Reforestaton Trust Fund          18,044.5               187.4             459.2               5.2        3,592.8              33.3
Natural Disaster Funding         67,232.6               591.6                 0                  0       6,912.6              71.5
Human Resources                119,321.9               3,035.0          2,575.6             24.4           623.9              53.7
Holding and Clearing             51,046.0                (12.7)        27,562.2                  0         475.2                 0
Reimbursable Activities          72,891.0              1,081.1          4,961.6             38.1         1,808.4              73.8
Transfer Funds                   68,993.4               293.4           1,496.1             14.7         5,914.5              18.2
Total                        $3,022,308.9          39,719.0          $333,668.4           1,118.3     $280,241.7           4,029.2




                                            Page 114                          GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                    Appendix VI
                                    Forest Service’s Obligations by Budget Line
                                    Item for Major Organizational Units, Fiscal
                                    Year 1998




Rocky Mountain Region            Southwest Region                Intermountain Region          Pacific Southwest Region
Obligations         FTEs       Obligations            FTEs        Obligations         FTEs       Obligations          FTEs

    3,340.2             40.7       1,177.8               7.2          2,065.9            4.7          7,211.6          13.4

    6,393.8             99.7       1,174.2             18.8          12,477.4         203.0          19,797.9         331.3
      243.2              4.3        275.6                4.8            708.6          11.9           4,703.1          78.6
         0                0             0                  0                 0            0                 0             0

       15.7              0.2           4.9                 0              37.2           0.2          1,068.2           8.0
      422.4              2.9        493.8                5.3            680.7            6.5          1,573.0          13.7

      281.4              7.3       3,239.6             60.3             850.9          10.2           2,649.3          43.6
    4,929.1             67.5       2,698.1             39.9           5,216.4          65.9          32,186.0         366.9
    3,600.6             51.8       2,208.2             17.7           4,098.0          31.5           8,195.8          78.3
      946.8             14.6        693.2              10.2           2,445.5          26.2           5,582.7          47.2
      568.6              9.1            0                  0          3,743.1          41.6          10,914.3         118.7
    1,099.5             79.7       1,714.0            132.1           2,042.8         159.5           2,932.4         224.0
      380.6              0.2       1,705.3                 0          5,073.1             0             809.4           0.4
    1,442.8             31.6       6,828.5             58.4           6,523.5         101.7          11,092.4         266.9
    1,752.6              7.4       1,453.6               9.0          5,156.3          38.6          16,532.0          76.5
 $177,484.0        2,413.9     $216,245.3           3,084.1        $250,133.8       3,360.5       $453,665.5        6,589.2




                                    Page 115                          GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                          Appendix VI
                                          Forest Service’s Obligations by Budget Line
                                          Item for Major Organizational Units, Fiscal
                                          Year 1998




                            Pacific Northwest Region                Southern Region                    Eastern Region
Budget line item            Obligations               FTEs      Obligations             FTEs       Obligations             FTEs
Forest and Rangeland
Research                          $63.8                  1.3         $191.6               3.1               $0                 0
Forest Health Management        2,449.3                44.5         18,504.1             86.7               4.3              0.1
Cooperative Forestry            9,019.6                38.2         15,565.2             26.9               8.8              1.0
Emergency Pest
Suppression                        18.8                  0.4            91.8              1.7                 0                0
Land Management
Planning                        2,672.5                58.4          5,421.9             78.5          2,329.3              26.4
Inventory and Monitoring        8,298.0               226.5          6,828.7             80.1          4,819.6              62.7
Recreation Use                 15,981.3               503.0         21,585.6            306.9         21,368.8             310.5
Wildlife and Fisheries
Habitat Management              7,042.8               237.6          8,951.5            126.2          8,310.0             106.2
Rangeland Management           20,483.2                77.6          1,448.8             20.9            605.8               9.1
Forestland Management          41,598.1              1,194.3        37,279.7            590.7         25,192.4             392.5
Soil, Water, and Air
Management                      3,247.5               108.0          3,406.6             42.4          3,184.8              36.8
Minerals and Geology
Management                      1,971.9                59.6          2,731.1             37.9          2,205.8              26.8
Land Ownership
Management                      3,245.2                99.3          6,007.6             89.4          6,139.2              80.1
Infrastructure Management       9,833.3               285.9         10,911.8             98.7          8,241.6              82.3
Law Enforcement
Operations                      1,520.3                15.7          2,709.4             10.4          1,248.9               4.0
General Administration         15,908.9               376.7         24,958.0            257.1         17,979.2             217.9
Fire Presuppression and
Fuels                          21,498.8               710.7         17,847.2            210.5          8,531.3              93.9
Fire Suppression and
Rehabilitation                 10,084.5               461.3         60,929.5            458.6          9,252.3             112.4
Facility Construction           4,062.5                19.7          6,362.8             27.5          4,979.9              15.2
Road Construction               7,442.5               210.8          9,722.8            103.9          8,469.9              89.2
Trail Construction              1,085.3                37.0          1,839.2             22.9          1,353.4              16.6
Land Acquisition                  646.7                17.9          6,875.8             22.3          8,064.3              22.4
Range Betterment Fund           4,603.2                  4.1             0.6                0                 0                0
Gifts/Donations Forest
Service                           796.5                  1.1            16.3                0            103.9               0.8
Recreation Fees for
Collection Support                 15.0                  0.4           219.6              5.3             58.1               1.2
Timber Roads Purchaser
Election                            6.0                  0.2           416.0              0.3            166.8               0.2




                                          Page 116                          GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                  Appendix VI
                                  Forest Service’s Obligations by Budget Line
                                  Item for Major Organizational Units, Fiscal
                                  Year 1998




                           Northeastern Area State and
   Alaska Region                Private Forestry                 Research Stations              Job Corps Centers
Obligations        FTEs     Obligations             FTEs        Obligations          FTEs      Obligations          FTEs

        $0            0          $240.9                  0       $169,553.0       2,274.1               $0              0
     479.9          11.1        21,056.9               4.6          6,333.3           12.3                0             0
     196.8           3.5        35,617.6            152.0           1,963.9           14.8                0             0

        8.2          0.2          226.2                  0                 0            0                 0             0

     982.1          21.2              0                  0            202.8            4.3                0             0
    1,119.5         31.7          102.8                0.2          2,948.6           41.7                0             0
    4,414.4        129.3          177.7                1.5            283.1            2.2                0             0

    3,710.4        109.2            67.0                 0          1,405.0           18.7                0             0
        7.8          0.2            24.0                 0              71.0           1.1                0             0
    8,342.1        234.6          189.0                  0            565.1            7.9                0             0

     931.3          25.7            45.0                 0            889.5            6.6                0             0

     812.6          22.6            26.0                 0              27.3           0.6                0             0

    1,213.7         33.9            41.3                 0            100.5            1.0                0             0
     715.0          18.9          125.9                0.2            136.5            0.5                0             0

       75.5          2.9              0                  0              28.6           0.7                0             0
    4,603.0        113.6         1,186.2               0.2         16,041.5          199.0           (124.3)            0

     514.5          15.4          138.4                  0          2,506.1           19.7            154.0            2.7

     141.1           4.7         1,162.2               0.8            557.9            7.8            896.3          30.6
     388.1           8.7         2,335.7               3.1          2,211.5            4.2                0             0
    2,851.3         72.8             1.0                 0              34.6           0.4                0             0
     505.3          18.5              0                  0               8.8           0.1                0             0
         0            0               0                  0              12.3           0.2                0             0
         0            0               0                  0                 0            0                 0             0

         0            0               0                  0               3.4            0                 0             0

       41.5          1.0              0                  0                 0            0                 0             0

       47.4          1.1              0                  0                 0            0                 0             0
                                                                                                               (continued)



                                  Page 117                          GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                          Appendix VI
                                          Forest Service’s Obligations by Budget Line
                                          Item for Major Organizational Units, Fiscal
                                          Year 1998




                            Pacific Northwest Region                Southern Region                    Eastern Region
Budget line item            Obligations               FTEs      Obligations              FTEs      Obligations             FTEs
10 Percent Road and Trail
Fund                              442.7                15.4          5,902.7              30.2         4,233.6              23.7
Timber Salvage Sales
Fund                           29,509.5               861.2         14,668.0             170.6         7,464.6             129.1
Brush Disposal Fund             3,350.7               130.3                0                 0            27.4               0.6
Licensee Programs                     0                   0                0                 0                0                0
Restoration of
Improvements                        6.0                  0.1             3.3                 0            48.2               0.4
Quarters Maintenance           13,101.9                23.8            273.4                2.0          151.3               1.5
Recreation Fee
Demonstration                   2,197.8                96.4          1,526.9              26.2         1,569.0              37.8
Knutson-Vandenberg Fund        20,689.3               655.0         21,367.2             245.8         9,026.4             108.0
Cooperative Work-Other          3,312.7               111.6          4,710.6              46.4         2,151.1              20.2
Reforestaton Trust Fund               0                   0          3,009.9              34.0         1,188.5              12.7
Natural Disaster Funding       34,677.9               236.8          7,619.7              74.5         2,510.6              31.8
Human Resources                 1,721.2               142.6          9,816.4             784.6         5,165.9             381.5
Holding and Clearing           11,664.7                (14.4)        2,489.8                0.1          849.1                 0
Reimbursable Activities        15,511.9               154.4         19,088.2             206.5         1,110.1              43.8
Transfer Funds                  4,008.1               103.9          2,892.5              12.3         1,702.9               6.5
Total                        $333,789.9              7,307.3     $364,191.8             4,342.1     $179,817.1           2,505.9




                                          Page 118                          GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
                                  Appendix VI
                                  Forest Service’s Obligations by Budget Line
                                  Item for Major Organizational Units, Fiscal
                                  Year 1998




                           Northeastern Area State and
   Alaska Region                Private Forestry                     Research Stations                      Job Corps Centers
Obligations        FTEs     Obligations                FTEs        Obligations              FTEs           Obligations          FTEs

       50.6          1.5                0                  0                    0                0                  0              0

     671.8          23.3                0                  0                    0                0                  0              0
         0            0                 0                  0                    0                0                  0              0
         0            0                 0                  0                    0                0                  0              0

        1.9           0                 0                  0                10.1                 0                  0              0
     110.2           3.5                0                  0                72.8                 0                10.6             0

       38.4          1.1                0                  0                    0                0                  0              0
     172.8           5.8                0                  0                    0              0.5                  0              0
     231.0           9.2          726.0                    0             4,617.7             51.3                 (5.0)            0
     125.9           4.0                0                  0                    0                0                  0              0
     281.8           7.6                0                  0                  4.0                0                  0              0
         0            0               78.4               1.8             1,061.3             78.1             90,490.5          973.0
         0            0                1.3                 0               (12.9)              1.0                48.2             0
     168.6           5.8         1,736.5                 5.9             2,618.4             94.2                  0.1             0
   26,704.3          3.9         1,109.5                   0               271.0               2.4                  0              0
  $60,658.8        946.5      $66,415.5               170.3         $214,526.7            2,845.4            $91,470.4     1,006.3
                                  a
                                   FTEs (full-time equivalents) include both regular and overtime hours.

                                  Source: GAO’s analysis of the Forest Service’s data.




                                  Page 119                              GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
Appendix VII

Receipts Generated by the Forest Service
and Bureau of Land Management, by State,
Fiscal Year 1998

               States and territories                      BLMa                Forest Service
               Alabama                                   $39,239                   $4,531,350
               Alaska                                    558,912                    7,280,366
               Arizona                                 3,419,469                    8,451,291
               Arkansas                                        0                   26,320,639
               California                              4,132,133                   75,893,847
               Colorado                                1,908,953                   20,801,733
               Connecticut                                     0                            0
               Delaware                                        0                            0
               District of Columbia                        5,137                            0
               Florida                                         0                    5,758,178
               Georgia                                        75                    1,313,247
               Hawaii                                          0                            0
               Idaho                                   3,003,495                   49,879,975
               Illinois                                        0                    1,576,403
               Indiana                                         0                      553,176
               Iowa                                            0                            0
               Kansas                                          0                    1,893,974
               Kentucky                                        0                    1,024,283
               Louisiana                                       0                    9,442,203
               Maine                                           0                      148,876
               Maryland                                        0                        9,740
               Massachusetts                                   0                            0
               Michigan                                      100                   12,684,542
               Minnesota                                     267                    8,588,347
               Mississippi                                 1,968                   21,597,862
               Missouri                                        0                    4,948,132
               Montana                                 3,426,035                   41,466,663
               Nebraska                                    3,832                      149,041
               Nevada                                 10,038,699                    1,329,201
               New Hampshire                                   0                    2,194,099
               New Jersey                                      0                            0
               New Mexico                              4,537,905                    3,459,315
               New York                                        0                        8,862
               North Carolina                                  0                    2,377,208
               North Dakota                               47,711                   12,175,849
               Ohio                                            0                       83,334
               Oklahoma                                  (42,732)                   6,024,310
               Oregon                                 57,566,096                 118,144,478
                                                                                  (continued)


               Page 120                 GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
Appendix VII
Receipts Generated by the Forest Service
and Bureau of Land Management, by State,
Fiscal Year 1998




States and territories                                       BLMa                   Forest Service
Pennsylvania                                                       0                     23,221,847
Rhode Island                                                       0                                0
South Carolina                                                     0                       2,228,911
South Dakota                                               171,960                       14,883,654
Tennessee                                                          0                       1,307,423
Texas                                                           986                      22,821,294
Utah                                                     3,676,772                         6,121,507
Vermont                                                            0                       1,742,259
Virginia                                                    80,865                         3,069,416
Washington                                                 367,658                       24,454,996
West Virginia                                                      0                       7,777,234
Wisconsin                                                   14,064                         8,663,095
Wyoming                                                  4,837,632                         9,866,825
U.S. territories                                                   0                          97,635
Total                                                 $97,797,231                     $576,366,620

a
 BLM also has receipts of $42 million from mining claims, holding fee collections, and receipts
from fines, penalties, service charges, and recovery fees that are not associated with a specific
state.

Source: BLM and the Forest Service.




Page 121                              GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
Appendix VIII

Objectives, Scope, and Methodology


                The Chairman, House Committee on the Budget, requested that we
                provide (1) a comprehensive demographic and organizational profile of
                two of the largest land management agencies—the Bureau of Land
                Management and the Forest Service—including information about each
                agency’s managed lands; organizational mission, goals, structure, and
                organizational roles and responsibilities; location, type, and number of
                offices; activities and obligations; and receipts generated and
                (2) observations on the major similarities and differences emerging from
                this preliminary information.

                Because of the sheer volume of information presented about each of the
                agencies, this report provides information on each agency separately and
                concludes with observations on the major similarities and differences of
                the agencies, which are based on their demographic and organizational
                profiles. Chapter 2 discusses the profile of BLM, while chapter 3 provides
                the profile of the Forest Service. Chapter 4 provides our observations on
                the major similarities and differences and a discussion of joint BLM/Forest
                Service initiatives currently under way. The text of the report is
                supplemented by a series of appendixes that provide detailed information
                dealing with BLM’s and the Forest Service’s occupational job series;
                number, type, and location of offices; description of the activities
                undertaken under each budget category; obligations and full-time
                equivalents (FTEs); and receipts generated.

                To obtain much of the information presented in this report, we relied on
                agency publications such as manuals, budget justifications, and annual
                reports. In some instances, we asked the agency to provide us with
                sufficient information that would allow us to prepare the various segments
                of the demographic and organizational profiles. In other instances, we
                asked the agencies for the raw data and reformatted the data to present
                the results.

                To determine the agencies’ acreage and number of states in which federal
                land is managed—we relied on agency publications. We used BLM’s Public
                Land Statistics, 1998 and the Forest Service’s Land Areas of the National
                Forest System, 1997 (latest year available).

                To identify the missions, goals, organizational structure, and roles of the
                various organizational levels, we relied primarily on published agency
                documents such as budget justifications, agency manuals, Government
                and Performance Review Act documents, annual reports, and other agency
                publications to develop the information we needed. In the case of the roles



                Page 122                    GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
Appendix VIII
Objectives, Scope, and Methodology




of the Forest Service’s various organizational levels, no one document
provided sufficient detail that would adequately allow us to describe the
relevance of the offices and their operations. Therefore, we asked the
Forest Service to provide us with a detailed description of these offices
and their roles.

To determine the number of employees by occupational category, we
requested this information as of the end of fiscal year 1998 from both
agencies. We then identified the official Office of Personnel Management
job series classifications and compared them with the information
provided by the agencies. In some instances, the agencies used titles
slightly different from those of the official Office of Personnel
Management’s titles, and, to the extent practical, we reconciled this
information. The information presented on job series requires some
clarification. Job series is the position that a person is hired into or
promoted into because the applicant meets certain educational or job
experience qualifications. Generally, a job series corresponds to a
recognized occupation in the federal service for a particular type of work.
However, a designated job series may not necessarily reflect the position
that the person is actually working in. For example, an employee may be
working in Personnel and be classified as a psychologist.

To determine the number and types of field offices for both BLM and the
Forest Service, we relied on a number of sources. We used the agencies’
records of locations, the agencies’ telephone directories, and Internet
descriptions to arrive at a base line of each agency’s locations. We then
attempted to obtain from the agencies and minimal direct verification, the
latest address and Zip Code information as well as the type of office
included at that address. We used the address information to summarize,
by state, the number and types of locations as well as applied mapping
techniques on the basis of Zip Code information to develop some of the
maps used in this report.

Some limitations must be considered before using this location
information. For example, both the Forest Service and BLM are in the
process of reorganizing their structure and/or number of field locations.
We asked for the number and locations of field locations as of the end of
fiscal year 1998, but this has changed during fiscal year 1999. In addition,
each agency collocates some of its offices for economic or organizational
needs, and, in some cases, this information may not be reflected in the
total number of locations that we have listed. For example, the Forest
Service has work centers where it may store and/or repair equipment



Page 123                         GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
Appendix VIII
Objectives, Scope, and Methodology




needed in a district. In some cases, the work center may be on the same
grounds as the district office and not have a separate mailing address or it
may be located a few miles away but receive its mail at the district office
and thus not have a separate mailing address or Zip Code. In these cases,
the work center would not be included as a specific location in the total
number of locations. In addition, both the Forest Service and BLM operate
campgrounds or other recreational facilities as part of its local field
operations, and these facilities may not have separate mailing addresses or
Zip Codes. Most of the recreation trails and other scenic areas managed by
these agencies do not have specific addresses nor are they considered
separate organizational components and thus would not be considered in
our listing of offices. In sum, both the Forest Service and BLM are
responsible for managing hundreds, if not thousands, of locations that
would not necessarily be considered an office where staff are employed
and hence would not be included in our information.

To determine the agencies’ activities, we relied on the agencies’ budget
submissions and other agency documentation to identify the activities
performed under the various budget categories. Although we sought the
agencies’ concurrence that the activities listed for each budget item were
the most important activities, much more information could have been
prepared under each activity. For example, the agencies have
program-specific manuals that provide significant detail about the tasks
and activities needed to perform a certain program; therefore, several
hundred more activities probably could be listed for many of the activities
included. We provided the most critical of the activities for each of the
budget categories identified.

To determine the amount of obligations and FTEs for fiscal year 1998, we
asked each agency to provide us with this information for lower
organizational levels. We asked that information by each budget line item
(Forest Service) or budget activity (BLM) be provided for each component
in the organization. In the case of the Forest Service, we requested that the
information be provided on a forest-level basis rather than for each of the
district offices within each forest. We then reviewed the number of budget
categories and arrived at 41 major budget categories for each agency. Both
the Forest Service and BLM actually have more than 41 budget categories
but owing to the nature of some of the categories, it was more meaningful
to combine some of the information. For example, the Forest Service has
four accounts dealing with reimbursables that were very similar in the
activities undertaken. Likewise, BLM actually has 10 budget activities under
the Helium program that are carried out at one location; we combined



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Appendix VIII
Objectives, Scope, and Methodology




these into one budget category because of the limited number of locations
where funds were expended. Therefore, for ease of presentation, we
included all of the smaller budget categories into larger, more meaningful
categorizations. Both BLM and the Forest Service worked with us to
combine the smaller budget categories for presentation purposes.

We then grouped the amounts obligated and the FTEs for the individual
field units into the larger agency unit. For example, the various Forest
Service forests are grouped according to which region they are part of, and
BLM’s various field units are grouped according to which state office they
report to. The body of the report provides a summarization of the
information compiled, and the appendixes provide a greater level of detail
on the results of our analysis. It should be noted that the FTEs associated
with the obligations are basically a staff-year calculation and will not agree
with the number of employees in the job series information. In addition,
while both the Forest Service and BLM account for personnel by FTE, each
agency computes this number slightly differently. For example, the Forest
Service tracks all hours worked—regular and overtime—by permanent
and temporary employees and divides this amount by 2,080. BLM, on the
other hand, considers 174 straight-time hours to constitute a workmonth,
and 12 workmonths to equal one FTE. In other words, BLM uses 2,088
straight hours as one FTE.

To determine the amounts of receipts generated, we relied on BLM’s
publication, Public Land Statistics, Fiscal Year 1998, and the Forest
Service’s report, ASR-08, Gross Receipts by Class and County Based on NF
Acreage, Fiscal Year 1998, and ASR-13-2, Fiscal Year 1999 National
Grassland Statement of Receipts, for the receipts generated on BLM lands,
national forests, and grasslands. These reports provide the amounts of
receipts generated by types as well as the states where the receipts were
generated.

We did not independently verify the reliability of the financial data
provided nor did we trace the data to the systems from which they came.
These systems were, in some cases, subject to audit procedures by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Office of Inspector General in connection
with the Forest Service’s financial statement audits. For fiscal years 1992
through 1998, the Office of Inspector General reported that because of
errors in field-level data and significant internal control weaknesses in
various accounting subsystems, the Forest Service’s accounting data were
not reliable. We chose to use these data, however, since they were the only
data available and were the data that the agency uses to manage its



Page 125                         GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
           Appendix VIII
           Objectives, Scope, and Methodology




           programs. BLM, on the other hand, has received unqualified opinions on its
           financial statements since 1995, and the data’s reliability was not
           questioned by the Department of the Interior’s Office of Inspector General.

           We conducted our work from November 1998 through June 1999 in
           accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards.




(141247)   Page 126                         GAO/RCED-99-227 Profiles of the Forest Service and BLM
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United States                       Bulk Rate
General Accounting Office      Postage & Fees Paid
Washington, D.C. 20548-0001           GAO
                                 Permit No. G100
Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300

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