oversight

Community Development: Census Tracts With High Poverty Levels in Medium-Sized to Large Metropolitan Statistical Areas

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1999-07-28.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

         GAf                 United States
                             General Accounting Office
                             Washington, D.C. 20548

                             Resources, Community, and
                             Economic Development Division


                               B-283117

                              July 28, 1999

                              The Honorable John McCain
                              Chairman, Committee on Commerce,
                               Science, and Transportation
                              United States Senate

                              Subject:       Community Development: Census Tracts With High Poverty Levels in
                                             Medium-Sized to Large Metropolitan Statistical Areas

                              Dear Mr. Chairman:

                              As you requested, we have identified the census tracts that have high levels of poverty
                              for every medium-sized to large metropolitan statistical area in the United States.' For
                              each selected metropolitan statistical area, enclosure I lists the number of census tracts
                              in which 50 percent or more of the households are at or below the poverty level,2 the
                              number of tracts in which 75 percent or more of the households are at or below the
                              poverty level (a subset of the first number), and the total number of census tracts. For
                              each of these census tracts, enclosure II lists the median household income and the
                              number of households in four income ranges.

                              Our objectives in this review were to identify census tracts in medium-sized to large
                              cities that met specific poverty criteria and to provide additional information on each
                              census tract. To attain our objectives, we identified medium-sized to large metropolitan
                              statistical areas by using data from the Department of Commerce's federal standard for
                              metropolitan statistical areas.3 For the selected metropolitan statistical areas, we
              al
              s.S!analyzed
                 ).I                data from the 1990 Census to identify those census tracts in which households
             .Z            were at or below different poverty levels.4 For both data sources, we performed limited
     V :           c}
                   '<         testing and review of existing information and determined that the data were reliable for


              X;    M
                    a)    'A metropolitan statistical area is defined as an area that includes either a city or other urban area with a population of
                          50,000 or more. We defined medium-sized to large metropolitan statistical areas as those with populations of 250,000 or
              -(
              Q -4,Ad _   more in the 1990 Census. The Census Bureau defines census tracts as small, relatively permanent subdivisions of
              4.          counties that usually have between 2,500 and 8,000 people; therefore, there are multiple census tracts within each
               0· >Vmetropolitan
                   OPi i;               statistical area

                              'For the 1990 Census, the poverty rate was the percentage of people whose poverty status was computed and whose 1989
     ·              1S?
                    ~a
                    o         income was below a specific level. For example, the level for a family of four was $12,674.

-!       ~,                   'Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 8-6, Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and
     cUI/   Qr O              Technology (Mar. 1995).


     O
         •   4 v   S5
                 XW4
                             'Specifically, we selected populated urban tracts with median household income greater than zero. To exclude tracts with
                             large institutionalized populations, such as prisons, we eliminated tracts if the ratio of people to households was greater
                 go 0        thanl0tol.


         ZD
          0
                                                                     GAO/RCED-99-246R Poverty Areas in Medium-Sized and Large Cities
 B-283117

 our purposes. We performed our work from April through July 1999 in accordance with
 generally accepted government auditing standards.



 As agreed with your office, unless you publicly announce its contents earlier, we plan no
 further distribution of this report until 30 days after its issue date. At that time, we will
 make copies available to others on request.

 If you have any further questions, please contact me at (202) 512-7631. Key contributors
 to this report were Nancy Simmons, Barbara Johnson, and Curtis Groves.

 Sincerely yours,




'bdy A. England-Joseph
  Director, Housing and Community
   Development Issues

 Enclosures - 2




  2                               GAO/RCED-99-246R Poverty Areas in Medium-Sized and Large Cities
Enclosure I

                    Number of Census Tracts by Metropolitan Statistical Area

                                 Number of tracts with at    Number of tracts with at
                                   least 50% at or below       least 75% at or below
 Metropolitan statistical area              poverty level              poverty level'   Total tracts in the area
 Akron, OH                                              4                                                     148
 Albuquerque, NM                                         1                                                    110
 Ann Arbor, Ml                                          2                                                     103
 Appleton-Oshkosh, WI                                    1                                                     84
 Atlanta, GA                                           13                          3                         478
 Augusta-Aiken, GA-SC                                   1                                                      84
 Austin, TX                                             1                                                    224
 Bakersfield, CA                                        2                                                     109
 Baltimore, MD                                          5                                                    588
 Baton Rouge, LA                                        3                                                    101
 Beaumont, TX                                           2                                                    111
 Bergen-Passaic, NJ                                     1                          1                         303
 Biloxi-Gulfport, MS                                    1                                                      75
 Binghamton, NY                                         1                                                      68
 Birmingham, AL                                         4                                                    189
 Boca Raton, FL                                         1                                                    211
 Boston, MA-NH                                          3                                                    730
 Bridgeport, CT                                         4                          2                         211
 Brownsville, TX                                       16                                                      64
 Buffalo, NY                                            3                                                    290
 Canton-Massillon, OH                                   1                                                      82
 Charleston, SC                                         1                                                    125
 Charlotte, NC-SC                                       2                                                    264
 Chattanooga, TN-GA                                     4                          1                           96
 Chicago, IL                                          55                          14                       1,755
 Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN                                 13                           1                         355
 Cleveland, OH                                        25                           6                         694
 Columbia, SC                                           1                                                    106
 Columbus, GA-AL                                        5                                                      68
 Columbus, OH                                           5                                                    342
Corpus Christi, TX                                      2                                                      79
 Dallas, TX                                           11                                                     548
 Davenport-Moline, IA-IL                                1                                                     96
 Dayton-Springfield, OH                                 5                          1                         244
 Daytona Beach, FL                                      2                                                     72
Denver, CO                                              4                          1                         498
Detroit, Ml                                           15                           1                      1,177
El Paso, TX                                             9                          1                          95
Erie, PA                                                2                                                     69
Eugene, OR                                              1                                                     82
Fayetteville, NC                                        3                                                     49
Flint, Ml                                               1                                                    101
Fort Lauderdale, FL                                     1                                                    164
Fort Worth, TX                                          6                          1                         292
Fresno, CA                                              3                                                    129
Gary, IN                                                2                                                    121
Grand Rapids, Ml                                        3                                                    191
Greenville, SC                                         2                           1                         200
Hartford, CT                                            6                                                    293
Honolulu, HI                                            1                                                   200
Houston, TX                                            8                                                     691
Huntington, WV-KY-OH                                   3                                                      84
Huntsville, AL                                          1                                                     63
Indianapolis, IN                                        1                                                    331
Jackson, MS                                            7                                                      89
Jacksonville, FL                                       3                                                     173
Jersey City, NJ                                         1                          1                         161



3                                          GAO/RCED-99-246R Poverty Areas in Medium-Sized and Large Cities
Enclosure I

                                Number of tracts with at   Number of tracts with at
                                  least 50% at or below      least 75% at or below
Metropolitan statistical area              poverty level             poverty level'       Total tracts in the area
Kalamazoo, MI                                          1                                                       100
                                                       7                         1                             445
Kansas City, MO-KS
                                                       3                                                       131
Knoxville, TN
                                                       1                                                        51
Lafayette, LA
                                                      4                                                       116
Lansing, MI
                                                      1                                                        81
Lawrence, MA-NH
                                                      1                                                        86
Lexington, KY
                                                      1                                                       110
Little Rock, AR
Los Angeles, CA                                      12                           1                         1,652
                                                      5                                                       245
Louisville, KY
                                                      1                                                       106
 Lowell, MA-NH
                                                      2                           1                            72
 Macon, GA
                                                      3                                                        89
 Madison, WI
 McAllen, TX                                          9                                                        63
                                                     15                           3                           222
 Memphis, TN-AR-MS
                                                      6                                                       267
 Miami, FL
                                                     26                           3                           392
 Milwaukee, WI
                                                      9                                                       650
 Minneapolis, MN-WI
                                                      6                                                       144
 Mobile, AL
                                                      1                                                        98
 Modesto, CA
                                                      1                                                       234
 Monmouth-Ocean, NJ
                                                      3                                                        77
 Montgomery, AL
                                                      4                                                        206
 Nashville, TN
                                                      1                                                         69
 Norwich, CT-RI
                                                     23                           5                            377
 New Orleans, LA
                                                     35                           3                          2,531
 New York, NY
                                                      2                                                        483
 Newark, NJ
                                                      8                           1                            330
 Norfolk, VA-NC
                                                      4                                                        482
 Oakland, CA
                                                     10                           2                            324
 Oklahoma City, OK
                                                      3                                                         96
 Peoria-Pekin, IL
                                                      8                                                      1,277
 Philadelphia, PA-NJ
                                                      6                                                        466
 Phoenix-Mesa, AZ
                                                      12                          3                            742
 Pittsburgh, PA
                                                      2                                                        342
 Portland, OR-WA
                                                      3                                                        259
 Providence, RI-MA
                                                      2                                                         51
 Provo-Orem, UT
                                                      3                                                        255
 Richmond-Petersburg, VA
                                                       1                                                       249
 Rochester, NY
 Sacramento, CA                                        1                                                       275
                                                       4                                                       103
 Saginaw-Bay, MI
                                                       1                                                       230
 Salt Lake City, UT
                                                       9                                                       250
 San Antonio, TX
                                                       1                                                       298
 San Bemardino, CA
                                                       3                                                       445
 San Diego, CA
                                                       1                                                        82
 Santa Barbara, CA
                                                       6                          2                             76
 Savannah, GA
                                                       1                                                       189
 Scranton, PA
                                                       3                                                       418
 Seattle, WA
                                                       6                                                        82
 Shreveport, LA
 Spokane, WA                                           4                                                        99
                                                       5                                                       107
 Springfield, MA                                                                                                62
 Springfield, MO                                       2
                                                       8                              1                        460
 St. Louis, MO-IL
 Stockton-Lodi, CA                                     2                                                       114
                                                       6                              _                        188
 Syracuse, NY
                                                       3                              1                        112
 Tacoma, WA
                                                       8                                                       413
 Tampa, FL
                                                       3                                                       164
 Toledo, OH



 4                                          GAO/RCED-99-246R Poverty Areas in Medium-Sized and Large Cities
Enclosure I

                                       Number of tracts with at          Number of tracts with at
                                         least 50% at or below             least 75% at or below
 Metropolitan statistical area                   poverty level                     poverty level'           Total tracts in the area
 Tucson, AZ                                                   3                                                                  115
 Tulsa, OK                                                        2                                                                207
 Utica-Rome, NY                                                   3                                                                101
 Vallejo-Fairfield, CA                                            1                                                                 94
 Visalia, CA                                                      1                                                                 54
 Washington, DC-MD-VA-WV                                          1                                                                977
 Worcester, MA-CT                                                 1                                                                 97
 Youngstown-Warren, OH                                            1                                 1                              131
Note: This table only includes (1)metropolitan statistical areas with populations of 250,000 or more and (2)households for which the
relation to the poverty level could be determined and for which the ratio of people to households is less than 10:1.
This column is a subset of the 50-percent column.
Source: GAO's analysis of 1990 Census data.




5                                                   GAO/RCED-99-246R Poverty Areas in Medium-Sized and Large Cities
Enclosure II


                      Household Income Data by Metropolitan Statistical Area
                      for Each Census Tract Where 50 Percent or More of the
                            Population Is at or Below the Poverty Level
                                Census         Median                Number of households with income
Metropolitan statistical           tract    household        Under     From $15,000    From $30,000     Of $50,000
                                number'        income       $15,000       to $29,000      to $49,999       or more
area                                                                                                            16
                                 501301         $6,621          384               53               46
Akron, OH                                                                                                         0
                                   5015         $5,598          346                 6              13
                                   5017       $10,139           406              163               82           23
                                   5043         $8,693           110              32               10            15
                                   0028       $12,727            174              40               34             0
Albuquerque, NM                                                                                                187
                                   4003       $14,542         1,044              629             158
Ann Arbor, Ml                                                                                                   52
                                   4112       $16,000            382             268             122
                                   0006         $8,289           589             156               37             6
Appleton-Oshkosh, WI                                                                                              0
                                   0020          $4,999          633                9                0
Atlanta, GA                                                                                                      17
                                    0021         $4,999          868               65              13
                                    0022         $4,999          678             115                 7            0
                                    0025         $7,073       1,008              237               49            39
                                    0033         $4,999          964             197               45             7
                                    0037         $4,999          150                6                0            0
                                    0043         $4,999          368               34                0             0
                                    0044         $4,999          716               68              26            10
                                 004695          $7,735          351               96              29              0
                                    0048         $5,136          570               99                2           13
                                    0056         $6,763          399               79               19           10
                                    0064       $11,250           522             193               71            49
                                 008701          $4,999          842               46              25              0
                                    0007         $6,779          612             145               21            11
Augusta-Aiken, GA-SC                                                                               51            31
Austin, TX                       000802          $8,904          696             287
                                    0013       $13,840         1,057             492              260           111
Bakersfield, CA                                                                                                  72
           ,[_ _ _         _        0022       $12,677           833             457              133
                                    0501         $4,999        1,141             125                37           21
Baltimore, MD                                                                                                    48
                                    1703         $6,124        1,360             279              136
                                    1801         $4,999        1,008              105               35           17
                                 250204          $6,761        1,294             343              132            46
                                 260303          $6,373          685              159               61           11
                                    0005       $10,863         1,034             278              135            73
Baton Rouge, LA
                                    0015         $8,527          680              187             134            31
                                    0021         $6,854          677              173               17           30
                                    0017       $10,843           607              159               74            14
Beaumont, TX                                                                                                     28
                                    0018         $8,175          321              100               22
                                  003197         $5,360             6                0                0            0
Bergen-Passaic, NJ
                                    0005         $6,707          253                18              21            40
Biloxi-Gulfport, MS                                                                                                6
                                    0011         $6,662          541               75               20
Binghamton, NY                                                                                                     4
Birmingham, AL                    002304        $10,929           310             136               35
                                    0027         $4,999        1,375              100               38            16
                                    0032         $9,982           787             347               64            31
                                    0101         $9,387           921             257             100             62
                                  007502         $8,040            14                8                0            0
Boca Raton, FL                                                                                                    13
                                    0711         $6,558           266               52              33
Boston, MA-NH                                                                                                     24
                                    0804          $7,872          354               82              57
                                    0808        $16,654           406             300              118            74
                                    0703          $8,892          359             103               55            10
Bridgeport, CT                                                                                                    20
                                    0742          $7,961          300               75                6
                                     1402         $7,856          567             106               47            14
                                  170101          $8,082           51               17                0             0
                                     0111       $11,399           611             253               92            42
Brownsville, TX                                                                                                   43
                                  012503        $12,536           555             274              102
                                  012603        $10,933           568             210               60            30
                                     0128       $14,018           625             330              150            68


 6                                                 GAO/RCED-99-246R Poverty Areas in Medium-Sized and Large Cities
Enclosure II


                            Census       Median                Number of households with income
Metropolitan statistical      tract   household       Under      From $15,000 From $30,000      Of $50,000
area                       number'       income      $15,000        to $29,000     to $49,999      or more
                            013105      $12,929          455               207             110          22
                            013201      $13,987          750               410             185          44
                            013302      $12,258        1,018               514             170          26
                            013401      $10,850          655               239             107          45
                            013402      $13,094          352               238              48           5
                            013801      $10,854          590               202              77          28
                            013802        $8,782         843               227              94           3
                            013901      $13,266          443               210              85          37
                            013902        $9,370         748               233              98          14
                            013903      $14,271          578               384             125          20
                            014001        $6,082         652               122              41          13
                            014002        $8,887         559               175              77          26
Buffalo, NY                 001302        $6,173         357                 49             14           5
                            007101        $7,495       1,818               342             211          36
                            007201        $6,891         354                 43             37           0
Canton-Massillon, OH          7001        $6,116         584               111              41           5
Charleston, SC                0013        $7,319         446                 90             21          19
Charlotte, NC-SC              0004        $6,147         266                 27             40          17
                              0006        $6,195         418               105              21           0
Chattanooga, TN-GA            0015        $5,586         625                 79             10           0
                              0016        $6,218       1,254               159              45           0
                              0020        $5,496         354                 11              0           0
                              0031        $7,169         252                 64             13           0
Chicago, IL                   0312        $6,155       2,204               341             185          72
                              0805        $4,999         721                 54              4          12
                              0808        $4,999         903                 71             33          21
                              0819        $4,999         450                .59             29           0
                              2318      $10,833           57                 12             24           5
                              2401      $11,250           32                 19              0           0
                              2802      $37,708            0                 11              6           6
                              2805        $4,999         299                 30              9           0
                              2807        $6,892          41                 15              0           5
                              2808        $4,999       1,243                 95             37           6
                              2811        $4,999          91                 17              0           0
                              2813        $5,883         692               106               7          14
                              2815      $13,560          137                 47             37           0
                              2816        $4,999         623                 19              7           8
                              2817        $6,094         356                 58             10          40
                              2836      $11,250           18                  0              0           0
                              2838        $5,961         647                 84             52           5
                              2839        $4,999       1,369               167              29          12
                              2840      $13,860          196               123              42           0
                              2843        $5,134          25                  0              0           0
                              2902        $7,790         235                 50             34           8
                              2904        $4,999          40                  0              0           0
                              2912        $8,620         510               222              69          33
                              2918        $8,290         176                  0              0           0
                              3003        $7,266         556               100              76          35
                              3111        $4,999          25                  0              0           0
                              3112        $7,380          54                  5             14           4
                              3302        $5,140         533                 54             10          31
                              3303        $4,999         720                 36              0          29
                              3304      $11,250            5                  0              0           0
                              3406        $5,601         517                 10              7           0
                              3504        $4,999         669                 46             58          18
                              3515        $4,999       1,212                 79             46           0
                              3602        $5,211         749               116              41          17
                              3603        $4,999         487                  0             42           0
                              3604       $5,056          463               73             29           18


7                                          GAO/RCED-99-246R Poverty Areas in Medium-Sized and Large Cities
Enclosure II


                            Census         Median                 Number of households with income
                               tract    household        Under      From $15,000     From $30,000     Of $50,000
Metropolitan statistical
                           number'         income       $15 000        to $29,000       to $49,999      or more
area                                                                                              9           25
                               3605         $5,987          271                 53
                               3701         $5,598           509                87              27            28
                               3703         $7,136           119                23                9           37
                               3801         $4,999           775                90              57            17
                               3803         $6,926           744              122               30              5
                               3804         $6,327           362                72               18             8
                               3805         $6,159           485                39                6             8
                               3806         $5,452           378                30               12             8
                               3810         $4,999           384                45               13           33
                               3813         $7,772            67                 7                7             0
                               3815          $4,999          425                53                8             0
                               3816         $5,261           136                16                0             8
                               3817          $4,999          877                58                8             7
                               3903          $6,349          858               183               33           46
                               4002          $5,195          832                44               14             5
                               5901        $14,167             25               21                 0            0
                               6106        $13,056             38                 5              19             0
                               6809          $7,096        1,465               394             147             69
                                             $8,138            68               26                 5            0
                               6902
                             000301          $4,999          960                66               18            14
Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN                                                                             19             8
                             000302          $4,999          912                28
                               0004          $4,999          513                26               38            12
                               0008          $6,445          110                38                 7            0
                               0009          $4,999          991                69               27             0
                               0010          $5,008          624                92               13            22
                                             $5,991        1,094               191               63            79
                               0015
                                             $4,999        1,031                70                 9           19
                               0016
                               0017          $4,999          660                98               22            25
                                0043       $11,553            126                55               12             6
                                0077         $7,584           942              258              157            42
                                0080         $7,360        1,550               420              238            96
                                             $8,902           366              136               47              7
                                0091
                                1033         $4,999          450                 43               18             0
Cleveland, OH                                                                                    48            26
                                1037         $6,555           343                45
                             105601        $13,314            180                97                9           16
                                1072         $5,679           200                 7                0             5
                                1073        $12,361              9                0                 5            3
                                1074         $5,360              7                0                 0            0
                                1077         $4,999           308                  0                0            0
                                1089         $4,999           555                53               23           10
                                             $4,999           276                20                 0            8
                                1096
                                             $4,999         1,150                65                 0           11
                                1097
                                1098         $4,999           717                46               23             0
                                             $6,619           534               102               67            11
                                1121
                                1123         $5,621           404                39               19             8
                                1126         $5,986           542                72               14           20
                                1127          $4,999          333                  0              11            17
                                1128          $6,822          412                83               44             0
                                1132          $4,999          208                36                 0            0
                                1137        $10,000             65               15                 5           11
                                1138          $4,999          653                19               12             0
                                1139          $4,999            19                 0                0             0
                                 1143         $5,291          839               123               22             8
                                 1147         $6,448          323                86               22              4
                                 1148         $6,142          318                74                 7             0
                              118601          $5,922          369                 49              26            11
                                            $15,446            165              124               66              0
                                 1201                                                                           11
                                 0010         $7,136        1,025               256               93
Columbia, SC


 8                                             GAO/RCED-99-246R Poverty.Areas in Medium-Sized and Large Cities
Enclosure II


                            Census         Median                Number of households with income
Metropolitan statistical       tract   household       Under       From $15,000   From $30,000    Of $50,000
area                       number         income      $15,000         to $29,000     to $49,999      or more
Columbus, GA-AL                0001        $5,921          263                21                0          13
                               0016        $6,388          967               219              47            6
                               0025        $5,404          704               135                7          14
                               0028        $9,450          914               286              94           13
                               0032        $7,296       1,160                299              72          17
Columbus, OH                001110        $10,947       1,145                436             112          32
                               0012       $11,683       1,055                486             141         106
                               0013       $12,831       1,352                763             229          32
                               0029        $5,255          810               164              18            0
                               0041        $8,481         781               236              105          19
Corpus Christi, TX             0010       $10,625         778               251              100          27
                               0011        $5,182         517                101              16            0
Dallas, TX                     0019        $5,898           78                17              11            0
                               0028       $10,865          121                22              28            0
                               0029        $9,266         284                 69              27          19
                               0034        $8,687         423                118              24          18
                               0036        $5,133         450                 23              42          24
                            003901         $7,034         738                128              63          13
                            008602       $15,186          380               326               61            7
                               0103        $4,999          149                24               0           0
                               0104        $4,999         431                 68              18            8
                            011402         $7,624         252                 74               0            0
                               0115        $5,568       1,132                186              67          14
Davenport-Moline, lA-IL       0226         $6,304         207                 27               0            0
Dayton-Springfield, OH        0010         $8,984         601                185            120           30
                              0015         $5,078         671                 46              23            9
                              0034       $16,026          651               491             209           61
                              0040         $6,741         571               130               42           0
                              0047         $5,360           11                 0               0           0
Daytona Beach, FL             0819       $10,175          718               227               75          32
                              0821       $11,204        1,293               489             185           76
Denver, CO                    0008         $6,545         321                 83              23           0
                              0019         $6,540         866               146               94           4
                            002401         $7,029         891               179               83         49
                            011992       $32,917             4                 0               6           0
Detroit, MI                   1425         $6,972         563               113               42          51
                              5117       $10,410          279                 69              32           6
                              5122         $6,438         471                 70              52          14
                              5140       $20,357             5                 7               0           0
                              5176         $5,060         574                  9              17           0
                              5178         $8,799         331               119               28           9
                              5183         $7,865         230                 37              31          14
                              5184         $7,957         445                 91            111           10
                              5203         $5,346       1,071               180              43          32
                              5205         $8,413         182                22               34           7
                              5206         $5,053      1,472                 97              62          22
                              5218         $5,242         986                55                7           0
                              5220         $7,347         567               134              42          32
                              5454         $6,368         962               157               18         21
                              5537         $6,333         851               129              91          61
El Paso, TX                   0017         $8,843         467               125              39            0
                              0018         $6,725         395                71              37            0
                              0019         $6,682         876               137              36            9
                              0020        $6,704          904               132               19           5
                              0021        $5,712       1,081                215               13           9
                              0026       $13,324          455               258             116          22
                              0028       $10,545       1,369                429             103            0
                              0029        $6,595          702               127              44            3
                           010403        $14,528          862               570             182           45

9                                          GAO/RCED-99-246R Poverty Areas in Medium-Sized and Large Cities
Enclosure II


                            Census         Median               Number of households with income
Metropolitan statistical       tract    household        Under    From $15,000     From $30,000     Of $50,000
                           number          income       $15,000      to $29,000       to $49,999       or more
area                                                                                            0            9
Erie, PA                       0001         $6,843          970             108
                               0013         $9,341          520             140                67           32
                               0038         $6,744        1,990             407              118            81
Eugene, OR                                                                                     33           19
Fayetteville, NC               0001       $10,433           167               54
                               0002         $6,299          809               91               26             0
                               0013         $8,334          563             126                28             0
                               0015       $12,932           748             309              221            79
Flint, Ml                                                                                                   27
                               0415         $9,631          906             376               105
Fort Lauderdale, FL                                                                              5          11
Fort Worth, TX                 1011       $10,994           208               95
                               1017         $4,999          578             110                31           12
                               1018         $4,999          267                 0                0            0
                               1030        $13,750          290             182                24           42
                               1032        $10,273          146               61                 0            8
                             103601          $6,701         769             180                23             8
                               0004        $16,185          591             420               171           91
Fresno, CA                                                                                    130           54
                               0006        $10,858        1,505             506
                               0025        $14,424        1,526             864               468           66
                               0118          $5,694         356               64               12            19
Gary, IN                                                                                       29            10
                               0301          $4,999         423               47
                             000602        $10,902          728             293               112            52
Grand Rapids, MI                                                                                              0
                               0020          $5,050         530               54                 8
                               0028          $8,422         422              102               72            17
                               0001          $4,999           42                0                0            0
Greenville, SC                                                                                   0            0
                               0201          $8,229           44              31
                                5004       $13,564          550              294              138            64
Hartford, CT                                                                                    50           17
                                5009         $7,119         413              120
                                5010         $6,242         761              132                87           35
                                5016       $12,273            43               12                9            0
                                5018       $10,800          675              244              152            43
                                5046       $10,369          680              258              138            52
                             006202          $8,178          470             131                16             0
Honolulu, HI                                                                                                 24
                             020101          $7,357          603             157                49
Houston, TX                                                                                     68           21
                             020102          $5,941          977             232
                             020501          $8,674          577             167              153              9
                             020503          $6,285          414             100                58           24
                             030502          $4,999          599               85               23           19
                             033903          $4,999          753             132                31             6
                             040026          $8,701          498             128                54           39
                                0502         $6,068          317               57                 6            5
                                0005         $7,198          499               89               43             0
Huntington, WV-KY-OH                                                                                         13
                                0006         $7,127          567               97                 5
                                0007         $6,752          431               92               17             5
                                0016         $4,999          237               36                 0            4
Huntsville, AL                                                                                  73           64
                                3516        $10,750          587             147
Indianapolis, IN                                                                                65           28
Jackson, MS                     0010        $10,401          629             256
                                              $7,774         885             239                63           56
                                0011
                                0012        $11,075          686             278               172           33
                                0017        $11,062          392              166               25             0
                                0018          $7,551         577              125                 5            0
                                0031        $10,532          584              170               45            31
                                0039          $8,068         214              119                 0            0
                                0016          $7,058         376               24                10           21
Jacksonville, FL                                                                                              17
                                0017          $4,999         738               99                14
                                0018        $10,612          229               81                 3            0
                              001601        $32,500             0                5                5            0
Jersey City, NJ                                                                                  60           33
Kalamazoo, Ml                 000801        $11,410          443              160
                                0014          $5,814          159              34                 0             0
Kansas City, MO-KS                                                                                7             0
                                 0015         $5,739         272               63
                                 0052         $8,034         392              131                37           20


 10                                            GAO/RCED-99-246R Poverty Areas in Medium-Sized and Large Cities
Enclosure II


                            Census       Median                 Number of households with income
Metropolitan statistical      tract   household        Under      From $15,000    From $30,000   Of $50,000
area                       number        income       $15,000        to $29,000      to $49,999     or more
                              0410         $6,491         692               117              52          17
                            041201      $11,019           271               135              32           0
                              0418         $6,084         567                61              26           5
                            043901      $15,750            34                19              18           0
Knoxville, TN                 0007         $5,933         863               166              19           0
                              0012         $6,043         503                94              19          34
                              0014         $7,936         935               347              37          16
Lafayette, LA                 0009         $8,815         515               137              73           0
Lansing, MI                   0013         $8,332         517               107              42          21
                              0014         $4,999         146                 8               0           0
                              0041      $16,719           598               377             203         117
                            004302      $13,197           618               372              56          14
Lawrence, MA-NH               2513      $11,842           757               251             135          85
Lexington, KY                 0004         $6,472         888               117             109          24
Little Rock, AR               0028         $7,111         902               308              69          33
Los Angeles, CA               2031      $14,938           609               410             164          31
                              2034      $11,347           554               196             130          13
                              2063         $6,197         991               132              49           0
                            209402      $12,254           705               292             124          30
                              2247      $10,526           692               225             112          14
                              2289      $12,231           417               153              91          48
                              2383      $14,943         1,292               852             293         140
                              2421         $6,831         501               116              42           0
                              2426         $9,669         743               265             130          18
                              2431         $9,701         705               218             120          61
                              5329      $17,393           546               529             227          58
                              5716         $7,007         582               132              14           0
Louisville, KY                0014         $5,338         978               139              79          20
                              0030         $4,999       1,285                83              16          20
                              0035         $4,999         732                76              24           0
                            004302         $5,102       1,091               170              88          24
                              0059         $5,161       1,747               162             116          16
Lowell, MA-NH                 3110         $7,691       1,014               216              72          38
Macon, GA                     0105         $5,626         614                67              41           0
                              0107         $5,696         262                22               5           0
Madison, WI                   0011       $10,099          735               270              62          34
                            001601         $6,265       2,140               478             106          18
                            001602      $11,274         1,361               551             171          15
McAllen, TX                 020501      $14,509           675               460             159          25
                            020503      $13,518           618               268             138          46
                              0206      $10,863           551               233              62          27
                              0211      $11,303           831               347              90          34
                            021302       $11,667          516               241              38          31
                            021303       $10,798          671               231              75           7
                              0216       $11,673          676               260              98          26
                            021801       $13,125        1,014               473             200          89
                              0225       $13,333        1,191               635             219          85
Memphis, TN-AR-MS             0002        .$8,220         508               167              69           0
                              0010       $14,318          140               129               5           0
                              0018         $7,509         630               193              29           5
                              0020         $5,762         817               180              60          35
                              0022         $4,999         410                15               0           0
                              0023         $6,606         457                76              23          18
                              0040         $4,999       1,062               108               3           8
                              0041         $4,999         720                42               0           0
                              0045         $5,291         549                56              11           0
                              0046         $5,549         633               119              29          20
                              0048         $5,142       1,154               113              46          10
                              0050        $6,742          735              149             62           12


11                                          GAO/RCED-99-246R Poverty Areas in Medium-Sized and Large Cities
Enclosure II


                            Census        Median                Number of households with income
Metropolitan statistical       tract   household       Under      From $15,000   From $30,000    Of $50,000
area                       number         income      $15,000        to $29,000     to $49,999      or more
                              0054         $8,000         468                77              52           0
                              0103       $15,645          263               199              64          16
                            030610         $6,707         417                64              66           5
Miami, FL                   001501         $6,444       1,067               262              62           5
                              0028       $10,527          424               154              33           0
                            003601         $6,078         834               124              62           8
                            003602         $9,124       1,716               809             132          37
                            005202       $12,582        1,096               596             158          46
                            008904         $6,701         213                45              28           0
Milwaukee, WI                 0069       $13,685          538               289             127          61
                              0081       $10,766          388               139              66          43
                              0082       $11,086          295               137              43          20
                              0083       $11,023          317               152              39          23
                              0086       $12,041          413               144              56          63
                              0088       $15,115          441               259             122          69
                              0089       $12,088          386               215              39          36
                              0090       $15,061          504               327             131          50
                              0097         $9,422         461               205              78          23
                              0101       $12,306          247               107              18          21
                              0102         $9,709         274               102              13          15
                              0105         $8,174         411                57              29          21
                              0106       $10,464          347               118              42          17
                              0116         $6,528         717                43               9           0
                              0117         $9,392         111                40               6           3
                              0119       $12,429          142                90              37          13
                              0120       $10,365          212               103              19           3
                              0122       $12,266          620               239              93          62
                              0138         $9,804         357                82              53          16
                              0139         $7,560         274                74              36          16
                              0140       $14,934          103                60              30          12
                              0141         $6,137         382                29              14           0
                              0142         $5,994         192                13               0           7
                              0146         $6,904       1,084               151              79           8
                              0147         $8,524         720               177              85           0
                              0156       $10,161          288                83              33          18
Minneapolis, MN-WI            0034         $6,063         759               129              31           8
                              0042         $9,968         371               173              13           0
                              0061         $7,222         465               115              14          15
                              0073       $11,659          452               170              88          29
                              0083       $12,349          415               160              64          36
                              0305       $16,475          846               555             314         128
                              0329         $7,061         558                67              19           0
                              0336         $8,941         219                48              29          40
                              0337         $7,153         520               105              45          18
Mobile, AL                    0003         $6,540         360                83               7           6
                            000401         $5,031         694               142               0           8
                            000402         $4,999         625                27               0          21
                            001501         $5,649         943               138              81           0
                            001502         $5,761         474                32              46           0
                              0048         $5,854         840               143              73          24
Modesto, CA                   0017       $13,888          429               187             130           7
Monmouth-Ocean, NJ          807002       $12,092           75                 0              60           0
Montgomery, AL                0001         $6,529         651               121              50          12
                              0006         $8,445         770               116             102          42
                              0010       $10,028        1,071               334             145          13
Nashville, TN                 0124         $5,074       1,066               159              46          40
                              0144         $7,008         604               143              33          16
                              0146       $12,560          205                80              60          24
                              0148         $4,999       1,030               185              36           0

12                                          GAO/RCED-99-246R Poverty Areas in Medium-Sized and Large Cities
Enclosure II


                           Census        Median                Number of households with income
Metropolitan statistical      tract   household        Under     From $15,000   From $30,000    Of $50,000
area                       number'       income       $15,000       to $29,000      to $49,999     or more
Norwich, CT-RI                6969      $21,544             13              36              10            0
New Orleans, LA             000601        $4,999          738               40              34            0
                              0016        $4,999          620               10              12            0
                            001706        $4,999            52               3               0            0
                            001733        $7,927          409              158              78            0
                            001798        $4,999          826               71              13            0
                              0019      $12,402           555              257              76          15
                              0027        $9,139          663              229              45          34
                            003306        $4,999        1,459              108              53          21
                            004402        $4,999          786               68              16            0
                              0048        $4,999          852               45              19            0
                              0059        $7,689          148               19               7          12
                              0060        $5,932          287               36              60            8
                              0067        $8,431          184               54              22          22
                              0068        $4,999          720               81              54          12
                              0069        $4,999        1,511              120              11          13
                              0080        $7,284          291               62              28            0
                            008101        $4,999          984              115               6            0
                              0085        $6,825          538              120              25          11
                              0086        $7,701          601              139              48            4
                              0087       $12,074          192               78              17            0
                            009301        $7,748          348              124               8          11
                            009302         $4,999       1,238               86              29            8
                              0262       $11,976          371              110              72          42
New York, NY                  0011         $7,743           24               0              12            0
                              0017         $9,430         175               34              36          20
                              0018         $5,360            5               0               0            0
                              0020         $8,486       1,304              375             141          65
                            002702         $7,140         840              188              90          14
                              0033         $7,955         658              180              92          11
                            004402         $7,384           34               0               0          14
                              0049       $10,272            64               0               7          16
                              0062         $7,777         529               86             134            0
                              0071         $8,565         171               61              20            0
                              0083         $8,736       1,069              455             125          49
                            011502         $8,740         639              164              73          62
                              0119       $10,027          952              282             184          63
                            012701         $6,236         503               67              52          25
                            012902       $10,071          118               12              26          12
                              0131       $10,000          584              167              98          27
                              0167         $7,740         230               54              39          17
                              0169         $7,932         102               39               0            0
                            021301         $8,255         208               52              31          42
                            021302         $8,160         102               34               0            0
                              0218         $9,115       1,145              315             190          62
                            023102         $5,092         392               77              38            0
                              0307         $7,347       1,213              243             114          49
                              0334         $5,360            1               0               0            0
                              0352         $5,902         414               12              12            1
                            037501         $6,474           80               7               7            6
                            037502       $13,021          246              132              57            0
                              0391       $14,821          201              139              35          25
                              0507       $11,719            80              42               0          10
                              0525       $11,302          731              273             129          34
                              0539       $13,571          539              246             192          53
                              0545       $10,489        1,067              271             183         108
                              0906       $10,790        1,003              537             165          36
                               1134        $8,187          369              82              84          23
                               1156        $8,367          914             263             138           41

13                                          GAO/RCED-99-246R Poverty Areas in Medium-Sized and Large Cities
Enclosure II


                            Census        Median                Number of households with income
Metropolitan statistical       tract   household       Under      From $15,000   From $30,000    Of $50,000
area                       number'        income      $15,000        to $29,000     to $49,999      or more
Newark, NJ                    0030         $8,051         563               151              65          16
                              0032       $15,694           90                70              16          14
Norfolk, VA-NC                0041         $5,133         633                43               6           0
                              0042         $5,247         584                63              16           4
                              0044         $7,219         775               182             110          23
                              0048         $5,689         355               114               8           0
                              0052         $7,376         922               200              95          28
                              0302         $4,999       1,336               122              19           0
                              2111         $5,549         659                77              23           0
                            370598       $11,250           22                 12              0           0
Oakland, CA                   4016       $10,580          488               122              33          41
                              4021         $9,802         428               125              46          17
                              4022         $9,573         365               147              39          23
                              4025         $8,084         548               141             119          16
Oklahoma City, OK             1011       $10,313          223                81               6           6
                              1025         $5,426         394                50               0           0
                              1026         $8,024         164                 11             12           0
                            103101         $5,922         163                26               0           9
                              1038         $6,506         132                22               0           0
                              1056       $11,383          961               450             146           8
                              1057       $11,169          186                87              12           0
                              1058       $11,652          222               134              21           7
                            107101       $11,250           19                  0              0           0
                              2001       $11,111           86                27              13           0
Peoria-Pekin, IL              0001         $8,401         476               147              82          12
                              0009         $5,532       1,039                89              36          30
                              0012         $5,255         624                76              37           0
Philadelphia, PA-NJ           0046         $4,999         661                87              28           8
                              0058       $26,250            0                17               0           0
                              0141         $7,390         888               132              77          35
                              0148         $5,507         394                66              55          15
                              0155         $9,018         613               225              58          27
                              0163       $10,426          747               261              95          31
                              0164         $9,275       1,099               238             128          43
                              6008         $9,014       1,289               354             180          35
Phoenix-Mesa, AZ              1133         $8,540       1,209               289             155          49
                              1139         $8,441         388                67              35           8
                              1140       $11,773          464               178              83          70
                              1146       $16,378          127               141              26          14
                              1147         $9,124         545               189              95          16
                              1149         $7,343         727               137              84          44
Pittsburgh, PA                0507         $7,325         594                95              62          47
                              0509         $6,039         846               155              26           6
                              0510         $5,770       1,361               160              69           9
                              0511         $5,209         656                32               8           0
                            081097       $26,250            0                  8              0           0
                              1016         $7,732         640                99              77           5
                              1504         $6,819         210                38              14           0
                              1604         $4,999         489                36               9           0
                            260998         $5,811         792               108              37           5
                              2808         $5,736         794               100              40          59
                              5521         $6,998         568               108              78          11
                            800701         $7,085         530               113              35          26
Portland, OR-WA               0053         $6,942         732               150              74          30
                              0054         $6,632         166                26              15           0
Providence, RI-MA             0007         $8,020         695                86              99          36
                              0030         $6,462         360                41               7           0
                              6411         $7,417         268                25              15          13


14                                          GAO/RCED-99-246R Poverty Areas in Medium-Sized and Large Cities
Enclosure II


                            Census       Median                Number of households with income
Metropolitan statistical      tract   household       Under      From $15,000 From $30,000      Of $50,000
area                       number'       income      $15,000        to $29,000      to $49,999     or more
Provo-Orem, UT                0016      $13,465          951               544             181           0
                              0018      $15,097        1,861             1,389             422          86
Richmond-Petersburg, VA       0301        $4,999       1,089               137               0           6
                              0601        $4,999         394                44               8           7
                            100406        $8,524         463               109              46          25
San Bernardino, CA            0058      $11,929          823               338             199          22
Rochester, NY                 0039        $8,915         320               107              46          33
Sacramento, CA                0037      $14,392          642               319             199          70
Saginaw-Bay, MI               0001        $5,811         475                78              13          13
                              0003        $7,695         309                77              28          26
                              0005        $5,611         281                18              32          15
                              0007        $7,315       1,043               227             160          61
St. Louis, MO-IL              1201        $8,536         463                44              62          25
                              1212        $5,407       1,221               185              70          15
                              1213        $5,444         416                25               0          10
                              2140      $10,744          160                40              23           4
                            221798      $13,500           49                27               0          10
                              5004        $8,888         791               193             154          48
                              5006        $9,150         345                82              52          26
                            504201        $6,738         460                92               6          28
Salt Lake City, UT            1025        $6,110         325                22               7          16
San Antonio, TX               1103        $5,603       1,294               292              29          19
                              1105        $4,999         853                96              21           9
                              1107        $8,507         471               136              46          22
                              1109        $6,040         193                28               9           6
                              1110      $11,056          520               246              77          11
                              1302      $11,480          371               148              60           6
                            130785        $9,169         501               203              65          16
                              1508      $10,240          654               185              68          17
                              1710      $12,384          950               417             183          33
San Diego, CA                 0047      $15,132          338               231              87          29
                              0050      $15,208          253               149              91          18
                            010009      $14,066          648               308             199          20
Santa Barbara, CA           002911      $12,151          900               430             124          57
Savannah, GA                  0001        $4,999         203                 0               0           0
                              0010        $9,067         241                57              20          18
                              0012        $4,999         366                28              14           0
                              0017        $7,316         266                43              15          15
                              0020        $8,438         550               196              49          19
                            010101        $4,999         616                71               2           0
Scranton, PA                  1002        $6,623       1,028                98              60          32
Seattle, WA                   0091        $5,963         423                82               8           8
                              0092        $6,599         710               154              48          29
                              0265      $11,205          469               151              97          41
Shreveport, LA                0103        $7,293         400                73              28           0
                              0202        $6,121         162                44              18           0
                              0204        $4,999         477                41              20           0
                              0206        $5,131         700               119               3           4
                              0208        $6,423         527               130              16           0
                              0209        $5,057         393                27               0           0
Spokane, WA                   0027        $9,535         390               117              34          33
                              0030      $13,067          490               202             119          36
                              0034        $6,066         572                57              31           6
                              0035        $6,173         823                62              36          44
Springfield, MA               8006        $9,551         621               179             100          52
                              8008      $10,413          621               240              59          43
                              8114        $9,745         604               146             120          44
                              8115        $8,580         606               140              84           0
                              8116      $10,026        1,270               418             248          89

15                                         GAO/RCED-99-246R Poverty Areas in Medium-Sized and Large Cities
 Enclosure II


                                          Census           Median                      Number of households with income
 Metropolitan statistical                   tract       household             Under      From $15,000    From $30,000   Of $50,000
 area                                    number'           income            $15,000        to $29,000      to $49,999     or more
 Springfield, MO                            0001            $7,274               614                86              30          17
                                            0002            $7,648               606               131              34          13
 Stockton-Lodi, CA                          0001            $9,205             1,410               425             130          32
                                            0006          $17,813                225               185             130          49
 Syracuse, NY                               0031            $7,468               276                34               9          21
                                            0033            $6,686               337                70               8           9
                                            0041          $10,517                107                 0              15           0
                                            0042            $7,303               648               150              32           0
                                            0043            $7,076             1,240               214              76          34
                                          005602            $7,129               913               188              89          10
 Tacoma, WA                                 0614          $10,010                731               219             111          70
                                          061601            $6,319               707                78              34           0
                                            0622            $6,724               729                89              10           3
 Tampa, FL                                  0033            $6,529               939               194              82           6
                                            0039            $7,246               684               128              50           3
                                            0040            $5,672               572                79               9           0
                                            0041            $6,589               472                79               0          15
                                            0043            $4,999             1,172               103              36           0
                                            0109            $7,358               239                73               0           0
                                          020995            $7,308               670               109              70          41
                                          021695            $5,499             1,304               114              32           0
 Toledo, OH                                 0028            $5,026               267                 0               0           0
                                            0029            $5,674             1,117               108              61          26
                                            0037            $5,502               295                 7              22          12
 Tucson, AZ                                 0001            $4,999               338                44              12           9
                                            0003          $10,528                484               159              38           6
                                          001302            $8,146               615               161              50          16
 Tulsa, OK                                  0006            $8,583               386                97              22           6
                                            0023            $8,882               459               138              39          12
 Utica-Rome, NY                           020201            $5,497               231                26               6           7
                                            0204            $8,163               356                69              18          12
                                            0205            $6,535               363                36               6           6
 Vallejo-Fairfield, CA                      2001            $8,476                46                 0               0          14
 Visalia, CA                                0011          $15,679                957               698             237         104
 Washington, DC-MD-VA-WV                  006020          $15,082                 90                70              23           0
 Worcester, MA-CT                         732001          $12,623                595               278             174          46
 Youngstown-Warren, OH                      8037            $5,070               569                 0               4           0

Note: This table only includes (1)metropolitan statistical areas with populations of 250,000 or more and (2)households for which the
relation to the poverty level could be determined and for which the ratio of people to households is less than 10:1.
'This column contains the number of the census tract or block numbering area. The Census Bureau uses block numbering for areas
where census tracts have not been established.
Source: GAO's analysis of 1990 Census data.




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 16                                                            GAO/RCED-99-246R Poverty Areas in Medium-Sized and Large Cities