oversight

Homelessness: Coordination and Evaluation of Programs Are Essential

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1999-02-26.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                 United States General Accounting Office

GAO              Report to Congressional Committees




February 1999
                 HOMELESSNESS
                 Coordination and
                 Evaluation of
                 Programs Are Essential




GAO/RCED-99-49
      United States
GAO   General Accounting Office
      Washington, D.C. 20548

      Resources, Community, and
      Economic Development Division

      B-281203

      February 26, 1999

      Congressional Committees

      In July 1987, the Congress passed the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless
      Assistance Act,1 in part because of concerns that the needs of homeless
      people were not being met through existing assistance programs. Although
      previous legislation had responded to homeless people’s needs for food
      and shelter, the McKinney Act was the first comprehensive law designed
      to address the diverse needs of homeless people. The act encompassed
      both existing and new programs, including those providing emergency
      food and shelter, those offering longer-term housing and supportive
      services, and those designed to demonstrate effective approaches for
      providing homeless people with other services, such as physical and
      mental health care, education, and job training.

      Over the years, some of the original McKinney Act programs were
      consolidated or eliminated, and some new programs were added. Today,
      homeless people receive assistance through these programs, as well as
      through other federal programs that were not authorized under the
      McKinney Act but are nevertheless specifically targeted to serve homeless
      people. In addition, assistance is potentially available to the homeless
      through nontargeted programs designed for low-income people generally.
      Yet despite the assistance available through these various sources,
      homelessness persists. Concerned that the federal approach to meeting
      the needs of homeless people may not be effective, seven Senate
      Committee and Subcommittee Chairmen asked us to conduct a series of
      studies on this issue. In this first study, we agreed to (1) identify and
      describe characteristics of the federal programs specifically targeted, or
      reserved, for the homeless, and the key nontargeted programs available to
      assist low-income people generally; (2) identify the amounts and types of
      funding for these programs in fiscal year 1997; and (3) determine if federal
      agencies have coordinated their efforts to assist homeless people and
      developed outcome measures for their targeted programs. We included
      key nontargeted programs, such as the Food Stamp Program, Medicaid,
      and Head Start, if they (1) were means tested and had reported annual
      obligations of $100 million or more, (2) included homelessness as a
      criterion of eligibility, (3) provided services similar to those offered by
      targeted programs, or (4) were considered by agency officials to be critical

      1
       The McKinney Act defines a homeless person as one who (1) lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate
      nighttime residence, (2) has a primary nighttime residence that provides temporary living
      accommodations, or (3) resides in a place not designed as a regular sleeping accommodation for
      humans.



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                   in meeting the needs of the homeless. Because other programs that can
                   serve homeless people did not meet these criteria, this report does not
                   include all programs that can serve homeless people.


                   Fifty federal programs administered by eight federal agencies can provide
Results in Brief   services to homeless people. Of the 50 programs, 16 are targeted, or
                   reserved for the homeless, and 34 are nontargeted, or available to
                   low-income people generally. While all of the nontargeted programs we
                   identified may serve homeless people, the extent to which they do so is
                   generally unknown because the primary purpose of these programs is to
                   serve low-income—not homeless—people and, therefore, most of the
                   programs do not track the number of homeless people served. Both
                   targeted and nontargeted programs provide an array of services, such as
                   housing, health care, job training, and transportation. In some cases,
                   programs operated by more than one agency offer the same type of
                   service. For example, 23 programs operated by four agencies offer
                   housing, such as emergency shelter, transitional housing, and other
                   housing assistance. Twenty-six programs administered by six agencies
                   offer food and nutrition services, including food stamps, school lunch
                   subsidies, and supplements for food banks.

                   In fiscal year 1997, over $1.2 billion in obligations was reported for
                   programs targeted to the homeless, and roughly $215 billion in obligations
                   was reported for nontargeted programs that serve people with low
                   incomes, which can include the homeless. Over three-fourths of the
                   funding for the targeted programs, such as the Health Care for the
                   Homeless and the Supportive Housing programs, is provided through
                   project grants, which are allocated to service providers. Most of the
                   remainder is allocated to state and local governments through formula
                   grants. Information is not available on how much of the funding for
                   nontargeted programs is used to assist homeless people. However, a
                   significant portion of the funding for nontargeted programs is not used to
                   serve the homeless. For example, a majority of the homeless population
                   consists of single men, who are generally not eligible for Medicaid or
                   Supplemental Security Income unless they are disabled2 or elderly, and are
                   not eligible for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families unless they care


                   2
                    According to a 1991 study by James D. Wright and Beth A. Rubin, about a third of the homeless are
                   mentally disabled, about a tenth are physically disabled, and about half are substance abusive. In the
                   past, individuals with substance abuse problems could qualify for Supplemental Security Income.
                   However, a provision denying SSI or disability benefits to persons disabled solely because of
                   addictions became part of H.R. 3136, the Contract with America Advancement Act (P.L. 104-121). Also,
                   in many states, medically needy individuals may be eligible for assistance through Medicaid.



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for dependent children. These programs account for about 64 percent of
the funding for nontargeted programs. About 20 percent of the funding for
nontargeted programs consists of formula grants, such as the Community
Services Block Grant and the Community Development Block Grant.
These formula grants are flexible funding sources that can be used to
serve the general homeless population. The remainder of the funding for
nontargeted programs consists of direct payments, such as those provided
for the Food Stamp Program,3 and project grants, which support several
programs that are generally available to homeless people.

Federal efforts to assist the homeless are being coordinated in several
ways, and many agencies have established performance measures for their
efforts, as the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (Results
Act) requires. For example, coordination occurs through the Interagency
Council on the Homeless, created to coordinate the administration of
programs and resources for assisting homeless people. Between
December 1997 and November 1998, the Council’s policy group met four
times.4 In addition, some departments administer specific programs
jointly. For instance, the departments of Education and Health and Human
Services collaborate to provide services to school children through Health
and Human Services’ Runaway and Homeless Youth Program and
Education’s Education for Homeless Children and Youth Program. Others,
such as the departments of Housing and Urban Development and Veterans
Affairs, have policies to promote coordination at the local level. Although
some coordination is occurring through the use of these mechanisms and
most agencies that administer targeted programs for the homeless have
identified crosscutting responsibilities related to homelessness under the
Results Act, the agencies have not yet described how they will coordinate
or consolidate their efforts at the strategic level. Most agencies have
established process or output measures for the services they provide to
the homeless through their targeted programs, but they have not
consistently incorporated results-oriented goals and outcome measures
related to homelessness in their plans. For example, their plans include
output measures, such as the removal of legal obstacles to the education
of homeless youth or increases in the number of beds in transitional

3
 Although homeless people are generally eligible for food stamps, the Personal Responsibility and
Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-193) had an impact on several food stamp
provisions related to homelessness. See our discussion of the Food Stamp Program in app. II for
additional information.
4
 Representatives from the departments of Agriculture, Commerce (Census Bureau), Defense,
Education, Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban Development, Justice, Labor,
Transportation, and Veterans Affairs, as well as from the Federal Emergency Management
Administration, the General Services Administration, the Office of Management and Budget, the Office
of the Vice President, and the Social Security Administration attended one or more of these meetings.



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             housing, but not outcome measures, such as long-term employment and
             long-term residence in housing.


             The Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act (P.L. 100-77,
Background   July 1987) was the first comprehensive federal law designed to assist the
             homeless.

             Although the McKinney Act authorized a number of direct assistance
             programs to provide shelter and support services for the homeless, it did
             not consolidate the funding for or administration of these programs. It did,
             however, establish the Interagency Council on the Homeless to promote
             coordination. Originally, the Council was authorized by the Congress as an
             independent council with its own funding, full-time executive director, and
             staff. Its members were the heads of 12 Cabinet departments (or their
             designees), the heads of several other designated agencies, and the heads
             of other federal entities as determined by the Council. In 1994, however,
             because of congressional concern that the Council was not effectively
             coordinating a streamlined federal approach to homelessness, funds were
             not appropriated for the Council and it became a voluntary working group
             under the President’s Domestic Policy Council. The Department of
             Housing and Urban Development (HUD) currently staffs the Council with a
             part-time executive director, two professional staff, and one clerical staff
             and provides administrative funding.

             Entitlements, such as for the Food Stamp Program, are under the control
             of authorizing committees and, under the appropriations process, are
             mandatory. A direct payment is financial assistance that the federal
             government provides directly to recipients who satisfy federal eligibility
             requirements, without placing any restrictions on how the recipients
             spend the money.5 According to the Office of Management and Budget’s
             Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance, formula grants are federal funds
             typically allocated to a state or one of its subdivisions in accordance with
             a distribution formula prescribed by law or administrative regulation, for
             activities of a continuing nature not confined to a specific project. Project
             grants are provided for a fixed or known period for a specific project or
             for the delivery of specific services or products. Nonprofit organizations
             and other entities usually apply directly to agencies to receive funding for
             these specific types of services.



             5
              An exception to this is the Food Stamp Program, which restricts the use of benefits to eligible foods.



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                            The Results Act establishes a formal process for holding federal agencies
                            accountable for their programs’ performance. It requires these agencies to
                            develop (1) long-term (generally 5-year) strategic plans, the first of which
                            were due to the Congress by September 30, 1997, and (2) annual
                            performance plans, the first of which covered fiscal year 1999 and were
                            submitted to the Congress in the spring of 1998. The annual performance
                            plans are to (1) identify annual performance goals and measures for each
                            of an agency’s program activities, including those that cut across agency
                            lines; (2) discuss the strategies and resources needed to achieve annual
                            performance goals; and (3) explain what procedures the agency will use to
                            verify and validate its performance data. The Office of Management and
                            Budget oversees the efforts of federal agencies under the Results Act.


                            Eight federal agencies administer 50 programs and other resources that
Many Programs               can assist homeless people. Both targeted and nontargeted programs
Administered by             provide an array of services to the homeless, such as housing, health care,
Multiple Federal            job training, and transportation. In some instances, different programs
                            may offer the same types of services. Some of the targeted programs are
Agencies Can Provide        available to the general homeless population, while others are reserved for
Services to Homeless        specific groups within this population, such as children and youth or
                            veterans. Similarly, some of the nontargeted programs are available to the
People                      low-income population as a whole, while others are designed exclusively
                            for certain low-income groups, such as youth or veterans.


Eight Agencies Administer   Eight federal agencies—the departments of Agriculture (USDA), Health and
Programs and Initiatives    Human Services (HHS), HUD, Education, Labor, and Veterans Affairs (VA)
That Can Provide Services   and two independent agencies, the Federal Emergency Management
                            Agency (FEMA) and the Social Security Administration (SSA)—administer 50
to Homeless People          programs that can serve homeless people.

                            In some cases, multiple agencies operate programs that provide similar
                            services. For example, six agencies operate programs that offer food and
                            nutrition services, five agencies administer education programs (or
                            programs that have an educational component), and four agencies
                            administer housing assistance programs that can serve homeless people.

                            As table 1 shows, 16 of the 50 programs we identified are targeted, or
                            designed exclusively for homeless people. Thirty-four programs are
                            nontargeted, or designed for a broader group of people with low incomes
                            and/or special needs, such as disabilities or HIV/AIDS. While this broader



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                                      group may include homeless people, information on the number served is
                                      generally not available. Because eligibility for the nontargeted programs is
                                      based on income or other criteria unrelated to homelessness, the
                                      programs generally do not—and are not required to—track data on the
                                      number of homeless persons served. A few nontargeted programs are,
                                      however, beginning to collect such data. For example, USDA’s Summer
                                      Food Service Program tracks the average number of children who receive
                                      meals at shelters for the homeless during the summer,6 and HUD’s Housing
                                      Opportunities for Persons With AIDS (HOPWA) program collects data on the
                                      number of homeless people served.7 A chart of the 50 programs and their
                                      eligible services appears in appendix I, while detailed information about
                                      the programs appears in appendix II.

Table 1: Number of Targeted and Key
Nontargeted Programs Administered                                                                    Number of
by Each Agency                                                                                      nontargeted
                                                                              Number of           programs that
                                                                               programs           could provide
                                                                             targeted to             services to
                                      Agency                            homeless people         homeless people                        Total
                                      Agriculture                                          1                       9                      10
                                      Education                                            1                       1                         2
                                      FEMA                                                 1                       0                         1
                                      HHS                                                  5                      12                      17
                                      HUD                                                  4                       7                      11
                                      Labor                                                1                       4                         5
                                      SSA                                                  0                       1                         1
                                      VA                                                   3                       0                         3
                                      Total                                               16                      34                      50

                                      In addition, federal agencies and advocacy groups identified other
                                      resources and activities that can assist the homeless. While these activities
                                      are also important, we did not include them in our list of 50 programs.
                                      Some of the activities require little or no extra resources. For example, the
                                      Department of Energy provides insulation to qualifying homeless shelter
                                      dwellings, and USDA’s Rural Housing Service, HUD, and VA make foreclosed
                                      properties available to nonprofit organizations for housing homeless
                                      people. More information on these resources and activities is included in
                                      appendix III.


                                      6
                                       During July, the month with the highest participation, the program served an average of 1,794 children
                                      in 1995-97.
                                      7
                                       According to a HUD official, during fiscal years 1994-97, the program served 2,859 homeless persons
                                      from the street and 1,426 homeless persons in emergency shelters.


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Programs Offer a Wide        As table 2 indicates, both targeted and nontargeted programs can offer a
Range of Services, Many of   variety of services that often appear similar. For example, four agencies
Which Appear Similar         administer 23 different programs (11 targeted and 12 nontargeted) that
                             provide some type of housing assistance, including emergency shelter,
                             transitional housing, and other housing assistance.

                             Similarly, six agencies administer 26 programs (11 targeted and 15
                             nontargeted) that deliver food and nutrition services.8 For example, USDA
                             provides food and nutrition services ranging from funding for school
                             lunches and breakfasts to food stamps, while FEMA funds the distribution
                             of groceries to food pantries and food banks. Of the 50 programs, 10 (5
                             targeted and 5 nontargeted) provide assistance to prevent homelessness.
                             For example, FEMA’s targeted Emergency Food and Shelter Program and
                             HHS’ nontargeted Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
                             program can provide rental assistance to prevent evictions, which could
                             lead to homelessness. HUD’s nontargeted HOPWA program also provides
                             short-term assistance to cover rent, mortgage and/or utility payments to
                             prevent homelessness. However, the existence of programs that offer
                             similar services does not necessarily mean that there is duplication
                             because the particular services provided by each program may differ. For
                             example, USDA’s Homeless Children Nutrition Program9 focuses on
                             providing food services throughout the year to homeless children in
                             emergency shelters, while VA’s Domiciliary Care for Homeless Veterans
                             program provides food only to veterans who are involved with that
                             program at a given time.




                             8
                              Of these, 10 are administered by USDA, 1 by Education, 1 by FEMA, 7 by HHS, 4 by HUD, and 3 by VA.
                             9
                             The William F. Goodling Child Nutrition Reauthorization Act of 1998 (P.L. 105-336) eliminated the
                             Homeless Children Nutrition Program as a separate program and transferred it to the Child and Adult
                             Care Food Program, effective July 1, 1999.



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Table 2: Types of Services That Can Be Provided Through Targeted and Nontargeted Programs
                                                                   Federal agency
Type of service provided     USDA Education          FEMA             HHS           HUD         Labor            SSA             VA         Total
Housing/ shelter/rent
assistance                        0          0             1              8            11             0              0             3          23
Primary health care               0          0             0            10              4             0              0             2          16
Mental health                     0          0             0            10              4             0              0             3          17
Substance abuse treatment         0          0             0              9             4             0              0             3          16
Education                         0          2             0              8             4             1              0             2          17
Employment
and job training                  1          0             0              4             4             5              0             2          16
Food and nutrition               10          1             1              7             4             0              0             3          26
Homelessness prevention           0          0             1              6             3             0              0             0          10
Income support                    0          0             0              2             0             0              1             0           3
Transportation                    0          0             1              9             4             1              0             2          17
Case managementa                  0          0             0            15              4             1              0             3          23
                                        a
                                         Includes counseling activities for individuals, such as conducting an assessment of an
                                        individual’s service needs; referring an individual for, or assisting an individual in, obtaining
                                        additional services; and following up after a client leaves the program.




Some Programs Serve the                 Some of the targeted programs are available to the general homeless
Homeless Population as a                population, while others are reserved for specific groups within this
Whole, While Others                     population. Similarly, some of the nontargeted programs are available to
                                        the low-income population as a whole, while others are designed
Target Subgroups                        exclusively for certain low-income groups.10 As table 3 indicates, four of
                                        the targeted programs, including HUD’s Supportive Housing Program and
                                        FEMA’s Emergency Food and Shelter Program, serve the homeless
                                        population as a whole. Five targeted programs, such as Education’s
                                        Education for Homeless Children and Youth program, serve only homeless
                                        children and youth, and four other targeted programs, such as VA’s
                                        Domiciliary Care for Homeless Veterans program, serve only homeless
                                        veterans. Similarly, 14 nontargeted programs, including HHS’ Community
                                        Services Block Grant and USDA’s Emergency Food Assistance Program, are
                                        available to all qualifying low-income people, while 8 programs, such as
                                        HHS’ Head Start program, provide benefits only to low-income children and
                                        youth, and 1 program, Labor’s Veterans Employment Program, provides
                                        benefits only to veterans, including those who are homeless. In addition,
                                        of the 16 different programs under which homeless people may be eligible

                                        10
                                         Some of the programs that we have classified as serving the low-income population generally do not
                                        serve this entire population, but rather broad groups within it, such as women and children.



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                                      to receive one type of service—primary health care—7 programs are
                                      available either to all homeless people or to broad groups of low-income
                                      people. Programs available to broad groups of low-income people include
                                      HHS’ Medicaid, Community Health Centers, and Social Services Block
                                      Grant programs. However, 9 of the 16 programs are available only to
                                      groups with special needs, such as runaway youth or veterans. Additional
                                      information on groups served through these programs can be found in
                                      appendix IV.

Table 3: Groups Eligible to Receive
Services Through Targeted and                                                               Nontargeted—for
Nontargeted Programs                                                    Targeted—for             low-income
                                      Eligible group/subgroup         homeless people                 people                      Total
                                      General                                           4                     14                       18
                                      Children and youth                                5                      8                       13
                                      Adults                                            1                      1                        2
                                      Elderly                                           0                      2                        2
                                      Women and children                                0                      3                        3
                                      Persons with mental
                                      illnesses                                         1                      1                        2
                                      Persons with HIV/AIDS                             1                      2                        3
                                      Persons with substance
                                      abuse disorders                                   1                      1                        2
                                      Veteransa                                         4                      1                        5
                                      Disable persons                                   1                      2                        3
                                      Migrants                                          0                      1                        1
                                      Total                                            18                     36                       54
                                      Note: The total exceeds the number of programs because some programs provide services to
                                      more than one group or subgroup.
                                      a
                                       Labor administers one of the targeted and one of the nontargeted programs; VA administers the
                                      other three.




                                      In fiscal year 1997, $1.2 billion in obligations was reported for programs
Nontargeted                           targeted to the homeless, and about $215 billion in obligations was
Programs Receive                      reported for nontargeted programs. While the funding for targeted
More Funding                          programs must be used to assist homeless people, information on how
                                      much of the funding for nontargeted programs is used for this purpose is
                                      not generally available. Some of the funding for nontargeted programs is
                                      provided through formula grants or direct payments, while the funding for
                                      targeted programs is likely to be provided through project grants. Both




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                            formula and project grants present advantages and disadvantages in
                            serving homeless people.


Nontargeted Programs        In fiscal year 1997, the federal government reported obligations of over
Receive More Funding, and   $1.2 billion for programs targeted to the homeless. Over three-fourths of
Agencies Are Not Required   the funding for the targeted programs, such as the Health Care for the
                            Homeless and Supportive Housing programs, is provided through project
to Track How Much Is        grants, which are allocated to service providers. Most of the remainder for
Spent on the Homeless       targeted programs is allocated to states and local governments through
                            formula grants. Of the amount spent for targeted programs, about
                            70 percent was for programs administered by HUD.

                            Roughly $215 billion in obligations was reported for nontargeted programs
                            that serve people with low incomes, who may be homeless. Information is
                            not available on how much of the funding for nontargeted programs is
                            used to assist homeless people. However, a significant portion of the
                            funding for nontargeted programs does not go to serving the homeless. As
                            figure 1 shows, in fiscal year 1997, about 64 percent of the nontargeted
                            funding is for Medicaid, Supplemental Security Income (SSI), and TANF,
                            which are primarily intended for families, the disabled, or the elderly,
                            rather than able-bodied single men. However, single men make up the
                            majority of the homeless population. About 20 percent of the funding for
                            nontargeted programs is provided through formula grants. These grants
                            are flexible funding sources that can be used to serve the general homeless
                            population. The remainder of the funding for nontargeted programs
                            consists of direct payments for the Food Stamp Program and project
                            grants for several programs whose services are generally available to the
                            homeless. The reported obligations for each program for fiscal years
                            1995-98 are shown in appendix V.




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Figure 1: Percentage of Fiscal Year
1997 Funds Allocated to Major                                                 Other formula and project grants
Nontargeted Programs                                                          and direct payments




                                            • 24.1%

                                                              44.9% •         Medicaid
                                                •

                                            12.4%
                                               •

                                                    12.4%
                                                       •


                                                                              Food Stamp Program

                                                                              Supplemental Security Income

                                                                              6.2%
                                                                              Temporary Assistance for Needy
                                                                              Families




                                      While the funding for nontargeted programs can be used to benefit the
                                      homeless, the agencies generally do not, and are not required to, track or
                                      report what portion is used for this purpose. Although HHS does not track
                                      the dollar value of the benefits that homeless people receive through its
                                      nontargeted programs, the Secretary informed the Chairman of the
                                      Subcommittee on Housing and Community Opportunity, House
                                      Committee on Banking and Financial Services, in an October 1997 letter,
                                      that HHS provides “billions of dollars worth of resources” to meet the needs
                                      of low-income people, including the homeless, through large block grants,
                                      such as TANF, as well as through other programs for delivering mental,
                                      primary, and children’s health care services and for preventing substance
                                      abuse and domestic violence. Officials at other agencies, such as VA and
                                      Education, emphasized that their programs are available to all who qualify,



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                           including the homeless, but said that they have not tried to determine how
                           much of the funding for their programs is used to serve the homeless.
                           Officials also said that although their nontargeted programs appear to have
                           sufficient resources, they are sometimes unable to serve all those who are
                           eligible. For example, Labor’s Director of Operations and Programs said
                           that the Department is not able to serve all who qualify for its Job Training
                           Partnership programs. Similarly, an official with USDA’s Commodity
                           Supplemental Food Program—which provides food, such as peanut butter,
                           to certain low-income groups—said resources depend on each fiscal year’s
                           appropriation, which determines the number of caseload slots that are
                           available in each state. Once the slots are filled, no additional persons can
                           be served.


Funding Procedures May     About 20 percent of the funding for nontargeted programs is provided
Affect Efforts to Assist   through formula grants, which are typically distributed to the states
Homeless People            according to a formula, and the states decide how to spend these funds
                           within federal guidelines. Compared with some project grants, formula
                           grants are broader in scope, generally receive more funds, and offer
                           greater discretion in the use of funds. These funds can then be used for a
                           variety of activities within a broad functional area, such as social services
                           or mental health services. The flexibility inherent in some formula grant
                           programs, such as HUD’s HOPWA program, allows states and localities to
                           define and implement programs—that may or may not include services for
                           the homeless—in response to their particular needs. Although service
                           providers who receive these funds often cannot identify their source, since
                           the funds flow through the state and/or local government, the providers
                           appreciate the steady flow of funds. However, some service providers
                           expressed concern that because of the flexible nature of formula grant
                           programs, vulnerable populations, such as the homeless, are rarely
                           guaranteed a measure of assistance, posing a problem in communities that
                           do not place a priority on spending for the homeless.

                           In contrast to nontargeted programs, targeted programs are likely to be
                           funded through project grants. Nine of the 16 targeted programs are
                           funded through such grants, while 5 are funded through formula grants.
                           Two of VA’s programs receive funding through the agency’s Mental Health
                           Strategic Healthcare Group, which provides the funds directly to VA
                           medical centers for the programs. Project grants enable nonprofit
                           organizations and service providers to apply directly to federal agencies to
                           receive funding for specific types of services offered exclusively to the
                           homeless population; however, funding is often limited and programs are



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                  not offered at all locations. For example, VA’s Domiciliary Care for
                  Homeless Veterans program offered resources to VA facilities that chose to
                  implement the program, but the Department does not require all of its
                  facilities to provide domiciliary care for homeless veterans. According to a
                  June 1997 VA report,11 only 35 of VA’s 173 hospitals offered this program. In
                  addition, the agency’s Homeless Chronically Mentally Ill Veterans program
                  is not available in every state or locality with a significant number of
                  eligible homeless veterans. According to a 1995 HUD study, the
                  unpredictability of competitive grant funding levels and the varying
                  lengths of grant awards are not consistent with a long-term strategy for
                  eliminating homelessness.12 In addition, the types of projects eligible for
                  funding may be poorly matched to local needs, and differing eligibility and
                  reporting requirements across agencies present administrative
                  complications for service providers who receive funds from multiple
                  project grants. HUD has sought to minimize the disadvantages associated
                  with project grants by consolidating the process of applying for its
                  programs to assist the homeless. HUD also requires community service
                  providers to collaborate through its Continuum of Care approach,
                  discussed later in this report. State coordinators and local providers of
                  services for the homeless in Colorado, Georgia, Michigan, Vermont, and
                  Washington, D.C., identified HUD’s targeted programs, as well as a few of
                  HUD’s nontargeted programs, as the ones they used most frequently to
                  meet their state and local funding needs. They also cited HHS, FEMA, and
                  Education as funding sources but were not as familiar with these agencies’
                  programs for assisting the homeless.


                  Federal efforts to assist the homeless are coordinated in several ways, and
Coordination Is   many agencies have established performance measures, as the Results Act
Occurring and     requires, for program activities designed to assist the homeless.
Performance       Coordination can take place through (1) the Interagency Council on the
                  Homeless, which brings together representatives of federal agencies that
Measurement Has   administer programs or resources that can be used to alleviate
Begun             homelessness; (2) jointly administered programs and policies adopted by
                  some agencies to encourage coordination; and (3) compliance with
                  guidance on implementing the Results Act,13 which requires federal
                  agencies to identify crosscutting responsibilities, specify in their strategic

                  11
                     Eighth Progress Report on the Domiciliary Care for Homeless Veterans Program, VA, Northeast
                  Program Evaluation Center (June 1997).
                  12
                   Review of Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Programs Administered by HUD: Report to Congress, U.S.
                  Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research,
                  January 1995.
                  13
                    This guidance is contained in the Office of Management and Budget’s Circular A-11 (July 1998).

                  Page 13                                                            GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                     B-281203




                     plans how they will work together to avoid unnecessary duplication of
                     effort, and develop appropriate performance measures for evaluating their
                     programs’ results. Although coordination is occurring, agencies have not
                     yet taken full advantage of the Results Act’s potential as a coordinating
                     mechanism to do much more than identify crosscutting responsibilities.
                     Furthermore, although most agencies have established process or output
                     measures for the services they provide to the homeless through their
                     targeted programs, they have not consistently incorporated
                     results-oriented goals and outcome measures related to homelessness in
                     their performance plans.


The Council Brings   The Council brings agency representatives together to coordinate the
Together Agency      administration of programs and resources for assisting homeless people.
Representatives      The full Council, consisting of the Cabinet Secretaries or other high-level
                     administrators, has not met since March 1996. However, the Council’s
                     policy group is scheduled to meet every 2 months. Between December
                     1997 and November 1998, the policy group met four times, and staff from
                     various agencies14 attended one or more of the meetings. Among other
                     things, the policy group is coordinating a major survey of homeless
                     assistance providers and clients. Other activities include discussing efforts
                     to periodically distribute a list of federal resources available to assist
                     homeless people; coordinating the distribution of surplus real property on
                     base closure property, as well as the distribution of surplus blankets; and
                     conducting a round table discussion with representatives of major
                     homeless advocacy groups. Recently, the group has discussed the need to
                     better connect targeted homeless assistance programs with nontargeted
                     programs that provide housing, health care, income, and social services.
                     While such responses to immediate issues and exchanges of information
                     are useful, Council staff and the executive directors of two major
                     homeless advocacy groups believe that the Council lost much of its
                     influence after the Congress stopped its funding in 1994 and it became a
                     voluntary working group. HUD acknowledges that the Council scaled back
                     its efforts when its staffing was reduced but maintains that the Council is
                     still very involved in coordinating federal efforts and sharing information.




                     14
                      USDA, Commerce (Census Bureau), Defense, Education, HHS, HUD, Justice, Labor, Transportation,
                     VA, SSA, GSA, FEMA, Office of Management and Budget, and a representative from the Office of the
                     Vice President.



                     Page 14                                                         GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                            B-281203




Some Agencies Administer    Another mechanism for promoting coordination is the joint administration
Programs Jointly and Have   of programs and resources to benefit the homeless. For example, VA and
                            HUD officials collaborate on referring appropriate homeless veterans to
Policies to Promote
                            local housing authorities for certain Section 8 rental assistance vouchers.
Coordination                FEMA and the Department of Defense work together to make unmarketable
                            but edible food available to assistance providers, and Education
                            collaborates with HHS to provide services to elementary and secondary
                            school children through HHS’ Runaway and Homeless Youth and
                            Education’s Education for Homeless Children and Youth programs. Labor
                            and VA also collaborate to provide services that are intended to increase
                            the employability of homeless veterans. USDA has developed a
                            multipurpose application form for free and reduced-price meals provided
                            through its children’s nutrition programs that allows households applying
                            for meal benefits to indicate that they want information on HHS’ State
                            Children’s Health Insurance program and Medicaid.

                            Some agencies, such as HUD and VA, have adopted policies that encourage
                            coordination between service providers at the local level. For example,
                            HUD’s Continuum of Care policy promotes coordination by encouraging
                            service providers to take advantage of programs offered by other agencies,
                            as well as other HUD programs. This policy, which is designed to shift
                            attention from individual programs or projects to communitywide
                            strategies for solving the problem of homelessness, can be used to
                            leverage services from many sources in a community, according to HUD.
                            HUD’s Continuum of Care strategy grew out of a 1994 Interagency Council
                            report15 that proposed to address the diverse needs of homeless people.
                            According to the report, these needs include (1) outreach and needs
                            assessments, (2) emergency shelters with appropriate supportive services,
                            (3) transitional housing with appropriate supportive services, and
                            (4) permanent housing. The report recommended consolidating HUD’s
                            McKinney Act programs and FEMA’s Emergency Food and Shelter Program
                            into a single HUD block grant. VA, under its nationwide Community
                            Homelessness Assessment, Local Education and Networking Groups
                            program (CHALENG), began hosting meetings to bring together public and
                            private providers of assistance to determine the met and unmet needs of
                            homeless veterans and to identify the assistance available from non-VA
                            providers. While HUD and VA encourage participation by a wide array of
                            service providers—including those receiving both targeted and
                            nontargeted funding—participation varies by location.



                            15
                             Priority Home: The Federal Plan to Break the Cycle of Homelessness, Interagency Council on the
                            Homeless (1994).



                            Page 15                                                          GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                            B-281203




Agencies Are Beginning to   Most agencies that administer targeted programs for the homeless have
Coordinate Efforts and      identified crosscutting responsibilities related to homelessness, but few
Develop Performance         have attempted the more challenging task of describing how they expect
                            to coordinate their efforts with those of other agencies or to develop
Measures                    common outcome measures. Few performance plans contain evidence of
                            substantive coordination, and none discusses coordination with
                            nontargeted programs to decrease overlaps or fill gaps in services. For
                            example, HUD’s 1999 performance plan indicates that the Department will
                            work with other federal agencies to promote self-sufficiency but does not
                            identify all the departments or programs through which it will do so. This
                            finding is not surprising in view of the time and effort required to
                            coordinate crosscutting programs—an issue we have discussed in
                            reviewing federal agencies’ implementation of the Results Act.16 In
                            general, we have found that agencies have made inconsistent progress in
                            coordinating crosscutting programs.

                            Given the large number of programs that can assist the homeless and the
                            multiple agencies that administer them, increased coordination—
                            including, ultimately, the development of common outcome
                            measures—could strengthen the agencies’ management. As we reported
                            previously, the Results Act, with its emphasis on defining missions and
                            expected outcomes, can provide the environment needed to begin
                            addressing coordination issues.


Performance Plans Make      Most agencies have established process or output measures for the
Limited Use of Outcome      services they provide to the homeless through their targeted programs, but
Measures                    they have not consistently provided results-oriented goals and outcome
                            measures related to homelessness in their plans. For example, Education
                            established process measures, but not outcome measures, for its
                            Education for Homeless Children and Youth program. Its measures
                            include proposing changes to state and local laws to remove obstacles to
                            the education of homeless children and youth and reducing barriers to
                            school enrollment, such as lack of immunizations and transportation.
                            Additionally, HHS’ Projects for Assistance in Transition from Homelessness
                            (PATH) program has an output measure that will encourage at least
                            70 percent of participating state and local PATH-funded agencies to offer
                            outreach services. Output measures also appear in HUD’s fiscal year 1999
                            performance plan. Among these are increasing the number of transitional
                            beds linked to supportive services. This emphasis on output measures is

                            16
                             Managing for Results: An Agenda to Improve the Usefulness of Agencies’ Annual Performance Plans
                            (GAO/GGD/AIMD-98-228, Sept. 8, 1998).



                            Page 16                                                         GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
              B-281203




              consistent with the results of our reviews of agencies’ annual performance
              plans as a whole. In these reviews, we also found that the plans did not
              consistently contain results-oriented goals.17

              Some agencies did develop outcome measures, while others said that they
              planned to include outcome measures in future performance plans for
              their targeted programs. Other agencies believe that developing such
              measures would be too difficult. For example, Labor established an
              outcome measure for its targeted Homeless Veterans Reintegration
              program—helping 1,800 homeless veterans find jobs. HUD also included an
              outcome measure in its plan—the percentage of homeless people who
              move each year from HUD transitional housing to permanent housing. This
              measure may vary from year to year, depending on the resources available
              for the program. Finally, according to VA’s Director for Homeless
              Programs, the Veterans Health Administration’s performance plan for
              fiscal year 2000 includes two outcome measures for veterans who have
              completed residential care in targeted VA programs. These measures set
              goals for the percentages of veterans who (1) are housed in their own
              apartment, room, or house upon discharge from residential treatment and
              (2) are employed upon discharge from residential treatment. USDA has not
              created outcome measures for its Homeless Children Nutrition program
              because it believes that the limited nature of the program would make the
              effort too difficult. In a summary of its fiscal year 1999 performance plan,
              HHS said that measures of output and process are more practical and
              realistic than outcome measures, particularly for annual assessments of
              programs that affect people. HHS also said that for many health and human
              service programs, it is unrealistic to expect meaningful changes in people’s
              lives because of an individual program. In our assessment of HHS’ plan, we
              noted that future plans would be more useful and would better meet the
              purposes of the Results Act if HHS made greater use of outcome goals and
              measures, instead of output or process goals. In response to our
              assessment, HHS acknowledged that future performance plans should
              include outcome goals and indicated that it has begun to develop them.18


              The federal approach to assisting homeless people—a web of targeted and
Conclusions   nontargeted programs administered by different agencies to deliver
              services to varying homeless groups—makes coordination and evaluation
              essential. The administering agencies have an opportunity, through

              17
               Managing for Results: An Agenda to Improve the Usefulness of Agencies’ Annual Performance Plans
              (GAO/GGD/AIMD-98-228, Sept. 8, 1998).
              18
                HHS’ FY 1999 Performance Plan (GAO/HEHS-98-180R, June 17, 1998).



              Page 17                                                         GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                     B-281203




                     implementing the Results Act’s guidance, to coordinate, and evaluate the
                     results of, their efforts to serve homeless people. The agencies have begun
                     to identify crosscutting responsibilities and will have further
                     opportunities, in preparing their annual performance plans, to devise
                     strategies for coordinating their efforts and to develop consistent outcome
                     measures for assessing the effectiveness of their efforts. Providing for
                     effective coordination and evaluation is essential to ensure that the federal
                     programs available to serve homeless people are cost-effectively achieving
                     their desired outcomes.


                     We provided a draft of this report to the eight federal agencies—USDA,
Agency Comments      Education, FEMA, HHS, HUD, Labor, SSA, and VA—that administer the
and Our Evaluation   programs included in this report. HHS and HUD provided written comments
                     that appear in appendixes VI and VII of the report, along with our detailed
                     responses. USDA, Education, Labor, SSA, and VA provided clarifying
                     language and technical corrections that we incorporated into the report as
                     appropriate. FEMA did not have any comments on the report.

                     HHS characterized the report as a useful compilation of information and
                     agreed that federal agencies need to better coordinate their efforts to
                     serve the homeless and develop consistent outcome measures for
                     assessing the effectiveness of their efforts. HHS further agreed that this
                     coordination must include nontargeted programs. HHS’ primary concern
                     was that, in quoting an HHS letter, we specify that the “billions of dollars
                     worth of resources” the Department provides are not used only to meet
                     the needs of homeless people. We revised our discussion to make it clear
                     that the resources are used to benefit many low-income groups, not only
                     the homeless. In response to HHS’ comment that many single homeless men
                     are disabled and therefore eligible for Medicaid and/or SSI, we added
                     language to the report indicating that disabled single homeless men may
                     qualify for benefits under these programs.

                     HUD’s major concern was that we did not fully describe the role of the
                     Interagency Council on the Homeless or the extent of its activities. After
                     reviewing HUD’s comments, we included more examples of the Council’s
                     activities in the report. However, it was not the purpose of this report to
                     give a detailed account of the Council’s activities; the Council was
                     included as one of the mechanisms through which federal agencies
                     coordinate their efforts to assist homeless people.




                     Page 18                                            GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
              B-281203




              To identify and describe the characteristics of federal programs targeted
Scope and     for the homeless and the key nontargeted programs available to
Methodology   low-income people generally, we developed a preliminary list of programs
              using studies and evaluations by the federal agencies that administer
              programs and initiatives for homeless people, as well as information from
              other sources, such as the Congressional Research Service, Government
              Information Services, and the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance
              (CFDA). We included all targeted programs that the agencies identified, as
              well as “key” nontargeted programs. We defined key nontargeted
              programs as those that (1) were means tested and had reported annual
              obligations of $100 million or more, (2) included homelessness as a
              criterion of eligibility, (3) provided services similar to those offered by
              targeted programs, or (4) were considered by agency officials to be critical
              in meeting the needs of the homeless. The “types of services” and “services
              provided” listed in table 2 and appendix I were those commonly included
              in the descriptions of programs found in agencies’ documents and the
              sources listed above.

              To check the accuracy of the list of programs that we had determined
              should be included in our review, we asked each agency to verify our list
              before we developed our program summaries. Agency officials were
              allowed to add to, omit, or modify the list in accordance with their
              knowledge of these programs. The staff of the Interagency Council on the
              Homeless verified the list of resources and initiatives for the homeless that
              we included in the report. We obtained information on the programs and
              the resources and initiatives from studies and evaluations by the federal
              agencies, as well as from studies by the Congressional Research Service
              and CFDA. We also visited recognized homeless advocacy groups and
              service providers and obtained testimonial and documentary information
              from them about the programs and about issues and challenges associated
              with homelessness.

              We identified the amount and type of funding for the targeted and
              nontargeted programs from agencies’ budget summaries, CFDA, and agency
              officials. We did not verify the budgetary data that we obtained from CFDA
              documents. In the report, we present data for fiscal year 1997 to give the
              reader a perspective; in appendix V, we present data for fiscal years
              1995-98 to reflect the trend in obligations for programs that serve
              homeless people. From these data, we also assessed the flow of monies
              from the federal agencies to state and/or local entities. We identified
              funding types, such as formula and project grants, from agency officials
              and CFDA.



              Page 19                                           GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
B-281203




To determine if federal agencies have coordinated their efforts to assist
homeless people and developed outcome measures for their targeted
programs, we reviewed the agencies’ strategic and annual performance
plans to determine if each agency had (1) identified crosscutting
responsibilities or established program coordination efforts with other
agencies or (2) established performance goals and measures. We also
obtained input from agency officials through site visits and through
studies and evaluations they provided. Finally, we reviewed GAO reports on
the agencies’ plans.

We performed our work between May 1998 and February 1999 in
accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards.


We are sending copies of this report to the appropriate congressional
committees; the Secretaries of Agriculture, Education, HHS, HUD, Labor,
and VA; the Director of FEMA; the Commissioner of SSA; and other interested
parties. Copies will be made available to others on request.

If you have any questions, please call me at (202) 512-7631. Major
contributors to this report are listed in appendix VIII.




Judy A. England-Joseph
Director, Housing and Community
  Development Issues




Page 20                                           GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
B-281203




List of Congressional Committees

The Honorable Pete V. Domenici
Chairman, Committee on the Budget
United States Senate

The Honorable Phil Gramm
Chairman, Committee on Banking,
  Housing, and Urban Affairs
United States Senate

The Honorable Arlen Specter
Chairman, Committee on Veterans’ Affairs
United States Senate

The Honorable Christopher S. Bond
Chairman, Subcommittee on VA, HUD,
  and Independent Agencies
Committee on Appropriations
United States Senate

The Honorable James M. Jeffords
Chairman, Committee on Health,
  Education, Labor and Pensions
United States Senate

The Honorable Wayne Allard
Chairman, Subcommittee on Housing
  and Transportation
Committee on Banking, Housing,
  and Urban Affairs
United States Senate

The Honorable Bill Frist
Chairman, Subcommittee on Public Health
Committee on Health, Education,
  Labor and Pension
United States Senate




Page 21                                    GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
Contents



Letter                                                                                        1


Appendix I                                                                                   26
Types of Services That
Can Be Provided
Through Targeted and
Nontargeted
Programs
Appendix II                                                                                  30
Program Summaries
Appendix III                                                                                111
                           Department of Defense                                            111
Resources and              Department of Energy                                             112
Activities for Assisting   Department of Health and Human Services                          112
                           Department of Justice                                            114
the Homeless               Internal Revenue Service                                         114
                           Department of Veterans Affairs                                   115
                           Federal Property Programs                                        119


Appendix IV                                                                                 121
Groups Eligible to
Receive Services
Through Targeted and
Nontargeted
Programs




                           Page 22                                   GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                        Contents




Appendix V                                                                                     125
Programs, Types of
Funding, and
Reported Obligations
for Fiscal Years
1995-98
Appendix VI                                                                                    130
Comments From the
Department of Health
and Human Services
Appendix VII                                                                                   140
Comments From the
Department of
Housing and Urban
Development
Appendix VIII                                                                                  149
Major Contributors to
This Report
Tables                  Table 1: Number of Targeted and Key Nontargeted Programs                 6
                          Administered by Each Agency
                        Table 2: Types of Services That Can Be Provided Through                  8
                          Targeted and Nontargeted Programs
                        Table 3: Groups Eligible to Receive Services Through Targeted            9
                          and Nontargeted Programs


Figure                  Figure 1: Percentage of Fiscal Year 1997 Funds Allocated to             11
                          Major Nontargeted Programs




                        Page 23                                         GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
Contents




Abbreviations

AIDS       acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
CDBG       Community Development Block Grant
CFDA       Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance
CHALENG    Community Homelessness Assessment, Local Education
                and Networking Groups
CHIP       State Children’s Health Insurance Program
CoC        Continuum of Care
CSBG       Community Services Block Grant
DOD        Department of Defense
DOL        Department of Labor
ESG        Emergency Shelter Grants Program
FEMA       Federal Emergency Management Agency
HHS        Department of Health and Human Services
HIV        human immunodeficiency virus
HOME       Home Investment Partnerships Program
HOPWA      Housing Opportunities for Persons With AIDS
HUD        Department of Housing and Urban Development
JTPA       Jobs Training Partnership Act
PATH       Projects for Assistance in Transition from Homelessness
SRO        single room occupancy
SSA        Social Security Administration
SSBG       Social Services Block Grant
SSI        Supplemental Security Income
TANF       Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
USDA       Department of Agriculture
VA         Department of Veterans Affairs
WIC        Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women,
                Infants, and Children


Page 24                                       GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
Page 25   GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
Appendix I

Types of Services That Can Be Provided
Through Targeted and Nontargeted
Programs

                                                                  Services provided




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                                                 Ho
 Federal agency programs
 Agriculture

 Targeted

 1. Homeless Children Nutrition Program

 Nontargeted

 2. Child and Adult Care Food Program

 3. Commodity Supplemental Food Program

 4. Emergency Food Assistance Program
 5. Food Stamp Program

 6. National School Lunch Program

 7. School Breakfast Program

 8. Special Milk Program

 9. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for
    Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)
 10. Summer Food Service Program

 Education
 Targeted

 11. Education for Homeless Children and Youth

 Nontargeted

 12. Elementary and Secondary Education Act -
     Title I, Part A

 FEMA
 Targeted

 13. Emergency Food and Shelter Program




                                                   Page 26                                          GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                                                      Appendix I
                                                      Types of Services That Can Be Provided
                                                      Through Targeted and Nontargeted
                                                      Programs




                                                                             Services provided




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Federal agency programs

HHS
Targeted

14. Health Care for the Homeless

15. Projects for Assistance In Transition from
    Homelessness (PATH)
16. Runaway and Homeless Youth - Basic Center

17. Runaway and Homeless Youth - Street
    Outreach

18. Runaway and Homeless Youth - Transitional
    Living

Nontargeted

19. Consolidated (Community) Health Centers

20. Community Services Block Grant (CSBG)

21. Head Start

22. Maternal and Child Health Services Block
    Grant
23. Medicaid
24. Mental Health Performance Partnership
    Block Grant
25. Migrant Health Centers
                                                  a                    b
26. Ryan White CARE Act - Titles I, II
27. Social Services Block Grant (SSBG)


28. State Children's Health Insurance Program

29. Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment                            b
    Block Grant
30. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families                  c   c
    (TANF)




                                                      Page 27                                    GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                                                         Appendix I
                                                         Types of Services That Can Be Provided
                                                         Through Targeted and Nontargeted
                                                         Programs




                                                                                    Services provided




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Federal agency programs

HUD
Targeted

31. Emergency Shelter Grants d, e

32. Section 8 Single-Room Occupancy Moderate
    Rehabilitation
33. Shelter Plus Care f

34. Supportive Housing Program e

Nontargeted
                                           g
35. Community Development Block Grant (CDBG)

36. Home Investment Partnerships Program
    (HOME)
37. Housing Opportunities for Persons With AIDS
    (HOPWA)
38. Public and Indian Housing

39. Section 8 Project-Based Assistance

40. Section 8 Rental Certificate and Voucher
    Program
41. Section 811 - Supportive Housing for Persons
    With Disabilitiesf
Labor
Targeted
                                                                                h
42. Homeless Veterans Reintegration
Nontargeted
                                                                                h
43. Job Training for Disadvantaged Adults, Title IIA
44. Youth Employment and Training and Job
    Training for Disadvantaged Youth Programs,
    Title II B and II C

45. Veterans Employment Program,                                                h
    Title IV C
46. Welfare-to-Work Grants to States and
    Localities




                                                         Page 28                                        GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                                                      Appendix I
                                                      Types of Services That Can Be Provided
                                                      Through Targeted and Nontargeted
                                                      Programs




                                                                                        Services provided


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                                                  Em
                                                  Me
                                                  Ho




                                                  Inc




                                                  Ca
                                                 Ho
                                                 trai
Federal agency programs

SSA

Nontargeted

47. Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
Veterans Affairs

Targeted

48. Domiciliary Care for Homeless Veterans                                    b


49. Homeless Chronically Mentally Ill Veterans

50. Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem
    Program
Total                                            23    16       17    16    17     16       26   10    3       17        23

                                                        Note: The targeted programs are designed to serve homeless
                                                              people specifically, while the nontargeted programs are
                                                              generally designed to serve low-income people and/or
                                                              people with special needs.
                                                        a
                                                            Program funds may be used for housing referral services and
                                                            short-term emergency housing assistance to ensure eligible
                                                            HIV-infected persons and families maintain access to medical care.
                                                        b The eligible education services are specific to the services
                                                            provided under these programs (e.g., treatment education).
                                                        c
                                                            Program funds can also be used for nonmedical mental
                                                            and substance abuse treatment services.
                                                        d Thirty percent of ESG funds can be spent on supportive services.

                                                        e
                                                            ESG and SHP program funds can also be used for life skills training,
                                                            child care, AIDs treatment, etc.
                                                            f For these programs, HUD requires grantees to provide supportive
                                                            services from another source.
                                                        g
                                                            Fifteen percent of CDBG entitlement funds can be spent on
                                                            supportive services.
                                                        hAccording to Labor's Director of Operations and Programs, supportive
                                                            services are allowed under DOL programs, but the Department is not
                                                            likely to fund these services because grantees can leverage them from
                                                            other agencies, such as HUD and VA.




                                                      Page 29                                                                       GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
Appendix II

Program Summaries


                    This appendix presents information on the 50 federal programs we
                    identified that can serve homeless people. These programs—administered
                    by the departments of Agriculture (USDA), Health and Human Services
                    (HHS), Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Education, Labor, and
                    Veterans Affairs (VA); the Federal Emergency Management Administration
                    (FEMA); and the Social Security Administration (SSA)—are listed
                    alphabetically by agency and are grouped according to whether they are
                    targeted to homeless people or nontargeted.

                    For each program, we identify the federal agency responsible for
                    administering the program, the type of program (targeted or nontargeted),
                    and the type of funding associated with the program. The primary types of
                    funding include entitlements and direct payments (funding provided
                    directly to beneficiaries who satisfy federal eligibility requirements),
                    formula grants (funding distributed in accordance with a formula), and
                    project grants (funding provided directly to applicants for specific
                    projects). We also provide a brief overview of each program’s
                    (1) purpose/objective, services, and scope (number of homeless persons
                    served); (2) administration and funding; (3) eligibility requirements; and
                    (4) limitations in serving homeless people and/or giving them access to
                    benefits.

                    We obtained the information for the summaries primarily from the Catalog
                    of Federal Domestic Assistance, Guide to Federal Funding for
                    Governments and Nonprofits, program fact sheets and budget documents,
                    and agency officials. Most of the information discussed in the section on
                    each program’s limitations was obtained from agency officials.


Homeless Children   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Nutrition Program
                    Program Type: Targeted       Funding Type: Formula grants

                    Program Overview:

                    The Homeless Children Nutrition Program assists state and local
                    governments, other public entities, and private nonprofit organizations in




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Program Summaries




providing food services throughout the year to homeless children under
the age of 6 in emergency shelters.19

Two types of statistics on program participation are collected monthly:
enrollment and average daily participation. Enrollment is the total number
of homeless children served by the program each month, and average daily
participation is the average number of homeless children participating on
a given day. Because of high client turnover in most participating shelters,
enrollment is significantly above average daily participation for most
shelters. The average monthly enrollment for fiscal years 1995, 1996, 1997,
and 1998 was 2,703; 2,761; 2,700; and 2,569, respectively. The average daily
participation was 1,401; 1,257; 1,193; and 1,245 for the same fiscal years,
respectively.

Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

The Homeless Children Nutrition Program is administered by private
nonprofit organizations, state or local governments, and other public
entities—all known as sponsoring organizations. Private nonprofit
organizations may not operate more than five food service sites and may
not serve more than 300 homeless children at each site. The Department
provides cash reimbursement directly to the sponsoring organizations.
Payments are limited to the number of meals served to homeless children
under the age of 6 multiplied by the appropriate rate of reimbursement.
Sponsoring organizations may receive reimbursement for no more than
four meals per day served to an eligible child.20

The Department gives current-year funding priority to grantees funded
during the preceding fiscal year in order to maintain the current level of
service and allocates any remaining funds to eligible grantees for new
projects or to current grantees to expand the level of service provided in
the previous fiscal year.

Local Matching Requirement:


19
  The William F. Goodling Child Nutrition Reauthorization Act of 1998 (P.L. 105-336) eliminated the
Homeless Children Nutrition Program as a separate program and transferred it to the Child and Adult
Care Food program, effective July 1, 1999. Under the Act, emergency shelters which serve homeless
children can become eligible participating institutions in the Child and Adult Care Food Program.
Emergency shelters participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program will be eligible for
reimbursement for meals served to children residing at the shelter who are aged 12 or under or, if
migrant children, aged 15 or under.
20
 For emergency shelters participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program on or after July 1,
1999, reimbursements are limited to three meals, or two meals and a supplement, per child per day.



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                       Program Summaries




                       None.

                       Eligibility:

                       All children under the age of 6 in emergency shelters where the Homeless
                       Children Nutrition Program is operating are eligible for free meals.

                       Program Limitations:

                       According to a Homeless Children Nutrition Program official, the
                       Department has not identified any factors limiting the usefulness of this
                       program for the homeless.


Child and Adult Care   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Food Program
                       Program Type: Nontargeted       Funding Type: Entitlement

                       Program Overview:

                       The Child and Adult Care Food Program assists states, through
                       grants-in-aid and other means, in providing meals and snacks to children
                       and adults in nonresidential day care facilities. The program generally
                       operates in child care centers, outside-school-hours care centers, family
                       and group day care homes, and some adult day care centers.

                       Information on the number of homeless persons participating in the Child
                       and Adult Care Food Program is not available.

                       Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                       Most Child and Adult Care Food programs are administered by state
                       agencies. Currently, USDA directly administers the program in Virginia. The
                       Department provides funds to states through letters of credit to reimburse
                       eligible institutions for the costs of food service operations, including
                       administrative expenses. To receive reimbursement for free,
                       reduced-price, and paid meals, participating centers take income
                       applications and count meals served, both by the type of meal and by the
                       recipient’s type of eligibility. Under the Personal Responsibility and Work
                       Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, family day care homes are
                       reimbursed under a two-tiered system intended to better target the
                       program’s funds to low-income children. When a family day care home is



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Program Summaries




located in an area where 50 percent of the children are eligible for free or
reduced-price meals or when the family day care provider’s household is
eligible for free or reduced-price meals, the home receives a single
reimbursement rate comparable to the free rate in centers for each meal.
Other homes receive a lower reimbursement rate except when individual
children are determined eligible for free or reduced-price meals. Meals for
these children are reimbursed at a higher rate.

Local Matching Requirement:

None.

Eligibility:

Child and Adult Care Food programs in child care centers and homes limit
assistance to children aged 12 or under, migrant children aged 15 or under,
and children with disabilities who, if over the age of 12, would be eligible
to participate only in a center or home where the majority of those
enrolled are aged 18 or younger.

In adult day care centers, functionally impaired adults aged 18 or older and
adults aged 60 or older who are not residents of an institution are eligible
to participate in the program. Income guidelines for free and reduced-price
meals/snacks are the same as those indicated for the National School
Lunch and School Breakfast programs.

Homeless children or adults who meet the basic eligibility requirements
can receive benefits under the program. In addition, children from
households eligible for assistance through the Food Stamp Program, the
Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations, or Temporary
Assistance for Needy Families, as well as some children in Head Start
programs, may automatically be eligible for free meals under the Child and
Adult Care Food Program. In addition, a person aged 60 or older, or an
individual defined as “functionally impaired” under USDA’s regulations who
is a member of a household that receives food stamps, Food Distribution
Program on Indian Reservations benefits, Social Security, or Medicaid is
eligible for free meals through the Child and Adult Care Food Program.

Program Limitations:




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                    Appendix II
                    Program Summaries




                    According to a Child and Adult Care Food Program official, there are no
                    programmatic factors that prevent homeless children or adults, as defined
                    by federal regulations, from participating in this program.


Commodity           Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Supplemental Food
Program             Program Type: Nontargeted        Funding Type: Formula grants

                    Program Overview:

                    The objective of the Commodity Supplemental Food Program is to
                    improve the health and nutritional status of low-income pregnant,
                    postpartum, and breastfeeding women; infants; children up to the age of 6;
                    and persons aged 60 or older by supplementing their diets with nutritious
                    commodity foods.

                    Information on the number of homeless persons served by the program is
                    not available.

                    Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                    State agencies, such as departments of health and social services,
                    administer this program. The Department purchases food and makes it
                    available to the state agencies, along with funds to cover administrative
                    costs. The state agencies store and distribute the food to public and
                    nonprofit private local agencies. The local agencies determine applicants’
                    eligibility, give approved applicants monthly food packages targeted to
                    their nutritional needs, and provide them with information on nutrition.
                    The local agencies also refer applicants to other welfare and health care
                    programs, such as the Food Stamp Program and Medicaid.

                    The Department is required by law to make 20 percent of the program’s
                    annual appropriation and 20 percent of any carryover funds available to
                    the states to pay the costs of administering the program.

                    Local Matching Requirement:

                    None.




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                     Program Summaries




                     Eligibility:21

                     Pregnant, postpartum, and breastfeeding women; infants; and children up
                     to the age of 6 who are eligible for benefits under another federal, state, or
                     local food, health, or welfare program for low-income persons are eligible
                     for benefits under this program. Elderly persons whose incomes are at or
                     below 130 percent of the federal poverty guidelines are also eligible. In
                     addition, states may establish nutritional risk and local residency
                     requirements. Even though the program does not directly target homeless
                     persons, those meeting its eligibility criteria can receive benefits.

                     Persons eligible for both the Commodity Supplemental Food Program and
                     the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and
                     Children (WIC) cannot participate in both programs simultaneously.

                     Program Limitations:

                     According to a program official, assistance offered to homeless persons is
                     limited by the amount of available resources. States are allocated a
                     specific number of caseload slots; that number depends on the amount of
                     the fiscal year appropriation for each caseload cycle. Once all slots have
                     been filled, no additional persons can be served. In addition, no men other
                     than those aged 60 or older can participate in the program. Women,
                     infants, and children receive priority over the elderly.


Emergency Food       Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Assistance Program
                     Program Type: Nontargeted                   Funding type: Formula grants

                     Program Overview:

                     The Emergency Food Assistance Program supplements the diets of
                     low-income persons by providing them with free, healthful foods. Under
                     the program, the Department provides the states with (1) commodity
                     foods, such as fruits, dried beans, and canned meats, and (2) funds to help
                     cover the state and local costs associated with transporting, processing,
                     storing, and distributing the commodities to needy persons.



                     21
                      As of May 1998, the Commodity Supplemental Food Program operated only in AZ, CA, CO, IL, IA, KS,
                     KY, LA, MI, MN, NE, NC, NH, NM, NY, OR, TN, the District of Columbia, the Oglala Sioux Reservation
                     (SD), and the Red Lake Indian Reservation (MN).



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Information on the number of homeless persons served by the program is
not available.

Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

The Department buys the food, processes and packages it, and ships it to
the states. The amount each state receives depends on its low-income and
unemployed populations. The states provide the food to local agencies for
distribution to households or to organizations that prepare and provide
meals for needy people. The states must give at least 40 percent of the
administrative grant to local agencies.

Local Matching Requirement:

The states are required to match (in cash or in kind) the funds they retain
to pay state-level costs.

Eligibility:

Each state sets criteria for identifying households that are eligible to
receive food for home consumption. Such criteria may, at the state’s
discretion, include participation in other federal, state, or local means
tested programs. Persons receiving benefits through the Emergency Food
Assistance Program can participate in other food assistance programs at
the same time.

Homeless persons can benefit from the Emergency Food Assistance
Program through organizations that provide prepared meals or distribute
commodities for home use. Homeless persons must meet state eligibility
requirements to receive food for home use.

Organizations that distribute commodities for household consumption can
provide foods only to needy persons who meet the eligibility criteria
established by the state. Organizations that prepare meals are eligible for
commodities if they can demonstrate that they serve predominantly needy
persons. Persons seeking food assistance through such organizations are
not subject to a means test.

Program Limitations:

According to a program official, the assistance offered to homeless
persons is limited only by the amount of available resources. The



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                     Appendix II
                     Program Summaries




                     Department allocates commodities and administrative funds among the
                     states on the basis of the number of needy and unemployed persons in
                     each state. The value of the commodities and administrative funds
                     allocated to the states depends on the program’s yearly appropriation.


Food Stamp Program   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

                     Program Type: Nontargeted                    Funding Type: Entitlement

                     Program Overview:

                     The Food Stamp Program is the primary source of nutrition assistance for
                     low-income persons. The program’s purpose is to ensure access to a
                     nutritious, healthful diet for low-income persons through food assistance
                     and nutrition education. Food stamps, which supplement the funds
                     beneficiaries have to spend on food, may be used to purchase food items
                     at authorized food stores. Homeless persons eligible for food stamps may
                     also use their benefits to purchase prepared meals from authorized
                     providers.

                     Information on the number of homeless persons served by the program is
                     not available.

                     Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:22

                     The Food Stamp Program is a federal-state partnership, in which the
                     federal government pays the full cost of food stamp benefits and
                     approximately half the states’ administrative expenses. Households apply
                     for benefits at their local; state; or state-supervised, county-administered
                     welfare offices. The states certify eligible households, calculate each
                     household’s allotment, monitor recipients’ eligibility, conduct optional
                     nutrition education activities, and conduct employment and training
                     activities to enhance participants’ ability to obtain and keep regular
                     employment. Food stamp benefits are typically dispensed on a monthly

                     22
                       The Food Stamp Act contains the general provisions of the Food Stamp Program. The Personal
                     Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (H.R. 3734, also known as the welfare
                     reform bill) changed the following food stamp provisions related to homelessness: (1) Definition of
                     Homeless Individual - Section 805 of H.R. 3734 changed the definition of a homeless individual and
                     amended Section 3(s) of the Food Stamp Act; (2) Deductions from Income -Section 809 of H.R. 3734
                     indefinitely froze the maximum homeless shelter allowance, and amended Section 5(e) of the Food
                     Stamp Act; and (3) Expedited Coupon Service - Section 838 of H.R. 3734 eliminated households
                     consisting entirely of homeless people from those categories of households entitled to receive
                     expedited service, and amended Section 11(e)(9) of the Food Stamp Act. Almost 90 percent of
                     homeless persons still qualify for expedited service based on their low monthly income.



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Appendix II
Program Summaries




basis through electronic issuance; the mail; and private issuance agents,
such as banks, post offices, and check cashers.

States have the option of conducting outreach programs that target
low-income people.23 During fiscal year 1998, four states—New York,
Vermont, Washington, and Wisconsin—had optional federally approved
plans that specifically targeted homeless individuals or families. According
to a Food Stamp Program official, other states also conduct outreach
efforts to low-income persons, including the homeless, but use other
funding sources. Therefore, they are not required to report their outreach
efforts or target groups to the Department.

Local Matching Requirement:

The states are required to cover 50 percent of their administrative costs.

Eligibility:

Eligibility is based on household size and income, assets, housing costs,
work requirements, and other factors. A household is normally defined as
a group of people who live together and buy food and prepare meals
together. Households in which all of the members receive Temporary
Assistance for Needy Families, Supplemental Security Income, or General
Assistance are, in most cases, automatically eligible for food stamps.

Program Limitations:

Food Stamp Program officials reported that several factors limit the
participation of homeless persons in the program. First, there is a false
impression among homeless persons and the general public that a
permanent address is required to qualify for benefits. In fact, neither a
permanent residence nor a mailing address is needed. Second, only a
limited number of restaurants nationwide have been authorized to accept
food coupons for meals provided at a concession price to elderly or
homeless participants in the program. Third, the Food Stamp Act’s current
definition of “eligible foods,” as it relates to supermarkets and grocery
stores, does not allow food stamp recipients to purchase “hot” meals
prepared by the deli departments of such stores. Finally, homeless persons
generally have no place to store food items purchased with food stamps.


23
  The Hunger Prevention Act of 1988 provided state agencies with the option to receive a 50 percent
federal reimbursement for the cost of outreach activities directed to low-income people, including
homeless people.



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                        Appendix II
                        Program Summaries




                        Thus, the allotment may not go as far for a homeless person as it does for
                        someone with a refrigerator and storage space.


National School Lunch   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Program
                        Program Type: Nontargeted          Funding Type: Entitlement

                        Program Overview:

                        The National School Lunch Program assists the states, through cash grants
                        and food donations, in making the school lunch program available to
                        school students and encouraging the domestic consumption of nutritious
                        agricultural commodities.

                        Information on the number of homeless children participating in the
                        program is not available.

                        Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                        The National School Lunch program is usually administered by state
                        education agencies, which operate the program through agreements with
                        local school districts. Participating public or private nonprofit schools (for
                        students in high school or lower grades) and residential child care
                        institutions receive cash reimbursements and donated commodities from
                        state agencies for each meal they serve that meets federal nutrition
                        requirements.

                        Local Matching Requirement:

                        The states are required to contribute revenues equal to at least 30 percent
                        of the total federal funds provided under section 4 of the National School
                        Lunch Act in the 1980-81 school year.

                        Eligibility:

                        All children, including those who are homeless, enrolled in schools where
                        the National School Lunch Program is operating may participate and
                        receive a federally subsidized lunch. Lunch is served (1) free to children
                        who document that they come from households with incomes at or below
                        130 percent of the poverty level and (2) at a reduced price not to exceed 40
                        cents to children who document that they come from households with



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                   Appendix II
                   Program Summaries




                   incomes between 130 percent and 185 percent of the poverty level. If
                   children are eligible for free or reduced-price meals in the School
                   Breakfast Program, they are eligible for the same level of benefits in the
                   National School Lunch Program.

                   Children from households eligible for benefits under the Food Stamp
                   Program, the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations, and
                   Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, as well as some children in
                   Head Start programs, may automatically be eligible for free meals under
                   the National School Lunch Program. Because of the difficulty in getting
                   homeless families to complete income eligibility applications, school
                   officials may directly certify homeless children as eligible for free meals.
                   The officials must have direct knowledge of the children’s homelessness
                   and evident need.

                   Program Limitations:

                   According to a National School Lunch Program official, there are no
                   programmatic factors preventing homeless children from participating in
                   the National School Lunch Program.


School Breakfast   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Program
                   Program Type: Nontargeted          Funding Type: Entitlement

                   Program Overview:

                   The School Breakfast Program provides the states with cash assistance for
                   nonprofit breakfast programs in schools and residential child care
                   institutions.

                   Information on the number of homeless children participating in the
                   program is not available.

                   Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                   State education agencies and local school food authorities administer the
                   program locally. Participating public or private nonprofit schools (for
                   students in high school or lower grades) and residential child care
                   institutions are reimbursed by state agencies for each meal they serve that
                   meets federal nutrition requirements.



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                       Program Summaries




                       Local Matching Requirement:

                       None.

                       Eligibility:

                       All children, including those who are homeless, attending schools where
                       the program is operating may participate and receive a federally
                       subsidized breakfast. Breakfast is served (1) free to children who
                       document that they come from families with incomes at or below
                       130 percent of the poverty level and (2) at a reduced price, not to exceed
                       30 cents, to children who document that they come from families with
                       incomes between 130 percent and 185 percent of the poverty level.

                       Children from households eligible for benefits under the Food Stamp
                       Program, the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations, and
                       Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, as well as some children in
                       Head Start programs, may automatically be eligible for free meals under
                       the breakfast program. Because of the difficulty in getting homeless
                       families to complete income eligibility applications, school officials may
                       directly certify homeless children as eligible for free meals. The officials
                       must have direct knowledge of the children’s homelessness and evident
                       need.

                       Program Limitations:

                       According to a School Breakfast Program official, there are no
                       programmatic factors preventing homeless children from participating in
                       this program.


Special Milk Program   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

                       Program Type: Nontargeted          Funding Type: Entitlement

                       Program Overview:

                       The Special Milk Program provides subsidies to schools and child care
                       institutions to encourage the consumption of fluid milk by children.
                       Homeless shelters can participate in this program and receive
                       reimbursement for milk they serve to homeless children.




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                        Program Summaries




                        Information on the number of homeless children served by this program is
                        not available.

                        Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                        The program makes funds available to state agencies to encourage the
                        consumption of fluid milk by children in public and private nonprofit
                        schools (for students in high school or lower grades), child care centers,
                        and similar nonprofit institutions devoted to the care and training of
                        children. Milk may be provided to children either free or at a low cost,
                        depending on the family’s income level.

                        Local Matching Requirement:

                        None.

                        Eligibility:

                        All children, including homeless children, attending schools and
                        institutions where the program is operating are eligible for benefits.

                        Children from households eligible for benefits under the Food Stamp
                        Program, the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations, and
                        Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, as well as some children in
                        Head Start programs, may automatically be eligible for free milk.

                        Program Limitations:

                        According to a Special Milk program official, there are no programmatic
                        factors preventing homeless children from participating in this program. In
                        fact, homeless shelters are identified in the program’s guidelines as child
                        care institutions eligible for participation.


Special Supplemental    Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Nutrition Program for
Women, Infants, and     Program Type: Nontargeted         Funding Type: Formula grants
Children (WIC)          Program Overview:

                        The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and
                        Children (WIC) provides supplemental nutritious foods, nutrition



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Program Summaries




education, and health care referrals to low-income pregnant, postpartum,
and breastfeeding women; infants; and children up to the age of 5
determined to be at nutritional risk.

In response to provisions of the Hunger Prevention Act of 1988, several
changes affecting the homeless were made to the WIC program’s
regulations. These changes specifically define a “homeless individual;”
identify WIC as a supplement to the Food Stamp Program and to meals or
food provided through soup kitchens, shelters, and other emergency food
assistance programs; establish conditions under which residents in
facilities and institutions for the homeless may participate in WIC; require a
description, in the state’s comprehensive plan of efforts to provide
benefits to the homeless; ensure that the special needs of the homeless are
considered when providing food packages; and authorize the states to
adopt methods of delivering benefits that accommodate the special needs
of the homeless.

Information on the number of homeless WIC recipients/clients is not
available.

Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

The WIC program is operated through local clinics by state health agencies.
Grants are made to state health departments or comparable agencies that
then distribute funds to participating local public or private nonprofit
health or welfare agencies. Funds are allocated for food benefits; nutrition
services, including nutritional risk assessments; and administrative costs.

WIC  recipients receive food through food instruments, usually vouchers
(listing the specific foods appropriate to the recipient’s status) or checks
that can be redeemed at approved retail outlets. Participating retailers
then redeem the vouchers for cash from the WIC agency.

Local Matching Requirement:

None. However, some states contribute nonfederal funds in support of a
larger WIC program in their state.

Eligibility:

Low-income pregnant, postpartum, and breastfeeding women; infants; and
children up to the age of 5 are eligible for the WIC program if they (1) are



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                      Program Summaries




                      individually determined by a competent professional to be at nutritional
                      risk and (2) meet state-established income requirements. Applicants who
                      receive, or have certain family members who receive, benefits under
                      Medicaid, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, or the Food Stamp
                      Program may automatically meet WIC’s income requirements.

                      Persons eligible for WIC and the Commodity Supplemental Food Program
                      cannot participate in both programs simultaneously.

                      The WIC program’s legislation establishes homelessness as a predisposing
                      nutritional risk condition. Thus, categorical and income-eligible homeless
                      persons who lack any other documented nutritional or medical condition
                      are eligible for the program’s benefits.

                      Program Limitations:

                      WIC program officials said that because WIC is a fixed grant program, all
                      eligible persons will not necessarily be served. State agencies manage their
                      WIC programs within their grants and seek economies in benefit delivery to
                      permit the maximum numbers of eligible persons to be served. State
                      agencies target benefits to those who are most in need, as defined by a
                      regulatory priority system. Persons who meet income guidelines with
                      nutritionally related medical conditions are considered to be the most in
                      need of benefits.


Summer Food Service   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Program
                      Program Type: Nontargeted                     Funding Type: Entitlement

                      Program Overview:

                      The Summer Food Service Program provides funds for program sponsors
                      to serve free, nutritious meals to children in low-income areas when
                      school is not in session. In fiscal year 1997, sponsors served over
                      128 million meals at a total federal cost of about $243 million. Feeding
                      sites for the homeless that primarily serve homeless children may
                      participate in this program.24 The average number of children who

                      24
                        The William F. Goodling Child Nutrition Reauthorization Act of 1998 (P.L. 105-336) transferred
                      authority to serve sites that primarily serve homeless children to the Child and Adult Care Food
                      Program, effective July 1, 1999. Homeless feeding sites may continue to participate in the Summer
                      Food Service Program to the extent that they are located in a low-income area or if 50% of the children
                      they serve are identified as eligible for free or reduced-price meals.



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received meals at a homeless shelter during July (the month of highest
participation) in 1995, 1996, 1997, and 1998 was 1,355; 2,032; 1,996; and 764
for the same fiscal years, respectively.

Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

State education agencies administer most Summer Food Service programs
at the state level, but other state agencies may also be designated.
Participating service institutions (also called sponsors) can include units
of local government, camps, nonprofit private organizations, and schools.
Approved sponsors operate local programs; provide meals at a central site,
such as a school or community center; and receive reimbursement from
the Department through their state agency for the meals they serve and for
their documented operating costs.

Local Matching Requirement:

None.

Eligibility:

Local sponsors can qualify for reimbursement for the free meals served to
all children aged 18 or younger by operating a site in an eligible area. An
eligible area is one in which at least 50 percent of the children are from
households with incomes at or below 185 percent of the federal poverty
guidelines (i.e., households that are eligible for free or reduced-price
school meals). Sponsors can also qualify for reimbursement for the free
meals served to all children at sites not located in eligible areas if at least
50 percent of the children enrolled are eligible for free or reduced-price
school lunches. In addition, camps may be reimbursed only for meals that
are served to children who have been individually determined to be
eligible because of their household’s income.

Children from households eligible for benefits under the Food Stamp
Program, the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations, and
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, as well as some children in
Head Start programs, may automatically be eligible for free meals under
the Summer Food Service Program.

Program Limitations:




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                         Summer Food Service officials reported that there are no programmatic
                         factors preventing homeless children from participating in this program.


Education for Homeless   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Education
Children and Youth
                         Program Type: Targeted                    Funding Type: Formula grants

                         Program Overview:

                         The objective of this program is to ensure that homeless children and
                         youth have equal access to the same free, appropriate public education as
                         other children; to provide activities and services to ensure that these
                         children enroll in, attend, and achieve success in school; to establish or
                         designate an office in each state educational agency for coordinating the
                         education of homeless children and youth; to develop and implement
                         programs for school personnel to heighten awareness of problems specific
                         to homeless children and youth; and to provide grants to local educational
                         agencies.25

                         Local educational agencies may provide services such as tutoring,
                         remedial education, and other educational and social services for
                         homeless children, directly, and/or through contracts with other service
                         providers. State and local educational agencies must coordinate with the
                         state and local housing authorities that are responsible for preparing the
                         comprehensive housing plan required for federal housing and homeless
                         programs to receive aid.

                         According to an Education official, efforts to coordinate and provide
                         support services are essential to the enrollment, retention, and success of
                         homeless children and youth in school. Therefore, all the work of the state
                         coordinators involves outreach and coordination so that homeless
                         children and youth receive appropriate educational and support services,
                         including Title I, Head Start, access to special education or education for
                         gifted children (as appropriate), health care referrals, counseling,
                         parenting education, free and reduced-price meals, and other services.


                         25
                          A SEA is defined as the primary agency responsible for the state supervision of public elementary
                         and secondary schools. An local education agency is defined as a public board of education or other
                         public authority legally constituted within a State for either administrative control or direction of, or to
                         perform a service function for, public elementary or secondary schools in a city, county, township,
                         school district, or other political subdivision of a state, or for such combination of school districts or
                         counties as are recognized in a State as an administrative agency for its public elementary or
                         secondary schools.



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The local educational agencies that receive funds must (1) ensure that
homeless children are provided with services (e.g., school meals)
comparable to those provided to other children; (2) coordinate with social
services agencies and other agencies or programs providing services to
homeless children and youth (including services provided under the
Runaway and Homeless Youth Act, administered by HHS); and
(3) designate a liaison to ensure that homeless children and youth receive
the education to which they are entitled under law.

The Department does not require the states to report the numbers of
homeless children and youth served through subgrants under the
McKinney Act program but rather to “provide the estimated number of
homeless children and youth in their state according to school level.” The
program, however, has the potential to affect the education of all homeless
children and youth because its primary purpose is to ensure that homeless
children have the same equal access to public education as all other
children and youth.

Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

State educational agencies—including the equivalent agencies in the
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the territories—are eligible to
participate in this program, as are schools supported by the Bureau of
Indian Affairs that serve Native American students. For a state educational
agency to receive a grant under the program, the state must submit an
individual or consolidated plan to the Department. Each state educational
agency must also ensure that homeless students are able to participate in
appropriate federal and local food programs and before- or after-school
care programs.

Funds flow from the Department to the state educational agency through a
formula grant, and the state educational agency awards discretionary
subgrants to local educational agencies. The average grant to a state
educational agency in fiscal year 1997 was $475,000. According to a senior
agency official, about 3 percent of the local educational agencies included
in 1995 evaluation have subgrants.

Local Matching Requirement:

None.

Eligibility:



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                        Homeless children and youth, including preschool children, who, were
                        they residents of the state, would be entitled to a free, appropriate public
                        education.

                        Program Limitations:

                        According to an evaluation performed by the Department in 1995, the
                        largest obstacle to ensuring equitable educational services for homeless
                        children and youth is lack of transportation to the school that would best
                        meet their needs during the period of homelessness.


Elementary and          Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Education
Secondary Education
Act Part a of Title I   Program Type: Nontargeted         Funding Type: Formula grants

                        Program Overview:

                        This program provides funds to support a variety of activities designed to
                        help educationally disadvantaged children in high-poverty areas reach high
                        academic standards. These activities can include supplemental instruction
                        in basic and more advanced skills during the school day; before- and
                        after-school programs, summer school programs, preschool programs;
                        alternative school programs; programs featuring home visits; parent
                        education; and childcare.

                        According to an official in the Office of Elementary and Secondary
                        Education, the Department first collected data on the number of homeless
                        children served by this program during the 1996-97 school year. As of
                        October 1998, the Department was analyzing the data. The official also
                        mentioned that a few states did not submit data.

                        As part of its efforts to ensure homeless children’s access to mainstream
                        programs, the Department issued formal guidance for the Title I program
                        to clarify that educationally deprived homeless children are eligible to
                        participate in the program regardless of their current location or lack of a
                        legal residence.

                        Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                        State educational agencies and the Secretary of the Interior may apply to
                        the Department of Education for grants. The Department then makes



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                     grants to the state agencies and the Secretary using statutory formulas.
                     The state agencies suballocate the grant funds to local educational
                     agencies on the basis of a formula that includes the best available data on
                     the number of children from low-income families. The Secretary
                     suballocates the grant funds for Indian tribal schools.

                     Local Matching Requirement:

                     None.

                     Eligibility:

                     Eligibility is based on the number of children who are failing, or most at
                     risk of failing, to meet challenging state academic standards.

                     Program Limitations:

                     According to an official in the Office of Elementary and Secondary
                     Education, states may need to encourage local school districts to
                     implement the provision of Title I that pertains to homeless children and
                     youth. Also, some Title I state coordinators reported that record transfers
                     remain a barrier because homeless children and youth move frequently
                     during the school year.


Emergency Food and   Administering Agency: Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
Shelter Program
                     Program Type: Targeted        Funding Type: Formula grants

                     Program Overview:

                     The Emergency Food and Shelter Program supplements and expands
                     ongoing efforts to (1) provide food, shelter, and supportive services for
                     homeless or hungry individuals and (2) prevent individuals from becoming
                     homeless or hungry. The program’s funds are used for mass feeding, food
                     distribution through food pantries and food banks, mass shelter,
                     short-term other shelter (hotel/motel accommodations), assistance with
                     rent or mortgage payments to prevent evictions, payment of the first
                     month’s rent for families and individuals leaving shelters for more stable
                     housing, payment of utility bills for 1 month to prevent service shutoffs,
                     and limited emergency rehabilitation work on mass care facilities to bring
                     them up to code.



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The Emergency Food and Shelter Program does not collect information on
the number of homeless persons served. However, information is available
on the number of meals served; nights of shelter provided; and bills paid
for rent, mortgage, and utility charges.

Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

The Emergency Food and Shelter Program is governed by a national board
chaired by FEMA and includes representatives from (1) the American Red
Cross; (2) Catholic Charities, USA; (3) the Council of Jewish Federations;
(4) the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA; (5) the
Salvation Army; and (6) the United Way of America. The United Way of
America serves as the Secretariat and fiscal agent to the national board.
There are also local boards made up of affiliates of national board
members (with a local government official replacing the FEMA
representative), a homeless or formerly homeless person, and other
interested parties.

The national board uses unemployment and poverty statistics to select
local jurisdictions (i.e., cities and counties) for funding and determines
how much funding each jurisdiction will receive. In turn, the local board in
each area designated to receive funds assesses its community’s needs,
advertises the availability of funds, establishes local application
procedures, reviews applications, selects local nonprofit or public
organizations to act as service providers, and monitors the providers’
performance under the program. Grant funds flow directly from the
national board to the local recipient organizations.

Local Matching Requirement:

None.

Eligibility:

The Emergency Food and Shelter Program targets individuals with
emergency needs. The term “emergency” refers to economic, not
disaster-related, emergencies.

Program Limitations:

According to the chief of the Emergency Food and Shelter Program, FEMA,
the White House, and the Congress view this as a very successfully



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                      administered federal program. The program continues to be lauded by
                      agencies that receive funding and by recipients of assistance. The chief
                      also said the reduction in the program’s funding level after fiscal year 1995
                      is the primary factor that limits the program’s usefulness. In most areas of
                      the United States, this program is the only source of funding for the
                      prevention of homelessness. When localities have depleted these funds,
                      they have no other source of emergency assistance for rent, mortgage or
                      utility bills.

                      The only factor that may prevent the homeless or anyone in need from
                      obtaining benefits through the Emergency Food and Shelter Program is
                      lack of transportation to the agencies that provide the services. In many
                      rural and suburban areas, transportation continues to be a problem.


Health Care for the   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Homeless              (HHS)

                      Program Type: Targeted        Funding Type: Project grants (discretionary)

                      Program Overview:

                      The Health Care for the Homeless program awards grants to allow
                      grantees, directly or through contracts, to provide for the delivery of
                      primary health services and substance abuse services to homeless
                      individuals, including homeless children.

                      This program emphasizes a multidisciplinary approach to delivering care
                      to homeless persons, combining aggressive street outreach with integrated
                      systems of primary care, mental health and substance abuse services, case
                      management, and client advocacy. Specifically, Health Care for the
                      Homeless programs (1) provide primary health care and substance abuse
                      services at locations accessible to homeless persons; (2) provide
                      around-the-clock access to emergency health services; (3) refer homeless
                      persons for necessary hospital services; (4) refer homeless persons for
                      needed mental health services unless these services are provided directly;
                      (5) conduct outreach to inform homeless individuals of the availability of
                      services; and (6) aid homeless individuals in establishing eligibility for
                      housing assistance and services under entitlement programs. The grants
                      may be used to continue to provide these services for up to 12 months to
                      individuals who have obtained permanent housing if services were
                      provided to these individuals when they were homeless.



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Health Care for the Homeless serves approximately 450,000 homeless
persons yearly.

Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

State and local governments, other public entities, and private nonprofit
organizations are eligible to apply for Health Care for the Homeless grants.
Health Care for the Homeless projects are administered by federally
funded community and migrant centers, inner city hospitals, nonprofit
coalitions, and local public health departments. The Department
distributes grant awards directly to nonprofit and public organizations.

Local Matching Requirement:

None.

The program’s 1996 reauthorization ended a matching requirement of $1
for every $2 of federal funds. However, grantees that received initial
funding between 1988 and 1995 are required to maintain the level of effort
begun when the matching requirement was in place.

Eligibility:

The Health Care for the Homeless program serves homeless individuals
and families.

Program Limitations:

According to a Health Care for the Homeless official, recent federal and
state welfare changes, as well as the loss of Supplemental Security Income
benefits for individuals with substance abuse problems, have led to a
drastic increase in the number of uninsured persons seeking Health Care
for the Homeless services. At the same time, Health Care for the Homeless
programs are facing decreases in third-party reimbursements as many
states enact Medicaid managed care plans. Because these managed care
plans provide restricted access to providers that may be geographically
distant, homeless patients regularly seek more accessible services “out of
the plan” through the Health Care for the Homeless program. Patients
receive care, but the program receives no reimbursement. Declining
Medicaid reimbursement, combined with increased numbers of uninsured
persons needing services, limits grantees’ capacity to meet demand. In




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                          some instances, providers have been forced to turn away homeless
                          persons seeking Health Care for the Homeless services.


Projects for Assistance   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
in Transition From        (HHS)
Homelessness (PATH)
                          Program Type: Targeted        Funding Type: Formula grants

                          Program Overview:

                          The PATH program provides financial assistance to states to provide a
                          variety of housing and social services to individuals with severe mental
                          illness, including those with substance abuse disorders, who are homeless
                          or at risk of becoming homeless.

                          Services funded under PATH include (1) outreach; (2) screening and
                          diagnostic treatment; (3) habilitation and rehabilitation services;
                          (4) community mental health services; (5) alcohol or drug treatment
                          services; (6) staff training; (7) case management; (8) supportive and
                          supervisory services in residential settings; (9) referrals for primary health
                          services, job training, and educational services; and (10) a prescribed set
                          of housing services. PATH allows the states to set their own priorities
                          among the eligible services. The states cannot use more than 20 percent of
                          their allotment for prescribed housing services. In addition, funds cannot
                          be used to (1) support emergency shelters or the construction of housing
                          facilities, (2) cover inpatient psychiatric or substance abuse treatment
                          costs, or (3) make cash payments to intended recipients of mental health
                          or substance abuse services.

                          During fiscal years 1995 through 1997, the PATH program served 125,947;
                          76,395; and 62,112 homeless persons, respectively. Information for fiscal
                          year 1998 was not available during our review.

                          Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                          The Department provides grants to states that, in turn, make subgrants to
                          local public and private nonprofit organizations. Eligible nonprofit
                          subgrantees include community-based veterans organizations and other
                          community organizations.

                          Local Matching Requirement:



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                       Grantees must contribute $1 in cash or in kind for every $3 in federal
                       funds.

                       Eligibility:

                       The PATH program targets persons with mental illness, including those with
                       substance abuse disorders, who are homeless or at risk of becoming
                       homeless.

                       Program Limitations:

                       According to a PATH official, the program cannot meet the demand for its
                       services from eligible persons. Therefore, the program specially targets
                       those who are most in need. Other factors limiting the program’s
                       effectiveness include a lack of affordable housing; difficulties for clients in
                       gaining access to health and entitlement benefits (because of limitations
                       on eligibility, problems in obtaining necessary documentation, or inability
                       to follow through on application processes); limitations on coverage under
                       health and entitlement programs; and limitations on the availability of
                       mental health resources.


Runaway and Homeless   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Youth - Basic Center   (HHS)

                       Program Type: Targeted         Funding Type: Project grants (discretionary)

                       Program Overview:

                       The Runaway and Homeless Youth Basic Center program provides
                       grantees with financial assistance to establish or strengthen
                       community-based centers that address the immediate needs of runaway
                       and homeless youth and their families. The program offers young
                       runaways a system of care outside the traditional child protective services,
                       law enforcement, and juvenile justice agencies. Basic centers provide
                       services such as emergency shelter, food, clothing, counseling, referrals
                       for health care, outreach, aftercare services, and recreational activities.

                       During fiscal year 1997, the Runaway and Homeless Youth Basic Center
                       and Transitional Living programs provided services to 83,359 homeless




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                         youth.26 The Department did not collect this information during fiscal
                         years 1995 and 1996. Information for fiscal year 1998 was not available at
                         the time of our review.

                         Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                         Grants are provided to local public and private or nonprofit agencies, as
                         well as to coordinated networks of such agencies.

                         Local Matching Requirement:

                         The grantee must match 10 percent of the federal grant, either in cash or in
                         kind.

                         Eligibility:

                         Runway and homeless youth and their families are eligible for benefits.

                         Program Limitations:

                         According to a program official, funding levels severely limit the types and
                         duration of services that can be offered to young people. Basic centers
                         may house youth for only 15 days, a period that is often not long enough to
                         locate a longer-term alternative for youth who cannot return to their
                         family home or to ensure that youth who are returned home will be safe.
                         In addition, because of funding limitations, the centers are often full and
                         most Transitional Living programs have waiting lists.


Runaway and Homeless     Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Youth - Education and    (HHS)
Prevention Grants to
                         Program Type: Targeted               Funding Type: Project grants (discretionary)
Reduce Sexual Abuse of
Runaway, Homeless, and   Program Description:
Street Youth
                         Education and Prevention Grants to Reduce Sexual Abuse of Runaway,
                         Homeless, and Street Youth (Street Outreach Program) fund street-based
                         education and outreach, emergency shelter, and related services for
                         runaway and homeless youth and youth on the streets who have been, or


                         26
                          The Department does not maintain separate data on the number of homeless youth served by each
                         program.



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                       are at risk of being, sexually exploited and abused. Street-based outreach
                       activities are designed to reach those youth who do not benefit from
                       traditional programs because they stay away from shelters. Services
                       provided through the program include survival aid, emergency shelters,
                       street-based education and outreach, individual assessments, treatment
                       and counseling, prevention and education activities, information and
                       referrals, crisis intervention, and follow-up support.

                       The Department does not collect data on the number of homeless youth
                       served through the program. However, information is available on the
                       number of youth contacted through street outreach efforts.

                       Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                       The Department awards grants to private nonprofit agencies to provide
                       outreach services designed to build relationships between grantee staff
                       and street youth. These agencies provide services directly or in
                       collaboration with other agencies.

                       Local Matching Requirement:

                       The grantee must provide 10 percent of the federal grant in cash or in kind.

                       Eligibility:

                       Adolescents up to the age of 24 who are living on the streets are eligible
                       for the program’s benefits.

                       Program Limitations:

                       The Department’s comments on this program appear in our discussion of
                       the Runaway and Homeless Youth Basic Center programs.


Runaway and Homeless   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Youth - Transitional   (HHS)
Living Program for
                       Program Type: Targeted        Funding Type: Project grants (discretionary)
Older Homeless Youth
                       Program Description:




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                   The Transitional Living Program for Older Homeless Youth supports
                   projects that provide longer-term residential services to homeless youth
                   aged 16 to 21 for up to 18 months to help them make a successful
                   transition to self-sufficient living. These services include (1) basic life skill
                   building, (2) interpersonal skill building, (3) career counseling, (4) mental
                   health care, (5) educational opportunities, and (6) physical health care.

                   During fiscal year 1997, the Runaway and Homeless Youth Basic Center
                   and Transitional Living programs provided services to 83,359 homeless
                   youth.27 The Department did not collect this information during fiscal
                   years 1995 and 1996. Information for fiscal year 1998 was not available at
                   the time of our review.

                   Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                   The Transitional Living Program provides grants to local public and
                   private organizations to address the shelter and service needs of homeless
                   youth.

                   Local Matching Requirement:

                   Grantees must provide 10 percent of the federal grant in cash or in kind.

                   Eligibility:

                   The Transitional Living Program targets homeless youth aged 16 to 21. A
                   homeless youth accepted into the program is eligible to receive shelter and
                   services continuously for up to 18 months.

                   Program Limitations:

                   According to a program official, most Transitional Living programs have
                   waiting lists because the number that can be funded with current
                   resources is limited.


Community Health   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Centers            (HHS)




                   27
                    The Department does not maintain separate data on the number of homeless youth served by each
                   program.



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Program Type: Nontargeted         Funding Type: Project grants
(discretionary)

Program Overview:

The Community Health Center program supports the development and
operation of community health centers, which provide preventive and
primary health care services, supplemental health and support services,
and environmental health services to medically underserved
areas/populations.

Although the Health Care for the Homeless program is specifically
designed to serve the homeless population, many community health
centers serve homeless individuals and have internal programs for this
purpose.

Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

Any public agency or private nonprofit organization with a governing
board, a majority of whose members are users of the center’s services, is
eligible to apply for a project grant to establish and operate a community
health center in a medically underserved area. Public or private nonprofit
organizations may also apply for grants to provide technical assistance to
community health centers.

Local Matching Requirement:

None. However, grantees are expected to have nonfederal revenue
sources.

Eligibility:

Population groups in medically underserved areas are eligible for services
provided by community health centers. Criteria for determining whether
an area is medically underserved include, among others, a high rate of
poverty or infant mortality, a limited supply of primary care providers, and
a significant number of elderly persons.

Program Limitations:

A program official reported that there are no factors preventing homeless
people from gaining access to community health centers.



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Community Services   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Block Grant          (HHS)

                     Program Type: Nontargeted          Funding Type: Formula grants

                     Program Overview:

                     The Community Services Block Grant program provides block grants to
                     states, territories and Indian tribes for services and activities to reduce
                     poverty. Block grants give states flexibility to tailor their programs to the
                     particular service needs of their communities. Activities designed to assist
                     low-income participants, including homeless individuals and families, are
                     acceptable under this program. Eligible services include employment,
                     education, housing assistance, nutrition, energy, emergency, and health
                     services.

                     The Department does not collect data on the number of homeless persons
                     served by this program.

                     Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                     Each state submits an annual application and certifies that it agrees to
                     provide (1) a range of services and activities having a measurable and
                     potentially major impact on causes of poverty in communities where
                     poverty is an acute problem and (2) activities designed to help low-income
                     participants become self-sufficient.

                     States make grants to locally based nonprofit community action agencies
                     and other eligible entities that provide services to low-income individuals
                     and families. States are required to use at least 90 percent of their
                     allocations for grants to community action agencies and other eligible
                     organizations.

                     Local Matching Requirement:

                     None.

                     Eligibility:

                     Community Services Block Grant programs are targeted at the poor and
                     near-poor, and need is the primary criterion for eligibility. In general,




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             beneficiaries of programs funded by these block grants must have incomes
             no higher than those set forth in the federal poverty income guidelines.

             Program Limitations:

             The Department did not identify any factors limiting the usefulness of this
             program for homeless persons.


Head Start   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
             (HHS)

             Program Type: Nontargeted         Funding Type: Project grants
             (discretionary)

             Program Overview:

             The Head Start program provides comprehensive health, educational,
             nutritional, social, and other services primarily to preschool children from
             low-income families. The program fosters the development of children and
             enables them to deal more effectively with both their present environment
             and later responsibilities in school and community life. Head Start
             programs emphasize cognitive and language development and
             socio-emotional development to enable each child to develop and realize
             his or her highest potential. Head Start children also receive
             comprehensive health services, including immunizations, physical and
             dental exams and treatment, and nutritional services. In addition, the
             program emphasizes the significant involvement of parents in their
             children’s development. Parents can make progress toward their
             educational, literacy, and employment goals by training for jobs and
             working in Head Start.

             While all Head Start programs are committed to meeting the needs of
             homeless children and families, 16 Head Start programs were selected in a
             national demonstration competition to target children who are homeless.
             Head Start has provided $3.2 million a year since 1993 to these 16
             programs. The Department plans to issue a final report detailing the key
             lessons learned from the demonstration programs in late 1998 or early
             1999.

             During the last 4 program years, approximately 50 percent of local Head
             Start programs reported that they undertook special initiatives to serve



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homeless children and their families. However, at this time, information on
the number of homeless persons served is not collected nationally.

Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

Head Start funds are awarded directly to local public and private nonprofit
agencies, such as school systems, city and/or county governments, Indian
tribes, and social service agencies.

Local Matching Requirement:

Grantees must provide 20 percent of the program’s total cost.

Eligibility:

The Head Start program is primarily for preschool children between the
ages of 3 and 5 from low-income families. However, children under the age
of 3 from low-income families may be eligible for the Early Head Start
program. At least 90 percent of Head Start participants must come from
families with incomes at or below set poverty guidelines. At least
10 percent of the enrollment opportunities in each program must be made
available to children with disabilities.

Program Limitations:

A Head Start program official reported that while there are a number of
effective approaches to serving homeless families, the efficacy of any
particular approach often depends on the local community’s resources,
policies, and service delivery systems for homeless families. The official
also reported that, according to grantees, Head Start has a critical role to
play in serving homeless families, and in many communities it may be the
only program serving homeless families that focuses on children as well as
families. In addition, because Head Start employs a family-based,
comprehensive approach to serving families, it is in a unique position to
provide the multiple services homeless families require. A key lesson
learned from the Head Start Homeless Demonstration Projects is that
Head Start programs cannot “do it all.” Collaboration with other agencies
serving homeless families was and is critical to the success of each
project.




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Maternal and Child      Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Health Services Block   (HHS)
Grant
                        Program Type: Nontargeted          Funding Type: Formula grants

                        Program Overview:

                        The Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant Program supports
                        states’ activities to improve the health status of pregnant women, mothers,
                        infants, and children. The program is designed to address key health issues
                        for low-income women and their children, including reducing the rate of
                        infant mortality and disabling diseases among women and children.
                        Information on the number of homeless persons served through this
                        program is not available.

                        Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                        States receive grants from the federal government and may make
                        subgrants to public or private nonprofit organizations. States are required
                        to use at least 30 percent of their block grant allocations to develop
                        systems of care for preventive and care services for children and
                        30 percent for services for children with special needs. Approximately
                        30 percent may be used, at the state’s discretion, for services for either of
                        these groups or for other appropriate maternal and child health services,
                        including preventive and primary care services for pregnant women,
                        mothers, and infants up to 1 year old. Spending for administrative costs is
                        capped at 10 percent.

                        Local Matching Requirement:

                        States or localities must provide $3 for every $4 of federal funds.

                        Eligibility:

                        The Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant program targets
                        pregnant women, mothers, infants and children, and children with special
                        health care needs, particularly those from low-income families (i.e,
                        families whose income is below 100 percent of the federal poverty
                        guidelines).

                        Program Limitations:




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           A Maternal and Child Health Services program official reported that there
           are no factors preventing homeless people from gaining access to
           programs funded by the block grant.


Medicaid   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
           (HHS)

           Program Type: Nontargeted          Funding Type: Entitlement

           Program Overview:

           The Medicaid program provides financial assistance to states for payments
           of medical assistance on behalf of aged, blind, and disabled individuals,
           including recipients of Supplemental Security Income payments, families
           with dependent children, and special groups of pregnant women and
           children who meet income and resource requirements. Medicaid is the
           largest program providing medical and health-related services to America’s
           poorest people.

           For certain eligibility groups known as the categorically needy, states must
           provide the following services: in- and out-patient hospital services;
           physician services; medical and surgical dental services; nursing facility
           services for individuals aged 21 or older; home health care for persons
           eligible for nursing facility services; family planning services and supplies;
           rural health clinic services and any other ambulatory services offered by a
           rural health clinic that are otherwise covered under the state plan;
           laboratory and X-ray services; federally qualified health center services;
           nurse-midwife services (to the extent authorized under state law); and
           early and periodic screening, diagnosis, and treatment services for
           individuals under the age of 21.

           Information on the number of homeless persons served by the Medicaid
           program is not available.

           Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

           Within broad national guidelines, each state (1) administers its own
           program; (2) establishes its own eligibility standards; (3) determines the
           type, amount, duration, and scope of services; and (4) sets the rate of
           payment for services. Thus, the Medicaid program varies considerably
           from state to state, as well as within each state, over time. State and local



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Medicaid agencies operate the program under an HHS-approved Medicaid
state plan.

The Department matches state expenditures for services provided to
eligible beneficiaries at a rate established by formula. Under the Social
Security Act, the federal share for medical services may range from
50 percent to 83 percent. Medicaid payments are made directly by the
states to the health care provider or health plan for services rendered to
beneficiaries. The Department also matches administrative expenses for
all states at a rate of 50 percent except for some specifically identified
administrative expenses, which are matched at enhanced rates. Among the
expenses eligible for enhanced funding are those for operating an
approved Medicaid Management Information System for reimbursing
providers for services.

Local Matching Requirement:

States are required to match federal funds expended for covered medical
services to beneficiaries at a rate established by formula. Some states
require local governments to provide part of the state matching funds.

Eligibility:

Low-income persons who are over the age of 65, blind, or disabled;
members of families with dependent children; low-income children and
pregnant women; and certain Medicare beneficiaries who meet income
and resource requirements are eligible for benefits. Also, in many states,
medically needy individuals may be eligible for medical assistance.
Eligibility is determined by the states in accordance with federal
regulations. The states have some discretion in determining the groups
their Medicaid programs will cover and the financial criteria for Medicaid
eligibility.

In all but a few states, persons receiving Supplemental Security Income
are automatically eligible for Medicaid.

Program Limitations:

The Department did not identify any factors limiting the usefulness of this
program for homeless persons.




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Mental Health             Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Performance               (HHS)
Partnership Block Grant
                          Program Type: Nontargeted         Funding Type: Formula grants

                          Program Overview:

                          Mental Health Performance Partnership Block Grants assist states in
                          creating comprehensive, community-based systems of care for adults with
                          serious mental illnesses and children with severe emotional disturbances.
                          In order to receive block grant funds, states must submit plans that, among
                          other things, provide for the establishment and implementation of a
                          program of outreach to, and services for, such individuals who are
                          homeless. The plans must include health and mental health, rehabilitation,
                          employment, housing, educational, medical and dental, and other
                          supportive services, as well as case management services. States primarily
                          use PATH and other limited available funds to establish and implement their
                          plans for outreach to the homeless.

                          Information is not available on the number of homeless adults with serious
                          mental illnesses and homeless children with severe emotional
                          disturbances served by this program.

                          Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                          Funds are used at the discretion of the state to achieve the program’s
                          objectives. States carry out their block grant activities through grants or
                          contracts with a variety of community-based organizations, such as
                          community mental health centers, child mental health centers, and mental
                          health primary consumer-directed organizations.

                          The Department uses 5 percent of the block grant funds for technical
                          assistance to states, data collection, and program evaluation.

                          Local Matching Requirement:

                          None.

                          Eligibility:

                          States have flexibility in allocating their block grant funds. While funds
                          may not be identified explicitly for services to the homeless, most state



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                         mental health agencies do provide services for homeless adults with
                         serious mental illnesses and homeless children with severe emotional
                         disturbances.

                         Program Limitations:

                         According to a program official, the demand for public mental health
                         services exceeds the ability of many programs to serve all eligible persons.
                         Therefore, programs generally target services to high-priority populations.
                         Many states and communities are faced with significant needs among
                         various high-priority populations, and many states have identified
                         significant gaps in services—such as services related to the criminal
                         justice system and transitional services for children moving to adulthood.
                         Gaps in these service areas may contribute to homelessness in some
                         communities.


Migrant Health Centers   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
                         (HHS)

                         Program Type: Nontargeted         Funding Type: Project grants

                         Program Overview:

                         Migrant health centers support the planning and delivery of health services
                         to migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families as they move and
                         work.

                         In some cases, migrant farmworkers are considered as homeless for at
                         least a portion of their work year, since housing is usually not guaranteed
                         with employment.

                         Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                         Migrant health centers make grants to public and private nonprofit entities
                         for the planning and delivery of health care services to medically
                         underserved migrants and seasonal farmworkers. This program is closely
                         related to the Community Health Centers program. In fact, the majority of
                         the grantees under the Migrant Health Centers program also receive funds
                         through the Community Health Centers program.

                         Local Matching Requirement:



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                      None.

                      Eligibility:

                      Migratory and seasonal agricultural workers and their families are eligible
                      for services.

                      Program Limitations:

                      A program official reported that the Migrant Health Centers program
                      encourages centers to undertake farmworker housing projects. However,
                      only a few centers have pursued this option. As a result, most centers are
                      not in a position to assist farmworkers with housing issues.


Ryan White Care Act   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Titles I and II       (HHS)

                      Program Type: Nontargeted         Funding Type: Formula and project grants

                      Program Overview:

                      The Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act (Ryan
                      White CARE Act) provides assistance to states, eligible metropolitan
                      areas, and service providers to improve the quality and availability of care
                      for individuals and families living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus
                      (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) through seven
                      different programs that target specific aspects of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

                      Title I of the act provides substantial emergency resources to metropolitan
                      areas facing high HIV/AIDS caseloads to develop and operate programs that
                      provide an effective, appropriate, and cost-efficient continuum of health
                      care and support services for individuals and families living with HIV. Title
                      II of the act enables states to improve the quality, availability, and
                      organization of health and support services for individuals infected with
                      HIV and their families.


                      Titles I and II receive the most funds and provide services to low-income,
                      underserved, vulnerable populations, such as the homeless, who are
                      infected with HIV/AIDS. The services provided include health care services
                      and support services, such as housing referrals, case management,
                      outpatient health services, emergency housing assistance, and assistance



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associated with residential health care delivery—for example, residential
substance abuse care.

Information on the number of homeless persons served through titles I
and II of the act is not available.

Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

Under title I, eligible metropolitan areas receive formula grants based on
the estimated number of people infected with HIV who are living in the
metropolitan area. The remaining funds available after the formula grant
amounts are determined are distributed as supplemental grants through a
discretionary mechanism established by the Secretary of HHS. Title I grants
are awarded to the chief elected official of the city or county that
administers the health agency providing services to the greatest number of
people living with HIV in the eligible metropolitan area. Title II grants are
also determined by formula and are awarded to the state agency
designated by the governor to administer the title II program, usually the
health department. The use of the program’s funds is authorized only after
all other funding sources have been exhausted.

Local Matching Requirement:

Title I - None.

Title II - States with a confirmed number of AIDS cases that exceeds
1 percent of the aggregate number of cases in the United States for the
2-year period preceding the fiscal year for which the state is applying for
funds are subject to a matching requirement. The matching requirement
increases each year of the grant cycle. In the first fiscal year of
participation, states must provide at least $1 for every $5 of federal funds;
in the second fiscal year, $1 for every $4; in the third fiscal year, $1 for
every $3; and in the fourth and subsequent fiscal years, $1 for every $2 of
federal funds.

Eligibility:

Low-income, uninsured, and underinsured HIV-infected individuals and
their families may be eligible for services funded through titles I and II.

Program Limitations:




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                        A program official reported that program priorities for titles I and II of the
                        Ryan White CARE Act are determined locally and are based on local
                        assessments of the needs of people living with HIV/AIDS. Resources may
                        not be adequate to meet all needs; therefore, important services may not
                        be provided.

                        Also, according to the official, adequate housing for persons living with
                        HIV/AIDS remains a critical need and a major service gap in many eligible
                        metropolitan areas and states. While inadequate housing is a major
                        problem for persons living in poverty, this problem is magnified for
                        persons living with HIV. In many areas, the stock of affordable housing is
                        not growing, but the proportion of persons with HIV living in poverty
                        continues to grow. To meet varying needs, a range of services may be
                        required to help such persons locate, maintain and/or retain housing.
                        Homelessness not only affects basic health and dignity but also disrupts
                        access to services and makes continuing compliance with medication
                        regimens very difficult. The costs of providing housing assistance are high,
                        and collaboration among agencies and programs is needed to make more
                        adequate housing available for persons with HIV/AIDS.


Social Services Block   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Grant                   (HHS)

                        Program Type: Nontargeted          Funding Type: Formula grants

                        Program Overview:

                        Social Services Block Grants (SSBG) enable each state to furnish social
                        services best suited to the needs of its residents. The grants are designed
                        to (1) reduce or eliminate dependency; (2) achieve or maintain
                        self-sufficiency; (3) help prevent the neglect, abuse, or exploitation of
                        children and adults; (4) prevent or reduce inappropriate institutional care;
                        and (5) secure admission or referral for institutional care when other
                        forms of care are not appropriate.

                        Each state determines which of 28 services included in an SSBG index will
                        be provided and how the funds will be distributed. Services that may be
                        supported with SSBG funds are transportation, case management,
                        education and training, employment, counseling, housing, substance
                        abuse, and adoption services; congregate meals; day care; family planning
                        services; foster care services for adults and children; health-related and



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                          home-based services; home-delivered meals; independent/transitional
                          living information and referral; legal, pregnancy and parenting, and
                          prevention/intervention services; protective services for children and
                          adults; recreational services; residential treatment; and special services for
                          youth at risk and disabled persons.

                          The Department does not collect data on the number of homeless persons
                          served by this program.

                          Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                          Grant funds are determined by a statutory formula based on each state’s
                          population. Local government agencies and private organizations may
                          receive subgrants. States may also contract with local service providers to
                          supply the range of services allowed under the program.

                          Local Matching Requirement:

                          None.

                          Eligibility:

                          Each state determines the services that will be provided and the
                          individuals that will be eligible to receive services.

                          Program Limitations:

                          According to a program official, the ability of the SSBG program to serve
                          the homeless is limited by the discretionary nature of states as
                          independent program entities, the lack of an index service for or explicit
                          emphasis on the homeless within the SSBG index, and objectives (1) and
                          (2) of the legislative program. These objectives, which support efforts to
                          prevent, reduce, or eliminate dependency, encourage the use of SSBG funds
                          to assist persons whose existing housing is threatened rather than those
                          who are already homeless. While SSBG funds can be used as a stopgap to
                          prevent further homelessness, they cannot be used to provide housing for
                          the homeless.


State Children’s Health   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Insurance Program         (HHS)




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Program Type: Nontargeted         Funding Type: Formula grants

Program Overview:

The State Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) provides funds to
states to enable them to initiate and expand child health assistance to
uninsured, low-income children.

Information on the number of homeless children served by CHIP is not
available.

Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

Any state applying for CHIP funds must submit and have approved by the
Secretary of HHS a state child health plan that includes certain eligibility
standards to ensure that only targeted low-income children are provided
assistance under the plan. The plan must also indicate what share of the
costs, if any, will be charged by the state. The plan may not exclude
coverage for preexisting conditions. The states may spend up to 10 percent
of their total CHIP funds on administrative activities, including outreach to
identify and enroll eligible children in the program.

The final allotment for a state’s CHIP plan is based on (1) the number of
low-income, uninsured children in the state and (2) the state’s cost factor.
A state-specific percentage is determined on the basis of these two factors
for each state with an approved CHIP plan. A state’s final allotment for the
fiscal year is determined by multiplying the state-specific percentage for
each approved CHIP plan by the total national amount available for
allotment to all states.

Local Matching Requirement:

The amount each state pays varies with the state’s federal medical
assistance percentages used in the Medicaid program. No state pays more
than 35 percent.

Eligibility:

CHIP targets children who have been determined eligible by the state for
child health assistance under the state’s plan; low-income children;
children whose family income exceeds Medicaid’s applicable income level
but is not more than 50 percentage points above that income level; and



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                        children who are not eligible for medical assistance under Medicaid or are
                        not covered under a group health or other health insurance plan.

                        When a state determines through CHIP screening that a child is eligible for
                        Medicaid, the state is required to enroll the child in the Medicaid program.
                        In addition, the state is expected to coordinate with other public and
                        private programs providing creditable health coverage for low-income
                        children.

                        Program Limitations:

                        According to a program official, there may be barriers at the state level in
                        both CHIP and Medicaid. For example, documentation and verification
                        requirements vary from state to state. Furthermore, a limitation exists
                        under the Medicaid side of the CHIP program related to presumptive
                        eligibility, a temporary status that allows a person to receive care
                        immediately if he/she appears to be eligible on the basis of a statement of
                        income. The statute limits who can determine presumptive eligibility.
                        Currently, most providers and shelters serving the homeless are not
                        included in the statute as entities that can determine presumptive
                        eligibility, even though they interact with homeless children daily.


Substance Abuse         Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Prevention and          (HHS)
Treatment Block Grant
                        Program Type: Nontargeted         Funding Type: Formula grants

                        Program Overview:

                        The Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant program
                        provides financial assistance to states and territories for planning,
                        implementing, and evaluating activities to prevent and treat substance
                        abuse.

                        Information on the number of homeless persons served through this
                        program is not available because states are not required to routinely
                        provide the Department with information on the numbers of individuals,
                        including homeless individuals, receiving treatment under the program.

                        Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:




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                       States receive grant awards directly from the Department on the basis of a
                       congressionally mandated formula. States may provide prevention and
                       treatment services directly or may enter into subcontracts with public or
                       private nonprofit entities for the provision of services. Under this program,
                       grantees are required to spend at least 35 percent of their total annual
                       allocation for alcohol prevention and treatment activities; at least
                       35 percent for prevention and treatment activities related to other drugs;
                       and at least 20 percent for primary prevention programs geared toward
                       individuals who do not require treatment for substance abuse. A maximum
                       of 5 percent of a grant may be used to finance administrative costs.

                       Primary prevention programs must provide eligible individuals with
                       education and counseling about substance abuse and must provide
                       activities that reduce the risk of abuse by these individuals. In establishing
                       prevention programs, states must give priority to programs serving
                       populations at risk of developing a pattern of substance abuse.

                       Local Matching Requirement:

                       None.

                       Eligibility:

                       All individuals suffering from alcohol and other drug abuse, including
                       homeless individuals with substance abuse disorders, are eligible for
                       services.

                       Program Limitations:

                       The Department did not identify any limitations.


Temporary Assistance   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
for Needy Families     (HHS)

                       Program Type: Nontargeted          Funding Type: Block grant

                       Program Overview:

                       Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) is a fixed block grant for
                       state-designed programs of time-limited and work-conditional aid to
                       families with children. Title I of P.L. 104-193, the Personal Responsibility



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and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, created the TANF
program. This legislation repealed the Aid to Families with Dependent
Children, Emergency Assistance, and Job Opportunities and Basic Skills
Training programs and replaced them with a single block grant to states.
All states were required to implement TANF by July 1, 1997.

Under TANF, cash grants, work opportunities, and other services are
provided to needy families with children. TANF funds are used to
(1) provide assistance to needy families so that children may be cared for
in their own homes or in the homes of relatives; (2) end the dependence of
needy parents on government benefits by promoting job preparation,
work, and marriage; (3) prevent and reduce the incidence of
out-of-wedlock pregnancies and establish annual numerical goals for
preventing and reducing the incidence of these pregnancies; and
(4) encourage the formation and maintenance of two-parent families.

In reference to serving homeless populations, TANF program officials
reported that P.L. 104-193 gives states the flexibility to design programs
that cover the circumstances and meet the needs of their populations.
Providing emergency shelter and other services to help families overcome
homelessness is permitted under the statute, and a number of states are
engaged in this effort. According to a March 1988 report on TANF and
services for the homeless, 19 states’ TANF programs provide targeted cash
benefits or services to the homeless, while 29 states’ TANF programs
provide cash benefits or services to families at risk of becoming homeless.

Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

TANF  explicitly permits states to administer benefits directly or to provide
services through contracts with charitable, religious, or private
organizations. Although states have wide flexibility to determine their own
eligibility criteria, benefit levels, and the types of services and benefits
available to TANF recipients, their programs must adhere to a variety of
federal requirements.

The Department provides states with TANF funding primarily through State
Family Assistance Grants. Certain federal conditions are attached to the
grants. For example, to receive full grants, states must achieve minimum
work participation rates and spend a certain sum of their own funds on
behalf of eligible families (i.e., the “maintenance-of-effort” rule). States
must maintain at least 80 percent of their own historic spending levels
(75 percent if they meet TANF’s work participation requirements) or suffer



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                       a financial penalty. Moreover, states must impose a general 5-year time
                       limit on TANF-funded benefits. In addition, states may transfer a limited
                       portion of their federal TANF grant for a fiscal year to the Child Care and
                       Development Block Grant and the Social Services Block Grant programs.

                       Local Matching Requirement:

                       None.

                       Eligibility:

                       TANF beneficiaries are needy families with children whose eligibility is
                       determined by the state. Because states may design their own assistance
                       programs, eligibility criteria vary from state to state. States must, however,
                       adhere to federal requirements. For example, under federal requirements,
                       persons eligible to receive TANF assistance through state programs are
                       families that include a minor child who resides with a custodial parent or
                       other adult caretaker relative of the child. States may also cover pregnant
                       individuals.

                       Program Limitations:

                       According to TANF program officials, there are no statutory factors that
                       limit the use of the TANF program for homeless families. These officials
                       were not aware of any statutory provisions or program design decisions on
                       the part of states that prohibit homeless families from obtaining TANF
                       benefits. However, the officials did report that many states face the
                       challenge of trying to stabilize homeless families in permanent living
                       arrangements while encouraging the move to self-sufficiency before the
                       program’s time-limited benefits expire.


Emergency Shelter      Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
Grants Program (ESG)   Development (HUD)

                       Program Type: Targeted        Funding Type: Formula grants

                       Program Overview:

                       This is one of the principal formula grant programs to state and local
                       governments under the McKinney Act. It is also one of the oldest and most
                       widely used. There are four major categories of eligible activities: the



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renovation, major rehabilitation, or conversion of buildings for use as
emergency shelters or transitional housing for homeless persons; the
provision of up to 30 percent of the grant for essential social services (the
Secretary may waive the 30-percent limit on essential services); the
payment of operating costs of facilities for the homeless (but no more than
10 percent of the grant may be used for management costs); and the
provision of up to 30 percent of the grant for activities to prevent
homelessness.

According to HUD’s estimates, grants under this program served 574,000
persons in fiscal year 1995, 420,000 in fiscal year 1996, and 420,000 in fiscal
year 1997.

The principal mechanism for coordinating and integrating this program is
the consolidated plan, a document required and approved by HUD that
describes what the community needs to assist the homeless, details
available resources, and provides a 5-year plan and an annual action plan.
According to a HUD division director, the process of developing this plan
and using it to allocate funds from formula grant programs such as ESG
gives each community considerable authority in deciding how funds will
be used to meet the targeted needs of its homeless and low- and
moderate-income residents.

According to the HUD division director, ESG is a very important component
of the Department’s Continuum of Care policy (and of the services offered
in accordance with this policy) because it addresses homeless people’s
needs for emergency and transitional housing.

A 1994 study28 determined that although ESG provided only 10 percent of
the average service provider’s operating budget, the program has allowed
providers to meet their most basic needs for operating funds and
appropriate facilities, enabling them to use funds from other sources to
offer additional programs and services. According to the HUD division
director, grantees may have shifted from funding rehabilitative activities to
funding more operating costs, essential services, and prevention
initiatives. The official also stated that the proportion of ESG funds used for
essential services has increased for some grantees because the limit on the
percentage of the grant that can be allocated for services was raised from
15 to 30 percent and requests for waivers of the 30 percent limit were
widely approved.


28
  Evaluation of the Emergency Shelter Grants Program, Volume I: Findings, Abt Associates, Sept. 1994.



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Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

Formula grants are provided to states, metropolitan cities, urban counties,
and territories in accordance with the distribution formula used for HUD’s
Community Development Block Grants (CDBG).

Local Matching Requirement:

For local governments, a one-for-one match is required for each grantee.
For states, there is no match for the first $100,000, but a one-for-one match
is required for the remainder of the funds.

Eligibility:

This grant specifically targets the homeless population. To be eligible,
grantees must (1) ensure that any building using ESG funds will continue as
a homeless shelter for a specified period, (2) ensure that assisted
rehabilitation is sufficient to make the structure safe and sanitary,
(3) establish a procedure to ensure the confidentiality of victims of
domestic violence and assist homeless individuals in obtaining appropriate
supportive services and other available assistance, and (4) meet other
generally applicable requirements, such as ensuring nondiscrimination and
equal opportunity. Grantees are also required to supplement the grant with
funds from other sources.

Program Limitations:

ESG funds cannot be used to construct emergency shelter or transitional
housing or to develop or lease permanent supportive housing for homeless
persons. Permanent supportive housing may be obtained through the
McKinney Act Shelter Plus Care, Supportive Housing, and Section 8
Single-Room Occupancy programs under the Continuum of Care
competitive process.

According to the 1994 study, grantees have suggested that more uses of
the grant funds be allowed. Providers have had difficulty finding the
resources to help their clients obtain permanent housing or gain access to
a housing subsidy. Broadening the block grant is viewed as a way for the
agencies operating ESG services to expand their services in the direction of
transitional and permanent housing for homeless clients.




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Section 8 Single-Room     Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
Occupancy (SRO)           Development (HUD)
Moderate Rehabilitation
                          Program Type: Targeted       Funding Type: Project grants (competitive)

                          Program Overview:

                          The Section 8 Single-Room-Occupancy (SRO) Moderate Rehabilitation
                          program provides rental assistance to homeless individuals. SROs are
                          housing units intended for occupancy by a single person that need not, but
                          may, contain food preparation or sanitary facilities, or both. Under the
                          program, HUD enters into annual contributions contracts with public
                          housing authorities for the moderate rehabilitation of residential
                          properties that, when the work is completed, will contain multiple
                          single-room dwelling units. The public housing authority is responsible for
                          selecting properties that are suitable for assistance and for identifying
                          landlords who will participate. The public housing authority then enters
                          into a formal agreement with the property owner to make repairs and
                          necessary improvements to meet HUD’s housing quality standards and local
                          fire and safety requirements.

                          The Continuum of Care concept, which applies to this program, requires
                          linkages to and coordination with the local consolidated planning process
                          undertaken by all states and CDBG entitlement communities. In addition,
                          linkages with more than 100 federally designated empowerment zones and
                          enterprise communities are enhanced through the awarding of additional
                          points to applicants that can demonstrate strong coordination. Examples
                          of coordination include the use of common board members on the
                          Continuum of Care and empowerment zone/enterprise community
                          planning committees, the location of assistance projects for the homeless
                          within an empowerment zone or enterprise community, and the priority
                          placement of homeless persons in an empowerment zone or enterprise
                          community that provides assistance for the homeless.

                          The use of mainstream housing programs, such as the Home Investment
                          Partnership Program (HOME), CDBG, and the Low-Income Housing Tax
                          Credit program in developing SRO housing involves further program
                          integration and cross-agency coordination (e.g., between HUD and the
                          Internal Revenue Service, within the Department of the Treasury).

                          Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:




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                    Public and Indian housing authorities and private nonprofit organizations
                    may apply for competitive awards of Section 8 rental subsidies. Private
                    nonprofit organizations receiving awards must subcontract with the
                    housing authorities to administer the SRO rental assistance. These entities
                    then use the funds received from HUD to subsidize the rents of homeless
                    people who will live in the housing. The housing authorities receive these
                    funds from HUD over 10 years. The guaranteed cash flow from the Section
                    8 housing subsidies helps the owners obtain private financing for the
                    work, cover operating expenses and service the project’s debt, and make a
                    profit on the project.

                    Local Matching Requirement:

                    None.

                    Eligibility:

                    Eligible participants are homeless single individuals. Families are not
                    eligible.

                    Program Limitations:

                    The funding for this program is considered a permanent housing resource.
                    Thus, homeless persons seeking temporary shelter or support services
                    only would not be eligible for assistance.


Shelter Plus Care   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
Program             Development (HUD)

                    Program Type: Targeted        Funding Type: Project grants (competitive)

                    Program Overview:

                    The Shelter Plus Care program provides rental assistance, together with
                    supportive services funded from a source other than this program, to
                    homeless persons with disabilities. The program may provide
                    (1) tenant-based rental assistance, (2) sponsor-based rental assistance,
                    (3) project-based rental assistance, or (4) SRO assistance.




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According to HUD’s estimates, this program served 7,440 persons in fiscal
year 1995, 4,048 in fiscal year 1996, and 2,718 in fiscal year 1997. Estimates
were not available for fiscal year 1998.

According to a program evaluation study,29 HUD administers two programs
other than this one for disabled homeless persons—the Permanent
Housing for Handicapped Homeless Persons Program within the
Supportive Housing Program and Housing Opportunities for Persons With
AIDS (HOPWA). Although some communities have grants for all three
programs, there is typically no direct linkage among them unless they are
administered by the same service provider. When service providers have
had a choice, some have enrolled homeless persons in the other two
programs, especially when the homeless persons have been greatly in need
of supportive services, because both the Supportive Housing Program and
HOPWA permit the use of program funds for services.


Also, HHS’ Projects for Assistance in Transition from Homelessness (PATH)
program is a federal formula grant to assist the homeless mentally ill
population. According to a Shelter Plus Care evaluation study, PATH has
been an excellent source of referrals for local Shelter Plus Care programs
and operates in many of the same communities.

The goals of the Shelter Plus Care program are to (1) assist homeless
individuals and their families; (2) increase housing stability, skill and/or
income; and (3) obtain greater self-determination. The study concluded
that overall, these programs could successfully serve the target
population, but the program’s independent living housing options, as
initially conceived, were not suitable for that population because the
participants needed a more supervised setting that offered intensive case
management, life skill training, housing supervision, and treatment for one
or more of the participants’ disabilities. The study concluded that service
providers adapted its outreach sources and screening criteria to reflect
this need. The program changed its focus to disabled formerly homeless
persons who came from transitional shelters, emergency shelters with
strong transitional programs, or detoxification and treatment programs
rather than directly from the streets.

Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

The rent subsidy can be administered by states (including territories),
units of general local government, Indian tribes, and public and Indian

29
  National Evaluation of the Shelter Plus Care Program, October 1997, Abt Associates.



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housing agencies. Grant recipients may then subgrant funds in the form of
rental assistance to housing owners. Under the sponsor-based assistance
component, grantees may also provide rental assistance to private
nonprofit entities (including community mental health centers established
as nonprofit organizations) that own or lease dwelling units.

Local Matching Requirement:

Each grantee must match the federal funds provided for shelter with equal
funding for supportive services. The match must come from a source other
than the Shelter Plus Care program; however, federal, state and local
resources may be used for the match. Eligible supportive services include
health care, mental health and substance abuse services, child care, case
management, counseling, supervision, education, job training, other
services necessary for independent living. In-kind resources can count
towards the match.

Eligibility:

Those eligible for participation include homeless persons with disabilities
(primarily those who are seriously mentally ill; have chronic problems
with alcohol, drugs, or both; or have AIDS) and, if also homeless, their
families. Such persons must also have low annual incomes (not exceeding
50 percent of the median income for an area). The Shelter Plus Care
program also targets those who are difficult to reach, such as persons
living on the streets and sleeping on grates, in parks, or in bus terminals;
residing in emergency shelters, welfare hotels, or transitional housing; or
at imminent risk of being evicted and subsequently living on the street or
in a shelter.

Program Limitations:

Homeless persons not meeting the definition of “disabled”30 are not
eligible for assistance. Also, homeless persons or families seeking
temporary shelter, transitional housing, or support services only cannot
participate in this program.

According to a Shelter Plus Care evaluation study, the program is regarded
as a resource for providing permanent housing. However, the program’s

30
 For the purposes of this program, “disabled” is defined as having a physical, mental, or emotional
impairment that (1) is expected to continue for a long and indeterminate period, (2) substantially
impedes an individual’s ability to live independently, and (3) could be improved under more suitable
housing conditions.



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                     objective is to provide housing assistance for at least 5 years as needed;
                     thus, the term “permanent housing” may not be strictly applicable. In
                     addition, the study concludes that grantees have generally not found
                     regional HUD staff to be prompt and helpful in providing technical
                     assistance.


Supportive Housing   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
Program              Development (HUD)

                     Program Type: Targeted                 Funding Type: Project grants (competitive)

                     Program Overview:

                     The Supportive Housing Program is designed to promote the development
                     of supportive housing and supportive services to assist homeless persons
                     in the transition from homelessness and to enable them to live as
                     independently as possible. Program funds may be used to provide
                     (1) transitional housing within a 24-month period, as well as up to 6
                     months of follow-up services to former residents to promote their
                     adjustment to independent living; (2) permanent housing in conjunction
                     with appropriate supportive services designed to allow persons with
                     disabilities to live as independently as possible; (3) supportive services for
                     homeless persons not provided in conjunction with supportive housing
                     (i.e., services only); (4) housing that is, or is a part of, an innovative
                     development or alternative method designed to meet the long-term needs
                     of homeless persons; and (5) safe havens31 for homeless individuals with
                     serious mental illness currently residing on the streets who may not yet be
                     ready for supportive services.

                     According to HUD’s estimates, the Supportive Housing Program served
                     279,491 homeless persons in fiscal year 1995, 328,037 in fiscal year 1996,
                     and 123,033 in fiscal year 1997. Estimates were not available for fiscal year
                     1998.

                     HUD is collaborating with HHS on the safe havens component of the
                     Supportive Housing Program. The departments are planning to distribute a

                     31
                       “Safe havens” are designed to provide safe residences for homeless “street people” with serious
                     mental illness who are unwilling or unable to participate in mental health or substance abuse
                     treatment programs or to receive supportive services. Safe havens are intended to reach homeless
                     people who are suspicious or afraid of more structured supportive housing. Safe havens are authorized
                     under title IV, subpart D, of the McKinney Act, but because the Congress has not funded them as a
                     separate program, HUD has elected to provide funding for them under the Supportive Housing
                     Program.



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guide that describes a combination of housing and services in facilities
designated as safe havens.

Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

States, local governmental entities (including special authorities, such as
public housing authorities), private nonprofit organizations, and
community mental health associations that are public nonprofit
organizations can apply for program funds.

Program funds are to be used as follows: (1) not less than 25 percent for
homeless persons with children, (2) not less than 25 percent for homeless
persons with disabilities, and (3) at least 10 percent for supportive services
for homeless persons who do not reside in supportive housing.

Local Matching Requirement:

A dollar-for-dollar cash match is required for grants involving acquisition,
rehabilitation, or new construction. A 25- to 50-percent cost share is
required for operating assistance. As of fiscal year 1999, a 25-percent
match for supportive services is required.

Eligibility:

Homeless individuals and families with children are eligible for all but the
permanent housing for persons with disabilities. Homeless persons with
disabilities are eligible for all components, including services. Although
the Supportive Housing Program does not have a statutory mandate to
serve persons with substance abuse problems, HUD has determined that
homeless persons whose sole impairment is alcoholism or drug addiction
will be considered disabled if they meet the Department’s statutory
criteria.32

Program Limitations:

Program funds cannot be used to develop or operate emergency shelters,
although the funds can be used to provide supportive services at shelters.
Although exceptions to the 24-month limit on stays in transitional housing
are allowed, program funds cannot be use to provide permanent housing
for nondisabled persons.


32
  See footnote 30.



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Community           Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
Development Block   Development (HUD)
Grant (CDBG)
                    Program Type: Nontargeted         Funding Type: Formula and project
                                                      grants (competitive)

                    Program Overview:

                    The CDBG program’s objective is to assist in developing viable urban
                    communities by providing decent housing and a suitable living
                    environment and by expanding economic opportunities, principally for
                    persons with low and moderate incomes. It is the federal government’s
                    primary vehicle for revitalizing the nation’s cities and neighborhoods,
                    thereby providing opportunities for self-sufficiency to millions of
                    Americans. The block grant has three components—CDBG/States’ Program,
                    CDBG/Entitlement Program, and CDBG/Small Cities Program.


                    CDBG  grants can be used to acquire or rehabilitate shelters, operate
                    shelters, and provide supportive (public) services such as counseling,
                    training, and treatment. In addition, CDBG funds may be used for the
                    construction of temporary shelter facilities and transitional housing, such
                    as halfway homes, for the chronically mentally ill, considering these as
                    public facilities, not residences.

                    Data reported for funds expended in fiscal year 1995 under the
                    Entitlement Communities portion of the CDBG program show that
                    $27,500,000 was spent on facilities for the homeless and $51,000,000 was
                    spent on public service activities specifically for the homeless. The actual
                    number of homeless persons benefiting is not known because data are
                    captured by activity and several activities often benefit the same
                    individual. Also, each local government is free to measure data on
                    beneficiaries to suit locally designed programs.

                    According to HUD’s Office of Block Grant Assistance, there are no data on
                    the number of homeless persons served by the CDBG State and Small Cities
                    programs.

                    Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                    Seventy percent of all CDBG funds are provided to entitlement communities
                    (cities) and 30 percent to smaller communities, either through the states or
                    directly from HUD (in New York and Hawaii).



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CDBG  Entitlement Program: Cities in metropolitan statistical areas
designated by the Office of Management and Budget as the central city of
the metropolitan statistical area; other cities with over 50,000 residents
within the metropolitan statistical area, and qualified urban counties with
at least 200,000 residents are eligible to receive entitlement grants,
determined by a statutory formula. Recipients may undertake a wide range
of activities directed toward neighborhood revitalization, economic
development, and the provision of improved community facilities and
services. Activities that can be carried out with CDBG funds include the
acquisition of real property and rehabilitation of residential and
nonresidential structures. Up to 15 percent of CDBG entitlement funds may
be used to pay for public services. All activities must aid in the prevention
or elimination of slums or blight or meet other urgent community
development needs. The grantee must certify that at least 70 percent of the
grant funds are expended for activities that will principally benefit persons
with low and moderate incomes.

CDBG/States’ Program: State governments receive this formula grant and
must determine the methods for distributing funds and distribute the funds
to units of general local government in nonentitlement areas. The units of
general local government funded by a state may undertake a wide range of
activities directed toward neighborhood vitalization, economic
development, or the provision of improved community facilities and
services.

CDBG/Small Cities Program: HUD administers this competitive grant
program only for nonentitlement communities in New York and Hawaii.
Eligible applicants are units of local government (including counties).
Small cities develop their own programs and funding priorities. Funds may
be used for activities that the applicant certifies are designed to meet
urgent community development needs—defined as those that pose a
serious and immediate threat to the health or welfare of the community.
The applicant must also certify that no other financial resources are
available to meet these needs.

Local Matching Requirement:

None.

Eligibility:




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                       The principal beneficiaries of CDBG funds are persons with low and
                       moderate incomes. For metropolitan areas, such people are generally
                       defined as members of households with incomes equal to or less than the
                       Section 8 low-income limit (i.e., 80 percent or less of an area’s median
                       income) established by HUD.

                       Program Limitations:

                       Grantees may not obligate more than 15 percent of their CDBG funds for
                       public services.


Home Investment        Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
Partnerships Program   Development (HUD)
(HOME)
                       Program Type: Nontargeted         Funding Type: Formula grants

                       Program Overview:

                       The objectives of this program are to (1) expand the supply of affordable
                       housing, particularly rental housing, for Americans with low and very low
                       incomes; (2) strengthen the abilities of state and local governments to
                       design and implement strategies for achieving adequate supplies of decent,
                       affordable housing; (3) provide both financial and technical assistance to
                       participating jurisdictions, including the development of model programs
                       for developing affordable low-income housing; and (4) extend and
                       strengthen partnerships among all levels of government and the private
                       sector, including for-profit and nonprofit organizations, in the production
                       and operation of affordable housing.

                       HOME funds can be used for acquisition, reconstruction, moderate or
                       substantial rehabilitation, and new construction activities that promote
                       affordable rental and ownership housing. Transitional housing is eligible
                       for HOME funds. Tenant-based rental assistance is also eligible and is
                       described by HUD as a flexible resource that communities can integrate
                       into locally designed plans to assist persons with special needs, including
                       those participating in self-sufficiency programs.

                       Because the purpose of the HOME program is to produce affordable rental
                       and homeownership housing for low-income families, HUD collects data on
                       the income levels of the persons being served. Information on whether
                       these individuals are homeless is not collected. All families occupying



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HOME-assisted units or receiving HOME-funded tenant-based rental
assistance must have incomes at or below 80 percent of their area’s
median income.

Although HUD does not collect data on the number of homeless persons
served through HOME, there is anecdotal evidence that jurisdictions are
using HOME funds for single-room-occupancy projects and group homes to
serve the homeless, as well as for tenant-based rental assistance to
persons who are homeless or at risk of becoming homeless.

Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

States, cities, urban counties, and consortia (of contiguous units of general
local governments with a binding agreement) are eligible to receive
formula allocations. Funds are also set aside for grants to insular areas
(i.e., the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern
Marianas). Applicants must submit a consolidated plan, an annual action
plan, and certifications to HUD. The consolidated plan and annual action
plan identify the applicant’s plans for using funds from four major
formula-distribution HUD community development programs, including
HOME. Also, according to a director in the Office of Affordable Housing, the
annual action plan must describe the federal and other resources expected
to be available, as well as the activities to be undertaken to meet priority
needs.

HOME funds are allocated to participating jurisdictions on a formula
basis—60 percent to participating local governments and 40 percent to
states, after set-asides for insular areas, management information support,
technical assistance, and housing counseling have been subtracted. The
formula takes into account factors that reflect a jurisdiction’s need for
more affordable housing for families with low and very low incomes.
Designed by HUD to meet statutory criteria, the formula considers
shortfalls in the jurisdiction’s housing supply, the incidence of
substandard housing, the number of low-income families in housing units
likely to need rehabilitation, the cost of producing housing, the
jurisdiction’s poverty rate, and the jurisdiction’s relative fiscal incapacity
to carry out housing activities without federal assistance.

HOME  funds are frequently combined with funds made available under the
McKinney Act to pay for the acquisition, rehabilitation, or new
construction of projects for serving homeless persons. HOME funds are
allocated by formula to state and local governments. The use of HOME



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                        funds with programs serving the homeless is coordinated at the state and
                        local level through the Continuum of Care.

                        Local Matching Requirement:

                        Grantees must provide an amount equal to 25 percent of the grant. This
                        percentage may be reduced for jurisdictions that are fiscally distressed or
                        have been declared major disaster areas by the President.

                        Eligibility:

                        For rental housing, at least 90 percent of HOME funds must benefit families
                        with low and very low incomes (at or below 60 percent of the area’s
                        median income); the remaining 10 percent must benefit families with
                        incomes at or below 80 percent of the area’s median income. Assistance to
                        homeowners and homebuyers must be to families with incomes at or
                        below 80 percent of the area’s median income.

                        Program Limitations:

                        HOME funds can be used for permanent and transitional housing and for
                        tenant-based rental assistance. However, they cannot be used for
                        emergency shelters or vouchers for emergency shelter. In addition,
                        because the program is designed to produce affordable housing, social
                        services are not an eligible cost under the program (although the value of
                        social services provided to persons in HOME-assisted units or receiving
                        HOME tenant-based rental assistance can be considered part of the
                        grantee’s matching contribution).


Housing Opportunities   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
for Persons With AIDS   Development (HUD)
(HOPWA)
                        Program Type: Nontargeted         Funding Type: Formula and project
                                                          grants
                        (competitive)

                        Program Overview:

                        The objective of this program is to provide states and localities with the
                        resources and incentives to devise long-term comprehensive strategies for
                        meeting the housing needs of person with AIDS or related diseases and
                        their families. Activities are carried out under strategies designed to



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prevent homlessness and may assist homeless persons who are eligible for
the program.

HOPWA grantees report that about 14 percent of clients are persons who
were homeless upon entering the program. According to HUD’s estimates,
the program served about 6,200 homeless persons from the street, in
emergency shelters, or in transitional housing during a 12-month period.

During fiscal years 1994-97, according to HUD’s estimates, HOPWA served
2,859 homeless persons from the street and 1,426 persons in emergency
shelter—a total of 4,285 persons.

According to the director, HUD’s Office of HIV/AIDS Housing has conducted
a Multiple Diagnosis Initiative (MDI) in conjunction with HHS to improve
the integration of health care and other services with housing assistance.
The purpose of this initiative was to address the needs of homeless people
who are multiply diagnosed and living with HIV/AIDS. The Office of
HIV/AIDS Housing is collaborating with grantees and the Evaluation and
Technical Assistance Center at Columbia University’s School of Public
Health to evaluate the results of this initiative. As of September 1998, the
assessment is ongoing, and reports and other statistical information will
be shared, as developed, through the planned operating periods of these
grants, 1996-2002.

The principal mechanism for integrating and coordinating the HOPWA
program is the consolidated plan and, if homeless persons are served, the
area’s Continuum of Care effort. This process is intended to help all states,
metropolitan cities, and urban counties formulate a holistic and
comprehensive vision for their housing and community development
efforts, including meeting the needs persons with HIV/AIDS who may be
homeless or at risk of becoming homeless through HOPWA and other
programs. Grantees are required to establish public consultation
procedures and may involve area Ryan White CARE Act planning councils,
consortia, and other planning bodies in designing efforts.

Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

States and qualified cities that meet population and AIDS incidence criteria
(i.e., a metropolitan area with a population of at least 500,000 and at least
1,500 cases of AIDS) are eligible to receive formula grants. Activities must
be consistent with an approved consolidated plan. Eligible activities
include housing assistance (including rental assistance; short-term



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payments for rent, mortgage, and utilities to prevent homelessness; and
housing in community residences, single-room-occupancy dwellings, and
other facilities); housing development through acquisition, rehabilitation,
and new construction; program development through technical assistance
and resource identification; supportive services; and administrative costs.

Ninety percent of the program’s funds are allocated, on the basis of a
statutory formula that considers AIDS statistics, to metropolitan areas with
a higher than average incidence of AIDS. As required by statute, HUD uses
the remaining 10 percent of the funds to select special projects of national
significance to make grants to areas that did not qualify for formula
allocations. These selections are made by annual national competitions.

Local Matching Requirement:

None. Grantees are encouraged to coordinate activities with Ryan White
CARE Act programs and other health care efforts. Competitive
applications are reviewed, in part, on the basis of the resources leveraged;
grantees selected in the 1992-97 competitions documented leveraged
resources equal to 131 percent of the federal funds made available in these
competitions.

Eligibility:

Low-income individuals with HIV or AIDS and their families are eligible to
receive housing assistance or related supportive services under this
program. Grantees may target assistance to persons with higher needs,
including those who are homeless or at risk of becoming homeless. Only
low-income individuals with HIV or AIDS are eligible for health services if
compensation or health care is not available from other sources. Survivors
of eligible individuals are eligible to receive housing assistance and related
services for up to 1 year following the death of the person with AIDS.
Individuals with AIDS and their families are eligible to receive housing
information and coordination services, regardless of their incomes. Each
person receiving rental or mortgage assistance under this program or
residing in any rental housing assisted under this program (including
single-room-occupancy dwellings and community residences) must make
a contribution towards the cost of housing, such as a rent payment equal
to 30 percent of the household’s adjusted monthly income.

Program Limitations:




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                    According to the director of HUD’s Office of HIV/AIDS Housing, there are no
                    limitations on serving homeless persons if they meet the program’s
                    eligibility requirements.


Public and Indian   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
Housing             Development (HUD)

                    Program Type: Nontargeted         Funding Type: Direct payments for
                                                      specified uses

                    Program Overview:

                    This program is designed to provide and operate cost-effective, decent,
                    safe and affordable dwellings for lower-income families through an
                    authorized local public housing authority.

                    In fiscal year 1997, HUD distributed funds to public and Indian housing
                    authorities that provided public housing and services to 1.4 million
                    households.

                    Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                    Public housing authorities established in accordance with state law are
                    eligible. The proposed program must be approved by the local governing
                    body. Under the Native American Housing Assistance and
                    Self-Determination Act of 1996, Indian housing authorities are no longer
                    eligible for funding under the U. S. Housing Act (of 1937).

                    In fiscal year 1997, the Department made available nearly $3 billion in
                    annual contributions (operating subsidies) for about 1,372,000 public
                    housing units. No development was funded under this program; such
                    development of new or replacement units that did occur was primarily
                    financed with funds from the modernization accounts.

                    Local Matching Requirement:

                    There is no matching requirement; however an indirect local contribution
                    results from the difference between full local property taxes and payments
                    in lieu of taxes made by local public housing authorities.

                    Eligibility:



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                          Lower-income families that include citizens or legal immigrants are
                          eligible. A “family” includes but is not limited to (1) a family with or
                          without children; (2) an elderly family (head, spouse, or sole member 62
                          years or older), (3) a near-elderly family (head, spouse, or sole member 50
                          years old but less than 62 years old), (4) a disabled family, (5) the
                          remaining member of a tenant family, (6) a displaced family, or (7) a single
                          person who is neither elderly, near-elderly, displaced, or with disabilities.
                          According to HUD’s Deputy Secretary of Public Housing Investments, HUD’s
                          appropriation legislation eliminates, for fiscal year 1999 and every year
                          thereafter, previous federal preferences for certain classes of persons,
                          including those who are homeless, and earmarks 40 percent of public
                          housing units for families earning less than 30 percent of their area’s
                          median income.

                          Program Limitations:

                          The elimination of federal preferences in obtaining public housing for
                          select groups, including homeless people, provides less opportunity for
                          these groups to obtain affordable housing. In the past, some households
                          received higher priority for admission if they were paying more than
                          50 percent of their income for housing or were living in severely
                          substandard housing (a category that includes homelessness and
                          involuntary displacement).

                          Additionally, in the past, homeless people with no income could obtain
                          public housing. However, housing agencies are now allowed (but not
                          required) to charge a minimum rent of up to $50 a month. This charge
                          could prevent homeless people from obtaining public housing.


Section 8 Project-Based   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
Rental Assistance         Development (HUD)

                          Program Type: Nontargeted         Funding Type: Contract administration
                                                            and annual contribution contracts

                          Program Overview:

                          HUD’s Section 8 project-based program (HUD’s major project-based
                          privately owned housing program) pays a portion of residents’ rent for
                          housing owned by private landlords, public housing authorities, and state
                          housing finance agencies. An assisted household generally pays 30 percent



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of its income for rent, although this percentage can vary depending on the
household’s income and the type of program.

Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

Project-based contracts are generally between HUD and the owners of
private rental housing. When the funds provided for long-term contracts
exceed the actual expenses incurred, HUD can recapture the excess funds
and use them to help fund other Section 8 contracts. Although expiring
contracts were initially renewed for 5 years, they are, as of 1998, being
renewed for 1 year.

To provide Section 8 project-based assistance, HUD may enter into (1) a
housing assistance payments contract with a private landlord or (2) an
annual contributions contract with a housing finance agency or a public
housing authority. When HUD enters into a housing assistance payments
contract with a private landlord, it guarantees payments for a period of
time (as short as 1 year) specified in the contract. When it enters into an
annual contributions contract, it provides the Section 8 funds to the
housing finance agency or the public housing authority, which in turn
enters into a housing assistance payments contract with the private
landlord. Residents live in housing that is designated as assisted housing
for them.

Local Matching Requirement:

None.

Eligibility:

Eligibility is restricted to individuals and families with very low incomes
(i.e., not exceeding 50 percent of the area’s median income). A limited
number of available units may be rented to families and individuals with
low incomes (i.e., between 50 and 80 percent of the area’s median
income).

Program Limitations:

Assistance is limited to income-eligible individuals and families.




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Section 8 Rental          Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
Certificate and Voucher   Development (HUD)
Programs
                          Program Type: Nontargeted                     Funding Type: Annual contributions
                                                                        contracts

                          Program Overview:

                          The objective of this program, as of September 30, 1998,33 is to aid families
                          with very low incomes in obtaining decent, safe, and sanitary rental
                          housing. The voucher subsidy amount is based on the difference between
                          (a) a payment standard set between 80 and 100 percent of the fair market
                          rent and (b) 30 percent of the household’s income. The Section 8 rental
                          certificate program generally requires that rents at initial occupancy not
                          exceed HUD-published fair market rents.

                          According to a program specialist from the Office of Public Housing
                          Operations, HUD’s Multifamily Tenant Characteristics System (MTCS) shows
                          that 50,300 participants, or 3.5 percent of all applicants, were admitted to
                          the Section 8 voucher and certificate programs with a preference because
                          they were homeless. But because several large urban housing authorities
                          have not adequately reported MTCS data, the program specialist estimated
                          that a higher percentage (4 to 5 percent) were homeless at the time of
                          admission. The housing agencies that give preference to homeless
                          applicants typically receive referrals from, and coordinate the provision of
                          support services with, local homeless service providers.

                          According to an October 1994 study of the use of rental vouchers and
                          certificates, the rate of success in finding suitable rental units in properties
                          whose landlords would honor Section 8 certificates and vouchers was not
                          significantly different for homeless and other participants. In the study’s
                          sample, 89 percent of all participants were successful in finding suitable
                          housing and 87 percent of homeless participants were successful.34

                          According to the program specialist, as of September 1998, there were
                          1,237,076 certificates and 429,310 vouchers available under this program to
                          assist eligible families.

                          Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                          33
                            A new law governing this program will take effect on Oct. 1, 1999.
                          34
                             Section 8 Rental Voucher and Certificate Utilization Study Final Report, prepared for HUD by Abt
                          Associates, Inc. (Oct. 1994).



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Program Summaries




Only housing agencies may apply to participate in this program.

According to the program specialist, Section 8 federal expenditures per
unit in 1998 were about $5,499, (or about $458 per month). Housing
authorities receive the amounts they need to pay housing assistance and
cover related administrative expenses.

Local Matching Requirement:

None.

Eligibility:

Families with very low incomes are eligible. Seventy-five percent of
vouchers and certificates are set aside for families earning less than
30 percent of the area’s median income.

Program Limitations:

According to the program specialist, the local housing agencies that
administer the rental voucher and certificate programs decide whether to
establish an admission preference for the homeless. Thus, the local
agencies determine to what extent homeless people will be assisted before
other eligible applicants with very low incomes. In many areas, there are
many more applicants for rental assistance than there is assistance
available. The average wait, nationwide, for a rental voucher or certificate
is 2-1/4 years. In some localities, the wait is much longer, and occasionally
housing agencies must close their waiting lists to new applicants when
there are more applicants than the housing agency can serve in the
foreseeable future.

Some homeless applicants are not ready for independent living under a
lease agreement or do not have the capacity to uphold a lease agreement.
Thus, the program—which is intended to operate in the private rental
market and requires the participant to find and lease housing (with HUD’s
financial assistance) for at least 1 year—may not be a suitable source of
housing assistance for some homeless people. The program does not
require a housing agency to coordinate supportive services for homeless
applicants.




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                         Program Summaries




Section 811 Supportive   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
Housing for Persons      Development (HUD)
With Disabilities
                         Program Type: Nontargeted                  Funding Type: Formula grants
Program
                         Program Overview:

                         The Section 811 program was established to enable persons with
                         disabilities to live with dignity and independence within their communities
                         by expanding the supply of supportive housing that is (1) designed to
                         accommodate the special needs of such persons and (2) provides
                         supportive services that address the health, mental health, and other needs
                         of such persons.35

                         Owners of Section 811 projects must have a supportive services plan that
                         gives each resident the option to (1) receive any of the services the owner
                         provides, (2) acquire his/her own services (the owner would provide a list
                         of community service providers, as well as make any necessary
                         arrangements to receive services for a resident selecting this option), or
                         (3) receive no supportive services. Given these options, residents may be
                         receiving supportive services through programs that serve homeless
                         persons. The coordination and integration of such services usually occurs
                         at the local level.

                         The Department does not collect information on the number of homeless
                         persons who have been served through this program.

                         Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                         This program provides capital advances to nonprofit organizations with
                         501(c)(3) federal tax exemptions to finance the development of housing
                         for very-low-income persons with disabilities aged 18 or older.

                         The funds can be used for (1) capital advances, which may be used to
                         develop housing through new construction, rehabilitation, or acquisition;
                         (2) rental assistance, which is provided to cover the difference between
                         the HUD-approved operating costs per unit and the amount the household
                         pays (30 percent of the household’s adjusted income); and (3) supportive
                         services, which include mental health services.



                         35
                          Funds for the supportive services cannot come from the program; they must come from another
                         source.



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                        Program Summaries




                        Local Matching Requirement:

                        Nonprofit organizations must provide a minimum capital investment of
                        one-half of 1 percent of the HUD-approved capital advance amount up to
                        $10,000.

                        Eligibility:

                        A person with a disability is eligible if he or she resides in a household that
                        includes one or more very-low-income persons, at least one of whom is
                        aged 18 or older. The applicant must have a physical or developmental
                        disability or a chronic mental illness that (1) is expected to be of long and
                        indefinite duration, (2) substantially impedes the applicant’s ability to live
                        independently, and (3) could be improved by more suitable housing
                        conditions.

                        Program Limitations:

                        Because eligibility is limited to adults with very low incomes who are
                        developmentally disabled and/or physically disabled and/or chronically
                        mentally ill, some homeless people could not participate in this program.


Homeless Veterans       Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Labor
Reintegration Project
                        Program Type: Targeted         Funding Type: Project grants

                        Program Overview:

                        The objective of this program is to fund projects designed to expedite the
                        reintegration of homeless veterans into the labor force.

                        According to the Department’s director for Operations and Programs, the
                        program is projected to serve about 3,023 homeless veterans in fiscal year
                        1998.

                        Labor has established the creation of a prepared workforce as one of its
                        strategic goals. In its annual performance plan, it lists performance goals
                        for accomplishing this strategic goal, including the following:




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                         (1) Help 300,000 veterans find jobs: 10,000 will be disabled, and 1,800 will
                         be homeless. Labor mentions that it plans to focus on the harder-to-serve
                         veterans in 1999.

                         (2) Develop and implement a national Veteran’s Employment initiative that
                         will help approximately 25,000 unemployed older veterans find jobs each
                         year for 5 years. Labor will receive a $100 million reimbursement for this
                         initiative from the Department of Veterans Affairs over 5 years.

                         Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                         State and local public agencies, private industry councils, and nonprofit
                         organizations are eligible to apply for funds. Competition targets two types
                         of areas: (1) the metropolitan areas of the 75 largest U.S. cities and San
                         Juan and (2) rural areas defined as those territories, persons, and housing
                         units that the Census Bureau has defined as not “urban.”

                         Local Matching Requirement:

                         None.

                         Eligibility:

                         Homeless veterans are eligible to participate.

                         Program Limitations:

                         According to the director of the Department’s Office of Management and
                         Budget, Labor simply requires those who apply for this program to meet
                         the definition of being homeless and a veteran.


Job Training for         Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Labor
Disadvantaged Adults -
Title IIA of the Jobs    Program Type: Nontargeted         Funding Type: Formula grants
Training Partnership     Program Overview:
Act (JTPA)
                         The objective of this program is to provide employment and training
                         services to economically disadvantaged adults and others who face
                         significant employment barriers, in an attempt to move such individuals
                         into self-sustaining employment.



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According to the director of Labor’s Operations and Programs, about 6,048
homeless persons were served each year in program years 1995-98 each.
This number represents about 3 percent of all who were served.

Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

The governor submits a biennial state plan to the Department’s
Employment and Training Administration. Title II funds are allocated
among states according to a formula that reflects relative unemployment
and poverty. States use the same formula to suballocate funds to local
service delivery areas, retaining a portion to conduct certain state
leadership activities and administration. Each state is required to have a
State Job Training Coordinating Council. These councils are formed by
governors to make recommendations on proposed service delivery areas.36


Amendments to the Jobs Training Partnership Act and Labor’s
administrative guidelines have improved homeless people’s access to
services by eliminating residency requirements and creating additional
incentives for reaching hard-to-serve groups, specifically including the
homeless.

Providers must refer all eligible applicants who cannot be served by their
programs to other suitable programs within their service delivery area.

Programs are to establish linkages with other federally assisted programs,
such as those authorized under the Adult Education Act, the Food Stamp
Employment and Training Program, HUD’s housing programs, and several
others.

Local Matching Requirement:

None.

Eligibility:




36
 A service delivery area is a geographic area in which an entity, or group of entities, is designated to
provide job training services. Within each such area, the key mechanism for input from the private
sector is the private industry council. With the concurrence of local government officials, the council
selects the entity to receive the grant and acts as the administrative entity for the service delivery area.
The grant recipient and the entity chosen to administer the training program may be the same or
different entities.



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                          Economically disadvantaged adults are eligible for this program if they
                          face serious barriers to employment and need training to obtain
                          productive employment. Providers must determine whether eligible
                          individuals are suitable participants, considering, among other factors,
                          whether other programs and services are available to these individuals and
                          whether they can reasonably be expected to benefit from participation in
                          the program, given the range of supportive services available locally. No
                          fewer than 65 percent of the participants shall be in one or more of the
                          following categories: deficient in basic skills; school dropouts; recipients
                          of cash welfare payments; offenders; individuals with disabilities;
                          homeless; or in another category established for a particular service
                          delivery area upon the approval of a request to the governor.

                          Program Limitations:

                          According to the director of the Department’s Office of Employment and
                          Training Programs, the primary limitation is funding. Only a very small
                          percentage of the eligible population can be served with existing
                          resources. In addition, some communities do not provide support services,
                          such as shelters, that may be needed to meet the non-training needs of the
                          individuals. In order to effectively service this cohort, it is critical that
                          other local resources are orchestrated to meet the multiple needs of this
                          group.


Youth Employment and      Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Labor
Training Program (Title
IIB) and Job Training     Program Type: Nontargeted         Funding Type: Formula grants
for Disadvantaged Youth   Program Overview:
(IIC)
                          Title IIB offers economically disadvantaged young people jobs and training
                          during the summer. This includes basic and remedial education, work
                          experience, and support services such as transportation. Academic
                          enrichment, which may include basic and remedial education, is also part
                          of the program.

                          Title IIC provides year-round training and employment programs for
                          youth, both in and out of school. Program services may include all
                          authorized adult services, limited internships in the private sector,
                          school-to-work transition services, and alternative high school services.




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For the IIB program, information on the number of homeless persons
served is not collected. For the IIC program, for fiscal year 1996, the most
recent year for which data were available, 1,800, or 2 percent, of the youth
served through this program were homeless.

Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

The governor submits a biennial state plan to the Department’s
Employment and Training Administration. Title IIC funds are allocated
among states according to a formula that reflects relative unemployment
and poverty. States use the same formula to suballocate funds to local
service delivery areas, retaining a portion to conduct certain state
leadership activities. Each state is required to have a State Job Training
Coordinating Council. These councils are formed by governors to make
recommendations to them on proposed service delivery areas.37

Amendments to the Jobs Training Partnership Act and Labor’s
administrative guidelines have improved homeless people’s access to
services by eliminating residency requirements and creating additional
incentives for reaching hard-to-serve groups, specifically including the
homeless.

Local Matching Requirement:

None.

Eligibility:

Disadvantaged youth aged 14 to 21 are eligible for the Title IIB (summer
jobs) program.

In-school youth and out-of-school youth are eligible for the Title IIC
program. No fewer than 50 percent of the participants in each service
delivery area must be out of school. Eligible in-school youth must be aged
16 to 21, economically disadvantaged, without a high school diploma, and
in school full time. At least 65 percent of in-school participants must be
hard to serve. Out-of-school youth are eligible if they are 16 to 21years old
and economically disadvantaged.

Program Limitations:


37
  See footnote 30.



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                         The ability of local administrators to use the IIB (summer) and IIC
                         (year-round) programs is contingent on the services that are available
                         locally to address the needs of eligible youth. The IIB program runs for
                         only 6 to 8 weeks. For continuity, the IIB program would need to be linked
                         with the IIC program and other resources in the community. The IIC
                         program is severely constrained by limits on funding: Over half of the
                         grantees operate programs of less than $250,000.


Veterans Employment      Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Labor
Program- Title IV-C of
JTPA                     Program Type: Nontargeted          Funding Type: Project grants

                         Program Overview:

                         The objective of this program is to provide employment and training
                         grants to meet the employment and training needs of veterans with
                         service-connected disabilities, veterans of the Vietnam era, and veterans
                         who have recently left military service.

                         Labor is working to improve coordination with VA and to train its own and
                         VAstaff working on vocational rehabilitation and counseling.

                         According to a Labor official, JTPA grantees were not required to report the
                         number of homeless people served by this program.

                         Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                         State and JTPA administrative entities are eligible to receive grants under
                         the Title IV-C program. All applicants for grants must demonstrate that
                         they (1) understand the unemployment problems of qualified veterans,
                         (2) are familiar with the area to be served, and (3) are able to effectively
                         administer a program of employment and assistance.

                         Local Matching Requirement:

                         None.

                         Eligibility:

                         Eligible for services are disabled veterans, veterans from the Vietnam era,
                         or veterans who have left military service and applied for program



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                           participation within 12 months of separation. According to a Labor official,
                           section 168 of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 has substantially
                           changed the eligibility criteria for this program, making veterans who face
                           significant employment barriers eligible for this program.

                           Program Limitations:

                           The Department did not identify any limitations for this program.


Welfare-To-Work Grants     Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Labor
to States and Localities
                           Program Type: Nontargeted         Funding Type: Formula and project grants

                           Program Overview:

                           The Welfare-to-Work program was designed to help states and localities
                           move hard-to-employ welfare recipients into lasting unsubsidized jobs and
                           achieve self-sufficiency.

                           Welfare-to-Work projects are encouraged to integrate a range of resources
                           for low-income people, including funds available through TANF and the
                           Child Care and Development Fund. In addition, coordination efforts
                           should encompass funds available through other related activities and
                           programs, such as JTPA, state employment services, private-sector
                           employers, education agencies, and others. Partnerships with businesses
                           and labor organizations are especially encouraged. States are urged to
                           view Welfare-to-Work not as an independent program but as a critical
                           component of their overall effort to move welfare recipients into
                           unsubsidized employment.

                           Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                           States are the only entities eligible for these federal formula grants,
                           although subgrantees include eligible applicable service delivery area
                           agencies under the supervision of the private industry council in the area
                           (in cooperation with the chief elected official(s)). The Secretary of Labor
                           will allot 75 percent of these funds to the state Welfare-to-Work agencies
                           on the basis of a formula and a plan that each state submits. The states, in
                           turn, must distribute by formula no less than 85 percent of their allotments
                           among the service delivery areas. They can retain the balance for special
                           welfare-to-work projects. The balance of the federal appropriated funds



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                        will be retained by the Secretary for award through a competitive grant
                        process to private industry councils, political subdivisions, and eligible
                        private entities.

                        Local Matching Requirement:

                        Grantees are required to provide $1 in matching funds for each $2 in
                        federal formula funds allotted. The regulations allow the use of in-kind
                        contributions to satisfy up to 50 percent of this requirement. Applications
                        for competitive grants are funded on the basis of the specific guidelines,
                        criteria, and processes established under each solicitation. However, there
                        are no “formula” or matching requirements for these grants.

                        Eligibility:

                        At least 70 percent of the funds must be expended on welfare recipients or
                        on the noncustodial parents of minors with a custodial parent who is a
                        welfare recipient and meets at least two of the following requirements:
                        (1) the individual has not completed secondary school or obtained a
                        certificate of general equivalency and has low skills in reading or
                        mathematics, (2) the individual requires substance abuse treatment for
                        employment, and (3) the individual has a poor work history. In addition,
                        the individual must have received assistance under the state program
                        funded under this component.

                        Program Limitations:

                        No program limitations were identified by the Department.


Supplemental Security   Administering Agency: Social Security Administration (SSA)
Income
                        Program Type: Nontargeted         Funding Type: Entitlement

                        Program Overview:

                        The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program provides monthly
                        payments to elderly, blind, or disabled individuals with low incomes and
                        few resources. A person does not need to have a permanent residence to
                        be eligible for SSI. The Social Security Administration (SSA) can make
                        special arrangements for delivering SSI checks to homeless persons.
                        Receiving SSI may allow a homeless person to get permanent housing. In



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                       some locations, eligibility for SSI is automatically associated with eligibility
                       for Medicaid and/or food stamps. Other federal, state and local programs
                       are also automatically available to persons who are eligible for SSI.

                       SSAdoes not collect data on the number of homeless persons receiving SSI
                       benefits.

                       Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                       SSIis federally administered and funded from the General Trust Fund (not
                       the Social Security Trust Fund). Some states supplement the federal
                       funding with state funds.

                       Local Matching Requirement:

                       None.

                       Eligibility:

                       Individuals who are (1) aged 65 or older, (2) blind, or (3) disabled and who
                       meet requirements for monthly income and resources, citizenship or alien
                       status, and U.S. residency are eligible for SSI benefits.

                       Program Limitations:

                       A policy analyst for the SSI program reported that one of the most pressing
                       problems for SSA in trying to serve the homeless is that homeless persons
                       do not have a place to “hang their hat.” They also do not have a telephone
                       or fixed address. Although a majority of them have a drop box in which
                       they can receive mail and many have a phone number for messages, these
                       devices do not provide the security of a phone or mailbox associated with
                       a home. Often, the address and phone number a homeless person provides
                       when first applying for SSI are out of date when SSA tries to contact the
                       applicant about medical appointments, further needed documentation, or
                       other matters.


Domiciliary Care for   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)
Homeless Veterans




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Program Type: Targeted                 Funding Type: Direct payments to VA
                                       medical centers38

Program Overview:

This program provides health services and social services to homeless
veterans in a domiciliary setting that offers less care than a hospital but
more care than a community residential setting. Health care offered
through this program includes medication for medical or psychiatric
illness, psychotherapy and counseling, health education, and substance
abuse treatment. Social services include assisting homeless veterans with
housing needs, resume writing, job interviewing, job searching, and/or job
placement.39 Other basic program components include community
outreach and referral, admission screening and assessment, medical and
psychiatric evaluation, treatment and rehabilitation, and postdischarge
community support.

Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

The Department provides funds to VA medical centers to address the
unmet needs of homeless veterans. The program is primarily a residential
treatment program located within VA facilities. Although available to
homeless veterans with any health problems, nearly 90 percent of the
veterans treated by the program suffer from psychiatric illness or
dependency on alcohol or other drugs.

According to program officials, participation in the program has been
voluntary because funds have been limited and the Department wants to
support only those facilities that are strongly committed to assisting
homeless veterans. In past years, facilities that wanted to participate
prepared a proposal, which was evaluated by a Veterans Health
Administration committee, and funds were allocated according to the
merits of the individual proposals.

Local Matching Requirement:

None.



38
  According to the director for Homeless Veterans Programs, the Department provides funding directly
to a VA medical center for this program, and does not consider it to be a “grant” of any type.
39
 Review of VA’s Assistance to Homeless Veterans, Office of Inspector General (6R3-A12-084, Sept. 20,
1996), p. 5.



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                        Eligibility:

                        Veterans who are homeless or at risk of becoming homeless and have a
                        clinical need for VA-based biopsychosocial residential rehabilitation
                        services are eligible for this program.40

                        Program Limitations:

                        Although each VA facility has a homeless coordinator, VA, with one
                        exception,41 has no specific requirement for facilities to participate in
                        initiatives for homeless veterans. According to a September 1996 Inspector
                        General’s report, 35 of VA’s 173 hospitals nationwide had Domiciliary Care
                        for Homeless Veterans programs.42


Homeless Chronically    Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)
Mentally Ill Veterans
Program                 Program Type: Targeted                   Funding Type: Direct services
                                                                 and contract awards43

                        Program Overview:

                        This program provides care, treatment, and rehabilitative services to
                        homeless veterans suffering from chronic mental illness. Services are
                        provided in halfway houses, therapeutic communities, psychiatric
                        residential treatment centers, and other community- based treatment
                        facilities.

                        VA refers to this program, and many of the supportive programs (see app.
                        III) as Health Care for Homeless Veterans programs. Although all of these
                        programs have continued to expand and diversify in recent years, the




                        40
                           Eighth Progress Report on the Domiciliary Care for Homeless Veterans Program, Northeast Program
                        Evaluation Center (NEPEC), VA Connecticut Healthcare System (West Haven, Conn.: June 1997), pg.
                        3.
                        41
                          The exception is the CHALENG program, see appendix III.
                        42
                          See footnote 39.
                        43
                          According to the director for Homeless Veterans Programs, in addition to the contract awards for
                        residential care, a portion of the program funds are used to pay VA medical or clinical staff to provide
                        outreach and case management services.



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Homeless Chronically Mentally Ill Veterans program remains the core of
these efforts, and its core activity is outreach.44

According to a study performed by VA’s Northeast Program Evaluation
Center, one dominant theme of this program has been the increased
involvement with community providers. By exchanging resources with
other agencies, VA has been able to leverage additional resources for
homeless veterans that would otherwise be inaccessible or prohibitively
expensive.45

Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

Community-based residential treatment providers and other providers of
services for the homeless may receive contracts from, or enter into
partnerships with, local VA medical centers.

According to an April 1998 study, there are 62 Homeless Chronically
Mentally Ill program sites in 31 states and the District of Columbia,
forming the largest integrated network of treatment programs for the
homeless in the United States. In addition, the Homeless Chronically
Mentally Ill program has active contracts with over 200 community-based
residential treatment facilities to provide treatment and rehabilitation to
these veterans at an average cost of $41 daily.46

Local Matching Requirement:

None.

Eligibility:

Homeless veterans with substance abuse problems and/or chronic mental
illnesses who are eligible for VA health care are also eligible for the HCMI
program. Staff seek out homeless veterans in shelters, on the streets, in
soup kitchens, or wherever they may reside.

Program Limitations:


44
 Heading Home: Breaking the Cycle of Homelessness Among America’s Veterans - A Post Summit
Action Report and Resource Directory, VA (Feb. 1997), p. 4.
45
 Health Care for Homeless Veterans Programs: The Tenth Annual Report, VA, Northeast Program
Evaluation Center, VA Connecticut Healthcare System (West Haven, Conn.: Aug. 1997), p. 1.
46
 Guide to Federal Funding for Governments and Nonprofits - Aid For The Homeless - Section N,
Government Information Services, April 1998.



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                        While the program constitutes the nation’s largest integrated network of
                        assistance programs for the homeless, it does not cover every state or
                        every geographical area.47 Furthermore, access to the program’s contract
                        residential treatment component at individual sites depends on available
                        bed space in programs that meet VA’s criteria for therapeutic support and
                        comply with federal and fire safety codes.


VA Homeless Providers   Administering Agency: U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)
Grant and Per Diem
Program                 Program Type: Targeted        Funding Type: Project grants

                        Program Overview:

                        The purpose of this program is to assist public and nonprofit entities in
                        establishing new programs and service centers to furnish supportive
                        services and supportive housing for homeless veterans through grants that
                        may be used to acquire, renovate, or alter facilities and to provide per
                        diem payments, or in-kind assistance in lieu of per diem payments, to
                        eligible entities that established programs after November 10, 1992, to
                        provide supportive services and supportive housing for homeless persons.

                        Program Administration/Funding Mechanism:

                        Applicants eligible for grants include public and nonprofit private entities
                        that (1) have the capacity to effectively administer a grant, (2) can
                        demonstrate that adequate financial support will be available to carry out
                        the project, and (3) agree to demonstrate their capacity to meet the
                        applicable criteria and requirements of the grant program.

                        Applicants eligible for per diem payments include public or nonprofit
                        private entities that either have received or are eligible to receive grants.
                        VA distributes the funds directly to the public or private nonprofit agency.


                        Local Matching Requirement:

                        Grantees must provide 35 percent of the project’s total costs for grants and
                        50 percent of the service costs for per diem payments.

                        Eligibility:


                        47
                          See footnote 46.



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Veterans—meaning persons who served in the active military, naval or air
service and were discharged or released from there under conditions other
than dishonorable—are eligible to participate.

Program Limitations:

No aid provided under this program may be used to replace federal, state,
or local funds previously used or designated for use to assist homeless
persons.

In addition, the period of residence for a veteran in transitional housing
should be limited to 24 months unless the veteran needs more time to
prepare for independent living or appropriate permanent housing has not
been located.




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Appendix III

Resources and Activities for Assisting the
Homeless

                          This appendix describes some additional resources and activities used to
                          assist homeless people. Agency officials and advocates for the homeless
                          did not identify them as “key” programs but nevertheless considered
                          them important. The appendix does not include all of the resources and
                          activities that serve homeless people.



Department of
Defense

Base Closure Community    Under this law, surplus buildings and other properties on military bases
Redevelopment and         approved for closure or realignment are available to assist homeless
Homeless Assistance Act   persons. Assistance providers may submit notices of interest for buildings
                          and property to local redevelopment authorities48 that have been
of 1994                   designated to plan for the reuse of closing installations. The Department of
                          Defense (DOD) provides planning grants to local redevelopment authorities
                          for bases where it determines that closure will cause direct and significant
                          adverse consequences or where it is required, under the National
                          Environmental Policy Act of 1967, to undertake an environmental impact
                          statement. The Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD)
                          Base Development Team in Washington, D.C., provides policy
                          coordination, and HUD’s field offices provide technical assistance to local
                          redevelopment authorities and assistance providers throughout the
                          planning process.


Commissary/Food Bank      DOD  commissaries donate unmarketable but edible food to private food
Program                   banks that, in turn, provide food to soup kitchens, homeless persons, or
                          assistance providers, as well as other needy people. The donated food is
                          owned by private vendors serving DOD commissaries. If a private vendor
                          finds that the food is unneeded and that it is uneconomical to return the
                          food to the supplier, the vendor donates the food for homeless persons’
                          use. FEMA certifies food banks and other recipients as eligible to receive
                          the food.


Surplus Blankets          DOD provides unneeded bedding articles (cots, blankets, pillows, pillow
                          cases, and sheets) to various non-DOD shelters. Most of the bedding is

                          48
                            A local redevelopment authority is any authority or instrumentality established by a state or local
                          government and recognized by the Secretary of Defense through its Office of Economic Adjustment as
                          the entity responsible for developing the reuse plan or for directing its implementation.



                          Page 111                                                           GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                              Appendix III
                              Resources and Activities for Assisting the
                              Homeless




                              distributed through the General Service Administration’s Federal Surplus
                              Personal Property Program, but DOD distributes the surplus blankets
                              directly. DOD emphasizes that the program is intended to supply blankets
                              to homeless shelters, not to distribute blankets to homeless individuals
                              generally. The blankets are not intended to be sold.



Department of Energy

Weatherization Assistance     Shelters for the homeless may qualify for this program. The Department
for Low-Income Persons        will insulate the dwellings of low-income persons, particularly elderly and
                              disabled persons, to conserve needed energy and reduce utility costs. A
                              unit is eligible for weatherization assistance if it is occupied by a “family
                              unit” and if certain income requirements are met. (A “family unit” includes
                              all persons living in the dwelling, regardless of whether they are related).



Department of Health
and Human Services

Family Violence               The Battered Women’s Shelters program provides grants to states and
Prevention and Services/      Indian tribes to assist them in (1) supporting programs and projects to
Battered Women’s Shelters     prevent family violence and (2) providing immediate shelter and related
                              assistance for victims of family violence and their dependents.


Knowledge Development         The Center for Mental Health Services Knowledge Development and
and Application -Center for   Application (KD&A) program promotes continuous, positive service
Mental Health Services        delivery system change for persons with serious mental illnesses and
                              children and adolescent with severe emotional disturbances. This program
                              currently funds several projects/demonstrations related to homelessness,
                              including ACCESS, an interdepartmental effort to test the impact of
                              systems integration on outcomes for homeless people with mental
                              illnesses. The ACCESS project is designed to study both system and
                              client-level outcomes and is now entering its final phases of data
                              collection and analysis. Other projects include (1) an evaluation of the
                              effects of different housing models on residential stability and residents’
                              satisfaction and (2) an investigation of targeted homeless prevention




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                             Appendix III
                             Resources and Activities for Assisting the
                             Homeless




                             intervention to persons under treatment for mental illness who are judged
                             to be at risk of subsequent homelessness. The Center also funds the
                             Community Team Training Institute on Homelessness, a fiscal year 1997
                             initiative that was jointly sponsored by other components of HHS and HUD.
                             Five communities were competitively selected to receive intensive
                             technical assistance to help them achieve a seamless system of care for
                             homeless individuals with multiple diagnoses (chronic health problems,
                             substance abuse, HIV/AIDS, and/or mental disorders).


Knowledge Development        The Center for Substance Abuse Treatment is supporting activities
and Application-Center for   through the Knowledge Development and Application (KD&A) program to
Substance Abuse              develop and test innovative substance abuse treatment approaches and
                             systems. This program tests information derived from research findings
Treatment                    and sound empirical evidence and distributes cost-effective treatment
                             approaches on curbing addiction and related behaviors to the field. Under
                             the KD&A program, the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment is
                             collaborating with the Center for Mental Health Services to administer a
                             Homeless Prevention Program, which documents interventions for
                             individuals with serious mental illnesses and/or substance abuse disorders
                             who are at risk of subsequent homelessness. Eight projects, currently in
                             their third and final year, are evaluating strategies that were developed
                             and documented in the first year of the program. Information on this
                             program will be published in a special addition of Alcohol and Treatment
                             Quarterly in the spring of 1999.


Special Projects of          The Special Projects of National Significance (SPNS) program, part F of
National Significance        the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act, supports
                             the development of innovative models of HIV/AIDS care, designed to
                             address the special care needs of individuals with HIV/AIDS in vulnerable
                             populations, including the homeless. These projects are designed to be
                             replicable in other parts of the country and have a strong evaluation
                             component.

                             The SPNS program’s HIV Multiple Diagnosis Initiative, a collaboration
                             between the Department and HUD, focuses on integrating a full range of
                             housing, health care, and supportive services needed by homeless people
                             living with HIV/AIDS whose lives are further complicated by mental illness
                             and/or substance abuse. Sixteen nonprofit organizations will receive
                             funding. These organizations will contribute information to a national data
                             set on (1) the service needs of homeless, multiply diagnosed HIV clients



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                        Appendix III
                        Resources and Activities for Assisting the
                        Homeless




                        and variations in their needs linked to sociodemographic characteristics,
                        health status, and history of status; (2) the types of services being
                        provided; (3) the barriers in service systems to providing appropriate care
                        to clients; and (4) the relationship between comprehensive services and
                        improved patient outcomes with regard to housing, mental health, social
                        functioning, the reduction of high-risk behaviors, adherence to treatment
                        protocols, and overall health and quality of life.



Department of Justice

Victims of Crime        The Department of Justice’s Office for Victims of Crime administers the
                        Crime Victims Fund, which distributes grants to states to assist them in
                        funding victim assistance and compensation programs. Under the victim
                        assistance grant program, states are required to give priority to victims of
                        child abuse, domestic violence, and sexual assault by setting aside at least
                        10 percent of their funding for programs serving these victims. While there
                        is no specific initiative directed towards homeless persons, many local
                        domestic violence shelters provide a safe place for women and children
                        who find themselves on the streets following violence in the home. In
                        addition to providing refuge for domestic violence victims, these shelters
                        offer counseling, criminal justice advocacy, and referrals to other social
                        service programs. Support for the program comes from fines and penalties
                        paid by federal criminal offenders.



Internal Revenue
Service

Earned Income Credit    This credit is a special tax benefit for working people who earn low or
                        moderate incomes. Its purposes are to (1) reduce the tax burden on low
                        and moderate income workers, (2) supplement wages, and (3) make work
                        more attractive than welfare. Workers who qualify for the credit and file a
                        federal tax return can get back some or all of the federal income tax that
                        was taken out of their pay during the year. They may also get extra cash
                        back from the Internal Revenue Service. Even workers whose earnings are
                        too small to have paid taxes can get the credit. The credit reduces any
                        additional taxes workers may owe.




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                            Appendix III
                            Resources and Activities for Assisting the
                            Homeless




                            Single or married people who worked full time or part time at some point
                            in a year’s time can qualify for the credit, depending on their income.



Department of
Veterans Affairs

HUD/VA Supported            The Department of VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act
Housing (HUD-VASH)          of 1990 (P.L. 101-144) authorized the use of rental assistance vouchers (to
                            subsidize rental costs for up to 5 years). VA clinicians help homeless
                            mentally ill and substance abusing veterans locate and secure permanent
                            housing using these rental assistance vouchers. Once housing is secured,
                            clinicians provide veterans with the longer-term clinical and social support
                            they need to remain in permanent housing.


VA Supported Housing        This program assists homeless veterans in finding transitional or
                            permanent housing but does not provide rental assistance vouchers. The
                            program involves working with veterans’ service organizations, public
                            housing authorities, private landlords, and other housing resources. As in
                            the initiative with HUD, clinicians provide veterans with the longer-term
                            clinical and social support (case management) they need to remain in
                            housing.49


VA-Social Security          In 1991, VA and the Social Security Administration (SSA) initiated a joint
Administration Expedition   project designed to expedite claims for Social Security benefits to which
Project                     homeless veterans are entitled. Under the project, SSA representatives
                            work with staff from VA’s Homeless Chronically Mentally Ill Veterans and
                            Domiciliary Care for Homeless Veterans programs to identify homeless
                            veterans who are entitled to benefits and help them obtain the necessary
                            income and eligibility certifications, medical/psychiatric examinations,
                            and substance abuse treatment (if such treatment is a condition of the SSA
                            benefit award). According to an April 1998 study,50 the initiative was
                            operating at four sites and had helped 3,114 veterans file SSA applications.
                            The study reported that 692 veterans had received benefits.

                            49
                             The information on VA’s Supportive Initiatives is excerpted from a VA Inspector General’s report,
                            Review of Department of Veterans Affairs Assistance to Homeless Veterans (6R3-A12-084, Sept. 1996.)
                            50
                               Guide to Federal Funding for Governments and Nonprofits: Aid for the Homeless, Section N,
                            Government Information Services (Apr. 1998).



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                             Appendix III
                             Resources and Activities for Assisting the
                             Homeless




Veterans Industries or       Program staff contract with private and public industry, including VA, to
Compensated Work             secure paying work for homeless veterans. The work is used as a
Therapy                      therapeutic tool to improve the veterans’ functional levels (work habits)
                             and mental health. While in the program, veterans participate in individual
                             and group therapy and are medically followed on an outpatient basis.


Veterans                     The Veterans Programs for Housing and Memorial Affairs Act (P.L.
Industries/Therapeutic       102-54) authorized VA to operate therapeutic transitional residences along
Residence                    with furnishing compensated work therapy. This program provides
                             housing in community-based group homes for homeless and nonhomeless
                             veterans while they work for pay in the program. The veterans must use a
                             portion of their wages to pay rent, utilities, and food costs; their remaining
                             wages are set aside to support their transition to independent living. As in
                             the Compensated Work Therapy program, homeless veterans participate
                             in individual and group therapy and are medically followed on an
                             outpatient basis.


Veterans Benefits Outreach   The Homeless Veterans Comprehensive Service Programs Act of 1992
Counselors                   (P.L. 102-590) provided the impetus to collocate veterans benefits
                             counselors with Homeless Chronically Mentally Ill and Domiciliary Care
                             for Homeless Veterans staff to focus greater efforts on reaching out to
                             homeless chronically mentally ill veterans. Under this program, at selected
                             VA regional offices, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is providing
                             reimbursed funding for the commitment of full-time or part-time veterans
                             benefits counselors who collaborate with VA medical centers on joint
                             outreach, counseling, and referral activities, including applying for VA
                             benefits. The VA regional office receives reimbursed funding for the
                             veterans benefits counselor but does not receive an increase in staffing
                             levels.


Psychiatric Residential      This program provides a 24-hour-a-day therapeutic setting that includes
Rehabilitation and           professional support and treatment for chronically mentally ill veterans in
Treatment Program            need of extended rehabilitation and treatment. According to a 1996 VA
                             document, one such program was funded for homeless veterans in
                             Anchorage, Alaska.


Drop-in Centers              Drop-in centers offer safe daytime environments where homeless veterans
                             may find food, take a shower, wash their clothes, participate in a variety of



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                             Appendix III
                             Resources and Activities for Assisting the
                             Homeless




                             therapeutic and rehabilitative activities, and establish connections with
                             other VA programs that provide more extensive assistance. The centers
                             also offer basic education on topics such as HIV prevention and good
                             nutrition. The drop-in programs serve as “points of entry” to VA’s
                             longer-term and more intensive treatment programs.


Comprehensive Homeless       These centers provide an array of VA and community resources in one
Centers                      framework to develop local comprehensive and coordinated services to
                             help homeless veterans. Staff form strong ties with their communities to
                             eliminate overlap and duplication of efforts and to streamline service
                             delivery. Resources include city, county, and state governments; local
                             representatives of the federal agencies that provide assistance to the
                             homeless; and other local VA activities for homeless veterans.


Community Homeless           The Veterans’ Medical Programs Amendments of 1992 (P.L.
Assessment, Local            102-405) authorized VA to conduct a nationwide needs assessment of
Education, and               homeless veterans living within the area served by each VA medical center
                             and regional office. This assessment is being conducted through a series of
Networking Groups            VA-hosted meetings of public and private providers of assistance to the
                             homeless. The goal of the program is to obtain information on the needs of
                             homeless veterans that have and have not been met in each region and on
                             the assistance available from non-VA providers. A secondary goal is to
                             bring all relevant agencies and organizations together in communitywide
                             efforts to improve the assistance provided to homeless veterans.


VA-Supported                 “Stand-down” is a military term used by VA and other non-VA providers of
Stand-Downs                  assistance to homeless persons. In this context, the term denotes an array
                             of services provided in one location for a day or several days. Services
                             include meals, haircuts, clothing, sleeping bags, minor medical care, dental
                             and eye examinations, benefits counseling, legal assistance, and
                             identification cards. Program officials have encouraged VA staff to
                             participate in these community efforts and have provided additional funds,
                             as available. The primary goal of a stand-down is to provide outreach and
                             assistance to homeless veterans; however, these events also serve to bring
                             VA and non-VA community providers together in one effort. According to a
                             VA document, in fiscal year 1995, VA participated in over 45 stand-downs.



Veterans Health              Vet center staff provide a full range of assistance to veterans and their
Administration Vet Centers   families, paying particular attention to war-related psychological and


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                            Appendix III
                            Resources and Activities for Assisting the
                            Homeless




                            social problems that may interfere with returning to civilian life. The staff
                            are specially skilled to do community outreach, which is essential for
                            making contact with lower-income veterans and homeless veterans, and to
                            provide counseling, evaluation, and referral services to other VA facilities.
                            In 1996, when VA released this information, there were 205 vet centers
                            whose staff reported that approximately 5 percent of their annual visits
                            were designed to provide direct assistance to homeless veterans.


Loan Guaranty Homeless      The Veterans’ Home Loan Program Improvements and Property
Program                     Rehabilitation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-198) authorized the Secretary to enter
                            into agreements with nonprofit organizations, states, or political
                            subdivisions to sell real property acquired through default on
                            VA-guaranteed loans, as long as the solvency of the Loan Guaranty
                            Revolving Fund was not affected. The Homeless Veterans Comprehensive
                            Service Programs Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-590) extended VA’s authority to
                            lease, lease with the option to sell, or donate VA-acquired properties.
                            According to a VA document, between July 1988 and December 31, 1995, VA
                            sold, leased, or donated a total of 99 properties.


VA-DOD Excess Property      This program locates excess federal and other personal property (e.g.,
for Homeless Veterans       clothing, sleeping bags, toiletries, and shoes) for distribution to homeless
Initiative                  veterans at stand-downs or through other VA programs for assisting the
                            homeless. According to a VA document, during fiscal year 1995, VA
                            distributed over $6 million in excess clothing and supplies to homeless
                            veterans.


VA Surplus Property         Title V of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act gives
(Federal Surplus Property   assistance providers an opportunity to lease surplus federal properties for
Program)                    services, such as emergency shelters, offices, and facilities for feeding
                            homeless persons. VA’s surplus property initiative is a national program for
                            homeless veterans that allows VA to provide assistance by transferring
                            leases of surplus real property to nonprofit organizations caring for
                            homeless persons. This initiative has two major components, the Title V
                            Surplus Property Program and direct leases of facilities made by VHA field
                            directors to nonprofit organizations. According to a VA document, in
                            March 1995, VA’s Under Secretary for Health made a special request to
                            VHA field facilities to make more VA properties available to help homeless
                            veterans.




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                              Appendix III
                              Resources and Activities for Assisting the
                              Homeless




Veterans Assistance           Veterans Benefits Administration counselors go out into the community to
Service Outreach              identify homeless veterans and determine their eligibility for VA benefits.
                              The goal of the program is to improve homeless veterans’ access to VA
                              benefits. This program is conducted through existing resources at
                              applicable VA regional offices.



Federal Property
Programs

Use of Personal Property      Public agencies and nonprofit, tax-exempt institutions or organizations
for Providers of Assistance   that provide food, shelter, and support services to the homeless may
to the Homeless Under         obtain personal property through the Surplus Federal Personal Property
                              Donation Program. The General Services Administration administers the
Title V of the Mckinney Act   program through a network of state agencies for surplus property (SASP).
                              Under the Federal Property Act, “excess” federal personal property must
                              first be offered to other federal agencies. Any surplus property no longer
                              needed by the federal government is made available to the SASP. Eligible
                              organizations apply to their state agency. The SASP directors determine
                              eligibility and distribute the property to qualified entities. Property
                              donated for use by the homeless can include blankets, clothing,
                              appliances, furniture, and other items.


Use of Federal Real           The objective of this program is to make available, through lease, permit,
Property to Assist the        or donation, certain real federal property for use to assist the homeless.
Homeless (Title V of the      State and local governments and private nonprofit agencies acting as
                              representatives of the homeless may obtain the use of unutilized or
Mckinney Act)                 underutilized federal properties through lease, permit, or donation. The
                              General Services Administration identifies and sends a list of surplus
                              properties to HUD. Periodically, HUD publishes a Notice of Funding
                              Availability listing suitable and available properties for which
                              organizations seeking to use the properties to assist the homeless can then
                              apply. HHS reviews and approves all applications for the use of these
                              properties by homeless assistance providers.

                              The McKinney Act requires all federal landholding agencies to identify all
                              unutilized, underutilized, excess, and surplus properties, and to send a
                              listing of the properties to HUD.




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                           Appendix III
                           Resources and Activities for Assisting the
                           Homeless




Purchase or Lease of       Four federal agencies have special provisions or preferences for selling or
Federally Acquired         leasing certain properties in their inventory that have been acquired
Foreclosed Properties by   through foreclosure to public agencies or nonprofit organizations for use
                           in programs to assist homeless people. These agencies include HUD’s
Homeless Service           Federal Housing Administration, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s
Providers                  Rural Housing Service, VA, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.




                           Page 120                                         GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
Appendix IV

Groups Eligible to Receive Services Through
Targeted and Nontargeted Programs


                                                                                               Populations eligible for services




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 Federal agency programs
 Agriculture
            a
 Targeted

 1. Homeless Children Nutrition Program

 Nontargeted b

 2. Child and Adult Care Food Program

 3. Commodity Supplemental Food Program

 4. Emergency Food Assistance Program
 5. Food Stamp Program

 6. National School Lunch Program

 7. School Breakfast Program

 8. Special Milk Program

 9. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for
    Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)
 10. Summer Food Service Program
 Education
 Targeted

 11. Education for Homeless Children and Youth

 Nontargeted

 12. Elementary and Secondary Education Act -
     Title I, Part A

 FEMA
 Targeted

 13. Emergency Food and Shelter Program


                                                            a
                                                                Targeted programs specifically serve homeless people.
                                                            b Nontargeted programs generally target low-income people
                                                                with special needs.




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                                                         Appendix IV
                                                         Groups Eligible to Receive Services Through
                                                         Targeted and Nontargeted Programs




                                                                                               Populations eligible for services




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Federal agency programs
HHS

Targeted

14. Health Care for the Homeless

15. Projects for Assistance in Transition from
    Homelessness (PATH)
16. Runaway and Homeless Youth - Basic Center

17. Runaway and Homeless Youth - Street
    Outreach

18. Runaway and Homeless Youth - Transitional
    Living

Nontargeted

19. Consolidated (Community) Health Centers

20. Community Services Block Grant (CSBG)

21. Head Start

22. Maternal and Child Health Services Block
    Grant
23. Medicaid
24. Mental Health Performance Partnership
    Block Grant
25. Migrant Health Centers
26. Ryan White CARE Act - Titles I, II

27. Social Services Block Grant (SSBG)

28. State Children's Health Insurance Program

29. Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment
    Block Grant
30. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
    (TANF)




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                                                               Appendix IV
                                                               Groups Eligible to Receive Services Through
                                                               Targeted and Nontargeted Programs




                                                                                                      Groups eligible for services




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Federal agency programs
HUD

Targeted

31. Emergency Shelter Grants

32. Section 8 Single-Room Occupancy Moderate
    Rehabilitation
33. Shelter Plus Care

34. Supportive Housing Program

Nontargeted
35. Community Development Block Grant (CDBG)

36. Home Investment Partnerships Program
    (HOME)
37. Housing Opportunities for Persons With AIDS
    (HOPWA)
38. Public and Indian Housing

39. Section 8 Project-Based Assistance

40. Section 8 Rental Certificate and Voucher
    Program
41. Section 811 - Supportive Housing for Persons
    With Disabilities
Labor
Targeted

42. Homeless Veterans Reintegration
Nontargeted
43. Job Training for Disadvantaged Adults, Title IIA
44. Youth Employment and Training and Job
    Training for Disadvantaged Youth Programs,
    Title II B and II C
45. Veterans Employment Program,
    Title IV C
46. Welfare-to-Work Grants to States and
    Localities




                                                               Page 123                                                                GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                                                         Appendix IV
                                                         Groups Eligible to Receive Services Through
                                                         Targeted and Nontargeted Programs




                                                                                               Populations eligible for services




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                                                                                                              ns




                                                                                                              ts
                                                                                                            ed
                                                         en




                                                                                                        son




                                                                                                         ran
                                                                                 erly




                                                                                                        era
                                                       lts




                                                                                               me




                                                                                                        abl
                                                                                                       n ta
                                                    ildr




                                                                                                        se
                                                                                                         s




                                                                                                        s
                                                     n




                                                  Adu




                                                                                                     Mig
                                                                                                     Per




                                                                                                    Per
                                                                                                    Per




                                                                                                    Vet
                                                  Ge




                                                                                Eld

                                                                                          Wo




                                                                                                    Dis
                                                 Ch



Federal agency programs
SSA

Nontargeted
                                       c
47. Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
Veterans Affairs

Targeted

48. Domiciliary Care for Homeless Veterans

49. Homeless Chronically Mentally Ill Veterans

50. Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem
    Program

                                                         c
                                                          For audit purposes, blindness is included as a disability.




                                                         Page 124                                                                       GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
Appendix V

Programs, Types of Funding, and Reported
Obligations for Fiscal Years 1995-98


Dollars in millions
                                                                  Fiscal year
Program name                      Funding type            1995    1996              1997             1998a
Targeted programs
Agriculture
  1. Homeless Children            Formula grants           $1.7    $1.7             $2.1               $1.9
  Nutrition Program
Education
  2. Education for Homeless       Formula grants           28.8    23.0             25.0               28.8
  Children and Youth
FEMA
  3. Emergency Food and           Formula grants          130.0   100.0            100.0              100.0
  Shelter Program
HHS
  4. Health Care for the          Project grants           65.4    65.5             69.3               71.3
  Homeless
  5. Projects for Assistance in   Formula grants           29.5    20.0             20.0               23.0
  Transition from
  Homelessness (PATH)
  6. Runaway and Homeless         Project grants           40.5    43.7             43.7               43.6
  Youth - Basic Center
                                                              b
  7. Runaway and Homeless         Project grants                    5.6              8.0               15.0
  Youth - Street Outreach
  8. Runaway and Homeless         Project grants           13.6    14.9             14.9               14.9
  Youth - Transitional Living
HUD
  9. Emergency Shelter Grants Formula grants              155.0   115.0            115.0              165.0
                                                              c       c
  10. Section 8 Single-Room       Project grants                                    10.1               23.5
  Occupancy Moderate
  Rehabilitation
  11. Shelter Plus Care           Project grants          162.0    89.0             61.0              116.9
  12. Supportive Housing          Project grants          602.0   577.0            620.0              574.2
  Program
Labor
                                                              d       d                 d
  13. Homeless Veterans           Project grants                                                        3.0f
  Reintegration Project
Veterans Affairs
  14. Domiciliary Care for        Direct servicese         38.9    41.1             37.2               38.5f
  Homeless Veterans
  15. Homeless Chronically        Direct services          32.3    32.1             32.0               36.4
  Mentally Ill Veterans           and contract
                                  awardsg
  16. Homeless Providers     Project grants                 6.3     6.3              6.1                5.9f
  Grant and Per Diem Program
                                                                                                (continued)

                                               Page 125                         GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                                              Appendix V
                                              Programs, Types of Funding, and Reported
                                              Obligations for Fiscal Years 1995-98




Dollars in millions
                                                                                         Fiscal year
Program name                   Funding type                        1995                  1996              1997             1998a
Nontargeted programs
Agriculture
  17. Child and Adult Care     Entitlementh                     1,466.9              1,552.6            1,608.8            1,558.7
  Food Program
  18. Commodity             Formula grants                         88.6                   86.6             92.1               89.1
  Supplemental Food Program
  19. Emergency Food           Formula grants                     105.0                   79.8            172.1              146.4
  Assistance Program
  20. Food Stamp Program       Entitlement                     24,445.1             24,259.8           26,693.8           19,193.7
  21. National School Lunch    Entitlement                      4,587.6              4,761.0            5,131.1            5,130.3
  Programi
  22. School Breakfast         Entitlement                      1,181.8              1,122.1            1,212.7            1,299.6
  Program
  23. Special Milk Program     Entitlement                         20.6                   18.9             18.0               18.3
  24. Special Supplemental     Formula grants                   3,583.6              3,829.2            4,034.9            4,046.8
  Nutrition Program for
  Women, Infants, and
  Children (WIC)
  25. Summer Food Service      Entitlement                        255.9                  258.2            258.5              251.6
  Program
Education
  26. Elementary and           Formula grants                   6,649.0              6,730.3            7,295.3            7,767.0
  Secondary Education Act
  Part A of Title I
HHS
  27. Consolidated           Project grants                       756.6                  758.1            802.2              824.9
  (Community) Health Centers
  28. Community Services       Formula grants                     389.6                  389.6            489.6              489.7
  Block Grant (CSBG)
  29. Head Start               Project grants                   3,534.1              3,569.3            3,980.5            4,347.4
  30. Maternal and Child      Formula grants                      683.9                  687.2            681.0              681.1
  Health Services Block Grant
  31. Medicaid                 Entitlement                     89,240.0             92,727.5           96,476.7          104,495.4
  32. Mental Health            Formula grants                     261.6                  261.6            261.6              261.6
  Performance Partnership
  Block Grant
                                                                        j                     j                j                    j
  33. Migrant Health Centers   Project grants

  34. Ryan White CARE Act      Formula and                        356.5                  391.7            449.8              464.7
  Title I                      project grants
  Title II                     Formula grants                     198.1                  260.8k           417.0k             542.8k
                                                                                                                       (continued)



                                              Page 126                                                 GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                                               Appendix V
                                               Programs, Types of Funding, and Reported
                                               Obligations for Fiscal Years 1995-98




Dollars in millions
                                                                                          Fiscal year
Program name                    Funding type                        1995                  1996              1997             1998a
  35. Social Services Block     Formula grants                   2,800.0              2,381.0            2,500.0            2,299.0
  Grant (SSBG)
                                                                         l                    l                 l
  36. State Children’s Health   Formula grants                                                                              4,235.0
  Insurance Program
  37. Substance Abuse           Formula grants                   1,234.1              1,234.1            1,360.1            1,360.1
  Prevention and Treatment
  Block Grant
  38. Temporary Assistance      Block grantsm                            n                    n
                                                                                                        13,402.8           16,488.7
  for Needy Families (TANF)
HUD
  39. Community                 Formula and                      4, 485.0             4,370.0            4,310.4            4,195.1
  Development Block Granto      project grants
  40. Home Investment           Formula grants                   1,400.0              1,400.0            1,332.2            1,438.0
  Partnerships Program
  (HOME)
  41. Housing Opportunities     Formula and                        171.0                  171.0            196.0              204.0
  for Persons With AIDS         Project grants
  (HOPWA)
  42. Public and Indian         Direct payments                  3,728.2              2,963.0            2,990.1            2,990.0
  Housing
  43. Section 8 Project-Based   Annual                           4,400.0              1,200.0            1,977.2            2,769.4f
  Assistance                    contribution
                                contracts and
                                contract
                                administrationp
  44. Section 8 Rental          Annual                          16,947.9              7,308.2            7,830.3            8,126.3
  Certificate and Voucher       contribution
  Program                       contracts
  45. Section 811 Supportive    Project grants                     233.7                   53.0            435.8q             174.0
  Housing for Persons With
  Disabilities
Labor
  46. Job Training for          Formula grants                     997.0                  850.0            895.0              955.0
  Disadvantaged Adults, Title
  II A
  47. Youth Employment          Formula grants                     867.0                  625.0            871.0              871.0
  Training and Job Training
  for Disadvantaged Youth
  programs
  Title II B
  Title II C                    Formula grants                     126.7                  126.7            126.7              130.0
  48. Veterans Employment       Project grants                        8.9                   7.3              7.3                7.0
  Program, Title IV C
                                                                                                                        (continued)




                                               Page 127                                                 GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                                             Appendix V
                                             Programs, Types of Funding, and Reported
                                             Obligations for Fiscal Years 1995-98




Dollars in millions
                                                                                        Fiscal year
Program name                   Funding type                       1995                  1996              1997                1998a
                                                                       l                    l
  49. Welfare-to-Work Grants   Formula and                                                                   0                   1.5
  to States and Localities     Project grants
SSA
  50. Supplemental Security    Entitlement                    24,443.0             24,302.8           26,639.6             27,418.1
  Income (SSI)

                                                                                                           (Table notes on next page)




                                             Page 128                                                 GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
Appendix V
Programs, Types of Funding, and Reported
Obligations for Fiscal Years 1995-98




Note: All numbers are rounded.
a
    All figures in this column are estimates unless otherwise indicated.
b
    Not applicable. This program did not receive funding until 1996.
c
 Funding for this fiscal year is included in the outlays for the Section 8 Rental Certificate and
Voucher Program.
d
    Not applicable. Funding for this program was not provided in this fiscal year.
e
 Program funding is used to compensate VA staff for providing treatment and rehabilitation for
homeless veterans.
f
    Actual funding.
g
 Program funding is used to (1) pay the salaries of VA clinical and administrative support staff
involved in outreach and case management and (2) contract with community-based residential
care programs to provide residential treatment for homeless veterans.
h
 An entitlement or direct payment is financial assistance provided by the federal government
directly to recipients who satisfy eligibility requirements and are subject to no restrictions on how
the money is spent. (except under the Food Stamp Program, which restricts the use of benefits to
eligible foods).
i
The funding amounts for this program include most of the funding for two other programs.
Specifically, the funding (in millions) for Child Nutrition Commodities was $654.9, $673.3, $692.1,
and $735.6 (estimate) for fiscal years 1995, 1996, 1997 and 1998, respectively. The funding for
Child Nutrition State Administrative Expense was $93.6, $99.9, $104.1, and $110.4 (estimate)
during fiscal years 1995, 1996, 1997, and 1998, respectively. While this funding is distributed to
all child nutrition programs, the majority goes to the National School Lunch Program.
j
    The funding for this program is included in the funding for Consolidated Health Centers.
k
Beginning in fiscal year 1996, the total funding for Title II includes funds states received that
were earmarked for AIDS Drug Assistance programs.
l
Not applicable. This program was created by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, and funding was
not provided until fiscal year 1998.
m
 Unlike other block grant programs, such as the Community Services Block Grant, which typically
provide funding to the states through a distribution formula, TANF provides the states with a fixed
block grant. Under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996,
the fixed amount of each state’s grants is based on the amount of its grants in specified fiscal
years under prior law, supplemented for population increases under certain circumstances. The
TANF amounts reported in this appendix are for state and tribal family assistance grants only.
n
 Not applicable. This program was created by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity
Reconciliation Act of 1996, and funding was not provided until fiscal year 1997.
o
    Includes Entitlement, States, and Small Cities programs.
p
 An annual contributions contract is a written contract between HUD and a public housing
authority. Under the contract, HUD agrees to provide funding for operating the program and the
housing authority agrees to comply with HUD’s requirements for the program. Contract
administration is the procedure through which HUD enters into a housing assistance payment
contract with a private landlord to guarantee payments for a time limit specified in the contract.
q
    Estimated funding.




Page 129                                                               GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
Appendix VI

Comments From the Department of Health
and Human Services

Note: GAO comments
supplementing those in the
report text appear at the
end of this appendix.




                             Page 130   GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                       Appendix VI
                       Comments From the Department of Health
                       and Human Services




See comment 1.




Now on p. 11.




Now on pp. 2 and 10.

See comment 2.




                       Page 131                                 GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                      Appendix VI
                      Comments From the Department of Health
                      and Human Services




See comment 3.




Now on p. 7.
See comment 4.



Now on pp. 7 and 8.

See comment 5.



See comment 6.




Now on p. 7.
See comment 7.
See comment 8.


Now on p. 8.




Now on p. 14.
See comment 9.




See comment 10.




                      Page 132                                 GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                  Appendix VI
                  Comments From the Department of Health
                  and Human Services




See comment 10.




See comment 11.




See comment 11.




See comment 11.




                  Page 133                                 GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                        Appendix VI
                        Comments From the Department of Health
                        and Human Services




See comment 12.




See comment 13.




Now on pp. 73 and 74.




See comment 13.




                        Page 134                                 GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                  Appendix VI
                  Comments From the Department of Health
                  and Human Services




See comment 13.




See comment 14.




See comment 15.




See comment 16.




                  Page 135                                 GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                  Appendix VI
                  Comments From the Department of Health
                  and Human Services




See comment 16.




See comment 16.




See comment 16.




                  Page 136                                 GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                  Appendix VI
                  Comments From the Department of Health
                  and Human Services




See comment 16.




                  Page 137                                 GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                 Appendix VI
                 Comments From the Department of Health
                 and Human Services




                 The following are GAO’s comments on the Department of Health and
                 Human Services’ (HHS) letter dated February 10, 1999.


                 1. After reviewing HHS’ comments, we deleted the comment made by the
GAO’s Comments   Special Assistant to the Secretary because it was not central to the
                 discussion in the report. We also revised the reference to “billions of
                 dollars worth of resources” to clarify that the resources assist low-income
                 people generally, including the homeless.

                 2. We agree that a significant percentage of homeless single men are
                 disabled and that some of their disabilities may qualify them for SSI and/or
                 Medicaid. We added language to the report to clarify this.

                 3. As appropriate, we changed the attributions in the report.

                 4. We added the word “foreclosed” to clarify the type of surplus properties.

                 5. We made the suggested changes to indicate that services are “eligible”
                 rather than “provided.”

                 6. We agree that while several programs provide or could provide the same
                 service, there is significant variation in the intensity of the same service
                 across programs. This audit was not designed to identify variations in
                 services.

                 7. We made the suggested change to point out that TANF resources can be
                 used to provide rental assistance.

                 8. In response, we deleted the column totals from table 2 but retained the
                 row totals because the number of programs that provide a particular type
                 of service is relevant information.

                 9. We included a sentence that refers to the National Survey of Homeless
                 Assistance Providers and Clients.

                 10. The section of the report cited by HHS discusses the joint
                 administration of programs or resources. Because HHS’ examples of
                 interagency collaboration do not illustrate this topic, we did not include
                 them in the report.




                 Page 138                                          GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
Appendix VI
Comments From the Department of Health
and Human Services




11. We made the suggested changes to appendix I to indicate that
additional services can be provided through HHS’ programs.

12. We deleted the reference to the number of homeless persons served
from the program summary for Community Health Centers.

13. We made the suggested technical changes to the program summaries in
appendix II .

14. We made the suggested technical changes to appendix III.

15. The three Runaway and Homeless Youth programs target children and
youth, including those who are disabled or have mental illnesses,
substance abuse disorders, or HIV/AIDS. Thus, we did not make the
suggested change.

16. We made the suggested changes to update the information on program
funding provided in appendix V.




Page 139                                        GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
Appendix VII

Comments From the Department of Housing
and Urban Development

Note: GAO comments
supplementing those in the
report text appear at the
end of this appendix.




See comment 1.




See comment 1.
Now on p. 14.




                             Page 140   GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                 Appendix VII
                 Comments From the Department of Housing
                 and Urban Development




See comment 1.




See comment 1.




See comment 1.




                 Page 141                                  GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                 Appendix VII
                 Comments From the Department of Housing
                 and Urban Development




See comment 2.




                 Page 142                                  GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                       Appendix VII
                       Comments From the Department of Housing
                       and Urban Development




See comment 3.
Now on pp. 3 and 14.




See comment 4.
Now on p. 4.


See comment 5.



See comment 6.
Now on p. 6.




See comment 7.
Now on p. 14.




See comment 7.



See comment 7.




                       Page 143                                  GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                  Appendix VII
                  Comments From the Department of Housing
                  and Urban Development




See comment 8.
Now on p. 15.


See comment 9.
Now on p. 17.




See comment 10.
Now on p. 19.

See coment 11.
Now on p. 20.
See comment 12.




See comment 13.




See comment 13.
Now on p. 76.



Now on p. 77.




                  Page 144                                  GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                    Appendix VII
                    Comments From the Department of Housing
                    and Urban Development




See comment 13.
Now on p. 76.

Now on p. 78.
Now on pp. 79-80.




Now on p. 81.


See comment 14.

Now on pp. 81-82.



See comment 15.

See comment 16.

Now on pp. 82-84.

Now on p. 83.



See comment 16.
Now on pp. 83-84.




See comment 17.




                    Page 145                                  GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                  Appendix VII
                  Comments From the Department of Housing
                  and Urban Development




See comment 17.




See comment 18.




                  Page 146                                  GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
                 Appendix VII
                 Comments From the Department of Housing
                 and Urban Development




                 The following are GAO’s comments on the Department of Housing Urban
                 and Development’s (HUD) letter dated February 2, 1999.


                 1. It is not our intent to hold the Council to the same standards now as
GAO’s Comments   when it had its own budget. The purpose of the section on the Council is,
                 first, to indicate that it is one of several mechanisms through which
                 programs and activities for the homeless are coordinated and, second, to
                 explain its status. However, we noted HUD’s concerns, adding some of the
                 points that the Department suggested, such as an example of the Council’s
                 long-term coordination efforts and the statement that the Council’s policy
                 group has discussed ways of improving coordination between targeted and
                 nontargeted programs. We also added infomation on the frequency of the
                 Council’s meetings and stated HUD’s belief that the Council is still very
                 involved in coordinating federal efforts and sharing information.

                 2. We revised the report to eliminate the reference to mission
                 fragmentation because an assessment as to why so many agencies provide
                 similar services to the homeless was beyond the scope of this review.

                 3. We revised the report to include the additional agencies.

                 4. We revised this sentence to reflect the Council’s staffing level.

                 5. We deleted this footnote.

                 6. We replaced the word “surplus” with the word “foreclosed.”

                 7. We revised the sentence to reflect the Council’s last meeting date and
                 deleted the word “formerly.” We also revised the text to make a clear
                 distinction between the Council and its policy-level working group. A copy
                 of the minutes from the policy group’s April 1998 meeting indicates that
                 representatives of HUD and the Department of Defense discussed the
                 distribution both of surplus blankets and of surplus real property on base
                 closure property. We added a reference to the surplus real property.

                 8. We replaced the word “providing” with the word “includes.”

                 9. We revised the text to indicate that HUD considers the percentage of
                 homeless persons who move from HUD transitional housing to permanent
                 housing an outcome measure.




                 Page 147                                            GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
Appendix VII
Comments From the Department of Housing
and Urban Development




10. We made the wording changes suggested by HUD.

11. We revised the report accordingly.

12. At the beginning of the report, we list the criteria we used to select
programs for inclusion in the report. We do not state in the report that
program duplication exists; we observe that many of the programs offer
similar services.

13. We made the technical and editing changes suggested by HUD.

14. The statement that “permanent housing may not be realistic” came
from a program evaluation study prepared for HUD, in which homeless
service providers expressed the view that since there is a limit (even if it is
5 years) on the length of time the housing is available, it is not necessarily
permanent.

15. We included this statement because it was identified as a program
limitation in a program evaluation prepared for HUD.

16. We made the technical and editing changes suggested by HUD.

17. In appendix IV, a mark under “general or low-income population”
indicates that all or most of the categories of eligible groups are covered.

18. We made the suggested changes to appendix V.




Page 148                                            GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
Appendix VIII

Major Contributors to This Report


                        Susan Campbell
Resources,              Bess Eisenstadt
Community, and          Andrew Pauline
Economic                Cheri Truett
Development
Division, Washington,
D.C.
                        Sherrill Dunbar
Atlanta Field Office




(385739)                Page 149          GAO/RCED-99-49 Homelessness
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