oversight

U.S. Airports: Selected Airports' Views on Federal Requirements

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1999-01-29.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

      United States
GAO   General Accounting Office
      Washington, D.C. 20548

      Resources, Community,     and
      Economic Development      Division
      B-281433


      January29,1999



      The Honorable John R. Kasich
      Chairman, Committee on the Budget
      House of Representatives

      Subject: U.S. Airnorts: SelectedAirnorts’ Views on Federal Requirements

      Dear Mr. Chairman:

      For over half a century, the federal government has maintained a central role in the development
      of the nation’s systemof airports. Through a successionof major aviation laws and grant
      programs,the federal government has sought to create an air transportation system that is safe
      and has sufficient capacity to handle expectedgrowth in passengerand cargo traffic. As a
      result, numerousrequirementspertaining to airports’ development, operations,and financing
      have evolved. Some airport officials have complained about the cost of adhering to these
      requirements,as well as the obstaclesfederal regulations create in obtaining nonfederal funding.

      You askedus to provide you with information on the severity of thesecomplaints. Specifically,
      you askedus to identify (1) which federal laws, regulations, and administrative requirements
      potentially affect airports’development,operations, and financing and (2) which federal
      requirementsairport officials view as having a positive or negative effect on their airports and
      why.

      To respondto your request,we developed a list of federal requirements applicable to airports.
      After developing this list, we surveyed officials from approximately 100 airports as to the effect
      of theserequirementson their airports. The airports ranged in size from small airports serving
      privately owned aircraft to the country’s largest commercial airports. Becausenot all airports in
      our survey were randomly selected,the comments obtained may not be representativeof all
      U.S. airports. In tabulating airport offrcials’ views on the requirements,we did not verify the
      actual effect of theserequirementson airports nor did we make any judgments as to the
      rationale or effectivenessof the various requirements.

      RESULTS IN BRIEF

      The federal statutes,regulations, and administrative requirementsthat airports are subject to can
      be grouped into 11 categories,ranging from environmental, noise, and security requirementsto
      bond rules. Many of theserequirements,such as federal design and construction standardsand
      federal contracting procedures,are tied to airports’acceptanceof federal grant moneys. Other



                                                             CED-99-58R Federal Requirements for Airports
B-281433


Airport Improvement Program (AIP) grants--amajor sourceof federal aid to airports. The
respondingofficials indicated that requirementsin these areashad a generally positive effect
becausethey provided guidance and structure to decision-making. None of the categories
elicited a majority of negative responses,though more airport officials indicated a negative
effect than a positive one for two categories-federal environmentalrequirementsand
contracting requirements. Those officials commenting unfavorably characterizedthese
requirementsas burdensometo administer or not cost-effective.

BACKGROUND

While public airports are owned and operatedby local authorities, the federal governmenthas
the broaderresponsibility of ensuring a safe air transportationsystem. In addition, the federal
governmenthas assumedresponsibility for ensuring adequateair systemcapacity to meet the
nation’s demandfor air travel and the movement of goods-a demandthat has grown
significantly in recent decades. As a result, federal laws and programshave evolved to ensure
that airports are safe and secureand keep pace with capacity needsand that federal funds are
properly accountedfor and directed to their best uses.

The federal government’sinvolvement in airport developmentbegan during World War II,
when the governmenttransferred excessmilitary basesand related propertiesto stateand local
governmentsunder the Surplus Property Act of 1944, as amended. These lands were provided
on condition that they be used as public airports. In 1946, the Federal Airport Act createda
federal aid program to fund airport development. These grants were funded through the
government’sgeneraltax receipts. In 1970, a matching grant program--financedthrough a
dedicatedtrust fund supportedby user taxes on domestic and international airline travel,
domestic cargo transportedby air, and noncommercial aviation fuel-was established. Over
time, legislation has been added to make the federal governmentresponsiblefor safety
standards,periodic inspections of airfields, and other requirementsaffecting airports.

AB?, the current federal grant program for airports, was establishedunder the Airport and
Airway Improvement Act of 1982, as amended,and is administeredby the FederalAviation
Administration (FAA). Since 1982, more than $20 billion in airport improvement grantshave
been extendedto airports through this program.’ Funding for AlP grants, a major sourceof
federal funding for airports, has grown to $1.95 billion for fiscal year 1999.’As a condition of
receiving AIP grants, airport owners sign a seriesof assurancesthat the funds will be spent
according to pertinent laws, regulations, or administrative policies. As AIP funding has grown,
the federal governmenthas also assumeda larger percentageand wider ranie of grant-funded
developmentcosts for the 3,300 airports that make up the national system. Between 1946 and
 1970,federal aid covered 50 percent of eligible airports’capital improvement costs and its use
was generally limited to airfield improvements. Since 1970,the federal sharehas steadily


 ‘In 1996,AlP contributed about 20 percent of airports’funding needs. For additional
 information on airport financing, seeAirnort Financing: Fundine;Sourcesfor Airnort
 Develonment (GAO/RCED-98-71, Mar. 12,1998).

 %le I, section 101(g) of the Omnibus Consolidatedand EmergencySupplemental
 Appropriations Act of 1999 (P.L. 105-277,Oct. 21,1998), allows AIP obligations of $1.95
 billion; however, it authorized AIP only through Mar. 3 1, 1999, and permits obligations of not
 more than $975 million until the program’s authority is further extended.



 2                                                  GAOIRCED-9948R     Federal Requirements for Airports
B-28 1433


grown--in some casesequal to 90 percent of a project’s costs--andexpandedto include terminal
development and noise mitigation.

While federal grants have helped create an extensiveairport system,concernhas been expressed
by airport offkials that federal requirementsmay also impose additional costs and impede
certain types of innovative financing, such as equity participation from private owners. The
Congresshas periodically consideredalternative funding arrangements.For example,as it
drafted the Airport and Airway Improvement Act of 1982, the Congressconsideredremoving
larger airports from AIP but did not. Rather, the 1982 act requiredthe Secretaryof
Transportation to “. . . report on whether, and to what extent, those airports which have the
ability to finance their capital and operating needswithout federal assistanceshould be made
ineligible to receive federal assistancefor airport developmentand airport planning. . . .‘I4 The
Secretary’sreport, releasedin 1987, supportedthat administration’sproposalto allow airports to
voluntarily withdraw from the grant program in exchangefor permissionto levy a passenger
facility charge (PFC)? While the PFC proposal eventually passedin 1990,airports have not
been releasedfrom AIP requirements. Later in the 199Os,declining funding for airports and
other factors increasedinterest in allowing private ownership of commercial airports-
presumablyprivate owners would be exemptedfrom somefederal requirements-asa meansto
devolve federal participation in airports. Except for a small pilot program authorizedunder the
Federal Aviation ReauthorizationAct of 1996, privatization has not advancedbecausevarious
financial and regulatory constraints still impede private control.7

FEDERAL LAWS, REGULATIONS, AND ADMINISTRATIVE REOUIREMENTS

The federal requirementswe identified affect all facets and phasesof airports’development,
operations,and financing. The requirementscan generally be groupedinto 1 of the following
11 categories:

    n   design and construction standards,
    n   environmental requirements,
    n   noise requirements,
    n   contracting requirements,
    n   employment and personnel requirements,
    n   security requirements,
    n   certification and operationalrequirements,

3Airport and Airway Improvement Act of 1982, section 522.

4Airport and Airway Improvement Act of 1982, section 522.

‘The Effects of Airnort Defederalization,U.S. Departmentof Transportation(DOT-P-36-87-4,
Feb. 1987).

?I’he pilot program, authorizedunder the Federal Aviation ReauthorizationAct of 1996,
exempts selectedairports from certain regulatory requirements,such as a requirementto use all
airport-generatedrevenue only for airport purposes,provided a majority of airlines that use the
airport agree.

7SeeAirnort Privatization: IssuesRelated to the Sale or Leaseof U.S. CommercialAirnorts
(GAO/RCED-97-3, Nov. 7,1996).



3                                                 GAOiRCED-99-58R    Federal Requirements for Airports

                                                                                                         !
B-281433

 n   AIP grant program requirements,
 n   bond rules,
 H . rates and chargespolicies, and
 n   PFC.

Some of theserequirements,such as the design and constructionstandardsor the contracting
requirements,apply only to those airports that accepta federal grant. (Seeenc. I for further
details.) In addition, some of theserequirementsare in force only while the grant money is
being spent. Others may extend for the useful life (typically about 20 years) of the asset
acquired,or in the caseof land, may never expire. Presumably,if airports withdraw from the
grant program, some of theserequirements,particularly grant assurances,could lapse.
However, some statesalreadyhave similar requirements,particularly in areassuch as
employment and personnel. The federal governmentcould impose new requirements-for
example,accessfor governmentaircraft or certain designand construction standards,to replace
those requirementsthat lapse.

Other federal requirements,such as environmentallaws and safety standards,are not tied to
federal grantsbut apply to all airports. Theserequirementswould still apply to airports even if
they were no longer bound by their grant assurances.Also, some of theserequirements,such as
safety standards,are tied to airports’operatingcertificates,regardlessof whether the airports
receive grants.8 Other requirements,such as bond rules, apply throughoutthe nation to all
entities, including other public agenciesand private corporations.

AIRPORTS’VIEWS ON THE REOUIREMENTS

The airport officials who respondedto our survey were generally neutral or positive about the
effect of the federal requirementson the development,operations,and financing of their
airports. The survey askedthe airports to indicate whetherthe federal requirementsin each of
the 11 categorieshad a positive, neutral, or negativeeffect-or no effect at all. For 3 of the 11
categories,a majority of the respondentssaid that the federal requirementshad a positive effect
(see table 1). For the remaining eight categories,neither a positive nor a negative effect
receiveda majority of the responses.When we comparedonly the positive and negative
responsesfor theseeight categories,we found that the positive responsesoutweighedthe
negativeresponsesfor six, and the negative responsesoutweighed-thepositive responsesfor
two.




 *Airport operating certificates are awardedby FAA under 14 C.F.R. part 139 for any airport
 servicing aircraft that are operatedby a scheduledpassengercarrier and can seatmore than 30
 passengers.Airports seekingor holding an operatingcertificate must adhereto specific
 standardsand proceduresin their operations.



 4                                                 GAO/RCED-99-58R    Federal Requirements for Airports
B-281433

Table 1: Airport Officials’ Views on the Effect of the Federal Reouirements

Responserates in percentages




                                                                                                      t




                                                                                                      h
Categories with more negative than positive responses
Contracting                     26                30                     33                     11
Environmental                   23                40                     30                      7

The reasonsfor the respondents’predominantly positive views in the nine categoriesvaried, but
by a wide margin, the most commonly cited reasonwas that the federal requirementsprovide
guidanceand structurefor decision-makingon complicatedissues. The officials also said that            r
the requirementsremovepolitics from decision-making,simplify decision-making, and protect             t
againstlawsuits or other actions. (Seeenc. II for the responsesfrom the airports.) Some
airports also provided specific commentson the effect of theserequirements. (See fig.1 .)




                                                                                                      t




5                                               GAOIRCED-99-58R   Federal Requirements for Airports
B-28 1433


Figure 1: Commentson the Positive Effect of the Federal Reauirements

 Designand Construction: “Federal airport standardsand specificationsare essentialto preserve
 and sustainthe best airport systemin the world. System standardizationcannotbe achievedby
 local airport operatorsunlessnational standardsare promulgated.”

 Certification and Ouerational Reauirements: “We at [airport] take the [part] 139 compliance and
 cert[ification] inspection (processto obtain airport operating certificate) very serious[ly] and
 havefound the FAA inspectors[to be] very thorough.”

 AIP Grant Promam: ‘The AIP grant processhas been simplified and unnecessarypaperwork has
 beeneliminated.”

 PassengerFacilities Charges: “PFCs have been an essentialpart of providing and planning for
 capital needsat the airport. The processin place works reasonablywell.”

 Noise: “National noise standardspromote common application of land use development,zoning,
 and legal interpretationthat otherwise could be chaotic and inconsistentthroughout the country.”

 Securitv: “The [FAA] Administrator has learned (on occasion)from past mistakes. No longer
 are wholesalesecurity decisionsmade for all airports, regardlessof size, location, etc.”

 Rates and ChargesPolicies: “Federal airport rates and chargespolicies now in effect are
 generallyconsistentwith good businesspractices. They are, therefore, consistentwith what bond
 buyers and underwriters like to see.”



Jn none of the 11 categoriesdid a majority of the respondentsindicate that the federal
requirementshave a negative effect. However, more airport officials believed that the federal
contractingand environmentalrequirementshave a negative effect on their airports than a
positive one. The reasonmost often cited for the negative effect is that the requirementsare
burdensometo administer. In addition, some officials indicated that some environmentaland
contractingrequirementsare insufficiently funded or not cost-effective, duplicate or contradict
other requirements,or are outdated. (Seeenc. II: for responsesfrom the airports.) Airport
officials also provided some additional comments as to why the requirementsnegatively affect
their airports. (Seefig. 2.)




 6                                                 GAO/RCED-99-58R   Federal Requirements for Airports
B-281433


Figure 2: Commentson the Negative Effect of the Federal Reouirements

    Environmental: “Regulations appearto be promulgated without first reviewing the impacts to the
    industries or governments,especially local, who must implement regulations. we have a] serious
    lack of clear understandingof what will be expected. There is a serious lack of public education
    on most regulations. Interpretation of regulations by regulators varies betweenregulating
    agencies,inspectorsand consultantswho attempt to interpret regulations.”

    “Federal standardsoften conflict with [state] requirementssuch as drainage,water retention,
    wetlands protection and restoration. These issuesput the airports in the middle. There needsto be
    more participation by [federal] and state [officials] to resolve issues.”

    Contracting Reouirements:“Contractors tell us thesenational requirementsadd 20-30 percentto
    local construction costs.”

    “[An] inordinate amount of time, money, and resources[are] neededto implement contracting
    standards.”



In July 1983, the Departmentof Transportation, as part of its congressionallymandatedstudy of
airport defederalization,surveyedthe busiest 288 commercial airports. In addition to requesting
information from the airports on their funding and views on defederalization,the surveysought
commentsfrom them on federal requirements. The responsesto the survey were similar to the
responseswe received. Most airports were neutral toward the federal requirements,and only 6
out of the 59 requirementsdrew a total of 10 or more comments,favorable and unfavorable.

SCOPEAND METHODOLOGY

To develop the list of federal requirements,we reviewed the U.S. Code, Code of Federal
Regulations,and AIP grant assuranceagreementsbetweenFAA and airport grant recipients.
We also interviewed officials in FAA’s Office of Airport Planning and Programmingand Office
of Airport Safety and Standards. We contactedthe Airports’ Council International-North
America (ACI-NA), American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), National
Association of StateAviation Officials (NASAO), and airport executives?

To assessairports’concerns,we surveyed 102 U.S. airports. Of that number, 52 receivedthe
survey at the 1998 ACI-NA annual conference. We also sent 50 surveys to smaller airports                E

whose representativesdid not attend the conference,thinking that smaller airports might have
different concerns. While the airports we surveyedvary in size and geographiclocation, they
were not randomly selectedand, therefore, their responsesdo not necessarilyrepresentthe
views of the nation’s 3,300 airports. We received responsesfrom 72 airports.

We performed our work from August 1998 through January 1999 in accordancewith generally
acceptedgovernmentauditing standards.

‘ACI-NA representslocal, state,and regional governing bodies that own and operate
                                                                                                        Ii
commercial service airports in the United States,Canada,and Bermuda. AAAE is the world’s
largest professionalorganization for people that managecommercial service and general
aviation airports. NASA0 representsthe stategovernmentaviation agenciesin all 50 states,
Guam, and Puerto Rico.


7                                                   GAOLRCED-99-58R Federal Requirements for Airports

                                                                                                        I
B-281433



AGENCY COMMENTS

We provided a draft of this report to FAA and the Departmentof Transportation. FAA officials,
including the Director of the Gffice of Airport Safety and Standardsand the Deputy Director of
the Office of Airport Planning and Programming, said the report was clear and accurately
presentedthe facts. The officials also said they were pleasedwith the positive results of the
survey. FAA and DOT provided some clarifying commentsto the report, which we
incorporated.



We are sending copies of this report to interestedcongressionalcommittees;the Secretaryof
Transportation; the Administrator, FederalAviation Administration; and the Director, Office of
Managementand Budget. We will also make copies available to othersupon request.

Major contributors to this report are Paul Aussendorf,JonathanBachman,Dana Greenberg,
Dave Hooper, and Randy Williamson. Pleasecall me at (202) 5 12-3650if you have any
questions.

Sincerely yours,



CI-
Gerald L. Dillingham, Ph.D.
Associate Director, TransportationIssues

Enclosures- 4




 8                                                 GAOIRCED-99&R     Federal Requirements for Airports
     ENCLOSURE I                                                                                ENCLOSURE I

                          FEDERAL REOUIREMENTS GOVERNING AIRPORT
                           DEVELOPMENT, OPERATIONS, AND FINANCING
                                                                                                                      I
 Federalrequirementsexist in statutes(U.S. Code or U.S.C.), regulations (Code of FederalRegulations or
 C.F.R.), and grant assurances(GA). Somerequirementsare also containedin Office of Managementand
 Budget (OMB) circulars, executiveorders (EO), or Internal RevenueService (IRS) revenueprocedures. These
 requirementsmay be tied to an airport’s grant assurances;receipt of federal All? grants or local aid (private
 facility charges);or operatingcertificate; or they may generally be applicable to all types of organizations,not
 just airports.
                                                                                                                      E
                                                                                               Basis
                                                                             Federal
                                                                             grant or       AirpOrt     Applicable
                                                                            local user    operating     to all U.S.
Category of requirements                   Source citation                     fees       certificate     entities
Design and construction standards
 Americanswith Disability Act (ADA)        42 U.S.C. 12101-12213                                             X        f
                                           (49 C.F.R. 27)
 Obstructionsremoval and alteration        49 U.S.C. 47107                      X              X
                                           (14 C.F.R. 77, GA 20)
 Airport designstandards,                  49 USC. 44701(b)(2)                                  X
 FAA advisory circulars
 Airport layout plan                        49 U.S.C. 47107(a)(16)              X
                                          1 (GA 29)
 Architectural Barriers Act of 1968       1 42 U.S.C. 4151                      X                                     [
 Seismic Safety of Federal and              42 U.S.C. 7701,                     X                                     k


 Federally AssistedNew Building             (49 C.F.R. 41, EO 12699)
 Construction
 National Historic PreservationAct of      16 U.S.C. 47Of,                                                   X
 1966, Archeological and Historic          16 U.S.C. 469
 PreservationAct of 1974
 Rehabilitation Act of 1973,Flood          29 USC 794                   I       X
 DisasterProtectionAct of 1973             42 USC. 4012a                                                              r

 Pavementmaintenanceprogram                49 USC. 47105(e)                     X               X
                                           14 C.F.R. 139.305
                                           (GA 11)
Environmental requirements
 Clean Air Act                            1 42 U.S.C. 7401,                                                  X
 Clean Water Act                            33 U.S.C. 1251
 Compatible land use                        49 U.S.C. 47107(a)(lO)
                                            GA21                                                                      h
 Consultationand hearing process            42 U.S.C. 4332                                                            L
 EnvironmentalImpact Statement,             42 U.S.C. 4332
 National EnvironmentalPolicy Act
 of 1969
 EndangeredSpeciesAct                      16 U.S.C. 668(a)

 9                                            GAO/RCED-9848R     Federal Requirements for Airports
 ENCLOSURE I                                                                                            ENCLOSURE I

                                                                                              Basis
                                                                      Federal
                                                                      grant or             AirpOrt              Applicable to
                                                                     local user           operating               all U.S.
Iategory of requirements              Source citation                   fees              certificate             entities
Joise
Noise compatibility and planning      14 C.F.R. 150                      X
Noise and accessrequirements          14 C.F.R. 161                      X
Zontracting
Procurement,contract and labor        U.S.C. 327,                        X
provisions, Contract Work Hours       49 C.F.R. 18.36,
 and Safety StandardsAct, Labor       29 C.F.R. 5
 standardsapplicable federally
 financed and assistedconstruction                               1                !                     I

 Minority businessparticipation       49 U.S.C. 47113        I           X        I
                                      (49 C.F.R. 23)
Restrictions on lobbying              49 C.F.R. 20                       X
Denial of public works contracts to   49 U.S.C. 50102,50104              X
countries that deny procurement       (49 C.F.R. 30)
market access                         (GA 33)
Davis-Bacon Act,                      49 U.S.C. 47112,                   X
Minimum wage rates                    40 USC. 276(a), GA 14,
Predeterminationof wage rates,        29 C.F.R. 1,
Wage reporting requirements           29 C.F.R. 3
FederalFair Labor StandardsAct        29 U.S.C. 201                                                                   X
 CopelandAnti-kickback Act             18 U.S.C. 874                     X
 Procurementof engineering and        49 U.S.C. 47107(a)(17)             X
 design services                      (GA 32)                 I                       I                     I
Employment and personnel
 Equal Employment Opportunity         41 C.F.R. 60, (GA 30),             X                                            X
 and Affirmative Action               (E.O.11246)
 Civil Rights Act of 1964             42 U.S.C. 2000d                                                                 X
                                      (49 C.F.R. 21)
 Nondiscrimination of handicaps       49 C.F.R. 27                       X
 Veterans’preference                  49 U.S.C. 47 112c                  X
                                      (GA 15)
 Hatch Act                            5 U.S.C. 1501                       X
 Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988      41 USC. 702-706                     X
                                      (49 C.F.R. 29)
 Age Discrimination Act of 1975       42 U.S.C. 6101                      X
Security
 Airport security program, program     49 U.S.C. 44903                                          X
 updates,accesscontrol, and record-    (14 C.F.R. 107)
 keeping




  10                                      GAOIRCED-98-58R   Federal Requirements for Airports
                                                                                                                                                                         L




                                                                                                                                   Basis
                                                                                                      Federal
                                                                                                      g r a n t or           AirpOrt         A p p l i c a b l eto   I
                                                                                                     local user            o p e r a tin g       all U .S .
C a te g o r yo f r e q u i r e m e n ts              S o u r c ecitation                                fe e s            certificate           e n titie s
Certification a n d o p e r a tio n
 C o n s tructioninspection                           GA 17                                                 X
 S u i tablyo p e r a tea n dm a i n ta i nth e       4 9 U .S .C.4 7 107(a)(7)                             X
 Airp0l-t                                             (GA 19)
 Certification,inspection,a n d                       4 9 U .S .C.4 4 7 0 6                                                        X
 o p e r a tio n arle q u i r e m e n ts
                                      for airports    ( 1 4 C .F.R. 1 3 9 )
 servingp a s s e n g eaircraft
                              r        with m o r e
 th a n 3 0 s e a ts




                                                                                                                                                                     t


 for g r a n tsa n d c o o p e r a tive
 a g r e e m e n to
                 ts statea n dlocal




Bonding
 S E Cb o n ddisclosurer e q u i r e m e n ts         1 7 C .F.R.2 4 0 .1 5 ~ 2 - 1 2
 IRS privateactivity b o n drules                     IRS C o d e1 4 1 ,
                                                      R e v .P r o c e d u r 97-l
                                                                             e 3



  11                                                     G A O L R C E D - 9 8 4 8 R F e d e r a l R e q u i r e m e n t s for Airports
  ENCLOSURE I                                                                                   ENCLOSURE I

                                                                                        Basis
                                                                     Federal
                                                                     grant or       Airp0l-t    Applicable to
                                                                    local user    operating       all U.S.
Category of requirements              Source citation                  fees       certificate     entities
Airport rates and charges
 Economic nondiscrimination           49 U.S.C. 47107 (GA 22)           X
 Reasonablenessof rates and charges   49 U.S.C. 40116(b)(e),            X                            X
                                      47107,47129,47134(c)
 Reasonableaccess                     49u.m107                          X
 Expedited hearing process            49 U.S.C. 47129                   X
                                      (14 C.F.R. 302)
 Self-sustainability                  49 USC. 47107 (GA 24)             X
 Asset valuation                      49 U.K. 47129(c)(2)               X
 Expensing of year 2000 costs         IRS Rev. Procedures                                             X
                                      97-37 and 97-50
Passengerfacility charges
 Collection and handling              49 U.S.C. 40117                   X
                                      (14 C.F.R. 158)
 Termination procedures               49 U.S.C. 40117                    X
                                      (14 C.F.R. 158)
 Record-keepingand reporting          49 U.S.C. 40117                    X
                                      (14 C.F.R. 158)
 Project eligibility                  49 U.S.C. 40117                    X
                                      (14 C.F.R. 158)




   12                                     GAOLRCED-98-58R Federal Requirements for Airports
 ENCLOSURE II                                                                                  ENCLOSURE II

                              THE EFFECT OF FEDERAL REOUIREMENTS

Table I. 1 presentsthe explanationsairport officials gave as to why federal requirementshave a positive or
negative effect on their airports. Only reasonsfrom officials that indicated a positive or negative effect on
their airport are presented;reasonsgiven by airport officials that indicated a neutral or no effect are excluded
(see enc. III for a completetabulation of responses).Becausesome airport offkials gave more than one
reason,the number of reasonsexceedsthe number of responses.Airports were offered the same set of
possible reasonsfor eachcategoryof requirementsand the opportunity to comment specifically if they chose.
As a result, some of the specific reasonscited may show no response.


Table I. 1: Number of Positive and Negative Responsesand the ReasonsGiven

Design and construction standards

Positive effect (46 respondents)                         Negative effect (3 respondents)

Specific reasonscited                     Number         Specific reasonscited                           Number
They remove politics from decision-               30     They are duplicative or contradictory                     0
making                                                   with other requirements
They give guidanceor structurefor                 39     They are outdated                                         2
complicated issues
They simplify decision-making                     24     There is insufficient funding, or they are                2   F
                                                                                                                       b
                                                         not cost-effective
They protect against lawsuits or other            21     They are burdensometo administer or                       3
actions                                                  burdensomein total


Environmental     requirements
                                                                                                                       E

Positive effect (16 respondents)                         Negative effect (19 respondents)

Specific reasonscited                       Number       Specific reasonscited                           Number
They remove politics from decision-               11     They are duplicative or contradictory                     9
making                                                   with other requirements
They give guidanceor structurefor                 12     They are outdated                                         5   *
complicated issues
                                                                                                                       t
They simplify decision-making                      7     There is insufficient funding, or they are             11
                                                         not cost-effective
They protect against lawsuits or other            11     They are burdensometo administer or                    19
actions                                                  burdensomein total

13                                            GAO/RCED-98-58R    Federal Requirements for Airports

                                                                                                                       t
ENCLOSURE II                                                                                      ENCLOSURE II

Noise standards
Positive effect (27 respondents)                    Negative effect (5 respondents)

Specific reasonscited                    Number     Specific reasonscited                           Number
They removepolitics from decision-           15     They are duplicative or contradictory                1
making                                              with other requirements
They give guidanceor structurefor            23     They are outdated                                    0
complicatedissues
They simplify decision-making                 12    There is insufficient funding, or they are           4
                                                    not cost-effective
They protect againstlawsuits or other        20     They are burdensometo administer or                  3
actions                                             burdensomein total

Contracting requirements
Positive effect (17 respondents)                     Negative effect (21 respondents)

Specific reasonscited                    Number      Specific reasonscited                          Number
They removepolitics from decision-            10     They are duplicative or contradictory               9
making                                               with other requirements
They give guidanceor structurefor             12     They are outdated                                   10
complicatedissues
They simplify decision-making                 13     There is insufficient funding, or they are          15
                                                     not cost-effective
They protect againstlawsuits or other          9     They are burdensometo administer or                 15
actions                                              burdensomein total


Employment and personnel requirements
Positive effect (22 respondents)                     Negative effect (5 respondents)

 Specific reasonscited                   Number      Specific reasonscited                           Number
 They removepolitics from decision-           11     They are duplicative or contradictory                4
 making                                              with other requirements
 They give guidanceor structurefor            19     They are outdated                                    3
 complicatedissues
 They simplify decision-making                 8     There is insufficient funding, or they are           3
                                                     not cost-effective
 They protect againstlawsuits or other        15     They are burdensometo administer or                  4
 actions                                             burdensomein total

 14                                        GAO/RCED-98-58R   Federal Requirements for Airports
ENCLOSURE II                                                                                     ENCLOSURE II


Security requirements
Positive effect (22 respondents)                    Negative effect (11 respondents)

Specific reasonscited                    Number     Specific reasonscited                          Number
They remove politics from decision-            10   They are duplicative or contradictory               2
making                                              with other requirements
They give guidance or structure for            21   They are outdated                                   2
complicated issues
They simplify decision-making                  13   There is insufficient funding, or they are          9       E
                                                    not cost-effective
They protect against lawsuits or other          7   They are burdensometo administeror                 10
actions                                             burdensomein total

Certification   and operational requirements
Positive effect (41 respondents)                    Negative effect (1 respondent)

Specific reasonscited                    Number     Specific reasonscited                          Number
They remove politics from decision-            20   They are duplicative or contradictory               0
making                                              with other requirements
They give guidance or structure for            38   They are outdated                                   1
complicated issues
                                                                                                                iw
They simplify decision-making                  24   There is insufficient funding, or they are          1
                                                    not cost-effective
They protect against lawsuits or other         21   They are burdensometo administeror                  1
actions                                             burdensomein total    -


Airport Improvement       Program
Positive effect (34 respondents)                    Negative effect (8 respondents)

Specific reasonscited                    Number     Specific reasonscited                          Number
They remove politics from decision-            22   They are duplicative or contradictory               2
making                                              with other requirements
They give guidance or structure for            29   They are outdated                                   4
complicated issues                                                                                               e
                                                                                                                .i
They simplify decision-making                  20   There is insufficient funding, or they are          8
                                                    not cost-effective
They protect against lawsuits or other          9   They are burdensometo administer or                 5
actions                                             burdensomein total

15                                        GAOiRCED-9%5SR   Federal Requirements for Airports
ENCLOSURE II                                                                                      ENCLOSURE II

Bond rules
Positive effect (12 respondents)                    Negative effect (2 respondents)

Specific reasonscited                     Number    Specific reasonscited                             Number
They remove politics from decision-            6    They are duplicative or contradictory                  1
making                                              with other requirements
They give guidance or structurefor            11    They are outdated                                      1
complicated issues
They simplify decision-making                  5    There is insufficient funding, or they are             1
                                                    not cost-effective
They protect against lawsuits or other         3     They are burdensometo administer or                   2
actions                                              burdensomein total


Rates and charges policies
Positive effect (19 respondents)                     Negative effect (6 respondents)
Specific reasonscited                     Number     Specific reasonscited                            Number
They remove politics from decision-            11    They are duplicative or contradictory                 1
making                                               with other requirements
They give guidance or structure for            16    They are outdated                                     2
complicated issues
They simplify decision-making                  14    There is insufficient funding, or they are            0
                                                     not cost-effective
They protect against lawsuits or other          9    They are burdensometo administeror                    6
actions                                              burdensomein total    -


Passenger facilities charges                                                                      r
Positive effect 18 respondents)                      Negative effect (5 respondents)

 Specific reasonscited                    Number     Specific reasonscited                            Number
 They remove politics from decision-           10    They are duplicative or contradictory                 0
 making                                              with other requirements
 They give guidance or structurefor            16    They are outdated                                     1
 complicated issues
 They simplify decision-making                 12    There is insufficient funding, or they are            3
                                                     not cost-effective
 They protect against lawsuits or other         2    They are burdensometo administer or                       3
 actions                                             burdensomein total

 16                                         GAOIRCED-9%58R   Federal Requirements for Airports
ENCLOSURE III                                                                                                       ENCLOSURE III



GAO
The U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO), an agency that evaluates Federal programs for
Congress, has been asked to examine Federal statutes, regulations, and requirements that
affect airport development, operations, and financing. As a part of this examination we are
sending this survey to a randomly selected sample of airports to identify which, if any, of
these requirements are a concern to your airport. Please have the airport director or their
representative complete this questionnaire. Provide a contact name and phone number
below in the event we need to contact you to clarify your responses.

Your response to this survey is extremely important.                                     The results of this survey,
along with other work, will be used in the continuing                                   debate over Federal airport
programs.

Please return the survey in the self addressed return envelope in 7 days of receipt. If the
envelope is missing, please mail the survey to:

       Jonathan Bachman
       U.S. General Accounting Off ice
       Suite 2700
       701 5th Ave.
       Seattle, WA 98104

Or, you may fax your response to the attention of Jonathan Bachman at 206-287-4872

If you have any questions please call Paul Aussendorf at (206) 287-4807 or Dana
Greenberg at (206) 287-4836. Thank you for your assistance.        -


--------------_-_-______________________----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Point of Contact Information:

Name of airport:                                                                               State:

Name/title of person completing survey:

Phone number of person completing survey:                                (        )




I   NOTE: Number of respondents=72 for all questions
                                                                                                                              I

17                                                       GAOIRCED-9%58R          Federal Requirements for Airports
 ENCLOSURE III                                                                        ENCLOSURE III

                 FEDERAL     DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION                  STANDARDS

The following three questions ask your               2. Why have Federal construction
opinion of how Federal construction                     standards had a positive or negative
standards may affect your airport. Federal              effect on your airport? (Check all that
construction standards include but may not              apply)
be limited to:
                                                         46%      Remove politics from decision-
--   FAA’s airport design standards and                           making
     advisory circulars
--   Airport layout plan                                 60%      Give guidance or structure for
-_   Obstructions removal and alteration,                         complicated issues
     prevent establishment or creation of
     future airport hazards                              40%      Simplify decision making
--   Americans with Disability Act (ADA)
--   Architectural Barriers Act of 1968                   31%     Protect against lawsuits or other
--   Seismic safety of Federal and federally                      actions
     assisted new building construction
--   National Historic Preservation Act of                11%     Duplicative or contradictory with
     1966, Archeological and Historic                             other requirements
     Preservation Act of 1974, Flood
     Disaster Protection Act of 1973,                     7%      Outdated
     Rehabilitation Act of 1973
--   Pavement preventative maintenance                    24%     Insufficient funding / not cost-
     Program                                                      effective

                                                          15 Burdensome to administer or in total
 1. Have Federal construction standards
    generally had a positive or negative                  13%     Other (Please specify)
    effect on the development of your
    airport? (Check one)

     11%   Very positive

     57%   Generally positive

     22%   Neutral
                                                      3. If you have specific comments or
     3%    Generally negative                            concerns about Federal construction
                                                         standards, please enter them below and
     1%    Very negative                                 state why they are of concern.

     3%    No effect =$    SKIP TO NEXT                   32% had comments
                           PAGE
     3%    Missing




                                         GAOLRCED-98-58R Federal Requirements for Airports      .
ENCLOSURE III                                                                           ENCLOSURE III

                      FEDERALENVlRONMEN!l!ALREQUIREMENTS

The following three questions ask your                   5. Why have federal environmental
opinion about how Federal environmental                  requirements had a positive or negative
requirements may affect your airport.                    effect on your airport? (Check all that
Environmental requirements include but                   apply)
may not be limited to:
                                                         26%     Remove politics from decision-
     Clean air and water acts                                    making
     Compatible land use requirements
     Consultation and hearing process                    32%     Give guidance or structure for
     Environmental Impact Statements (EIS);                      complicated issues
     requirements under the National
     Environmental Policy Act of 1969                    15%     Simplify decision making
     Endangered Species Act
     Comprehensive Environmental                         25%     Protect against lawsuits or other
     Response, Compensation and Liability                        actions
     Act (Super-fund)
     Resource Conservation and Recovery Act              -26%    Duplicative or contradictory with
     (hazardous waste disposal)                                  other requirements

                                                         10%     Outdated
     Have Federal environmental
     requirements generally had a positive or            32%     Insufficient funding / not cost-
     negative effect on the development your                     effective
     airport? (Check one)        .
                                                         49%     Burdensome to administer or in
     1%    Very positive                                         total

     21%    Generally positive                           15%     Other (Please specify)

     39%    Neutral

     28%    Generally negative

     1%    Very negative

     7%    No effect *     SKIP TO NEXT
                           PAGE                     6. If you have any specific comments or
     3%     Missing                                    concerns about Federal environmental
                                                       requirements, please enter them below
                                                       and state why they are of concern.

                                                         31% had comments




19                                      GAOIRCED-9848R   Federal Requirements for Airports
ENCLOSURE III                                                                            ENCLOSURB III

                             FEDERAL    NOISE REQUIREMENTS

The following three questions ask your                    8. Why have Federal noise
opinion about how Federal noise standards                 requirements had a positive or negative
may affect your airport. Noise standards                  effect on your airport? (Check all that
generally include but are not limited to:                 apply)

-- Part 150 Noise compatibility and                       25%     Remove politics from decision-
   planning                                                       making
-- Part 161 Noise and access requirements
                                                          43%     Give guidance or structure for
                                                                  complicated issues
7. Have Federal noise standards generally
   had a positive or negative effect on the               21%      Simplify decision making
   development of your airport? (Check
   one)                                                   35%     Protect against lawsuits or other
                                                                  actions
      6%    Very positive
                                                           4%      Duplicative or contradictory with
      36%   Generally positive                                     other requirements

      21%   Neutral                                        1%      Outdated

       6%   Generally negative                            14%      Insufficient funding / not cost-
                                                                   effective
       1%   Very negative
                                                           8%      Burdensome to administer or in
      28%   No effect 3     SKIP TO NEXT                           total
                            PAGE
      3%    Missing                                       11%      Other (Please specie




                                                    9. If you have any specific comments or
                                                       concerns about Federal noise standards,
                                                       please enter them below and state why
                                                       they are of concern.

                                                           24% had comments




 20                                     GAOIRCED-98-58R     Federal Requirements for Airports
ENCLOSURE III                                                                                ENcLosuRJz III

                         FEDERAL      CONTRACTING         REQUIREMENTS

The following three questions ask your                        11. Why have federal contracting
opinion about how Federal contracting                         requirements had a positive or negative
requirements may affect your airport.                         effect on your airport? (Check all that
Contracting requirements generally include                    apply)
but are not limited to:
                                                              24%     Remove politics from decision-
     Procurement, contract and labor provisions,                      making
     including Contract Work Hours and Safety
     Standards Act and labor standard provisions              26%     Give guidance or structure for
     applicable to contracts covering federally                       complicated issues
     financed and assisted conslzuction
     Minority business participation
     (Disadvantaged Business Enterprises)                     21%      Simplify decision making
     Restrictions on lobbying
     Denial of public works contracts to suppliers            17%     Protect against lawsuits or other
     of goodsand services of counties that deny                       actions
     procurement market access
     Davis-BaconAct and minimum wage                          25%      Duplicative or contradictory with
     Redetermination of wage rates, wage                               other requirements
     reporting of contractor and subcontractors on
     public buildings                                         22%      Outdated
     Federal Fair Labor Standards Act
      Copeland Anti-kickback Act
     Procurement of engineering and design                    33%      Insufficient funding / not cost-
      services (Federal Property and                                   effective
     Administrative ServicesAct of 1949)
                                                              42%      Burdensome to administer or in
10. Have Federal contracting requirements                              total
    generally had a positive or negative
    effect on the development your airport?                   18%      Other (Please specify)
    (Check one)

     4%     Very positive

     21%     Generally positive

     29%    Neutral

     26%     Generally negative                         12. If you have speoific comments or
                                                            concerns about Federal contracting
      6%    Very negative                                   requirements, please enter them below
                                                            and state why they are a concern.
     11%    Noeffect 9      SKIPTONEXT
                            PAGE                              25% had comments
      3%     Missing




21                                          GAOLRCED-98-58R    Federal Requirements for Airports
ENCLOSURE III                                                                               ENCLOSURE III

              FEDERAL        EMPLOYMENT        AND PERSONNEL             REQUIREMENTS

The following three questions ask your                         14. Why have Federal employment and
opinion about how Federal employment and                       personnel requirements had a positive or
personnel standards may affect your airport.                   negative effect on your airport? (Check
Employment and personnel standards                             all that apply)
generally include, but may not be limited to:
                                                               19%    Remove politics from decision-
      EEO and affirmative action                                      making
      requirements
      DOT Title VI (Civil Rights Act)                          33%     Give guidance or structure for
      Nondiscrimination on the basis of                                complicated issues
      handicap in programs and activities
      receiving or benefiting from Federal                     14%     Simplify decision making
      financial assistance
      Veteran’s preference                                     28%     Protect against lawsuits or other
      Hatch Act (political activities)                                 actions
      Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988
      certification                                            13%     Duplicative or contradictory with
      Age Discrimination Act of 1975                                   other requirements

                                                               11%     Outdated
13. Have Federal employment and personnel
    standards generally had a positive or                       6%     Insufficient funding / not cost-
    negative effect on the operations of your                          effective
    airport? (Check one)
                                                               21%     Burdensome to administer or in
       7%    Very positive                                             total

      26%    Generally positive                                 7%     Other (Please specify)

      28%    Neutral

       7%    Generally negative

       0%    Very negative

      26%    No effect =$     SKIP TO NEXT
                              PAGE                       15. If you have any specific comments or
        6%   Missing                                         concerns about Federal employment and
                                                             personnel requirements, please enter
                                                             them below and state why they are of
                                                             concern.

                                                                4% had comments



 22                                          GAOIRCED-98-58R    Federal Requirements for Airports
ENCLOSURE IlI                                                                          ENCLOSURE III

                           FEDERAL     SECURITY     REQUIREMENTS

The following three questions ask your                    17. Why have Federal security
opinion about how Federal security                        requirements had a positive or negative
requirements may affect your airport.                     effect on your airport? (Check all that
Security requirements generally include but               wW
are not limited to :
                                                          19%     Remove politics from decision-
-- Part 107 Airport security (security                            making
   program, access control, enforcement and
   record keeping)                                        36%     Give guidance or structure for
                                                                                                       k
-- Part 108 Airplane operator security                            complicated issues
   (passenger security, screening)
                                                          24%     Simplify decision making

16. Have Federal security requirements                    11%     Protect against lawsuits or other
    generally had a positive or negative                          actions
    effect on the operations your airport?                                                             I
    (Check one)                                            7%     Duplicative or contradictory with
                                                                  other requirements
     7%    Very positive
                                                           7%     Outdated
     26%   Generally positive
                                                          25%     Insufficient funding / not cost-
     17%   Neutral                                                effective

     13%   Generally negative                             26%     Burdensome to administer or in
                                                                  total
     6%    Very negative
                                                          17%     Other (Please specify)
     29%   No effect *     SKIP TO NEXT
                           PAGE
     3%    Missing




                                                     18. If you have any specific comments or
                                                         concerns about Federal security
                                                         requirements, please enter them below
                                                         and state why they are of concern.

                                                          18% had comments




23                                       GAOIRCED-9848R   Federal Requirements for Airports
ENCLOSURE RI                                                                                 ENCLOSURE Ill

                FEDERAL     CERTIFICATION       AND OPERATIONAL             REQUIREMENTS

The following three questions ask about                        20. Why have Federal certification and
your opinion about how Federal certification                   operational requirements had a positive
and operational requirements may affect                        or negative effect on your airport?
your airport. Certification and operational                    (Check all that apply)
requirements generally include but are not
limited to:                                                    29%    Remove politics from decision-
                                                                      making
-        Part 139 Certification, inspection, and
         operational requirements for all airports             56%    Give guidance or structure for
         serving passenger aircraft with more                         complicated issues
         than 30 seats
                                                               36%    Simplify decision-making
-- Under grant assurances, all airports are
   required to suitably operate in safe and                    31%    Protect against lawsuits or other
   serviceable condition the airport and all                          actions
   facilities, thereon
                                                                4%     Duplicative or contradictory with
                                                                       other requirements

19. Have Federal certification and                              4%     Outdated
    operational requirements generally had
    a positive or negative effect on the                       13%     Insufficient    funding / not cost-
    operations of your airport? (Check one)                            effective

         19%     Very positive                                  7%     Burdensome to administer or in
                                                                       total
         44%     Generally positive
                                                               11%     Other (Please specify)
         11%     Neutral

           1%    Generally negative

           0%    Very negative

         21%     No effect 3     SKIP TO NEXT
                                 PAGE
           3%    Missing                                 21. If you have any specific comments or
                                                             concerns about Federal certification and
                                                             operational requirements, please enter
                                                             them below and state why they are a
                                                             concern.

                                                                18% had comments




    24                                        GAO/RCED-9%58R    Federal Requirements for Airports
    ENCLOSURE III                                                                           ENCLOSURE III

                            FEDERAL        (AIP) GRANT PROGRAM

The following three questions ask your opinion            23. Why have federal AIP grant program
about how Federal Ml? grant program                           requirements had a positive or negative
requirements may affect your airport. MI?                     effect on your airport? (Check all that
grant program requirements generally include                  apply)
but are not limited to:
                                                              36%    Remove politics fiom decision-
    Project and sponsor eligibility                                  making
    Federal share specifications
    Use (diversion) of airport revenues                       42%    Give guidance or structure for
    FAA’s priority system                                            complicated issues
    Restrictions on exclusive rights
    Reimbursement for eligible costs
    Uniform administrative requirements for grants            32%    Simplify decision making
    and cooperative agreements to state and local
    governments                                               13%    Protect against lawsuits or other
    Uniform relocation assistance and real property                  actions
    acquisition policies
    Cost/benefit analysis for LOIS and grants                  6%    Duplicative or contradictory with
    greater than $5 million                                          other requirements
   Consistency with local plans, consideration of
   local interest, consultation of users, public              11%    Outdated
   hearings
   Record keeping, reporting, and inspection
   requirements                                               29%    Insufficient funding / not cost-
   Cost principles applicable to grants and                          effective
   contracts
    Single Audit Act of 1984, financial reporting and         24%    Burdensome to administer or in total
    audit certification (Form 5100/125)
   Block grant participation                                  19%    Other (Please specify)

22. Have Federal AIP grant program requirements
    generally had a positive or negative effect on the
   Snancing, operations, or development of your
   airport? (Check one)

    20%     Very positive
                                                          24. If you have any specific comments or
                                                              concerns about Federal AIP grant program
   43%      Generally positive
                                                              requirements, please enter them below and
                                                              state why they are of concern.
    17%     Neutral
                                                              26% had comments
    10%     Generally negative

       1%   Very negative

       6%   No effect *     SKIP TO NEXT PAGE

       4%   Missing

  25                                           GAO/RCED-98-58R
                                                            FederalRequirements   for Airports
ENCLOSURE IIl                                                                        BNCLOSURE Ill

                                    FEDERAL      BOND    RULES

The following    three questions ask about                  26. Why have federal bonding
your opinion    about how Federal bond                      requirements had a positive or negative
requirements     may affect your airport. Bond              effect on your airport? (Check all that
requirements     generally include but are not              apply)
limited to:
                                                            14%    Remove politics from decision-
-- SEC Bond disclosure requirements                                making
-- IRS Private Activity Bond rules
                                                            21%    Give guidance or structure for
                                                                   complicated issues
25. Have Federal bond requirements
    generally had a positive or negative                    11%     Simplify decision .making
    effect on the financing of your airport?
    (Check one)                                              7%    Protect against lawsuits or other
                                                                   actions
      0%    Very positive
                                                             4%     Duplicative or contradictory with
      17%   Generally positive                                      other requirements

      25%   Neutral                                          4%     Outdated

       3%   Generally negative                                1% Insufficient       funding / not cost-
                                                                 effective
       0%   Very negative
                                                             10% Burdensome to administer or in
      49%   No effect *     SKIP TO NEXT                         total
                            PAGE
       7%   Missing                                          4%     Other (Please specify)




                                                        27. If you have any specific comments or
                                                            concerns about Federal bond
                                                            requirements, please enter them below
                                                            and state why they are of concern.

                                                             7% had comments




 26                                       GAO/RCED-98-58R    Federal Requirements for Airports
 BNcLosuRB III                                                                         ENCLOSURE III

                         FEDERAL   RATES AND CHARGES POLICIES

The following three questions ask your            29. Why have federal airport rates and
opinion about how Federal airport rates and           charges policies had a positive or
charges policies may affect your airport.             negative effect on your airport? (Check
Airport rates and charges policies generally          all that apply)
include but are not limited to:
                                                        20%     Remove politics from decision-
-    Asset valuation requirements                               making
--   Economic nondiscrimination assurances
-
--
     DOT’s expedited hearing process
     Self-sustainability assurances
                                                        31%     Give guidance or structure for
                                                                complicated issues
                                                                                                       E
-    IRS rules for expensing of year 2000
     costs                                              22%     Simplify decision making

                                                        15%     Protect against lawsuits or other
28. Have Federal airport rates and charges                      actions
    policies generally had a positive or
    negative effect on the financing your                6%     Duplicative or contradictory with
    airport? (Check one)                                        other requirements

      3%   Very positive                                4%      Outdated

     26%   Generally positive                           0%      Insufficient funding / not cost-
                                                                effective
     24%   Neutral
                                                        11%     Burdensome to administer or in
      7%   Generally negative                                   total

      3%   Very negative                                10%     Other (Please specify)

     33%   No effect *     SKIP TO NEXT
                           PAGE
      4%   Missing




                                                  30. If you have any specific comments or
                                                      concerns about Federal airport rates and
                                                      charges policies, please enter them below
                                                      and state why they are of concern.

                                                        14% had comments




27                                     GAOIRCED-9%58R   Federal Requirements for Airports
ENCLOSURE III                                                                        ENcLosuREIII

                              PASSENGER     FACIlXI’Y     CHARGES

The following three questions ask your               32. Why have PFC requirements had a
opinion about how Federal Passenger                      positive or negative effect on your
Facilities Charge (PFC) requirements may                 airport? (Check all that apply)
affect your airport. PFC requirements
generally include but are not limited to:                14%     Remove politics from decision-
                                                                 making
--    Collection and handling
--    Termination procedures                             25 Give guidance or structure for
--    Record-keeping and reporting                             complicated issues
--    Project eligibility
                                                         18%      Simplify decision making

31. Have PFC requirements generally had a                  3%     Protect against lawsuits or other
    positive or negative effect on the                            actions
    financing of your airport? (Check one)
                                                           1%     Duplicative or contradictory with
      21%    Very positive                                        other requirements

      22%    Generally positive                            3%     Outdated

       6%    Neutral                                      11%     Insufficient funding / not cost-
                                                                  effective
       6%    Generally negative
                                                          14%     Burdensome to administer or in
       1%    Very negative                                        total

      36%    No effect *     SKIP TO NEXT                 17%     Other (Please specify)
                             PAGE
       8%    Missing


                                                      33. If you have any specific comments or
                                                          concerns about PFC requirements,
                                                          please enter them below and state why
                                                          they are of concern.

                                                          15% had comment




 28                                     GAO/RCETD-9%58R Federal Requirements for Airports
ENCLOSURE IV                                                         ENCLOSURE IV

               AIRPORTS THAT RESPONDED TO GAO’S SURVEY

Airport                                        City                      State
Albany International                           Albany
Albuquerque International                      Albuquerque
Amarillo International                         Arnarillo
Anchorage International                        Anchorage
Austin-Bergstrom International                 Austin                    TX
Baltimore/Washington International             Hanover
Beaver Municipal                               Beaver                    OK
Boston-Logan International                     Boston
Bowers Field                                   Ellensburg                WA
Brownsville/South Padre Island International   Brownsville               TX
Burlington International                       Burlington                VT
Carrizozo Municipal                            canizozo
Chattanooga Metropolitan                       Chattanooga               TN
Cincinnati Northern Kentucky International     Cincinnati                OH
Columbia Metropolitan                          Columbia                  SC
Concord Municipal                              Concord
Cumberland Municipal                           Rice Lake                 WI
De Funiak Springs                              De Funiak Springs         FL
Denver International                           Denver                    co
Des Moines International                       Des Moines                IA
Dimmitt Municipal                              Dimmitt                   TX
Dubois Municipal                               Dubois                    ID
Edward F. Knapp State                          Berlin                    VT
El Monte                                       El Monte                  CA
Fairfield County                               Ridge Way                 SC
Fort Smith Regional                            Fort Smith
General Mitchell International                 Milwaukee
George M. Bryan                                Mississippi State         MS
Hazen Municipal                                HaZall                    AR
Heber Springs Municipal                        Heber Springs             AR
Henderson                                      Las Vegas
Houston Airport System                         Houston                   TX
Houston Memorial                               Houston                   MO
Indianapolis International                     Indianapolis              IN
Kansas City International                      Kansas City               MO
Kent County International                      Grand Rapids              MI
Keokuk Municipal                               Keokuk                    IA
Kissimrnee Municipal                           Kissirnmee                FL
Lambert-St. Louis International                St. Louis                 MO
Lampson Field                                  Lakeport                  CA
La Porte Municipal                             La Porte                  IN
Lehigh Valley International                    Allentown                 PA


29                                      GAOfRCED-98-58R   Federal Requirements for Airports
ENCLOSURE IV                                                    ENCLOSURE IV

Lewis University                           Romeoville               IL
Lincoln Municipal                          Lincoln                  NE
Louisville International                   Louisville               KY
Mansfield Municipal                        Mansfield
Marion Municipal                           Marion                   OH
McKinley Field                             Pearsall                 TX
Miami International                        Miami                    FL
Milford Municipal                          Milford                  UT
Mobile Regional                            Mobile                   AL
Northern Maine Regional-Presque Isle       Presque Isle
 Ohio County                               Hartford                  KY
 Orlando International                      Orlando                  FL
 Oswego County                             Fulton                    NY
 Pittsburgh International                   Pittsburgh               PA
 Quad City                                  Moline                   IL
 Red Cloud Municipal                        Red Cloud                NE           ‘
 Rena/Tahoe International                   Reno
 Roanoke Regional                           Roanoke                  VA
 Sacramento Executive                       Sacramento               CA
 Savannah International                     Savannah                 GA
 Sea-Tat International                      Seattle                  WA
 Sheldon Point                              Unalakleet               AK
 Sheridan County                            Sheridan                 WY
 Shreveport Regional                        Shreveport               LA
 Sioux Falls Regional        .              Sioux Falls              SD
 Southwest Florida International            Fort Meyers              FL
  Spokane International                      Spokane                 WA
  Sussex                                     Sussex                  NJ
  T&Cities                                   Pasco                   WA
  Vinton Veterans Memorial                   Woodward                OK




  (348133)



  30                                   GAO/RCED-9%58R   Federal Requirements for Airports
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