oversight

Airline Deregulation: Changes in Airfares, Service Quality, and Barriers to Entry

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1999-03-04.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                 United States General Accounting Office

GAO              Report to Congressional Requesters




March 1999
                 AIRLINE
                 DEREGULATION
                 Changes in Airfares,
                 Service Quality, and
                 Barriers to Entry




GAO/RCED-99-92
      United States
GAO   General Accounting Office
      Washington, D.C. 20548

      Resources, Community, and
      Economic Development Division

      B-281926

      March 4, 1999

      The Honorable John McCain
      Chairman, Committee on Commerce,
        Science, and Transportation
      United States Senate

      The Honorable Slade Gorton
      Chairman, Subcommittee on Aviation
      Committee on Commerce, Science,
        and Transportation
      United States Senate

      The Honorable William O. Lipinski
      Ranking Minority Member,
        Subcommittee on Aviation
      Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure
      House of Representatives

      The Honorable Peter A. DeFazio
      House of Representatives

      Over two decades have passed since the Congress deregulated the airline
      industry. The Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 phased out the federal
      government’s control over fares and service and allowed market forces to
      determine the price, quantity, and quality of domestic air service. Since
      1990, we have reported that, overall, fares have declined and service has
      improved since deregulation but that deregulation’s benefits have not been
      evenly distributed throughout U.S. air service markets.1 We have also
      reported that some operating and marketing practices have created
      barriers to entry for new airlines wishing to begin service and for
      established airlines seeking to enter new markets. We said that these
      barriers, which contribute directly to higher fares in several key markets,
      had begun to restrict entry to an extent not fully anticipated by the
      Congress when it deregulated the industry.

      Concerned about these findings, you asked us to update our work on fares
      and service and to reexamine the effect that certain barriers have had on
      these measures of competition. Specifically, you asked us to determine
      (1) how airfares have changed since 1990 for travel to and from 171
      airports serving various U.S. communities, (2) how the quality of air

      1
       See the list of related products at the end of this report.



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                   service has changed since 1978 for travel to and from these airports, and
                   (3) the extent to which certain barriers to entry—restrictive gate-leasing
                   arrangements, controls on the number of allowable takeoffs and landings
                   at some airports, and the limits on the distance that flights from some
                   airports can be—influence competition at affected airports.

                   To determine how fares have changed at each of the 171 airports, we
                   analyzed data on airfares to and from those airports provided by the
                   airlines to the Department of Transportation (DOT). To determine how the
                   quality of service at these airports has changed since 1978, we examined
                   several measures of quality–both quantitative indicators of the amount of
                   service available (i.e., the number of scheduled departures and available
                   seats) and qualitative indicators of the type of service available (i.e., jet or
                   turboprop, and nonstop or connecting flights). Finally, to determine
                   whether certain airport limitations that we had previously identified
                   continued to restrict competition, we spoke with airport and airline
                   representatives and analyzed fare information for those airports relative to
                   others. Additional detailed information on our scope and methodology can
                   be found in appendix I.


                   Overall, average airfares declined about 21 percent in constant dollars
Results in Brief   from 1990 to the second quarter of 1998.2 However, not all airports realized
                   similar decreases in airfares. In general, airports serving medium-large
                   communities had the greatest average decrease in fares, and airports
                   serving small communities had the least average decline.3 Average airfares
                   declined at 168 of the 171 airports we examined, often with the
                   introduction of competing service from a low-fare carrier. On the other
                   hand, since 1994, average airfares increased for passengers traveling from
                   39 airports and generally for passengers making short trips to or from
                   airports serving medium-large and large communities. In addition, for
                   passengers flying to or from airports in communities of similar size on
                   trips of similar distances in 1998, one passenger traveling from one airport
                   may have paid almost 3 times as much as a passenger traveling from a
                   different airport. While we identified such differences in fares, we should


                   2
                    We measured changes in airfares using data reported by the airlines on revenue yields per fared
                   passenger mile. Thus, we excluded from our calculations passengers flying on free tickets. Throughout
                   this report, we use the term airfare instead of yield.
                   3
                    We examined changes in airfares and the quality of service across airports serving different sizes of
                   communities. Small communities were those with populations in a metropolitan statistical area of
                   300,000 or less, medium-sized communities were in an area of 300,001 to 600,000, medium-large
                   communities were in an area of 600,001 to 1.5 million, and large communities were in an area of more
                   than 1.5 million.



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             note that in developing this report, we were unable to account for all
             factors that may have contributed to them, such as the presence of
             low-cost competition on particular routes or the extent to which travel on
             routes tended to reflect generally lower-fare leisure travel or more costly
             business traffic.

             The overall quality of air service—measured by both quantitative and
             qualitative factors—has improved for airports serving large and
             medium-large communities, but indicators are mixed for airports in small
             and medium-sized communities. In general, the quantity of the air service
             available, as measured by the number of departures and available seats,
             has increased for most of the 171 airports we reviewed. Airports in large
             and medium-large communities have experienced a substantial increase in
             the amount of air service. However, some airports—particularly those
             serving small and medium-sized communities in the upper Midwest and
             South—have less air service today than they did in 1978, when the industry
             was deregulated. Other indicators of the quality of air service, including
             those that measure the number of destinations served by nonstop flights
             and the type of aircraft used, generally show that quality has improved
             substantially for airports serving large and medium-large communities. For
             airports serving small and medium-sized communities, on the other hand,
             the results are mixed.

             At the 10 airports that, in 1996, we reported had restrained competition
             either because of restrictive gate-leasing arrangements
             (“gate-constrained”) or limits on the number of available takeoff and
             landing times (“slot-constrained”), competition has changed little. The six
             airports that we earlier characterized as being
             gate-constrained—Charlotte, Cincinnati, Detroit, Minneapolis, Newark,
             and Pittsburgh—continue to be served predominantly by one airline. At
             the four slot-constrained airports—Chicago O’Hare, New York LaGuardia,
             New York Kennedy, and Reagan Washington National—established airlines
             have expanded their slot holdings, while the share held by airlines started
             after deregulation remains low. Airfares at these 10 airports continue to be
             consistently higher than airports of comparable size without constraints.
             Additionally, the federal perimeter rule continues to prevent certain
             airlines from gaining competitive entry into or access to Reagan
             Washington National Airport.


             Before 1978, the former Civil Aeronautics Board regulated airlines,
Background   controlling the fares they could charge and the routes they could fly.



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Concerned that these practices caused economic inefficiencies and
inhibited the growth of domestic air transportation, the Congress
deregulated the industry in 1978. Deregulation was expected to result in
fares that more accurately reflected airlines’ costs and, overall, more
vigorous competition throughout the nation.

Since deregulation, numerous new airlines have started operations, while
established airlines have expanded into new markets. Many new airlines
that began operations shortly after deregulation have failed, as have some
long-established carriers, such as Eastern and Pan Am. Nevertheless, a few
airlines that were formed in the wake of deregulation still operate,
including America West and Midwest Express. In the early 1990s, over a
decade after the industry was deregulated, a second wave of new airlines
emerged. Airlines such as Vanguard, Spirit, AirTran, and Frontier now
compete with established carriers in selected markets throughout the
United States. These new entrants’ cost structures tend to be lower than
those of their established competitors, permitting them to charge lower
fares to a variety of destinations. In recent years, we have reported that
these airlines’ ability to enter and compete in selected domestic markets
has resulted in lower fares and better service in these markets. However,
we also found that many other communities have not yet experienced
vigorous competition and have not realized these fare and service-quality
benefits.

In 1990, we reported that from 1979—the earliest year for which reliable
data on fares were available—through 1988, the average fare per passenger
mile, adjusted for inflation, declined by 9 percent at airports serving small
communities, 10 percent at airports serving medium-sized communities,
and 5 percent at airports serving large communities.4 In 1996, we reported
that the average fare per passenger mile, adjusted for inflation, continued
to fall across all sizes of communities but that regional variations were
evident.5 The largest decreases in fares since deregulation occurred at
airports located in the West and Southwest, and increases in fares were
noted at airports located in the Southeast and in the Appalachian region.
The quantity of service, as measured by the number of both departures
and available seats, had increased for all airport groups. The quality of
service, as measured by factors such as the number of destinations served



4
 Airline Deregulation: Trends in Airfares at Airports in Small and Medium-Sized Communities
(GAO/RCED-91-13, Nov. 8, 1990).
5
Airline Deregulation: Changes in Airfares, Service, and Safety at Small, Medium-Sized, and Large
Communities (GAO/RCED-96-79, Apr. 19, 1996).



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                        nonstop and the type of aircraft used, showed mixed results, especially for
                        airports serving small and medium-sized communities.

                        In 1996, we also reported that three types of “operating barriers”
                        discouraged entry by airlines at several major U.S. airports.6 First, from
                        1990 through 1996 a few established airlines had markedly increased their
                        combined control of takeoff and landing times (slots) at airports in
                        Chicago, New York, and Washington. As a result, little new entry had
                        occurred at these airports during this period. Second, long-term,
                        exclusive-use gate leases at six other major airports prevented airlines that
                        did not serve those airports from securing the necessary facilities to begin
                        service and compete on equal terms with incumbent airlines. Third, the
                        federal perimeter rule barring nonstop flights exceeding 1,250 miles
                        exacerbated the impact of slots by preventing airlines from gaining entry
                        into Reagan Washington National Airport.


                        For all sizes of communities, average airfares have continued the decline
Airfares Have Fallen    noted in our 1996 report. Average airfares (expressed in constant dollars
for Most Communities    and in cents per mile) fell about 21 percent in constant dollars from 1990
Since 1990, but Many    through the second quarter of 1998.7 On average, airports serving
                        medium-large communities had the greatest decrease in fares, and airports
Have Experienced        serving small communities, the smallest decline. However, such averages
Recent Fare Increases   conceal large variations within the sizes of communities. For example, for
                        passengers flying to or from airports in communities of similar size on
                        trips of similar distances in 1998, one passenger traveling from one airport
                        may have paid almost 3 times as much as a passenger traveling from a
                        different airport.

                        Our review of changes in airfares from 1990 through the second quarter of
                        1998 indicates that the trends of moderately decreasing average airfares
                        identified in our earlier reports continued at airports serving most
                        communities. Of the 171 airports we examined over the period, average
                        airfares declined at 168. At some airports, the decrease was especially
                        large. For example, at 22 airports, average fares declined by 30 percent or
                        more in constant dollars. At many airports, the decline coincided with the

                        6
                        Airline Deregulation: Barriers to Entry Continue to Limit Competition in Several Key Domestic
                        Markets (GAO/RCED-97-4, Oct. 18, 1996).
                        7
                         Data from the second quarter 1998 were the most current available at the time of our work.
                        Throughout the remainder of this report, references to 1998 fares should be interpreted as relating to
                        the latest four quarters of fare data available, beginning with the third quarter of 1997 and ending with
                        the second quarter of 1998. Additionally, all data in the report have been deflated into dollars reflecting
                        those last four quarters.



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                                                   introduction of competing service, often from a low-fare carrier, which, in
                                                   most cases, was Southwest Airlines. Figure 1 shows the cities in which
                                                   airfares have declined by the greatest percentage since 1990.


Figure 1: Airports in Cities With Greatest Decrease in Average Airfares Since 1990


                      Seattle
                        Spokane

                                                                                                                                          Bangor
                Portland



                             Boise




                                                                          Omaha                                  Cleveland
 Sacramento         Reno                                                                       Chicago
                                  Salt Lake City                                              (Midway)                                  Atlantic City
                                                                                                                Columbus
   San Jose                                                                                                                           Baltimore
                                                   Colorado Springs
                                                                                                            Louisville


        Burbank                                                                                     Nashville
       Long Beach

                                                                                                                  Atlanta

                                                                                              Jackson




                                                   Source: GAO’s analysis of data from Data Base Products, Inc.




                                                   At 3 of the 171 airports we examined, average airfares have increased
                                                   since 1990. These airports serve Duluth, Minnesota (+2.3 percent); Fargo,
                                                   North Dakota (+0.8 percent); and Dallas, Texas (Love Field, +7.4 percent).
                                                   At each of these airports, generally only a single airline provided service.




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Northwest Airlines dominates Duluth and Fargo, and Southwest
dominates Dallas Love Field.8

We were not able to examine in detail each market to determine what
factors may have contributed to the decrease in average fares. For
example, we were unable to account for differences at airports where
competition—and thus airfares—on individual routes may vary widely. On
routes out of St. Louis where low-cost airlines offer competing service,
fares may be considerably lower than on other routes from the same
airport where no such competition exists. Whether the overall average
airfare for the airport may have increased or decreased over time depends
on the number of passengers flown on all of those routes and the fares
they paid. Similarly, we were not able to examine differences in the extent
to which certain destinations (such as Las Vegas or Orlando) tend to be
more heavily dominated by leisure travel than by business travel. Leisure
travel tends to be more price-sensitive, and average airfares in those
markets thus tend to be lower than those where there is more business
travel.

Because some significant changes can occur over the span of nearly 9
years, we examined fare changes from 1990 through 1993 and then from
1994 through the second quarter of 1998. Table 1 summarizes the change
in average airfares over the period for airports serving each size of
community, according to the length of the passengers’ trips. Although
average airfares decreased for most communities throughout the period,
since 1994 average airfares increased for certain segments of the traveling
public—mostly for passengers making short trips to or from medium-large
and large communities.9




8
 At Duluth, Northwest’s share of 1997 passengers was 97.5 percent. Its share of Fargo’s 1997
passengers was 92.5 percent. Southwest carried 100 percent of Dallas Love Field’s 1997 passengers.
Nearly all passengers at Dallas Love Field made short-haul trips. While the average fares for Love Field
may have risen over time, they remain below the averages for short trips from all large airports and are
significantly lower than the average fares associated with short trips from either Duluth or Fargo.
These passenger shares do not include passengers carried by small commuter airlines, which DOT
does not require to survey and report their passengers’ itineraries and fares. Those small commuter
airlines are usually not affiliated with larger airlines through code-sharing.
9
 For the purpose of this report, we defined short-haul trips as being equal to or less than 750 miles,
medium-haul trips as being between 751 and 2,000 miles, and long-haul trips as being 2,001 miles or
greater. Trips identified with a given airport may either originate or end there.



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Table 1: Percent Change in Average
Airfares by Community Size and                                                           Percent change in average airfares
Length of Trip, 1990-98              Community             Length of trip              1990-1998             1990-1993            1994-1998
                                     Small                 Short                             –22.9                 –12.0                 –1.2
                                                           Medium                            –19.4                  –5.7                –12.2
                                                           Long                              –11.3                  –4.7                 –9.2
                                                           Average                           –19.5                  –8.2                 –7.1
                                     Medium                Short                             –27.3                 –11.8                 –8.6
                                                           Medium                            –19.5                  –0.2                –14.4
                                                           Long                              –11.2                  –0.5                 –8.1
                                                           Average                           –22.0                  –5.2                –11.7
                                     Medium-large          Short                             –24.4                  –9.8                   1.9
                                                           Medium                            –22.5                    0.2               –15.1
                                                           Long                              –17.4                  –0.6                –14.5
                                                           Average                           –22.2                  –3.8                 –8.7
                                     Large                 Short                             –28.2                 –15.8                   3.4
                                                           Medium                            –20.4                  –4.1                 –9.0
                                                           Long                              –11.2                  –3.9                 –4.1
                                                           Average                           –21.0                  –8.0                 –4.0
                                     Source: GAO’s analysis of data from Data Base Products, Inc.



                                     For the 171 airports we examined, from 1994 through 1998 average airfares
                                     decreased at 132 airports, suggesting that most communities—small,
                                     medium-sized, medium-large, and large—and travelers from those
                                     communities have benefited from deregulation.10 Average fares for
                                     passengers making certain trips to or from several airports dropped by
                                     more than 50 percent over the period. Average fares for short-and
                                     long-haul trips from St. Petersburg, Florida; medium-haul trips from Dallas
                                     Love Field; and long-haul trips from Mission, Texas, and Grand Junction,
                                     Colorado, decreased from 52 to 77 percent. Fares in some of those
                                     markets appear to have been influenced by the introduction of additional
                                     competition, especially from low-cost airlines.

                                     During the same period, however, average fares increased at 39
                                     airports—13 serving small communities, 4 serving medium-sized ones, 9
                                     serving medium-large ones, and 13 serving large ones. In most cases, the
                                     control of a large percentage of the airports’ passengers by a single airline
                                     contributed to the increase in fares.

                                     10
                                       DOT has pointed out that, even if an airport’s “average” fares decreased during the period, not all
                                     fares to all markets may have declined. In particular, where little or no competition exists on a given
                                     route (especially from a low-cost airline), fares may have increased.



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•   Of the 13 airports serving small communities, 12 were served by an
    individual airline that controlled at least 40 percent of the traffic.
•   Of the four airports serving medium-sized communities, three were
    dominated by an individual airline that carried more than 40 percent of the
    traffic.
•   Of the nine airports serving medium-large communities, seven were
    dominated by an individual airline that carried more than 40 percent of the
    traffic.
•   Of the 13 airports serving large communities, seven are hub facilities for
    major airlines.

    For example, the average fares for passengers making short trips to or
    from Greensboro, North Carolina; Roanoke and Norfolk, Virginia;
    Charleston, South Carolina; and Buffalo, New York, all increased by
    30 percent or more from 1994 through 1998. Low-cost airlines, such as
    AirTran, American Trans Air, or Southwest, served none of the 17 airports
    at small or medium-sized communities in 1998. For the 22 airports serving
    medium-large and large communities where average airfares increased
    since 1994, individual low-cost airlines had market shares in 1998 that
    exceeded 10 percent at only four–Houston Hobby Field, Dallas Love Field,
    Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, and Midland/Odessa, Texas.11 At
    each of those airports, the low-cost airline was Southwest. Figure 2 shows
    the location of these 39 airports, most of which are in the East and
    Southeast.




    11
      On the other hand, single established airlines—such as Delta, United, and Northwest—also had more
    than 40 percent of the market in 18 out of 46 airports where average fares decreased between 20.0 and
    29.9 percent from 1990 through 1998. Thus, the presence of a single carrier with a large market share
    does not always mean that average airfares will increase over time.



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Figure 2: Airports Where Average Airfares Increased—in Constant Dollars—Since 1994




                                                                                                                           Albany
                                                                                                                                     Burlington
                                                                               Duluth
                                                     Bismarck                                                  Westchester Co.
                                                                Fargo
                                                                                                                Binghamton
                                                                                                                 Rochester
                                                                                                                 Buffalo
                                                                                        Milwaukee
                                                                                Cedar                   Kalamazoo                                 Islip,
                                                                                Rapids                                       Allentown         Long Island
                                                                                              Chicago       Cleveland Pittsburgh                 NYC
                                                                                              (O'Hare) Fort                                   LaGuardia
                                                                                                      Wayne Dayton
                                                                                                                                              Newark
                                                                                                                                           Philadelphia
                                    Grand Junction
                                                                                                                                          Washington DC
                                                                                                                             Roanoke        (National)
                                                                                Springfield                                                  Norfolk
                                                                                                                    Asheville               Richmond
                                                                                                                         Charlotte
                                                                                                                                          Greensboro
                                                                                                                                       Wilmington
                                                                                                                                     Columbia
                                                                                                                                 Greenville/Spartanburg
                                                                   Dallas                                                           Charleston
                                          Midland/Odessa        (Love Field)


                                                              Houston
                                                           (Hobby Airfield)                                Tallahassee




                                          Source: GAO’s analysis of data from Data Base Products, Inc.




                                          For passengers flying to or from airports serving communities of similar
                                          sizes on trips of similar distances, the fare at one airport can cost almost 3
                                          times as much per mile flown as the fare at a different airport. For
                                          example, passengers flying to or from Las Vegas in 1998 paid, on average, 9
                                          cents per mile, while passengers flying to or from Charlotte paid 28 cents
                                          per mile. Moreover, passengers flying to or from airports serving small and
                                          medium-sized communities in 1998 paid, on average, over 12 percent more
                                          than the national average airfare. Similarly, passengers flying to or from
                                          airports serving large communities in 1998 paid, on average, over 8 percent




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                       more than the national average.12 Appendix II summarizes the changes in
                       average airfares for each of the cities we examined during this review.


                       Our review of air service quality factors for scheduled airline departures
Large and              from May 1978 though May 1998 indicates that the overall quality at most
Medium-Large           communities served by the airports we reviewed has improved since
Communities Have       deregulation. However, the extent to which the overall quality of air
                       service has improved for the 171 airports that we reviewed varies by the
More and Better Air    size of the community served. In general, airports serving larger
Service, but the       communities have benefited from a greater increase in the overall quality
                       of air service—the number of departures and seats, jet departures, and
Trends for Small and   destinations served by nonstops—than those serving smaller communities.
Medium-Sized           For example, 90 percent of airports serving large and medium-large
Communities Are        communities had an increase in both departures and available seats
                       compared with 45 percent of the airports serving small and medium-sized
Mixed                  communities.

                       Assessing the trends in the overall quality of air service is difficult because
                       many factors contribute to the quality of service. This assessment requires,
                       among other things, a subjective weighting of the relative importance of
                       each measure that is generally considered a dimension of quality. In
                       assessing the overall quality of air service received by each sized
                       community included in our study, we used four commonly accepted
                       measures, including the number of (1) departures, (2) available seats,
                       (3) destinations served by nonstop and one-stop flights, and (4) jet
                       departures compared with the number of turboprop departures. (We used
                       these same measures in our earlier reports.) Nonstop service is generally
                       considered to be preferable to flights requiring a stop, and jet aircraft are
                       preferred over turboprop aircraft.

                       Most communities served by the airports we reviewed had more
                       commercial departures in 1998 than they did in May 1978. During this
                       period, departures increased at 139 of the 171 airports we reviewed.
                       Increases were most likely to occur at airports serving larger communities.
                       All airports at large communities, with the exception of Reagan
                       Washington National Airport (where the number of takeoff and landings is
                       restricted by federal law), and most airports serving medium-large


                       12
                         DOT’s Domestic Airline Fares Consumer Report, First Quarter 1998 Passenger and Fare Information,
                       Oct. 1998, provides more detailed information on the dispersion of airfares for particular airports, by
                       airline. For example, in the first quarter of 1998, American Airlines flew 12,700 passengers between
                       Chicago and White Plains, New York, at an average fare of $317. Eight percent of those passengers
                       paid between $51 and $75 dollars each way, while 14 percent paid between $526 and $550 each way.



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communities had an increase in departures. In comparison, 56 of the 84
airports in small and medium-sized communities had an increase in
departures.

From 1978 through 1998, 118 of the 171 airports we reviewed had an
increase in the number of available seats, especially those airports serving
larger communities. Overall, for airports in large and medium-large
communities, the number of available seats increased by about 87 percent.
Every airport serving large communities and all but 7 of the 42 airports in
medium-large communities experienced an increase. For almost
one-quarter of the airports serving large communities, such as Phoenix’s
Sky Harbor Airport and Houston’s Hobby Airport, this increase exceeded
200 percent. In contrast, slightly less than half of the airports at small and
medium-sized communities in our review had an increase in seats,
although about 67 percent had an increase in departures. To some extent
this difference can be attributed to the substitution of more frequent
service from smaller turboprops for fewer departures of larger jets. Since
1978, the airport serving Champaign, Illinois, for example, had a
66-percent increase in the number of departures and a 34-percent decrease
in the number of seats. During this same time period, jet service from this
airport was eliminated and replaced entirely with propeller aircraft.

In addition, 27 of the 84 airports serving small and medium-sized
communities experienced a decline in both scheduled departures and
available seats. These 27 airports were largely concentrated in the upper
Midwest—including Lincoln, Nebraska; Rochester, Minnesota; and
Bismarck, North Dakota—and the South—including Daytona Beach,
Florida; Montgomery, Alabama; and Shreveport, Louisiana. Figure 3
summarizes the percent change in the number of scheduled departures
and number of available seats for each category of community.13 Appendix
III contains the information on the number of departures and available
seats for each of the 171 airports that we reviewed for May 1978 and
May 1998.




13
  All statistics referring to departures in this report are based on the number of scheduled nonstop
flights from each airport.



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Figure 3: Comparison of Percent
Change in Number of Scheduled           Percent change, May 1978-May 1998
Departures and Available Seats at                                                                       100
                                        100
Airports Serving Small, Medium-Sized,
                                         90                                                                         88
Medium-Large, and Large                                                                    85
                                                                                    83
Communities, May 1978 Through
                                         80
May 1998
                                         70

                                         60

                                         50
                                              44

                                         40                       38


                                         30

                                         20
                                                                            15
                                                        11
                                         10

                                          0

                                                Small                 Medium          Medium-large       Large



                                                         Departures

                                                         Seats



                                        Source: GAO’s analysis of airlines’ schedule information provided by DOT.




                                        Airports serving large and medium-large communities have been the
                                        primary beneficiaries of increased nonstop flights. Nonstop flights
                                        increased for 71 percent of the airports serving large and medium-large
                                        communities but only for 25 percent of the airports serving small and
                                        medium-sized communities. Of the 84 airports at small and medium-sized
                                        communities that we reviewed, 37 experienced a decline in both nonstop
                                        and one-stop service. Only airports serving medium-large communities
                                        experienced an increase in one-stop flights. Figure 4 summarizes the
                                        percent change in the total number of destinations served by nonstop and
                                        one-stop flights by category of community. Appendix IV provides detailed
                                        information for each community on the number of destinations served by
                                        nonstop and one-stop flights for May 1978 through May 1998.




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Figure 4: Percent Change in the
Number of Destinations Served by        50    Percent change, May 1978-May 1998
Nonstop and One-Stop Flights From
Airports Serving Small, Medium-Sized,   40                                          39

Medium-Large, and Large                                                                                 33
Communities, May 1978 Through           30
                                                                                             26
May 1998
                                        20


                                        10


                                         0


                                        -10                                  -4
                                                                   -7                                         -8
                                        -20             -13


                                        -30   -22


                                                Small                   Medium        Medium-large       Large



                                                         Nonstop destinations

                                                         One-stop destinations



                                        Source: GAO’s analysis of airlines’ schedule information provided by DOT.




                                        Overall, all sizes of communities experienced an increase in the number of
                                        turboprop departures, but primarily airports serving large and
                                        medium-large communities benefited from an increase in the number of jet
                                        departures. Of these airports, 75 percent had an increase in jet departures
                                        compared with 24 percent of the airports in small and medium-sized
                                        communities. Overall, the actual number of jet departures increased by
                                        72 percent at airports serving large communities and by 57 percent at
                                        airports serving medium-large communities but declined by 6 percent at
                                        airports serving medium-sized communities and by 14 percent at airports
                                        serving small communities. Figure 5 summarizes the percent change in the
                                        number of jet departures by size of community. Appendix V provides
                                        detailed information for each airport for May 1978 through May 1998.




                                        Page 14                                                   GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                                        B-281926




Figure 5: Percent Change in the
Number of Jet and Turboprop                      Percent change, May 1978-May 1998
Departures at Airports Serving Small,   75                                        72

Medium-Sized, Medium-Large, and         65
Large Communities, May 1978                                                  57
Through May 1998                        55

                                        45

                                        35

                                        25

                                        15

                                             5

                                         -5

                                        -15                      -6

                                                      -14
                                        -25
                                                  all



                                                                 m



                                                                             ge




                                                                                   e
                                                                                  rg
                                                             diu
                                                 Sm




                                                                           lar



                                                                                  La
                                                            Me



                                                                           m-
                                                                       diu
                                                                      Me




                                        Source: GAO’s analysis of airlines’ schedule information provided by DOT.



                                        In 1997, over 143 million passengers (23 percent of the total U.S. domestic
Competition in                          enplanements that year) traveled through 10 key airports in the east and
Certain Key Airports                    upper Midwest. In the past, we reported that competition is constrained at
Continues to Be                         these airports because of long-term gate leases or limits on the number of
                                        available takeoff and landing slots.14 During our review, we found that the
Inhibited by Lack of                    six airports we had previously described as gate-constrained—Charlotte,
Access to Facilities,                   Cincinnati, Detroit, Minneapolis, Newark, and Pittsburgh—continue to be
                                        predominantly served by one airline. Airport officials and airline
Slot Controls, and                      representatives said that gates are available to airlines that do not
Federal Perimeter                       currently serve those airports. However, few of those airlines expressed
Rule                                    interest in serving those markets because access to facilities remains
                                        difficult and other factors, generally relating to the size of the incumbent
                                        carrier and its associated market strength, prevent them from entering at
                                        these airports. At the four slot-constrained airports—Chicago O’Hare, New
                                        York’s LaGuardia and Kennedy, and Reagan Washington
                                        National—established airlines hold the majority of slots, while the share of

                                        14
                                         Domestic Aviation: Service Problems and Limited Competition Continue in Some Markets
                                        (GAO/T-RCED-98-176, Apr. 23, 1998). A gate includes the holding room, jetway, and apron.



                                        Page 15                                                   GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                              B-281926




                              slots held by airlines started after deregulation remains low. Finally, the
                              federal perimeter rule, which prohibits flights longer than 1,250 miles from
                              Reagan Washington National Airport, continues to deprive certain airlines
                              from serving that airport from some of their hub operations, preventing
                              millions of passengers in western states from gaining nonstop access to
                              the airport.


Long-Term, Exclusive-Use      Restrictive gate leases are a barrier to establishing new or expanded
Gate Leases Predominate       service at some airports. These leases permit an airline to hold exclusive
at Six Constrained            rights to use most of an airport’s gates over a long period of time,
                              commonly 20 years. Previously, we reported that such leases made it more
Airports, but Other Factors   difficult for nonincumbents to secure necessary airport facilities on equal
Also Inhibit New              terms with incumbent airlines. Airlines established after deregulation,
Competition                   especially new entrant airlines, said access to facilities at some
                              airports—Charlotte, Cincinnati, Detroit, Minneapolis, Newark, and
                              Pittsburgh—was difficult. Airport officials and one airline told us that
                              other marketing factors—not gate-leasing arrangements—acted as barriers
                              to entry.

                              As table 2 shows, the vast majority of gates at each of these airports
                              continue to be leased to one established airline. Airport officials at
                              Charlotte, Cincinnati, and Minneapolis said that it is in the best interest of
                              the airports to lease gates over a long term to maintain a stable stream of
                              revenue. For example, Cincinnati airport officials said they depend on
                              signatory airlines to pay their debt obligations.15 Delta Air Lines—which
                              dominates the Cincinnati airport and holds 50 of the airport’s total 68 jet
                              gates—financed the construction of 43 of those gates.




                              15
                                Signatory airlines have an agreement with an airport to help pay debt obligations.



                              Page 16                                                      GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                                        B-281926




Table 2: Airports Where
Postderegulation Airlines Reported                                   Total       Gates under Major lease holders, number of
Difficulty Gaining Competitive Access                           number of       exclusive-use gates operated, and date lease
to Gates and the Leasing                Airport                  jet gates             leases expires
Arrangements at Those Airports          Charlotte                                               37 gates leased to US Airways until
                                                                          46                 44 2016
                                        Cincinnati                                              50 gates leased to Delta; 8 of the
                                                                                                leases expire in 2015 and 42 expire
                                                                          68                 68 in 2023
                                        Detroit                                                 56 gates leased to Northwest until
                                                                          81                 56 2001a
                                        Minneapolis                                             54 gates leased to Northwest; 22 of
                                                                                                the leases expire in 2015 and 32
                                                                                                convert to preferential use leases
                                                                          70                 70 beginning in 1999
                                        Newark                                                  42 gates leased to Continental until
                                                                          94                 79 2018
                                        Pittsburgh                                              50 gates leased to US Airways until
                                                                          75                 65 2015
                                        a
                                        Northwest also leases an additional six nonexclusive gates.

                                        Source: GAO’s presentation of the airports’ data.



                                        Officials at each of the airports we visited said they have spoken with or
                                        actively recruited nonincumbent airlines to provide new service. Airport
                                        officials and one airline official told us that other factors, rather than
                                        restrictive gate leases, prevented nonincumbents from providing service at
                                        their airports. These factors included the size of the incumbent carriers
                                        (coupled with those airlines’ marketing strengths, such as their frequent
                                        flyer programs, corporate discounts, and arrangements with local travel
                                        agents), the fear of perceived predatory conduct by the major incumbent
                                        carrier, and a lack of adequate capitalization. A Charlotte airport official
                                        said that the term “gate-constrained” no longer applied, given their
                                        flexibility in making some gates available for lease and the airport’s
                                        willingness to discuss new service with interested airlines.

                                        A limited number of gates are available for new service at three of the
                                        airports we visited, although they may not be available at the times or days
                                        that new airlines might prefer. Airport officials at Detroit, Minneapolis,
                                        and Newark said there are no gates available now. For the three airports
                                        that have available gates, however, incumbent airlines tended to use them.
                                        For example, Pittsburgh airport officials said that they have a total of
                                        seven jet gates available, but US Airways is the only airline that uses them
                                        at this time. In addition, Cincinnati airport officials said there are three



                                        Page 17                                                  GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                            B-281926




                            gates leased by US Airways that are not being used as fully as they could
                            be.

                            Officials from airlines that started after deregulation told us that access to
                            facilities was difficult at some airports, including Newark. These airline
                            officials cited a lack of cooperation by airport officials in identifying
                            available gates and the reluctance of both the airports and incumbent
                            airlines in offering leases or subleases longer than on a short-term basis.16


Established Airlines        Major established airlines have expanded their holdings of domestic air
Continue to Expand Their    carrier takeoff and landing slots at three of the four slot-constrained
Slot Holdings at            airports—Reagan Washington National, New York Kennedy, and New York
                            LaGuardia. Only at Chicago O’Hare did the level of slot concentration held
Slot-Constrained Airports   by major established airlines decrease slightly from 1996 to 1999. By
                            contrast, the share held by airlines that started after deregulation remains
                            low. (See table 3.) Our October 1996 report recommended that DOT
                            redistribute some slots to increase competition, taking into account the
                            investments made by those airlines at each of the slot-controlled airports.
                            DOT subsequently began to use the authority that the Congress gave it in
                            1994 to allow additional slots at O’Hare, LaGuardia, and Kennedy.17
                            Through January 1999, DOT granted 62 slot exemptions at O’Hare, 30 at
                            LaGuardia, and 6 at Kennedy. DOT has also granted a total of 48
                            exemptions for Essential Air Service18 and 19 for seasonal international
                            service.




                            16
                              In 1998, DOT established a task force to study airports’ practices that may inhibit competition. Its
                            report is expected in April 1999. In accordance with the Omnibus Consolidated and Emergency
                            Supplemental Appropriations Act of 1999 (P.L. 105-277, division C, title I, section 110(g)), the National
                            Academy of Sciences is studying DOT’s proposed competition guidelines, which would refine the
                            definition of anticompetitive behavior by airlines. Its report is due in March 1999.
                            17
                              The Federal Aviation Reauthorization Act of 1994 (49 U.S.C. sec. 41714) created an exemption
                            provision to allow additional slots for new entrants at O’Hare, LaGuardia, and Kennedy when DOT
                            “finds it to be in the public interest and the circumstances to be exceptional.” The number of flights at
                            Reagan Washington National Airport is further limited by federal law to address local concerns about
                            noise. As a result of these additional limits, the Congress chose not to extend DOT’s exemption
                            authority to include Reagan Washington National.
                            18
                              The Essential Air Service program ensures that small communities having air service when the
                            Airline Deregulation Act was passed will continue to have a minimum level of service and provides
                            that the federal government subsidizes the airlines providing that service, if necessary.



                            Page 18                                                       GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                                            B-281926




Table 3: Percentage of Domestic Air Carrier Slots Held by Selected Groups
Airport                      Holding entity                                               1986             1991             1996              1999
O’Hare                        American and United                                            66               83               87                84
                              Other established airlines                                     28               13                 9               10
                              Financial institutions                                          0                3                 2                3
                              Postderegulation airlines                                       6                1                 1                3
                                                                       a
Kennedy                       Shawmut Bank, American, and Delta                              43               60               75                84
                              Other established airlines                                     49               18               13                14
                              Other financial institutions                                    0               19                 6                1
                              Postderegulation airlines                                       9                3                 7                1
LaGuardia                     American, Delta, and US Airways                                27               43               64                70
                              Other established airlines                                     58               39               14                14
                              Financial institutions                                          0                7               20                10
                              Postderegulation airlines                                      15               12                 2                6
Reagan Washington National    American, Delta, and US Airways                                25               43               59                65
                              Other established airlines                                     58               42               20                18
                              Financial institutions                                          0                7               19                14
                              Post deregulation airlines                                     17                8                 3                3
                                            Note: Numbers may not add to 100 percent because of rounding. Some airlines that held slots
                                            have gone bankrupt, and, as a result, financial institutions have acquired slots.
                                            a
                                             In 1999, First Security National Bank replaced Shawmut Bank. First Security National Bank holds
                                            those slots pursuant to a trust as security for a loan to TWA, which uses some and leases others.

                                            Source: GAO’s analysis of data from the Federal Aviation Administration.




Special Rules at Laguardia                  The ability of certain nonincumbent airlines to begin service at New York
and Reagan Washington                       LaGuardia and Reagan Washington National airports is further limited by
National and Emerging                       rules that prohibit incoming and outgoing flights that exceed a certain
                                            distance (commonly known as perimeter rules). At LaGuardia, under a
Capacity Constraints                        rule established by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey,
Elsewhere Exacerbate                        nonstop flights exceeding 1,500 miles are prohibited. At Reagan
Barriers’ Impacts                           Washington National, federal law limits the number of hourly operations
                                            and prohibits nonstop flights exceeding 1,250 miles.19

                                            The perimeter rules were originally designed to promote Kennedy and
                                            Dulles airports as the designated long-haul airports for the New York and
                                            Washington metropolitan areas, respectively, and to alleviate air traffic

                                            19
                                              The Metropolitan Washington Airports Act of 1986 (49 U.S.C. sec. 49109). The rule is also included in
                                            federal regulations (14 C.F.R. sec. 93.253).



                                            Page 19                                                      GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                            B-281926




                            congestion in those areas. The practical effect, however, has been to limit
                            entry and exacerbate the impact of slots. Specifically, because of their
                            proximity to Reagan Washington National, each of the seven largest
                            established carriers is able to serve the airport from its principal hub. By
                            contrast, the rules prevent the second largest airline started after
                            deregulation—America West—from serving LaGuardia and Reagan
                            Washington National from its hub in Phoenix and restrict other airlines
                            with hub operations in the West from serving either airport on a nonstop
                            basis. Thus, for example, the 92 million passengers that flew out of Los
                            Angeles, Phoenix, Portland, Salt Lake City, San Francisco, and Seattle
                            airports in 1997 could not fly nonstop into Reagan Washington National.
                            Officials with Delta Air Lines told us that they would expand service from
                            Salt Lake City to Reagan Washington National if the perimeter rule was
                            relaxed or abolished.

                            We recognize that the communities where the airports are located will be
                            concerned with any proposals to grant additional slots because of
                            potential congestion, noise, and safety problems. These are sensitive
                            issues, and, ultimately, any final decisions about them can be best resolved
                            through congressional deliberations.


Airfares at Constrained     Airfares at the six gate-constrained and four slot-constrained airports were
Airports Higher Than        consistently higher than airfares at nonconstrained airports that serve
Those at Comparably Sized   similar-sized communities, especially in short- and medium-haul markets.
                            In other words, passengers pay a premium to fly to and from these
Community Airports          airports. In 1998, overall weighted average fares ranged from being
                            4 percent higher at Kennedy Airport to 83 percent higher at Pittsburgh
                            International Airport compared with fares at nonconstrained airports
                            serving communities of comparable size. The greatest differences in
                            airfares in 1998 were in short-haul markets.

                            The average airfares of short-haul markets in 1998 ranged from 29 percent
                            higher in Kennedy to 120 percent higher at Pittsburgh. In medium-haul
                            markets, airfares ranged from 15 percent lower at Detroit to 63 percent
                            higher at Charlotte. In long-haul markets, airfares ranged from 6 percent
                            lower at Reagan Washington National to 42 percent higher at Charlotte.
                            Table 4 summarizes the differences in average airfares between the 10
                            constrained airports and other airports serving communities of
                            comparable size for 1998.




                            Page 20                                      GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                                         B-281926




Table 4: Differences in Average Fares
in Cents Per Passenger Mile for                                                                    Average fares
Constrained Airports Relative to Fares                                                                        for
at Other Airports Serving Communities    Community                                   1998 average nonconstrained                    Percent
of Comparable Size, 1998                 airport              Length of trip                fares       airports                differencea
                                         Charlotte            Short                             39.1                24.7                   58
                                                              Medium                            19.6                12.0                   63
                                                              Long                              12.9                 9.1                   42
                                                              Overall                           28.0                14.5                   58
                                         Cincinnati           Short                             41.0                21.6                   90
                                                              Medium                            17.3                13.8                   26
                                                              Long                              13.8                11.3                   23
                                                              Overall                           25.6                14.7                   65
                                         Detroit-Wayne        Short                             31.4                21.6                   46
                                         County               Medium                            11.7                13.8                  –15
                                                              Long                              12.0                11.3                    7
                                                              Overall                           17.4                14.7                   20
                                         Minneapolis          Short                             36.2                21.6                   68
                                                              Medium                            18.8                13.8                   37
                                                              Long                               N/A                11.3                  N/A
                                                              Overall                           22.3                14.7                   49
                                         Newark               Short                             29.9                21.6                   39
                                                              Medium                            14.9                13.8                    8
                                                              Long                              11.6                11.3                    3
                                                              Overall                           16.6                14.7                   20
                                         Pittsburgh           Short                             47.4                21.6                  120
                                                              Medium                            16.9                13.8                   23
                                                              Long                              12.9                11.3                   15
                                                              Overall                           25.8                14.7                   83
                                         Chicago O’Hare       Short                             30.7                21.6                   42
                                                              Medium                            15.9                13.8                   15
                                                              Long                               N/A                11.3                  N/A
                                                              Overall                           20.4                14.7                   29
                                         New York             Short                             38.3                21.6                   78
                                         LaGuardia            Medium                            17.2                13.8                   25
                                                              Long                              12.5                11.3                   11
                                                              Overall                           21.4                14.7                   50
                                         New York             Short                             27.8                21.6                   29
                                         Kennedy              Medium                            12.0                13.8                  –13
                                                              Long                              11.9                11.3                    5
                                                              Overall                           12.5                14.7                    4
                                         Reagan               Short                             39.3                21.6                   83
                                         Washington           Medium                            15.8                13.8                   15
                                         National             Long                              10.6                11.3                   –6
                                                              Overall                           21.9                14.7                   55
                                         a
                                          Overall percent differences represent weighted averages reflecting passenger distributions at
                                         the nonconstrained airports.

                                         Source: GAO’s analysis of data from Data Base Products, Inc.




                                         Page 21                                                   GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                  B-281926




                  Airfares have continued to decline for all sizes of communities since
Conclusions       deregulation, although average airfares have increased for certain
                  segments of the traveling public, especially since 1994. Similarly, the
                  overall quality of air service has improved except for that in some small
                  and medium-sized communities. Since deregulation, a number of major
                  airlines have dominated operations at 10 key airports leading to
                  constrained competition and higher airfares. Slots and the federal
                  perimeter rule continue to exacerbate the impacts of barriers by limiting
                  the number of landings and takeoffs and prohibiting incoming and
                  outgoing flights that exceed a certain distance at certain airports. Thus,
                  while deregulation continues to benefit the majority of the nation’s
                  travelers, there remain some communities where those benefits have not
                  been realized.


                  We provided DOT with copies of a draft of this report for its review and
Agency Comments   comment. We spoke with DOT officials from the Office of the Secretary,
                  including the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Aviation and International
                  Affairs. DOT generally agreed with the information in the report and
                  provided a number of comments to clarify issues addressed in the report;
                  we incorporated these comments as appropriate.

                  As arranged with your offices, unless you publicly announce its contents
                  earlier, we plan no further distribution of this report until 10 days after the
                  date of this letter. At that time, we will send copies to the Secretary of
                  Transportation; the Director, Office of Management and Budget; and other
                  interested parties. We will send copies to others upon request. We
                  conducted our work from November 1998 through February 1999 in
                  accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards.

                  If you have any questions, please call me at (202) 512-2834. Major
                  contributors to this report are listed in appendix VI of this report.




                  John H. Anderson, Jr.
                  Director, Transportation Issues




                  Page 22                                       GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Page 23   GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Contents



Letter                                                              1


Appendix I                                                         28
Scope and
Methodology
Appendix II                                                        32
Changes in Average
Airfares Per
Passenger Mile by
Size of Community
and by Length of Trip,
1990—98
Appendix III                                                       72
Number of Scheduled
Departures and
Available Seats at
Airports Serving
Small, Medium-Sized,
Medium-Large, and
Large Communities,
May 1978 Through
May 1998




                         Page 24   GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                         Contents




Appendix IV                                                                                       78
Number of
Destinations for
Nonstop and One-Stop
Flights at Airports
Serving Small,
Medium-Sized,
Medium-Large, and
Large Communities,
May 1978 Through
May 1998
Appendix V                                                                                        83
Number of Scheduled
Jet and Nonjet
Departures at Airports
Serving Small,
Medium-Sized,
Medium-Large, and
Large Communities,
May 1978 Through
May 1998
Appendix VI                                                                                       88
Major Contributors to
This Report
Related GAO Products                                                                              91


Tables                   Table 1: Percent Change in Average Airfares by Community Size             8
                           and Length of Trip, 1990-98




                         Page 25                                  GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
          Contents




          Table 2: Airports Where Postderegulation Airlines Reported                 17
            Difficulty Gaining Competitive Access to Gates and the Leasing
            Arrangements at Those Airports
          Table 3: Percentage of Domestic Air Carrier Slots Held by                  19
            Selected Groups
          Table 4: Differences in Average Fares in Cents per Passenger Mile          21
            for Constrained Airports Relative to Fares at Other Airports
            Serving Communities of Comparable Size, 1998


Figures   Figure 1: Airports in Cities With Greatest Decrease in Average              6
            Airfares Since 1990
          Figure 2: Airports Where Average Airfares Increased—in constant            10
            dollars—Since 1994
          Figure 3: Comparison of Percent Change in Number of Scheduled              13
            Departures and Available Seats at Airports Serving Small,
            Medium-Sized, Medium-Large, and Large Communities, May 1978
            Through May 1998
          Figure 4: Percent Change in the Number of Destinations Served              14
            by Nonstop and One-Stop Flights From Airports Serving Small,
            Medium-Sized, Medium-Large, and Large Communities, May 1978
            Through May 1998
          Figure 5: Percent Change in the Number of Jet and Turboprop                15
            Departures at Airports Serving Small, Medium-Sized,
            Medium-Large, and Large Communities, May 1978 Through
            May 1998




          Abbreviations

          DOT        Department of Transportation
          GAO        General Accounting Office


          Page 26                                    GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Page 27   GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix I

Scope and Methodology


                 To analyze changes in airfares since 1990, we reviewed data on fares
                 covering the period 1990 through the second quarter of 1998 (the most
                 current information available at the time of our work). To provide
                 consistent, comparable information in updating our prior report on trends
                 in airfares since deregulation at airports serving small, medium-sized, and
                 large communities, we reviewed data on the same 112 airports that we
                 examined in our two prior reports.20 We selected those airports using the
                 following criteria:

             •   All of the airports were in metropolitan statistical areas or (1) an area that
                 included at least one city with 50,000 or more inhabitants and (2) an area
                 with an urbanized area as defined by the Census Bureau (with at least
                 50,000 inhabitants) and a total metropolitan population of at least 100,000
                 (75,000 in New England). Small communities were those with populations
                 in a metropolitan statistical area of 300,000 or less, medium-sized
                 communities were those with populations of 300,001 to 600,000, and large
                 communities were those with populations of 1.5 million or more. In our
                 prior reports, we used 1984 U.S. Census data to provide information on
                 community sizes midway between the years reviewed (1979, 1984, and
                 1988) for each airport location. While keeping the same sample of airports
                 for this report, we reviewed U.S. Census data for 1996 to identify changes
                 in communities’ populations. We did this to ensure that, had some
                 populations changed significantly since our previous report, we would
                 compare those communities with others of similar size.
             •   Almost all of the airports were among those with the largest 175
                 enplanements in the nation, as determined by the number of passenger
                 enplanements in 1997. This criterion was necessary because as an airport’s
                 rank falls, the number of tickets from that airport in the Department of
                 Transportation’s (DOT) “Passenger Origin-Destination Survey” declines. A
                 smaller number of tickets per route increases the potential for sampling
                 error and may result in calculations that are not representative of the
                 airport’s overall traffic.
             •   All of the airports were located within the 48 contiguous states because
                 airports outside the contiguous states are often special cases. Travel from
                 airports located in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands is
                 often for very short distances (between islands) and very long distances
                 (between Alaska or Hawaii and the contiguous states) or may take the
                 place of ground transportation (between cities in Alaska).



                 20
                  Airline Deregulation: Trends in Airfares at Airports in Small and Medium-Sized Communities
                 (GAO/RCED-91-13, Nov. 8, 1990) and Airline Deregulation: Changes in Airfares, Service, and Safety at
                 Small, Medium-Sized, and Large Communities (GAO/RCED-96-79, Apr. 19, 1996).



                 Page 28                                                    GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix I
Scope and Methodology




In addition, we added several airports in communities that had not been
included in the previous reports. In general, these are airports that are also
included within the largest 175 airports located in the continental United
States serving medium-large communities with populations between
600,001 and 1.5 million. We excluded Orlando/Sanford airport because
origin and destination data from 1991 to 1998 were lacking, and we
excluded North Las Vegas Field because it had unusually high fares. We
added four other cities—Albany, Huntington, Rochester, and
Syracuse—following discussions with the staffs of Representative William
O. Lipinski and Representative Peter A. DeFazio for further insight into
fares and service for airlines serving small and rural communities.

We obtained the data on airfares from a private contractor, Data Base
Products, Inc., which gets its original data from DOT. Data Base Products,
Inc., makes a number of revisions to the data submitted to DOT by the
airlines to correct for biases and obvious reporting errors. Data Base
Products, Inc., also incorporates data from main airlines’ regional
commuter partners, thereby providing a more complete picture of
passengers’ true itineraries and costs. To enhance the comparability of the
data, we converted the airfare information into constant 1998 dollars.21
Because the number of passengers traveling on routes can change over
time, examining fares at two different times could reflect differences in the
number of travelers going to various destinations rather than fare changes.
Therefore, as with our prior reports, we held the distribution of passengers
across distance categories constant at the level found with the latest four
quarters ending with the second quarter of 1998.

To add to the information that we published in our previous reports, we
also calculated averages for travel of various distances to or from these
airports. We believe that additional information provides a greater context
than the basic average fare. We recognize that few if any passengers may
actually have paid an “average fare” in any one market but believe that
such averages provide insightful information for analyzing broad trends in
airfares over time.

Because we analyzed data that were drawn from a statistical sampling of
tickets purchased, each estimate developed from the sample has a
measurable precision, or sampling error. The sampling error is the
maximum amount by which the estimate obtained from a statistical


21
  Because the most current data available at the time of our review were for the second quarter of
1998, in recalculating fares into 1998 dollars, we actually used a deflator covering the four quarters
from the third quarter of 1997 through the second quarter of 1998.



Page 29                                                       GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix I
Scope and Methodology




sample can be expected to differ from the true universe value. We did not
calculate the sampling error for each airport’s fare estimates during this
update because the sampling errors calculated in the previous two reports
were consistently small. We believe that the same approximate sampling
errors would apply to the estimates developed for this review.

To analyze changes in the quality of air service for these same 171 airports,
we obtained data on scheduled airline service from DOT’s Bureau of
Transportation Statistics. We used these data to analyze changes from
1978 through 1998 in four measures of the quality of service that we
reported in the past. Those measures are (1) the total number of scheduled
nonstop departures from each airport, (2) the total number of seats
available on those flights, (3) the number of scheduled destinations served
by nonstop and one-stop flights from each airport, and (4) the number of
scheduled jet and turboprop departures at those airports.22 To reduce
“seasonality” associated with air travel (that is, to avoid having the data
reflect higher amounts of travel associated with summer vacations or
reduced winter travel), we used information from May 1978 and May 1998.

Finally, to determine whether certain airport limitations that we had
previously identified continued to restrict competition, we visited those
airports to update our work concerning markets restricted by gate, slot, or
perimeter barriers to domestic airline markets. Specifically, we conducted
interviews with representatives of Charlotte-Douglas International Airport,
Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport, Detroit Wayne
County Airport, Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport, and Pittsburgh
International Airport. We held a formal teleconference with officials
representing Newark International Airport. We obtained additional
information and perspectives on barriers to entry from officials
representing Access Air, Continental Airlines, Delta Airlines, Eastwind
Airlines, Legend Airlines, Northwest Airlines, US Airways, Spirit Airlines,
and Vanguard Airlines. To discuss the effect that the perimeter rule may
have on competition, we met with officials representing the Washington
Metropolitan Airport Authority, which oversees both Reagan Washington
National Airport and Washington Dulles International Airport. We also
analyzed airfare data for these airports by comparing their average fares
against those for communities of comparable size but excluding the other
constrained airports. Because each airport has a different distribution of
flight lengths, we made comparisons within each of the three distance
categories. To get an overall comparison for each of the 10 constrained

22
 Other indicators of service quality might include information such as an airline’s on-time
performance. While such information is regularly reported by DOT, the DOT Inspector General has
questioned the reliability and validity of those data.



Page 30                                                   GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix I
Scope and Methodology




airports, we then took a weighted average of the comparisons within each
distance category. The resulting percent differences are therefore adjusted
for distance as well as for particular passenger distributions at each
airport.




Page 31                                     GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix II

Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
Trip, 1990—98


                               State      Length of trip                1990             1991
               Small-community airports
               Amarillo        TX         Short                         18.1             18.4
                                          Medium                        17.6             17.0
                                          Long                           N/A              N/A
                                          Avg.                          17.8             17.7
               Asheville       NC         Short                         31.2             31.0
                                          Medium                        19.0             17.9
                                          Long                          12.2             12.3
                                          Avg.                          24.1             23.7
               Bangor          ME         Short                         47.8             40.1
                                          Medium                        18.0             16.2
                                          Long                          10.0               9.4
                                          Avg.                          19.5             17.4
               Billings        MT         Short                         34.0             29.6
                                          Medium                        16.4             15.1
                                          Long                          11.4             10.8
                                          Avg.                          20.3             18.3
               Binghamton      NY         Short                         49.9             44.6
                                          Medium                        20.8             19.6
                                          Long                          14.7             13.4
                                          Avg.                          23.1             21.9
               Bismarck        ND         Short                         35.8             34.2
                                          Medium                        15.4             15.1
                                          Long                           N/A              N/A
                                          Avg.                          19.1             18.5
               Burlington      VT         Short                         42.6             37.8
                                          Medium                        17.6             16.5
                                          Long                          11.7             10.6
                                          Avg.                          19.6             18.1
               Cedar Rapids    IA         Short                         44.8             39.3
                                          Medium                        16.9             15.1
                                          Long                           N/A              N/A
                                          Avg.                          22.8             20.3
               Champaign       IL         Short                         35.6             31.7
                                          Medium                        16.0             16.0
                                          Long                           N/A              N/A



               Page 32                                     GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                          Appendix II
                          Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
                          Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
                          Trip, 1990—98




         Cents per passenger mile (constant dollars)
                                                                               Percent change
1992   1993        1994             1995          1996        1997-98    1990-98      1990-93       1994-98


17.9   18.3         17.8            18.6           19.2          18.9        4.5          1.2            6.4
15.3   16.8         17.1            16.8           15.0          14.4      –18.4         –4.7         –16.0
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
16.5   17.5         17.4            17.7           17.0          16.5       –7.3         –1.9          –5.1
28.5   31.6         21.1            28.8           30.1          26.9      –13.7          1.3          27.6
15.6   17.4         15.9            18.0           19.1          16.8      –11.4         –8.6            5.7
10.4   11.8         12.4            12.6           12.6          11.8       –3.1         –3.2          –5.0
21.6   24.0         18.2            23.0           23.9          21.5      –10.9         –0.6          18.1
37.2   36.4         33.6            34.9           36.8          29.9      –37.4        –23.9         –11.0
14.7   14.9         14.2            14.2           13.0          11.5      –36.2        –17.1         –19.1
 8.3    8.9          9.3             9.3            9.2            8.2     –18.2        –11.2         –12.1
15.8   16.2         15.6            15.7           15.0          13.2      –32.3        –16.9         –15.2
26.9   28.0         26.6            25.8           28.3          27.0      –20.5        –17.6            1.5
12.8   14.2         14.8            14.8           14.9          14.3      –13.1        –13.9          –3.6
 9.2    9.5         10.2            10.4           10.0          10.0      –12.3        –16.4          –2.4
16.0   17.3         17.5            17.2           17.9          17.2      –15.3        –14.8          –2.0
41.7   42.9         39.0            39.4           40.2          39.9      –20.1        –14.0            2.2
17.8   19.0         17.5            17.8           18.0          16.8      –19.1         –8.6          –4.1
11.9   13.1         12.3            12.8           14.2          14.0       –4.7        –11.1          13.8
20.0   21.1         20.2            20.2           21.1          20.7      –10.7         –8.7            2.3
31.9   30.9         28.4            28.0           29.6          29.3      –18.2        –13.7            3.3
12.9   13.6         14.3            14.2           14.5          15.0       –2.7        –12.0            4.8
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
16.2   16.5         16.7            16.5           17.1          17.7       –7.3        –13.5            5.5
37.3   36.7         32.8            35.1           36.6          35.5      –16.8        –13.8            8.1
14.3   15.8         15.4            16.0           16.1          15.2      –13.6        –10.0          –1.5
 9.3   10.7         11.4            11.5           12.0          12.1        3.7         –8.3            6.5
16.6   17.8         17.4            17.9           18.3          17.8       –9.0         –8.9            2.7
35.3   35.9         35.4            35.1           37.0          35.7      –20.4        –19.9            0.7
14.2   16.9         17.2            17.0           16.9          16.9        0.4          0.5          –1.8
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
18.7   21.4         21.5            21.2           21.6          21.5       –5.7         –6.2            0.1
33.2   34.0         34.0            34.4           34.6          30.2      –15.3         –4.5         –11.4
14.9   16.9         16.4            16.7           15.6          12.7      –20.5          5.8         –22.5
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
                                                                                                 (continued)


                          Page 33                                        GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix II
Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
Trip, 1990—98




                   State            Length of trip                1990             1991
                                    Avg.                          21.0             20.5
Charleston         WV               Short                         43.4             40.6
                                    Medium                        20.7             20.5
                                    Long                          12.9             12.0
                                    Avg.                          26.9             25.8
Duluth             MN               Short                         45.4             44.4
                                    Medium                        17.4             17.9
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          21.3             21.5
Elmira/Corning     NY               Short                         48.9             46.2
                                    Medium                        17.4             18.1
                                    Long                          13.5             12.5
                                    Avg.                          23.7             23.5
Erie               PA               Short                         44.0             39.9
                                    Medium                        17.7             16.5
                                    Long                          13.2             12.1
                                    Avg.                          23.3             21.7
Evansville         IN               Short                         46.0             43.0
                                    Medium                        19.1             18.7
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          29.1             28.2
Fargo              ND               Short                         40.6             38.5
                                    Medium                        14.8             15.2
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          19.6             19.7
Fayetteville       AR               Short                         37.5             35.1
                                    Medium                        20.7             20.5
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          25.9             25.4
Fayetteville       NC               Short                         32.0             28.4
                                    Medium                        20.0             18.3
                                    Long                          11.0             11.1
                                    Avg.                          22.0             20.2
Gainesville        FL               Short                         32.2             35.4
                                    Medium                        17.5             20.3
                                    Long                          11.7             12.3
                                    Avg.                          20.2             22.8



Page 34                                              GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                          Appendix II
                          Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
                          Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
                          Trip, 1990—98




         Cents per passenger mile (constant dollars)
                                                                               Percent change
1992   1993        1994             1995          1996        1997-98    1990-98      1990-93       1994-98
19.8   21.7         21.2            21.6           20.8          18.1      –13.8          3.3         –14.7
39.2   43.5         41.0            40.4           41.7          39.1       –9.8          0.4          –4.6
19.1   22.5         21.0            20.3           19.7          15.8      –24.0          8.6         –25.1
11.1   12.3         13.5            12.8           12.8            9.5     –26.0         –4.3         –29.6
24.5   27.9         27.0            26.1           26.5          23.4      –12.9          3.7         –13.3
34.5   37.6         38.0            37.9           42.1          43.8       –3.4        –17.2          15.5
14.7   16.4         17.4            16.7           18.0          17.6        0.9         –5.8            1.2
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
17.6   19.6         20.6            20.1           21.7          21.8        2.3         –7.8            5.5
45.4   52.4         48.5            44.0           47.9          43.9      –10.2          7.3          –9.5
17.0   18.2         17.3            17.1           16.7          15.5      –11.1          4.8         –10.4
11.8   12.0         12.7            12.8           13.7          13.2       –2.1        –11.1            4.1
22.6   24.7         24.3            23.5           24.6          23.0       –3.0          4.2          –5.6
37.4   45.6         41.5            43.2           46.5          38.2      –13.2          3.7          –8.0
15.2   17.6         15.8            15.8           14.8          12.7      –28.2         –0.4         –19.5
10.8   13.0         12.0            11.6           11.8          10.3      –22.1         –1.7         –14.2
20.2   24.1         22.2            22.6           23.0          19.6      –15.7          3.6         –11.5
39.0   40.6         39.3            40.2           37.1          35.5      –22.9        –11.9          –9.6
15.9   17.2         17.4            17.8           16.5          13.4      –30.2         –9.9         –23.0
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
25.0   26.7         26.5            26.5           24.4          22.6      –22.5         –8.5         –14.9
31.7   33.3         29.3            29.5           33.4          33.0      –18.5        –17.8          12.8
12.3   13.5         14.4            14.4           15.1          16.2        9.2         –9.1          12.3
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
16.2   17.5         17.4            17.3           18.7          19.8        0.8        –10.7          13.7
31.8   34.6         34.4            32.1           32.7          28.5      –24.0         –7.6         –17.1
17.6   20.3         20.2            19.6           18.8          16.8      –18.5         –1.8         –16.6
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
22.3   25.3         25.0            23.8           23.4          21.0      –18.8         –2.3         –16.0
29.2   31.9         27.7            29.5           28.4          27.9      –12.8         –0.3            0.8
18.1   20.5         20.3            22.1           20.9          18.4       –8.2          2.5          –9.4
10.6   12.1         12.7            13.1           12.0          11.1        1.4         10.8         –12.8
20.3   22.7         21.1            22.6           21.5          20.3       –7.6          3.1          –3.8
34.2   36.5         30.4            35.0           36.2          29.4       –8.5         13.5          –3.3
18.9   20.9         17.3            19.4           20.4          16.1       –7.8         19.8          –6.8
11.6   13.2         12.8            13.2           13.4          11.4       –2.7         12.0         –10.8
21.7   23.8         20.2            22.3           23.1          18.9       –6.7         17.4          –6.6
                                                                                                 (continued)


                          Page 35                                        GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix II
Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
Trip, 1990—98




                   State            Length of trip                1990             1991
Grand Junction     CO               Short                         31.2             29.6
                                    Medium                        17.6             15.9
                                    Long                          13.4             10.8
                                    Avg.                          22.5             20.8
Great Falls        MT               Short                         36.7             33.5
                                    Medium                        15.7             14.7
                                    Long                          10.5               9.8
                                    Avg.                          18.3             17.1
Green Bay          WI               Short                         46.2             42.5
                                    Medium                        16.0             16.5
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          21.4             21.0
Lincoln            NE               Short                         40.3             35.6
                                    Medium                        17.3             16.9
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          21.9             20.9
Lubbock            TX               Short                         17.8             17.5
                                    Medium                        16.0             15.4
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          16.8             16.4
Manchester         NH               Short                         42.4             39.3
                                    Medium                        17.3             17.2
                                    Long                          12.1             11.6
                                    Avg.                          19.8             19.2
Medford            OR               Short                         40.4             34.6
                                    Medium                        14.6             13.6
                                    Long                          10.9             10.2
                                    Avg.                          21.5             19.4
Midland/Odessa     TX               Short                         19.1             19.0
                                    Medium                        15.4             15.4
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          17.3             17.2
Missoula           MT               Short                         36.2             32.1
                                    Medium                        16.1             14.6
                                    Long                          11.3             10.6
                                    Avg.                          18.0             16.4




Page 36                                              GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                          Appendix II
                          Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
                          Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
                          Trip, 1990—98




         Cents per passenger mile (constant dollars)
                                                                               Percent change
1992   1993        1994             1995          1996        1997-98    1990-98      1990-93       1994-98
28.2   25.3         22.3            32.0           28.4          25.0      –20.0        –18.7          11.7
13.9   14.6         15.3            16.3           17.2          15.4      –12.6        –16.7            0.2
 8.8   12.3         13.2             4.7           10.8            4.6     –66.1         –8.3         –65.4
19.0   18.7         18.4            21.4           21.2          18.9      –16.0        –16.6            2.7
29.3   31.4         28.9            28.3           29.2          27.7      –24.4        –14.4          –4.0
13.4   14.3         15.1            15.0           15.0          14.1       –9.8         –8.9          –6.4
 7.9    8.7          9.9            10.0            9.3            8.8     –16.3        –17.0         –11.1
15.4   16.5         16.7            16.5           16.7          15.9      –13.2         –9.7          –4.7
38.3   41.8         41.5            38.1           39.7          40.3      –12.8         –9.6          –2.9
15.1   16.0         16.8            15.1           15.0          13.6      –14.9          0.2         –19.2
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
19.2   20.6         21.3            19.4           19.7          18.8      –12.3         –3.7         –12.0
33.2   36.1         30.5            22.7           24.8          25.6      –36.4        –10.4         –16.0
15.1   17.2         15.5            13.6           14.1          13.4      –22.7         –0.8         –13.7
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
18.8   21.3         18.8            15.6           16.5          16.1      –26.3         –3.0         –14.1
17.7   18.2         18.0            18.3           18.2          18.2        2.5          2.6            1.1
14.7   16.0         15.8            15.1           13.6          12.4      –22.7         –0.1         –21.6
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
16.1   17.1         16.9            16.7           15.8          15.2       –9.7          1.3          –9.8
37.3   39.6         34.1            37.3           36.9          34.3      –19.0         –6.4            0.7
17.2   19.3         16.3            17.3           15.6          14.8      –14.2         11.5          –9.2
10.5   12.7         12.9            11.8           12.8          11.0       –9.2          5.4         –15.0
18.6   20.7         18.7            19.4           18.8          17.4      –12.1          4.5          –6.7
30.9   34.5         33.7            28.5           28.3          23.6      –41.5        –14.5         –30.0
13.3   13.5         13.9            14.2           14.3          12.1      –16.9         –7.7         –12.6
 9.8   10.2          9.6             9.8           10.0            9.6     –11.5         –6.5            0.0
18.2   19.4         19.1            17.5           17.6          15.4      –28.3        –10.0         –19.4
18.0   18.3         17.6            18.3           19.1          19.6        2.3         –4.4          11.5
14.5   15.2         14.3            13.7           13.2          12.3      –20.1         –1.4         –13.8
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
16.3   16.8         15.9            16.0           16.2          16.0       –7.8         –3.2            0.2
31.3   31.4         30.9            28.5           30.5          26.4      –27.2        –13.4         –14.7
13.3   14.1         15.5            15.4           14.8          14.0      –12.9        –12.7          –9.6
 9.7   10.4         11.5            11.3           11.2          10.1      –10.6         –8.3         –11.7
15.2   16.0         17.0            16.6           16.4          15.2      –15.7        –11.5         –10.7
                                                                                                 (continued)



                          Page 37                                        GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix II
Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
Trip, 1990—98




                   State            Length of trip                1990             1991
Myrtle Beach       SC               Short                         27.3             25.3
                                    Medium                        19.9             19.4
                                    Long                          11.5             11.2
                                    Avg.                          23.7             22.2
Pasco              WA               Short                         47.8             42.2
                                    Medium                        19.7             19.4
                                    Long                          16.3             15.5
                                    Avg.                          22.8             21.9
Portland           ME               Short                         41.7             37.7
                                    Medium                        19.0             17.7
                                    Long                          10.9             10.5
                                    Avg.                          19.7             18.3
Rapid City         SD               Short                         39.0             33.8
                                    Medium                        17.4             15.7
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          20.7             18.5
Reno               NV               Short                         27.1             18.8
                                    Medium                        14.2             13.1
                                    Long                          11.3             10.4
                                    Avg.                          18.0             14.5
Roanoke            VA               Short                         39.5             38.7
                                    Medium                        19.3             19.7
                                    Long                          12.1             12.8
                                    Avg.                          25.8             25.8
Rochester          MN               Short                         43.9             39.7
                                    Medium                        20.5             21.3
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          24.8             24.8
Savannah           GA               Short                         28.4             30.6
                                    Medium                        19.0             19.7
                                    Long                          12.2             13.0
                                    Avg.                          21.9             23.1
Sioux City         IA               Short                         40.3             36.4
                                    Medium                        15.9             17.2
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          21.0             21.6




Page 38                                              GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                          Appendix II
                          Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
                          Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
                          Trip, 1990—98




         Cents per passenger mile (constant dollars)
                                                                               Percent change
1992   1993        1994             1995          1996        1997-98    1990-98      1990-93       1994-98
22.6   25.1         20.4            22.8           21.0          17.9      –34.6         –8.1         –12.5
17.4   18.9         16.7            18.4           18.1          15.6      –21.7         –5.2          –6.6
10.4   12.0         11.5            12.1           11.8          11.2       –2.4          4.0          –2.2
20.0   22.2         18.6            20.6           19.3          16.6      –29.8         –6.3         –10.5
39.3   38.0         30.4            29.7           28.3          24.5      –48.7        –20.6         –19.4
18.2   19.7         19.5            19.4           17.0          15.2      –23.1         –0.3         –22.2
14.6   16.6         16.6            16.4           15.0          14.1      –13.1          2.3         –14.7
20.7   21.8         20.7            20.4           18.5          16.7      –26.9         –4.5         –19.6
34.8   36.5         34.8            36.3           37.2          33.7      –19.1        –12.5          –3.1
15.3   16.7         16.5            16.5           15.8          14.8      –22.4        –12.5         –10.6
 9.3   10.2         10.7            10.7           10.8          10.4       –5.1         –6.6          –2.6
16.3   17.5         17.5            17.6           17.4          16.4      –16.6        –10.9          –5.9
29.6   31.0         27.5            31.4           31.8          30.2      –22.6        –20.7          10.1
13.5   14.7         15.1            15.4           15.4          14.5      –16.4        –15.6          –3.8
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
16.1   17.3         17.3            17.7           18.0          17.2      –16.8        –16.4          –0.4
18.2   17.1         14.7            14.8           13.2          13.7      –49.4        –36.9          –7.0
11.5   11.6         12.1            10.6            9.6            8.8     –38.1        –18.4         –27.4
 9.4    9.7         10.3             9.6            9.9            8.7     –22.7        –13.7         –15.2
13.3   12.9         12.5            11.8           10.9          10.4      –42.3        –28.1         –17.3
34.8   37.5         27.9            35.9           37.8          37.4       –5.4         –5.1          33.8
17.1   18.3         16.3            18.0           18.2          18.3       –5.1         –4.8          11.9
11.4   12.8         12.5            12.2           12.8          13.0        7.6          5.6            4.0
23.1   24.8         20.5            24.2           25.3          25.4       –1.6         –3.9          23.8
34.3   36.4         37.6            36.9           41.6          35.8      –18.5        –17.1          –5.0
18.1   20.1         19.8            19.3           21.5          20.2       –1.6         –2.1            2.0
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
21.2   23.4         23.3            22.8           25.4          23.2       –6.2         –5.7          –0.4
28.5   29.8         22.7            26.7           23.7          22.2      –22.1          4.9          –2.4
18.3   19.6         17.2            18.4           17.7          15.2      –20.1          2.8         –11.3
11.5   13.2         13.1            13.5           12.6          11.5       –6.0          8.1         –12.6
21.5   22.9         18.9            21.1           19.4          17.5      –20.0          4.8          –7.1
31.8   34.7         31.2            28.0           28.0          26.8      –33.5        –14.0         –14.3
14.3   16.7         16.2            12.5           13.6          13.2      –16.7          5.2         –18.1
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
18.3   20.7         19.6            16.0           16.9          16.5      –21.6         –1.6         –15.9
                                                                                                 (continued)



                          Page 39                                        GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix II
Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
Trip, 1990—98




                   State            Length of trip                1990             1991
Sioux Falls        SD               Short                         40.5             36.9
                                    Medium                        16.2             15.9
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          20.4             19.5
South Bend         IN               Short                         36.4             34.2
                                    Medium                        15.3             14.4
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          20.7             19.4
Springfield        MO               Short                         40.8             36.9
                                    Medium                        16.3             16.7
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          21.8             21.6
Tallahassee        FL               Short                         39.4             38.3
                                    Medium                        19.5             20.6
                                    Long                          12.0             11.8
                                    Avg.                          27.9             27.8
Valparaiso/Ft.     FL               Short                         31.3             28.9
Walton Beach
                                    Medium                        19.8             19.3
                                    Long                          13.6             13.1
                                    Avg.                          23.0             21.9
Wilmington         NC               Short                         34.4             30.1
                                    Medium                        24.0             23.0
                                    Long                          12.8             13.1
                                    Avg.                          25.9             23.9


Medium-sized-community airports
Appleton           WI               Short                         50.4             46.0
                                    Medium                        22.1             22.1
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          28.2             27.1
Atlantic City      NJ               Short                         28.9             26.2
                                    Medium                        15.2             16.0
                                    Long                          11.4             11.3
                                    Avg.                          17.9             17.9
Augusta            GA               Short                         37.9             34.1
                                    Medium                        25.4             22.8




Page 40                                              GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                          Appendix II
                          Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
                          Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
                          Trip, 1990—98




         Cents per passenger mile (constant dollars)
                                                                               Percent change
1992   1993        1994             1995          1996        1997-98    1990-98      1990-93       1994-98
30.7   32.8         30.4            28.2           28.4          27.7      –31.7        –19.1          –9.0
12.8   14.7         14.5            14.7           13.0          12.1      –25.4         –9.3         –16.8
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
15.9   17.9         17.4            17.0           15.7          15.0      –26.4        –12.4         –13.5
33.3   35.2         30.3            30.3           31.3          30.1      –17.2         –3.3          –0.5
14.2   15.6         14.2            14.2           12.9          11.4      –25.8          2.2         –20.1
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
19.0   20.7         18.5            18.5           17.7          16.4      –20.5          0.3         –11.3
32.1   31.1         30.8            30.9           33.6          32.3      –20.7        –23.7            5.2
14.4   14.9         14.3            14.9           14.3          13.4      –17.9         –8.9          –6.2
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
18.6   19.0         18.3            18.7           19.0          18.4      –15.7        –12.8            0.5
36.7   39.0         32.5            33.7           36.3          33.7      –14.4         –0.8            3.7
18.6   20.4         18.5            19.4           20.4          18.6       –4.8          4.6            0.7
11.4   12.8         12.4            13.2           13.1          12.8        7.1          6.9            3.7
26.3   28.3         24.5            25.2           26.9          25.0      –10.5          1.5            2.1
27.2   30.1         28.4            28.1           26.8          23.1      –26.2         –3.7         –18.7

17.6   19.1         17.7            17.2           17.0          15.2      –23.4         –3.5         –14.1
11.9   13.4         13.5            12.4           12.3          11.7      –14.2         –1.0         –13.4
20.2   22.3         20.9            20.4           19.7          17.4      –24.3         –3.0         –16.7
26.9   28.0         22.9            26.4           26.9          25.3      –26.4        –18.6          10.2
19.1   21.2         19.0            21.1           22.4          19.1      –20.2        –11.5            0.5
11.8   13.6         13.2            13.3           13.1          11.8       –7.8          6.5         –10.8
21.2   22.9         19.7            22.0           22.6          20.7      –20.3        –11.8            5.0



41.5   42.4         39.9            35.9           36.5          36.2      –28.1        –15.9          –9.2
20.1   21.3         20.2            19.0           17.6          15.6      –29.5         –3.8         –23.1
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
24.5   25.7         24.6            22.9           21.9          20.3      –28.0         –8.7         –17.5
24.3   22.1         20.7            29.1           25.1          17.8      –38.2        –23.6         –14.0
16.2   13.3         12.0            11.5           10.9            9.1     –40.1        –12.7         –24.0
10.5   11.9         10.7            10.5           12.2          10.9       –4.2          4.7            1.7
17.7   15.4         14.3            16.1           14.8          11.6      –35.3        –14.1         –18.9
31.4   34.1         35.4            33.7           33.8          32.9      –13.2        –10.1          –7.0
20.7   22.7         23.7            24.4           24.9          23.0       –9.3        –10.6          –2.7
                                                                                                 (continued)


                          Page 41                                        GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix II
Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
Trip, 1990—98




                    State           Length of trip                1990             1991
                                    Long                          16.5             15.2
                                    Avg.                          29.5             26.6
Baton Rouge         LA              Short                         30.9             30.4
                                    Medium                        18.9             18.0
                                    Long                          15.3             13.2
                                    Avg.                          22.5             21.7
Boise               ID              Short                         36.4             33.5
                                    Medium                        18.8             18.4
                                    Long                          14.6             14.2
                                    Avg.                          26.8             25.2
Bristol/Kingsport   TN              Short                         37.8             36.2
                                    Medium                        21.1             19.4
                                    Long                          13.6             13.1
                                    Avg.                          28.6             27.2
Charleston          SC              Short                         29.8             30.2
                                    Medium                        20.3             20.4
                                    Long                          12.1             12.5
                                    Avg.                          22.8             23.1
Chattanooga         TN              Short                         39.8             36.9
                                    Medium                        18.9             18.5
                                    Long                          13.6             13.5
                                    Avg.                          30.3             28.6
Colorado Springs CO                 Short                         29.9             26.3
                                    Medium                        18.2             16.5
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          20.5             18.5
Columbia            SC              Short                         34.1             33.7
                                    Medium                        20.5             20.3
                                    Long                          12.5             12.7
                                    Avg.                          25.5             25.3
Corpus Christi      TX              Short                         24.0             21.6
                                    Medium                        16.7             15.4
                                    Long                            0.0            23.7
                                    Avg.                          18.7             17.1
Daytona Beach       FL              Short                         26.1             28.4
                                    Medium                        14.0             16.1
                                    Long                          10.4             10.4



Page 42                                              GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                          Appendix II
                          Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
                          Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
                          Trip, 1990—98




         Cents per passenger mile (constant dollars)
                                                                               Percent change
1992   1993        1994             1995          1996        1997-98    1990-98      1990-93       1994-98
13.5   16.2         15.3            16.6           17.2          14.5      –12.6         –2.3          –5.2
24.4   26.8         27.6            27.4           27.6          26.0      –12.0         –9.2          –5.8
28.2   29.2         26.2            28.7           26.3          23.4      –24.3         –5.5         –10.7
16.2   18.0         16.6            16.1           14.9          13.7      –27.5         –4.6         –17.5
11.0   13.0         12.6            11.9           10.9            8.9     –42.0        –15.4         –29.3
19.9   21.4         19.5            19.8           18.3          16.6      –26.2         –4.7         –14.7
32.5   27.0         20.6            18.6           16.6          16.8      –53.7        –25.7         –18.4
16.1   17.3         17.3            15.2           14.1          13.7      –27.0         –7.7         –20.8
12.6   13.5         13.4            12.8           12.3          11.6      –20.6         –7.8         –13.2
23.8   21.1         18.2            16.4           15.0          14.8      –44.7        –21.3         –18.8
31.5   36.0         35.3            34.0           35.1          32.7      –13.6         –4.7          –7.3
17.0   19.3         18.5            19.7           19.8          17.8      –15.7         –8.6          –4.1
12.1   13.3         12.7            13.8           12.9          13.4       –2.1         –2.4            5.2
23.9   27.2         26.6            26.4           26.8          25.0      –12.6         –4.9          –5.8
29.5   29.6         21.0            28.5           26.9          27.4       –8.2         –0.7          30.5
18.8   21.1         16.4            19.2           19.2          18.2      –10.2          3.7          11.5
11.8   13.2         12.9            12.2           12.7          12.6        4.4          9.3          –2.1
22.2   23.3         17.7            22.0           21.3          21.3       –6.5          2.3          20.3
32.3   35.5         35.8            35.7           33.7          26.6      –33.1        –10.9         –25.7
16.5   17.4         17.9            18.7           17.5          16.7      –11.7         –8.1          –6.5
12.3   13.9         12.9            14.2           11.9          13.0       –4.4          1.9            1.1
25.3   27.5         27.8            28.1           26.4          22.2      –26.5         –9.3         –20.0
23.0   22.2         22.0            16.2           14.1          17.7      –40.8        –25.8         –19.5
14.7   16.3         15.7            13.7           11.5          12.9      –28.8        –10.3         –17.7
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
16.4   17.5         17.0            14.2           12.0          13.9      –32.0        –14.6         –18.2
32.9   35.5         25.8            31.0           28.8          30.8       –9.6          4.2          19.2
19.2   20.8         18.9            21.8           21.2          20.8        1.6          1.8            9.8
12.3   14.4         14.9            15.0           14.5          14.3       14.6         15.2          –4.0
24.6   26.8         21.7            24.9           23.6          24.6       –3.6          5.0          13.8
21.7   22.1         21.0            22.9           23.6          23.8       –1.1         –8.2          13.3
14.0   16.4         15.7            15.6           15.0          13.0      –22.5         –1.9         –17.7
12.0   11.5          9.5            11.8           N/A           12.0       N/A           N/A          26.7
16.1   18.0         17.2            17.6           17.5          16.1      –14.2         –4.0          –6.6
25.9   29.1         23.5            26.4           22.5          19.3      –25.8         11.5         –17.6
15.6   16.3         14.0            14.6           12.3          12.4      –11.9         16.0         –11.6
 9.5   10.3         10.0            10.3           10.3            8.4     –19.5         –1.1         –16.4
                                                                                                 (continued)


                          Page 43                                        GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix II
Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
Trip, 1990—98




                   State            Length of trip                1990             1991
                                    Avg.                          15.6             17.3
Des Moines         IA               Short                         43.9             37.4
                                    Medium                        16.1             14.2
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          22.1             19.3
Eugene             OR               Short                         36.6             33.2
                                    Medium                        16.4             16.0
                                    Long                          10.9             10.9
                                    Avg.                          19.1             18.2
Flint              MI               Short                         31.9             27.9
                                    Medium                        13.0             13.3
                                    Long                          12.6             11.1
                                    Avg.                          18.1             17.3
Fort Myers         FL               Short                         29.1             30.2
                                    Medium                        13.3             14.3
                                    Long                            9.8            10.0
                                    Avg.                          13.8             14.8
Fort Wayne         IN               Short                         43.3             39.9
                                    Medium                        15.9             15.8
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          24.8             23.7
Gulfport           MS               Short                         25.4             27.6
                                    Medium                        15.1             16.1
                                    Long                          10.7             11.0
                                    Avg.                          19.6             21.1
Harlingen          TX               Short                         18.1             18.1
                                    Medium                        14.8             14.1
                                    Long                          11.3               8.8
                                    Avg.                          16.1             15.7
Huntington         WV               Short                         38.7             36.8
                                    Medium                        18.8             19.1
                                    Long                          12.8             12.1
                                    Avg.                          28.2             27.5
Huntsville         AL               Short                         34.9             35.4
                                    Medium                        21.3             20.8
                                    Long                          15.7             15.4
                                    Avg.                          26.7             26.7



Page 44                                              GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                          Appendix II
                          Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
                          Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
                          Trip, 1990—98




         Cents per passenger mile (constant dollars)
                                                                               Percent change
1992   1993        1994             1995          1996        1997-98    1990-98      1990-93       1994-98
16.4   17.6         15.2            16.1           13.9          13.0      –16.7         12.4         –14.0
36.1   38.8         37.7            35.3           31.3          38.7      –11.9        –11.7            2.6
13.7   16.7         17.2            16.2           15.1          15.7       –2.5          3.3          –8.6
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
18.6   21.5         21.7            20.1           18.4          20.8       –5.7         –2.5          –4.3
29.4   23.6         20.2            21.8           20.8          20.2      –44.9        –35.5            0.0
14.1   14.4         14.9            14.4           14.3          12.9      –21.3        –11.8         –13.7
 9.4   10.2         10.4            10.2           10.9          10.6       –2.8         –6.6            1.6
16.4   14.9         14.7            14.8           14.8          14.0      –26.7        –22.1          –4.9
29.4   34.2         35.7            36.9           34.8          23.7      –25.8          7.2         –33.5
12.5   14.3         13.8            13.6           13.4          10.2      –21.5         10.0         –25.6
10.0   13.0         11.9            13.1           13.5            9.4     –26.0          3.2         –21.7
17.1   19.9         20.0            20.2           19.5          14.6      –19.5         10.1         –27.2
29.5   29.4         22.2            24.0           21.9          20.7      –29.0          1.1          –6.8
14.6   14.5         13.0            12.6           11.7          11.6      –12.9          8.8         –11.0
 9.5    9.9          9.9             9.9            9.9            9.3      –5.5          1.3          –6.6
15.0   14.9         13.2            13.0           12.1          11.9      –14.1          8.0         –10.5
35.4   37.2         33.5            33.4           34.3          34.8      –19.7        –14.2            3.7
14.2   15.8         13.8            14.2           14.1          13.4      –15.7         –0.4          –2.8
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
21.1   22.9         20.5            20.5           20.8          20.7      –16.3         –7.6            0.9
28.1   29.4         25.8            25.2           26.8          18.7      –26.5         15.7         –27.7
16.6   17.7         16.3            15.2           14.5          14.3       –5.3         17.2         –12.6
10.8   11.7         11.8            11.4            9.6            9.2     –13.8          9.2         –22.2
21.6   22.7         20.5            19.6           19.9          15.9      –18.7         16.0         –22.2
18.4   18.2         17.3            18.4           19.1          19.6        8.6          0.5          13.6
13.7   15.2         14.2            13.7           13.3          11.6      –21.4          2.5         –18.1
 9.0    7.1         16.1            17.2           10.0          10.9       –3.3        –37.2         –32.1
15.6   16.4         15.4            15.6           15.7          14.9       –7.8          1.4          –3.8
35.1   37.7         35.8            38.9           38.9          37.9       –1.9         –2.7            6.1
17.6   19.0         19.1            20.1           20.3          15.8      –15.9          1.2         –17.3
12.3   13.7         14.3            13.8           12.9            8.9     –30.2          7.5         –37.6
25.9   28.3         27.8            29.0           28.9          26.3       –6.8          0.5          –5.5
32.8   36.4         36.0            35.0           31.5          28.8      –17.5          4.3         –20.0
19.2   22.4         21.5            21.8           18.8          18.3      –14.1          5.3         –15.3
14.5   16.3         15.3            15.6           13.0          11.3      –27.8          4.2         –25.8
24.9   28.1         27.4            27.2           24.0          22.5      –15.7          5.3         –17.9
                                                                                                 (continued)


                          Page 45                                        GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix II
Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
Trip, 1990—98




                   State            Length of trip                1990             1991
Jackson            MS               Short                         37.2             35.2
                                    Medium                        20.5             19.9
                                    Long                            0.0            13.4
                                    Avg.                          27.2             26.1
Kalamazoo          MI               Short                         41.0             37.6
County
                                    Medium                        15.5             15.1
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          23.3             22.1
Lafayette          LA               Short                         32.8             31.2
                                    Medium                        15.4             14.9
                                    Long                          14.7             12.9
                                    Avg.                          19.9             19.3
Lansing            MI               Short                         34.0             31.0
                                    Medium                        13.6             13.4
                                    Long                          12.6             12.0
                                    Avg.                          18.3             17.4
Lexington          KY               Short                         41.7             38.1
                                    Medium                        19.5             18.4
                                    Long                          15.3             14.5
                                    Avg.                          28.8             26.8
Little Rock        AR               Short                         25.3             23.4
                                    Medium                        19.9             18.6
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          22.1             20.6
Madison            WI               Short                         40.5             38.4
                                    Medium                        15.3             16.1
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          19.5             19.8
McAllen/Mission    TX               Short                         20.7             20.1
                                    Medium                        15.3             15.6
                                    Long                          14.8             11.2
                                    Avg.                          16.3             16.5
Melbourne          FL               Short                         28.5             31.2
                                    Medium                        14.5             17.0
                                    Long                          11.3             11.7
                                    Avg.                          16.0             18.1




Page 46                                              GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                          Appendix II
                          Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
                          Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
                          Trip, 1990—98




         Cents per passenger mile (constant dollars)
                                                                               Percent change
1992   1993        1994             1995          1996        1997-98    1990-98      1990-93       1994-98
31.9   36.7         37.5            34.5           29.5          23.9      –35.8         –1.3         –36.2
17.7   19.9         21.2            21.0           16.9          13.6      –33.7         –2.9         –35.7
21.1   12.7         19.8             N/A           14.0          17.0       N/A           N/A         –14.4
23.5   26.8         27.8            26.4           22.0          17.8      –34.7         –1.5         –36.1
34.4   37.5         35.8            36.6           38.1          38.6       –5.9         –8.4            7.6

13.9   15.2         14.9            14.8           14.8          14.4       –7.5         –1.9          –3.8
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
20.2   22.3         22.0            21.6           22.1          22.4       –3.9         –4.4            1.7
27.8   27.0         24.8            26.5           27.8          23.7      –27.8        –17.6          –4.7
13.7   15.1         14.4            14.1           14.1          12.1      –21.4         –1.7         –16.4
 9.7   12.8         12.3            13.0           10.7          10.3      –29.6        –12.7         –16.2
17.6   18.5         17.4            17.4           17.9          15.5      –22.1         –7.3         –10.9
30.0   31.7         30.0            29.6           31.1          29.0      –14.8         –6.7          –3.3
13.2   13.9         13.6            12.4           11.6          10.2      –25.4          2.5         –25.1
 9.8   11.5         12.0             9.8           10.2            9.7     –23.0         –8.2         –19.5
16.7   17.9         17.4            16.2           16.0          14.6      –20.1         –2.3         –16.0
33.9   38.1         34.4            34.8           31.2          29.0      –30.3         –8.5         –15.7
16.5   18.4         18.5            17.7           15.9          13.5      –30.6         –5.2         –27.2
12.4   15.0         14.4            14.6           13.2            9.6     –36.9         –2.1         –33.2
23.8   26.9         25.5            24.9           22.5          20.2      –29.8         –6.5         –20.7
22.6   23.4         21.5            21.6           21.4          21.2      –16.3         –7.5          –1.7
16.3   17.5         16.4            15.7           14.0          13.3      –33.2        –12.0         –19.1
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
19.0   20.0         18.6            18.2           17.1          16.6      –25.1         –9.7         –10.8
33.1   36.6         35.8            33.7           36.0          36.7       –9.4         –9.8            2.7
15.0   15.9         15.9            14.9           15.5          13.6      –11.5          3.6         –14.8
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
18.0   19.3         19.3            18.2           19.1          17.6       –9.9         –1.0          –9.1
22.5   23.5         21.0            20.4           21.6          21.3        2.8         13.4            1.5
14.9   17.5         16.0            15.3           15.0          13.8       –9.8         14.1         –13.5
 8.3   12.6         18.7            10.6           13.1            9.0     –39.0        –15.1         –51.6
16.4   18.7         17.0            16.4           16.4          15.4       –5.6         14.3          –9.4
29.0   32.4         25.7            29.3           24.7          20.9      –26.7         13.7         –18.6
16.6   17.5         14.4            15.1           13.1          12.7      –11.9         21.0         –11.8
10.9   13.0         11.4            11.3           11.6          11.4        0.6         14.3            0.2
17.5   18.9         15.7            16.5           14.6          13.8      –13.9         18.2         –12.4
                                                                                                 (continued)


                          Page 47                                        GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix II
Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
Trip, 1990—98




                   State            Length of trip                1990             1991
Mobile             AL               Short                         33.8             34.4
                                    Medium                        19.4             20.2
                                    Long                          13.1             13.5
                                    Avg.                          23.8             24.5
Moline             IL               Short                         45.6             40.4
                                    Medium                        16.0             14.4
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          21.6             19.4
Montgomery         AL               Short                         37.1             33.3
                                    Medium                        21.4             20.2
                                    Long                          14.6             13.0
                                    Avg.                          28.0             25.7
Newburgh           NY               Short                         31.5             33.1
                                    Medium                        16.0             16.5
                                    Long                          11.8             10.7
                                    Avg.                          17.1             16.8
Pensacola          FL               Short                         32.4             29.2
                                    Medium                        16.6             16.5
                                    Long                          10.4             11.1
                                    Avg.                          20.3             19.5
Peoria             IL               Short                         41.1             35.4
                                    Medium                        16.8             16.8
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          21.3             20.5
Saginaw/Midland MI                  Short                         43.9             37.2
                                    Medium                        16.2             15.9
                                    Long                          15.0             14.3
                                    Avg.                          23.1             21.0
Santa Barbara      CA               Short                         47.3             41.4
                                    Medium                        19.4             18.4
                                    Long                          13.6             13.6
                                    Avg.                          21.1             19.8
Sarasota           FL               Short                         31.4             33.2
                                    Medium                        13.4             14.9
                                    Long                          10.0               9.9
                                    Avg.                          14.1             15.5
Shreveport         LA               Short                         36.3             34.2



Page 48                                              GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                          Appendix II
                          Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
                          Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
                          Trip, 1990—98




         Cents per passenger mile (constant dollars)
                                                                               Percent change
1992   1993        1994             1995          1996        1997-98    1990-98      1990-93       1994-98
33.2   38.0         35.6            39.0           29.6          26.8      –20.8         12.4         –24.8
19.0   22.0         19.5            21.8           17.5          16.1      –16.9         13.7         –17.2
11.8   13.2         13.4            15.4           13.3          12.1       –8.0          0.9          –9.7
23.4   26.8         24.6            27.2           21.3          19.4      –18.4         12.4         –20.9
36.5   39.0         38.0            37.1           37.3          36.2      –20.5        –14.4          –4.8
13.1   16.5         16.4            16.9           16.1          14.1      –11.7          3.6         –13.9
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
17.5   21.1         20.8            21.1           20.5          19.3      –10.7         –2.1          –7.3
30.7   32.9         33.9            34.0           30.6          26.8      –27.7        –11.4         –20.8
17.8   19.5         19.4            20.5           18.8          18.3      –14.6         –8.8          –5.8
12.1   13.0         12.6            13.2           11.2          11.1      –24.1        –10.5         –12.5
23.5   25.3         25.7            26.3           23.7          21.7      –22.7         –9.7         –15.8
31.7   34.6         28.1            31.4           32.5          29.4       –6.9          9.9            4.3
16.3   17.9         15.2            14.5           14.3          13.9      –13.7         11.5          –9.1
 9.8   11.6         10.5            10.6           11.7          10.1      –14.9         –1.7          –4.4
16.2   18.0         15.6            15.6           16.0          14.9      –12.4          5.8          –4.1
29.6   33.0         27.2            31.1           28.8          26.2      –19.1          2.1          –3.8
15.8   17.3         16.0            16.2           14.8          14.0      –15.6          4.4         –12.4
 9.7   11.0         11.5            10.6           10.3            9.9      –5.5          5.1         –14.1
19.1   21.0         18.7            19.7           18.2          17.1      –16.0          3.6          –8.9
36.1   36.3         37.3            37.0           38.8          34.4      –16.2        –11.6          –7.9
14.9   16.7         16.5            16.9           17.3          13.2      –21.4         –0.7         –20.4
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
18.7   20.5         20.2            20.6           21.1          17.8      –16.3         –3.5         –11.7
32.4   35.8         36.7            36.9           39.4          34.4      –21.6        –18.5          –6.2
13.7   14.3         14.3            14.7           14.2          12.0      –25.9        –11.6         –16.0
11.7   12.6         14.3            14.0           13.2          12.8      –14.4        –15.6         –10.0
18.2   19.6         20.1            20.3           20.6          18.0      –22.1        –14.9         –10.6
43.4   46.1         42.3            43.3           36.9          31.1      –34.2         –2.5         –26.3
16.3   18.5         15.4            15.1           13.9          13.2      –31.7         –4.8         –14.1
12.2   14.1         12.0            11.8           11.8          11.2      –18.0          3.4          –6.4
18.7   20.5         18.0            17.5           16.2          15.0      –28.9         –3.1         –16.5
30.9   33.3         26.5            30.9           28.4          26.1      –16.7          6.1          –1.2
15.4   15.2         13.0            13.3           11.9          11.5      –14.5         13.4         –11.8
 9.3   10.0         10.0            10.1            9.9            8.0     –19.5         –0.2         –19.7
15.8   15.7         13.5            14.0           12.6          12.0      –14.8         11.5         –11.4
29.9   31.6         29.8            30.8           29.1          24.9      –31.3        –12.8         –16.5
                                                                                                 (continued)


                          Page 49                                        GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix II
Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
Trip, 1990—98




                   State            Length of trip                1990             1991
                                    Medium                        19.7             18.2
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          23.7             22.2
Spokane            WA               Short                         43.5             40.6
                                    Medium                        17.2             16.4
                                    Long                          12.1             11.2
                                    Avg.                          23.8             22.7
Wichita            KS               Short                         42.2             38.2
                                    Medium                        17.4             16.8
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          23.8             22.4


Medium-large-community airports
Akron              OH               Short                         40.0             38.9
                                    Medium                        14.0             15.1
                                    Long                          12.0             12.2
                                    Avg.                          20.4             20.7
Albany             NY               Short                         44.7             42.6
                                    Medium                        15.3             16.5
                                    Long                          11.5             10.6
                                    Avg.                          18.8             19.2
Albuquerque        NM               Short                         17.2             16.8
                                    Medium                        15.6             14.6
                                    Long                          12.6             11.9
                                    Avg.                          16.1             15.3
Allentown          PA               Short                         44.6             42.3
                                    Medium                        17.7             18.2
                                    Long                          12.5             11.8
                                    Avg.                          21.6             21.2
Austin             TX               Short                         24.9             24.6
                                    Medium                        16.7             15.9
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          17.8             17.1
Bakersfield        CA               Short                         45.4             40.3
                                    Medium                        19.0             18.5
                                    Long                          13.0             12.6
                                    Avg.                          21.0             20.1



Page 50                                              GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                          Appendix II
                          Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
                          Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
                          Trip, 1990—98




         Cents per passenger mile (constant dollars)
                                                                              Percent change
1992   1993        1994             1995          1996        1997-98   1990-98      1990-93       1994-98
15.9   18.2         18.0            17.6           16.6          13.6     –31.0         –7.3         –24.5
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A      N/A           N/A           N/A
19.5   21.7         21.2            21.0           20.0          16.8     –29.2         –8.5         –20.8
35.5   23.7         19.2            17.0           16.5          15.6     –64.1        –45.4         –18.8
14.4   14.9         13.8            13.5           12.6          12.3     –28.4        –13.5         –11.0
10.1   11.3         11.8            11.1           12.0          11.3      –6.8         –6.5          –3.9
19.8   16.7         15.0            14.0           13.6          13.0     –45.1        –29.8         –13.0
32.6   30.6         32.6            29.3           25.0          32.1     –23.9        –27.3          –1.7
14.5   16.6         17.6            17.0           16.4          16.2      –6.9         –4.8          –7.9
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A      N/A           N/A           N/A
19.3   20.3         21.7            20.0           18.5          20.2     –15.2        –14.8          –6.9



36.2   40.2         32.8            40.1           40.2          29.5     –26.2          0.4          –9.9
15.2   17.2         14.9            15.9           13.2          11.3     –19.4         23.2         –24.4
11.3   12.9         11.6            11.3           11.2          10.3     –14.2          7.7         –11.2
19.9   22.3         19.1            21.3           20.0          16.5     –18.8          9.4         –13.5
40.4   41.9         34.0            38.2           41.0          40.4      –9.7         –6.2          18.7
15.5   16.9         15.1            15.3           15.3          14.3      –6.4         10.7          –5.2
 9.6   11.1         10.6            10.7           11.0          10.7      –6.8         –3.7            0.5
18.0   19.5         17.4            18.2           18.8          18.2      –3.2          4.0            4.7
17.3   17.4         16.4            16.8           15.5          16.9      –1.7          1.3            3.0
13.0   14.4         13.6            12.8           11.7          11.2     –28.2         –7.4         –17.7
10.3   11.6         11.0            11.0           11.2          10.8     –14.2         –8.2          –1.2
14.4   15.4         14.5            14.1           13.0          13.0     –19.1         –4.4         –10.1
39.3   43.3         37.0            37.1           41.7          42.4      –4.8         –2.7          14.6
17.7   19.2         17.2            16.3           16.8          15.1     –15.1          7.9         –12.2
11.2   12.6         11.3            11.1           13.0          13.1       5.5          1.0          16.4
20.3   22.1         19.9            19.4           21.4          20.8      –3.8          2.4            4.6
25.1   24.9         24.1            24.1           24.6          25.0       0.4         –0.2            3.9
15.2   17.1         15.8            15.5           14.1          13.9     –16.2          2.8         –11.5
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A      N/A           N/A           N/A
16.6   18.2         16.9            16.7           15.7          15.6     –12.3          2.6          –7.9
41.0   46.3         39.2            41.9           39.7          32.7     –28.0          2.0         –16.6
16.2   19.5         17.0            18.0           17.4          14.5     –23.9          2.2         –15.1
11.5   13.5         12.2            12.4           13.1          11.3     –13.5          4.0          –7.5
18.6   21.3         19.1            19.3           18.9          16.1     –23.6          1.4         –15.8
                                                                                                (continued)


                          Page 51                                       GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix II
Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
Trip, 1990—98




                   State            Length of trip                1990             1991
Birmingham         AL               Short                         28.7             28.6
                                    Medium                        17.5             18.0
                                    Long                          12.6             12.4
                                    Avg.                          23.0             23.1
Buffalo            NY               Short                         41.8             40.7
                                    Medium                        13.2             14.7
                                    Long                          11.6             11.1
                                    Avg.                          20.4             20.8
Charlotte/         NC               Short                         42.1             42.5
Douglas
                                    Medium                        23.0             22.3
                                    Long                          13.7             13.8
                                    Avg.                          30.3             30.3
Columbus           OH               Short                         43.6             40.1
                                    Medium                        15.5             15.1
                                    Long                          14.0             12.9
                                    Avg.                          22.8             21.5
Dayton             OH               Short                         47.5             42.8
                                    Medium                        18.6             17.0
                                    Long                          15.4             13.8
                                    Avg.                          27.0             24.6
El Paso            TX               Short                         15.5             15.3
                                    Medium                        16.9             15.7
                                    Long                          16.7             15.3
                                    Avg.                          16.3             15.5
Fort Lauderdale    FL               Short                         30.9             32.9
                                    Medium                        13.9             15.3
                                    Long                            9.9              9.8
                                    Avg.                          15.0             16.3
Fresno             CA               Short                         38.3             35.1
                                    Medium                        16.2             15.6
                                    Long                          12.2             11.7
                                    Avg.                          19.6             18.7
Grand Rapids       MI               Short                         39.7             35.9
                                    Medium                        14.2             14.4
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          21.0             20.2




Page 52                                              GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                          Appendix II
                          Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
                          Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
                          Trip, 1990—98




         Cents per passenger mile (constant dollars)
                                                                               Percent change
1992   1993        1994             1995          1996        1997-98    1990-98      1990-93       1994-98
28.1   29.4         26.6            24.5           23.6          22.8      –20.6          2.4         –14.5
16.8   18.3         17.8            16.6           16.2          15.3      –12.6          4.6         –13.8
11.2   13.2         12.7            11.1           10.7          10.5      –16.1          4.9         –17.1
22.3   23.7         22.0            20.3           19.6          18.8      –18.0          3.3         –14.4
38.4   38.0         28.8            37.4           40.0          37.9       –9.3         –9.1          31.5
13.9   14.7         13.4            13.9           12.8          11.6      –12.3         11.6         –13.9
 9.7   11.2         11.3            11.4           11.8          10.5       –9.5         –3.4          –7.0
19.6   20.2         17.2            19.9           20.2          18.8       –8.0         –1.1            9.3
41.1   42.1         31.4            40.7           40.7          39.1       –7.0          0.1          24.7

19.7   21.3         19.3            20.3           19.6          19.6      –14.7         –7.2            1.8
12.6   14.1         13.8            14.2           14.1          12.9       –5.8          2.7          –6.0
28.8   30.0         24.2            29.3           29.2          28.0       –7.7         –0.9          15.6
31.9   30.5         27.4            28.9           29.2          30.7      –29.5        –29.9          12.0
12.1   13.3         12.3            12.0           10.3          10.3      –33.7        –14.1         –16.3
 9.1   10.5          9.8             9.7            8.1            8.0     –43.0        –25.5         –18.5
16.7   17.3         15.7            16.0           14.9          15.4      –32.5        –24.0          –2.3
37.3   40.5         29.9            36.5           39.2          36.4      –23.4        –14.9          21.6
13.5   14.9         13.1            13.7           14.2          12.3      –33.8        –20.0          –5.8
10.3   11.1          9.7            11.8           13.5          12.3      –20.0        –27.7          27.7
20.7   22.7         18.4            20.9           22.1          20.3      –24.8        –15.8          10.3
15.5   15.6         14.7            15.4           15.6          16.2        4.1          0.6          10.5
14.8   16.9         16.2            15.3           14.1          13.4      –20.8          0.2         –17.2
13.4   15.6         15.2            15.8           15.8          13.0      –22.5         –6.9         –14.6
15.1   16.3         15.5            15.4           14.8          14.6      –10.6          0.1          –5.9
31.9   29.2         20.0            25.6           20.6          19.6      –36.5         –5.4          –1.9
15.3   14.9         12.9            13.0           11.8          11.7      –15.3          7.5          –9.1
 9.7   10.5         10.5             9.7            9.1            7.9     –20.3          6.8         –25.3
16.2   15.7         13.2            13.9           12.2          11.9      –20.6          4.8         –10.1
35.0   38.4         30.9            33.5           28.4          26.8      –30.1          0.1         –13.3
14.4   16.0         14.9            14.4           14.0          12.8      –20.8         –1.5         –14.0
10.7   12.2         11.6            10.7           11.2          10.4      –14.1          0.0         –10.1
17.9   18.6         17.1            17.0           16.1          15.1      –23.0         –5.5         –11.7
34.6   36.8         36.3            35.7           36.9          36.9       –7.1         –7.3            1.6
13.3   14.0         13.4            13.6           13.1          12.7      –10.8         –1.3          –5.1
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
19.1   20.3         19.9            19.7           19.8          19.5       –7.1         –3.3          –1.6
                                                                                                 (continued)


                          Page 53                                        GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix II
Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
Trip, 1990—98




                   State            Length of trip                1990             1991
Greensboro         NC               Short                         38.2             37.9
                                    Medium                        20.0             19.2
                                    Long                          12.8             12.8
                                    Avg.                          27.6             27.1
Greenville         SC               Short                         34.1             35.3
                                    Medium                        22.2             22.8
                                    Long                          13.6             14.5
                                    Avg.                          26.7             27.7
Harrisburg         PA               Short                         45.5             43.1
                                    Medium                        17.9             17.6
                                    Long                          12.2             11.9
                                    Avg.                          21.0             20.5
Hartford/Bradley   CT               Short                         42.9             40.9
                                    Medium                        18.2             18.5
                                    Long                          12.4             11.4
                                    Avg.                          19.2             19.0
Indianapolis       IN               Short                         36.6             34.0
                                    Medium                        15.4             14.3
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          20.5             19.2
Jacksonville       FL               Short                         34.6             34.7
                                    Medium                        19.3             20.4
                                    Long                          11.8             12.3
                                    Avg.                          22.7             23.4
Knoxville          TN               Short                         38.3             37.4
                                    Medium                        20.0             19.6
                                    Long                          14.3             14.4
                                    Avg.                          28.1             27.5
Las Vegas          NV               Short                         27.2             23.2
                                    Medium                        11.2             10.8
                                    Long                            9.4              8.8
                                    Avg.                          12.8             11.9
Louisville         KY               Short                         37.5             34.5
                                    Medium                        15.8             15.3
                                    Long                          12.4               8.9
                                    Avg.                          26.4             24.5
Memphis            TN               Short                         44.8             40.8



Page 54                                              GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                          Appendix II
                          Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
                          Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
                          Trip, 1990—98




         Cents per passenger mile (constant dollars)
                                                                               Percent change
1992   1993        1994             1995          1996        1997-98    1990-98      1990-93       1994-98
34.6   34.1         22.3            33.3           36.3          33.6      –12.2        –10.7          50.5
17.1   18.9         17.0            17.2           18.3          17.0      –15.0         –5.4            0.2
11.6   13.3         12.4            12.0           13.0          12.8       –0.5          3.6            2.8
24.6   25.3         18.6            24.0           26.1          24.5      –11.2         –8.5          31.5
35.0   37.0         26.7            34.5           32.8          33.5       –1.8          8.5          25.2
21.0   22.7         19.1            22.1           21.9          22.1       –0.6          2.2          15.5
13.7   14.8         15.0            15.2           14.6          14.7        8.1          9.1          –2.3
26.8   28.5         22.3            27.2           26.1          26.5       –0.7          6.7          19.0
39.5   42.9         32.9            39.9           43.7          39.4      –13.5         –5.7          19.9
16.2   17.2         16.1            17.1           17.6          13.5      –24.7         –3.9         –16.3
10.9   11.9         11.7            11.8           12.4            9.1     –25.2         –2.0         –22.0
19.0   20.4         18.3            19.9           21.3          17.7      –16.0         –2.8          –3.4
38.4   41.3         39.8            37.1           39.1          38.5      –10.2         –3.6          –3.1
17.3   18.7         16.8            16.2           15.7          15.6      –13.9          3.2          –6.7
10.0   12.0         11.6            11.3           11.3          11.3       –9.3         –3.0          –3.0
17.5   19.4         18.0            17.3           17.3          17.2      –10.6          0.7          –4.6
33.3   34.2         28.1            29.4           30.9          30.4      –16.9         –6.5            8.1
13.8   14.3         12.4            11.7           10.5          10.1      –34.1         –6.8         –18.1
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
18.6   19.3         16.3            16.0           15.5          15.1      –26.3         –6.0          –7.6
32.5   33.4         24.0            28.0           25.7          21.6      –37.6         –3.4         –10.2
19.0   19.8         16.6            17.4           16.5          14.9      –22.9          3.0         –10.6
10.8   12.5         12.0            11.5           11.4            9.6     –18.9          6.0         –20.1
21.8   22.8         18.0            19.5           18.5          16.0      –29.5          0.2         –11.0
31.9   35.2         35.0            32.9           31.7          29.9      –21.9         –7.9         –14.8
17.2   18.5         19.1            18.3           17.3          16.7      –16.4         –7.2         –12.8
12.2   13.9         13.8            14.0           13.2          13.9       –3.3         –3.2            0.1
23.7   26.0         26.2            24.9           23.8          22.7      –18.9         –7.4         –13.1
22.2   20.3         18.8            18.2           17.5          18.9      –30.7        –25.4            0.4
10.3   11.2         10.8             9.9            8.6            8.8     –21.7         –0.1         –18.7
 8.7    9.3          9.1             8.8            7.3            7.4     –20.9         –0.6         –18.1
11.5   11.9         11.4            10.8            9.6            9.9     –23.1         –7.5         –13.4
33.0   31.3         21.7            22.0           22.9          23.0      –38.7        –16.5            5.8
13.9   15.1         12.7            11.8           11.0          10.3      –35.3         –4.7         –19.0
12.3   13.3         13.7             8.6           11.1          11.6       –6.2          7.0         –15.5
23.1   22.7         17.0            16.6           16.6          16.3      –38.3        –14.1          –4.0
36.9   39.3         33.9            33.0           32.7          31.3      –30.0        –12.3          –7.5
                                                                                                 (continued)


                          Page 55                                        GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix II
Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
Trip, 1990—98




                   State            Length of trip                1990             1991
                                    Medium                        20.8             19.9
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          30.7             28.5
Nashville          TN               Short                         32.7             33.2
                                    Medium                        16.8             16.7
                                    Long                          13.2             11.7
                                    Avg.                          23.9             24.0
New Orleans        LA               Short                         22.7             22.8
                                    Medium                        15.6             16.0
                                    Long                          12.4             12.1
                                    Avg.                          17.5             17.8
Oklahoma City      OK               Short                         22.1             21.4
                                    Medium                        17.1             16.5
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          18.4             17.8
Omaha              NE               Short                         42.4             35.8
                                    Medium                        17.5             15.3
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          22.9             19.8
Orlando            FL               Short                         31.6             32.7
                                    Medium                        14.9             16.0
                                    Long                          10.5             10.4
                                    Avg.                          15.4             16.2
Providence         RI               Short                         42.9             42.2
                                    Medium                        15.4             16.9
                                    Long                          11.2             10.5
                                    Avg.                          17.5             18.2
Raleigh/Durham     NC               Short                         39.8             39.7
                                    Medium                        22.2             21.1
                                    Long                          13.2             13.2
                                    Avg.                          27.1             26.7
Richmond           VA               Short                         42.5             42.2
                                    Medium                        20.1             20.5
                                    Long                          12.4             12.7
                                    Avg.                          26.8             26.8
Rochester          NY               Short                         46.1             45.1
                                    Medium                        15.3             16.6



Page 56                                              GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                          Appendix II
                          Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
                          Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
                          Trip, 1990—98




         Cents per passenger mile (constant dollars)
                                                                               Percent change
1992   1993        1994             1995          1996        1997-98    1990-98      1990-93       1994-98
18.2   19.6         19.3            18.1           18.0          17.4      –16.3         –5.8          –9.5
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
26.0   28.0         25.5            24.4           24.3          23.3      –23.9         –8.8          –8.5
31.4   34.1         29.6            26.2           24.8          23.0      –29.5          4.5         –22.1
14.9   17.0         15.7            13.9           11.4          11.1      –34.2          1.3         –29.7
11.9   16.0         11.9            12.1            9.5            7.8     –41.0         21.5         –34.4
22.2   24.6         21.8            19.4           17.4          16.4      –31.2          3.2         –24.9
22.6   22.7         18.9            20.5           19.7          19.1      –15.9          0.2            0.8
14.7   15.7         14.1            13.8           13.3          12.5      –20.1          0.8         –11.7
10.5   11.6         11.4            10.5            9.7            8.3     –32.5         –6.0         –27.0
16.8   17.6         15.4            15.6           15.0          14.2      –19.0          0.3          –7.9
20.5   21.5         20.1            20.3           20.3          20.3       –8.1         –2.8            1.0
14.9   16.2         15.4            15.3           13.7          12.8      –25.0         –5.1         –17.0
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
16.4   17.6         16.7            16.7           15.6          14.9      –18.7         –4.1         –10.4
34.4   37.7         31.4            23.3           23.1          22.7      –46.3        –11.1         –27.5
14.3   16.6         14.7            12.4           11.3          11.9      –32.2         –5.6         –18.8
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
18.8   21.2         18.3            14.8           13.8          14.2      –37.8         –7.4         –22.0
31.9   33.3         23.1            25.4           21.0          20.0      –36.8          5.5         –13.5
15.9   15.6         13.8            13.5           11.8          11.3      –24.6          4.6         –18.7
 9.4   10.6         10.3            10.1            9.5            8.2     –22.2          0.8         –20.8
15.9   16.0         13.9            13.8           12.1          11.4      –25.7          4.2         –18.0
41.1   41.5         32.7            39.7           38.2          28.5      –33.5         –3.3         –12.6
16.5   17.8         15.6            16.2           14.0          11.2      –27.0         15.6         –28.1
 9.6   11.4         10.8            11.0           10.5            7.1     –36.4          1.9         –34.0
17.4   18.9         16.4            17.8           16.3          12.3      –29.7          8.0         –25.3
36.7   39.7         30.7            29.8           29.7          30.7      –22.8         –0.3            0.2
18.7   21.4         19.8            19.5           18.6          17.5      –21.2         –3.5         –11.9
11.7   13.6         13.0            13.1           12.6          12.3       –6.4          3.4          –5.5
24.4   27.0         22.7            22.3           21.9          21.9      –19.1         –0.1          –3.5
39.1   41.9         32.6            41.3           41.8          38.7       –8.9         –1.4          18.8
18.5   19.8         18.1            19.3           20.1          17.2      –14.2         –1.3          –4.7
11.7   12.7         12.7            13.1           12.9          12.9        3.7          2.4            1.4
24.8   26.5         22.4            26.3           26.8          24.7       –8.0         –1.1          10.1
43.5   45.5         34.2            41.6           42.9          40.2      –12.8         –1.5          17.6
15.6   16.6         15.1            15.9           15.4          14.4       –5.9          8.2          –4.4
                                                                                                 (continued)


                          Page 57                                        GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix II
Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
Trip, 1990—98




                   State            Length of trip                1990             1991
                                    Long                          14.0             12.5
                                    Avg.                          23.3             23.3
Salt Lake City     UT               Short                         37.2             34.6
                                    Medium                        17.9             17.0
                                    Long                          13.9             13.1
                                    Avg.                          24.5             22.9
San Antonio        TX               Short                         20.7             20.1
                                    Medium                        15.5             14.5
                                    Long                          18.0             13.7
                                    Avg.                          16.2             15.4
Syracuse           NY               Short                         49.9             46.3
                                    Medium                        17.5             17.3
                                    Long                          12.2             11.0
                                    Avg.                          21.6             20.7
Toledo             OH               Short                         37.7             33.5
                                    Medium                        14.4             14.5
                                    Long                          13.2             12.5
                                    Avg.                          20.8             19.6
Tucson             AZ               Short                         25.1             24.7
                                    Medium                        15.3             15.1
                                    Long                          11.3             10.9
                                    Avg.                          16.8             16.5
Tulsa              OK               Short                         23.0             22.3
                                    Medium                        17.3             16.9
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          19.3             18.8
West Palm Beach FL                  Short                         32.1             33.7
                                    Medium                        14.8             15.9
                                    Long                          11.0             11.1
                                    Avg.                          15.4             16.5
Wilkes-Barre/      PA               Short                         41.5             42.8
Scranton
                                    Medium                        15.3             16.9
                                    Long                          11.2             11.1
                                    Avg.                          18.5             19.2


Large-community airports




Page 58                                              GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                          Appendix II
                          Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
                          Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
                          Trip, 1990—98




         Cents per passenger mile (constant dollars)
                                                                               Percent change
1992   1993        1994             1995          1996        1997-98    1990-98      1990-93       1994-98
12.0   13.3         12.5            13.0           13.6          13.2       –5.4         –5.1            5.9
22.3   23.7         20.0            22.4           22.7          21.5       –7.5          1.7            7.6
32.0   17.6         14.7            15.0           13.8          15.3      –58.9        –52.8            4.1
14.6   16.1         15.6            13.7           12.0          12.2      –32.2        –10.2         –22.1
11.9   13.0         13.1            12.8           11.8          10.7      –22.8         –6.3         –18.5
20.4   16.4         15.1            14.1           12.6          13.1      –46.3        –33.0         –13.0
20.3   21.0         20.6            20.6           20.3          21.6        4.5          1.7            4.8
13.9   15.7         14.6            14.6           12.7          12.8      –17.3          1.6         –12.4
13.4   13.3         12.5            12.3           12.8          13.5      –24.9        –26.2            8.3
14.8   16.5         15.5            15.5           13.9          14.2      –12.7          1.8          –8.6
45.0   46.3         41.8            42.3           43.2          42.0      –15.9         –7.2            0.6
15.5   16.5         16.4            15.7           15.3          14.0      –20.0         –5.5         –14.6
 9.8   10.8         10.9            10.4           10.8          10.2      –17.0        –11.7          –6.4
19.3   20.5         19.8            19.4           19.6          18.5      –14.4         –5.3          –6.4
32.8   37.9         36.9            37.6           37.7          34.0      –10.0          0.4          –8.0
14.3   16.0         15.2            13.3           12.1          11.0      –23.4         11.5         –27.6
11.5   12.5         12.7            10.3           10.7            9.6     –27.2         –5.3         –24.0
19.2   22.0         21.5            19.9           19.3          17.7      –15.2          5.7         –17.6
25.6   23.7         16.1            15.1           14.8          13.7      –45.5         –5.4         –15.1
13.1   14.6         14.3            13.6           13.0          12.7      –17.3         –4.7         –11.5
10.3   11.4         11.2            10.9           11.3          11.6        2.7          1.2            3.2
15.5   16.1         14.2            13.4           13.1          12.7      –24.2         –4.0         –10.3
21.4   22.1         21.1            21.3           21.5          21.4       –7.0         –3.8            1.6
14.7   16.0         15.4            15.3           13.4          12.6      –27.4         –7.4         –18.1
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
17.1   18.2         17.4            17.4           16.3          15.7      –18.3         –5.5          –9.4
31.9   32.2         22.0            24.5           22.5          21.2      –33.9          0.3          –3.8
16.4   16.1         14.0            13.8           12.6          12.2      –17.2          8.9         –12.3
10.4   11.6         11.3            10.8           10.6            8.8     –20.1          5.6         –22.4
16.6   16.6         14.2            14.2           13.0          12.4      –19.5          7.5         –12.4
39.9   41.7         36.5            37.0           40.6          36.9      –11.2          0.5            1.1

16.5   17.4         16.3            16.2           14.7          14.4       –6.4         13.6         –11.7
10.5   10.9         11.4            11.1           11.4          10.6       –5.1         –2.4          –6.8
18.4   19.6         18.9            18.7           18.8          17.8       –3.8          5.9          –5.6



                                                                                                 (continued)


                          Page 59                                        GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix II
Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
Trip, 1990—98




                   State            Length of trip                1990             1991
Atlanta            GA               Short                         39.2             39.3
                                    Medium                        21.2             20.5
                                    Long                          15.1             14.6
                                    Avg.                          29.2             29.0
Baltimore          MD               Short                         44.1             41.3
                                    Medium                        18.0             17.9
                                    Long                          12.4             11.0
                                    Avg.                          21.2             20.0
Boston             MA               Short                         45.0             44.6
                                    Medium                        18.0             17.9
                                    Long                          12.1             10.7
                                    Avg.                          19.1             18.5
Burbank            CA               Short                         26.0             20.0
                                    Medium                        20.9             18.8
                                    Long                          13.0             12.7
                                    Avg.                          23.0             19.0
Chicago Midway     IL               Short                         27.7             25.5
                                    Medium                        13.2             11.7
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          18.1             16.3
Chicago O’Hare     IL               Short                         41.2             35.8
                                    Medium                        18.4             17.1
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          25.0             22.5
Cincinnati         OH               Short                         51.9             46.6
                                    Medium                        21.3             19.8
                                    Long                          16.7             15.8
                                    Avg.                          31.4             28.7
Cleveland          OH               Short                         46.7             43.3
                                    Medium                        15.9             15.3
                                    Long                          14.1             13.1
                                    Avg.                          24.9             23.5
Dallas Love Field TX                Short                         20.7             20.7
                                    Medium                          0.5              0.5
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          20.0             20.0
Dallas-Fort Worth TX                Short                         31.1             30.0



Page 60                                              GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                          Appendix II
                          Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
                          Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
                          Trip, 1990—98




         Cents per passenger mile (constant dollars)
                                                                               Percent change
1992   1993        1994             1995          1996        1997-98    1990-98      1990-93       1994-98
35.6   34.9         26.2            26.5           24.4          24.0      –38.7        –10.8          –8.5
17.6   19.2         17.7            18.2           16.1          16.2      –23.3         –9.1          –8.2
11.4   13.9         13.7            13.0           11.3          12.8      –15.4         –8.2          –7.1
25.5   26.3         21.4            21.6           19.5          19.6      –32.7        –10.0          –8.1
39.0   32.4         20.6            23.1           24.3          22.4      –49.2        –26.6            8.8
17.0   17.8         14.6            14.0           12.8          11.7      –35.1         –0.9         –19.9
 9.6   11.0          9.9             9.2            8.9            7.7     –38.2        –11.3         –22.4
18.7   18.3         14.1            14.3           14.0          12.6      –40.4        –13.7         –10.8
42.8   40.8         36.0            37.5           38.9          37.5      –16.5         –9.3            4.4
17.4   18.7         16.4            17.0           16.1          15.5      –13.8          4.1          –5.1
 9.7   11.0         11.3            11.1           11.1          11.4       –5.8         –8.7            1.0
17.6   18.6         17.1            17.5           17.3          17.0      –11.1         –2.2          –0.5
20.4   18.8         17.7            16.9           18.6          18.3      –29.5        –27.6            3.6
15.8   16.0         14.2            13.4           12.3          12.3      –41.0        –23.4         –13.3
11.1   13.5         12.5            11.9           12.5          11.2      –13.8          3.8         –10.0
17.9   17.3         16.0            15.2           15.7          15.5      –32.5        –24.8          –2.6
20.7   19.2         17.3            17.4           18.1          18.6      –32.8        –30.6            7.5
11.5   11.3         10.4             9.8            9.0            9.1     –31.0        –14.6         –12.4
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
14.3   13.8         12.7            12.2           11.9          12.2      –32.6        –23.9          –3.9
33.7   34.7         26.4            27.2           30.0          30.7      –25.5        –15.7          16.4
16.0   18.9         16.4            16.5           15.8          15.9      –13.8          2.5          –3.1
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
21.1   23.6         19.4            19.8           20.1          20.4      –18.5         –5.8            4.9
42.1   45.8         39.3            41.9           39.8          41.0      –21.1        –11.9            4.3
17.6   19.8         18.3            19.5           16.8          17.3      –18.7         –7.4          –5.0
13.3   16.1         14.3            15.8           14.5          13.8      –17.2         –3.8          –3.3
25.6   28.3         25.7            27.0           24.4          25.6      –18.7        –10.0          –0.7
36.2   32.5         24.0            29.3           31.4          29.6      –36.6        –30.2          23.2
15.2   16.4         14.0            14.2           13.6          12.1      –23.9          3.7         –13.8
11.5   13.1         10.8            11.4           11.2          10.0      –28.9         –7.2          –7.1
20.8   20.6         16.3            18.2           18.4          17.0      –31.8        –17.1            3.8
19.9   19.3         19.1            20.2           21.4          22.1        6.9         –6.9          15.5
 0.5    0.5         12.4             3.9            3.0            2.9     475.7         –6.3         –76.5
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
19.2   18.7         18.9            19.6           20.8          21.5        7.4         –6.7          13.5
28.4   30.0         26.8            24.1           25.1          22.7      –27.0         –3.8         –15.2
                                                                                                 (continued)


                          Page 61                                        GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix II
Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
Trip, 1990—98




                   State            Length of trip                1990             1991
                                    Medium                        24.5             22.5
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          25.6             23.7
Denver             CO               Short                         38.2             33.9
                                    Medium                        19.5             18.0
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          22.2             20.3
Detroit Wayne      MI               Short                         37.5             35.5
County
                                    Medium                        14.5             14.5
                                    Long                          14.4             13.3
                                    Avg.                          21.0             20.4
Houston Hobby      TX               Short                         21.6             21.8
                                    Medium                        17.1             16.4
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          18.8             18.4
Houston            TX               Short                         27.4             27.3
Intercontinental
                                    Medium                        21.7             20.9
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          22.4             21.7
Islip              NY               Short                         44.4             40.0
                                    Medium                        15.1             15.6
                                    Long                          10.8             10.1
                                    Avg.                          17.1             17.2
Kansas City        MO               Short                         26.3             24.7
                                    Medium                        15.0             14.8
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          18.6             18.0
Long Beach         CA               Short                         24.0             17.1
                                    Medium                        18.3             17.0
                                    Long                          13.2             12.4
                                    Avg.                          18.6             16.7
Los Angeles        CA               Short                         24.6             19.8
                                    Medium                        15.9             15.1
                                    Long                          12.9             11.9
                                    Avg.                          15.4             14.0




Page 62                                              GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                          Appendix II
                          Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
                          Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
                          Trip, 1990—98




         Cents per passenger mile (constant dollars)
                                                                              Percent change
1992   1993        1994             1995          1996        1997-98   1990-98      1990-93       1994-98
19.9   23.8         22.4            21.9           21.7          20.0     –18.3         –3.0         –10.5
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A      N/A           N/A           N/A
21.4   24.9         23.2            22.3           22.3          20.6     –19.8         –2.9         –11.3
29.9   30.2         23.8            21.0           22.1          20.8     –45.6        –20.8         –12.8
16.6   18.3         16.3            17.5           16.9          14.9     –23.3         –6.0          –8.2
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A      N/A           N/A           N/A
18.6   20.1         17.5            18.0           17.7          15.9     –28.5         –9.6          –9.3
35.2   36.9         34.4            34.3           35.7          31.4     –16.1         –1.6          –8.5

14.3   15.6         14.7            13.5           12.9          11.7     –19.6          7.6         –20.3
12.1   14.2         14.0            14.5           14.1          12.0     –16.2         –1.2         –14.0
20.1   21.7         20.3            19.6           19.8          17.4     –16.9          3.6         –14.1
21.6   21.3         20.1            21.3           22.3          22.4       3.5         –1.5          11.4
14.6   15.7         13.7            14.0           12.9          12.4     –27.4         –8.4          –9.5
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A      N/A           N/A           N/A
17.3   17.8         16.1            16.7           16.5          16.3     –13.6         –5.3            0.9
27.3   28.0         23.7            25.8           26.5          24.6     –10.3          2.2            3.7

18.7   21.3         18.8            18.5           18.5          17.0     –22.0         –2.3          –9.9
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A      N/A           N/A           N/A
19.8   22.1         19.5            19.5           19.6          18.0     –19.8         –1.4          –7.6
38.3   40.5         32.8            37.0           36.7          38.9     –12.4         –8.9          18.8
14.9   15.3         13.0            12.8           12.5          13.1     –13.3          1.5            0.5
 9.2   10.8         10.4            10.0           11.3          10.3      –4.4          0.4          –1.0
16.4   17.1         14.8            14.8           14.7          15.2     –11.4         –0.3            3.0
23.3   23.0         20.7            19.4           20.7          18.8     –28.7        –12.8          –9.2
14.6   14.7         13.0            13.1           11.5          11.5     –22.8         –1.8         –11.4
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A      N/A           N/A           N/A
17.3   17.3         15.5            15.1           14.4          13.9     –25.5         –6.8         –10.7
20.6   20.5         18.6            17.3           17.8          15.9     –34.0        –14.6         –15.0
14.7   15.5         13.8            13.2           13.7          10.3     –43.4        –15.1         –25.1
10.9   13.3         12.0            10.4           12.3          13.3       0.6          0.5          10.8
15.2   16.0         14.3            13.5           14.1          11.2     –39.8        –14.1         –21.9
21.1   19.7         17.3            17.2           17.3          18.0     –27.0        –19.8            3.8
13.4   15.0         13.7            13.4           12.1          12.0     –24.3         –5.8         –11.8
10.9   12.7         12.1            11.6           11.9          11.1     –14.2         –1.4          –8.2
13.0   14.4         13.3            12.9           12.6          12.2     –20.7         –6.7          –8.0
                                                                                                (continued)


                          Page 63                                       GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix II
Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
Trip, 1990—98




                   State            Length of trip                1990             1991
Miami              FL               Short                         27.3             27.5
                                    Medium                        14.1             15.2
                                    Long                            9.6              9.8
                                    Avg.                          13.9             14.7
Milwaukee          WI               Short                         37.9             35.9
                                    Medium                        14.9             15.1
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          20.7             20.3
Minneapolis        MN               Short                         48.8             43.2
                                    Medium                        20.3             19.1
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          25.7             23.7
Monterey           CA               Short                         41.0             35.2
                                    Medium                        17.6             16.2
                                    Long                          13.8             12.5
                                    Avg.                          19.7             17.8
New York           NY               Short                         41.8             36.3
Kennedy
                                    Medium                        14.8             15.0
                                    Long                          13.9             11.9
                                    Avg.                          15.0             13.4
New York           NY               Short                         42.6             40.2
LaGuardia
                                    Medium                        18.7             20.1
                                    Long                          11.9             11.2
                                    Avg.                          23.1             23.4
Newark             NJ               Short                         42.6             40.2
                                    Medium                        18.1             18.7
                                    Long                          12.6             11.4
                                    Avg.                          20.2             19.6
Norfolk            VA               Short                         34.8             33.0
                                    Medium                        18.5             18.3
                                    Long                          11.0             10.9
                                    Avg.                          20.5             19.9
Oakland            CA               Short                         21.6             17.1
                                    Medium                        16.6             15.2
                                    Long                          13.0             12.8




Page 64                                              GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                          Appendix II
                          Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
                          Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
                          Trip, 1990—98




         Cents per passenger mile (constant dollars)
                                                                               Percent change
1992   1993        1994             1995          1996        1997-98    1990-98      1990-93       1994-98
29.8   30.0         24.8            25.0           23.9          26.2       –4.3          9.6            5.6
15.7   15.7         13.7            13.9           13.2          13.2       –7.0         11.3          –4.0
 9.6   10.6         10.9            10.1            9.8            9.6       0.9         11.5         –11.3
15.2   15.5         13.8            13.8           13.1          13.2       –4.7         11.5          –4.1
32.0   32.6         27.6            31.1           33.2          33.6      –11.5        –14.0          21.6
13.4   14.1         12.7            12.2           12.1          11.8      –20.8         –5.6          –7.2
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
18.1   18.7         16.6            17.0           17.3          17.3      –16.4         –9.6            4.1
38.9   40.8         39.0            34.9           37.6          36.2      –26.0        –16.5          –7.3
17.6   18.6         19.9            19.4           19.3          18.8       –7.1         –8.2          –5.2
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
21.8   23.0         23.7            22.4           22.9          22.3      –13.4        –10.5          –5.9
33.8   37.3         31.1            33.7           32.1          29.7      –27.7         –9.0          –4.6
15.2   16.1         15.5            15.6           14.6          14.0      –20.7         –8.4         –10.0
12.1   13.3         12.9            12.4           12.6          12.2      –11.6         –3.7          –5.1
17.0   18.2         17.0            17.0           16.6          15.8      –20.1         –7.5          –7.5
35.2   35.3         28.4            31.4           31.8          27.8      –33.5        –15.5          –2.3

15.0   14.7         12.8            12.8           11.9          12.0      –19.0         –0.8          –6.6
11.2   13.1         12.5            11.8           12.7          11.9      –14.6         –5.9          –5.2
12.8   14.2         13.2            12.8           13.3          12.5      –16.4         –5.4          –5.2
37.7   37.7         30.5            34.5           38.6          38.3      –10.2        –11.6          25.5

18.8   19.9         17.8            18.6           18.1          17.2       –8.3          6.1          –3.5
10.4   12.2         11.6            10.8           11.6          12.5        5.0          2.6            7.0
21.9   22.7         19.8            21.1           21.8          21.4       –7.6         –1.8            7.7
36.8   31.7         23.8            29.2           29.6          29.9      –29.8        –25.7          25.9
17.2   17.5         15.5            16.3           15.5          14.9      –18.1         –3.5          –3.8
10.1   12.1         11.3            11.1           11.6          11.6       –8.2         –4.6            2.8
17.9   18.0         15.4            16.8           16.8          16.6      –18.0        –11.0            7.4
32.7   32.3         22.6            30.9           29.2          29.5      –15.2         –7.2          30.7
16.4   18.0         16.4            17.2           16.3          15.1      –18.5         –2.7          –8.1
10.0   11.3         10.9            10.6           10.6            9.7     –12.1          2.7         –11.5
19.0   19.8         16.3            19.0           18.3          17.8      –13.6         –3.5            9.1
17.9   15.3         13.5            12.9           13.6          14.5      –32.9        –29.2            7.2
13.4   15.1         13.8            13.6           12.8          12.6      –23.9         –8.8          –8.7
10.8   12.3         12.0            11.5           10.4          10.1      –22.4         –5.4         –15.7
                                                                                                 (continued)


                          Page 65                                        GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix II
Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
Trip, 1990—98




                   State            Length of trip                1990             1991
                                    Avg.                          18.3             15.6
Ontario            CA               Short                         20.5             17.1
                                    Medium                        16.9             15.2
                                    Long                          12.2             11.3
                                    Avg.                          16.7             14.7
Palm Springs       CA               Short                         34.9             33.3
                                    Medium                        18.2             17.2
                                    Long                          15.1             13.9
                                    Avg.                          18.6             17.5
Philadelphia       PA               Short                         39.7             40.7
                                    Medium                        18.5             18.9
                                    Long                          13.0             11.8
                                    Avg.                          21.1             21.0
Phoenix            AZ               Short                         18.1             16.3
                                    Medium                        13.6             13.0
                                    Long                          11.5             10.8
                                    Avg.                          14.1             13.2
Pittsburgh         PA               Short                         48.4             48.6
                                    Medium                        17.5             17.8
                                    Long                          13.5             13.0
                                    Avg.                          26.0             26.1
Portland           OR               Short                         41.7             38.2
                                    Medium                        18.5             17.3
                                    Long                          11.8             11.4
                                    Avg.                          19.5             18.5
Sacramento         CA               Short                         33.4             21.1
                                    Medium                        16.7             15.4
                                    Long                          12.6             11.5
                                    Avg.                          21.2             16.1
San Diego          CA               Short                         18.6             15.6
                                    Medium                        15.9             14.9
                                    Long                          12.8             11.7
                                    Avg.                          15.2             13.8
San Francisco      CA               Short                         26.7             20.4
                                    Medium                        16.4             15.2
                                    Long                          12.9             12.0
                                    Avg.                          15.6             13.9



Page 66                                              GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                          Appendix II
                          Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
                          Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
                          Trip, 1990—98




         Cents per passenger mile (constant dollars)
                                                                               Percent change
1992   1993        1994             1995          1996        1997-98    1990-98      1990-93       1994-98
15.1   14.6         13.3            12.8           12.7          13.0      –28.9        –20.4          –1.8
17.6   17.2         15.9            15.2           15.7          16.4      –20.3        –16.3            2.7
13.3   14.2         13.3            12.7           11.7          11.5      –32.1        –15.9         –13.5
10.0   11.6         11.0            10.7           10.8            9.4     –22.8         –5.5         –14.4
13.5   14.3         13.4            12.8           12.5          12.2      –27.0        –14.4          –8.9
34.5   38.4         27.9            32.4           27.4          26.3      –24.5         10.0          –5.8
15.3   16.2         14.8            15.0           14.3          12.8      –29.7        –10.9         –13.4
12.6   13.6         12.7            12.2           12.2          12.1      –20.0        –10.3          –4.6
16.1   17.0         15.2            15.4           14.7          13.7      –26.4         –8.8         –10.0
41.1   41.1         31.9            33.6           36.4          36.5       –8.2          3.4          14.5
18.5   20.0         17.8            18.0           17.1          17.0       –8.3          8.1          –4.8
10.9   12.7         11.5            11.4           11.9          12.2       –6.0         –2.5            6.0
20.6   22.0         18.9            19.1           19.6          19.8       –6.3          4.2            4.9
16.9   16.5         15.1            15.4           15.6          15.7      –13.3         –9.0            3.8
12.4   13.5         12.9            12.0           10.9          11.1      –18.4         –1.0         –14.3
10.3   11.8         11.5            11.2           10.8          10.9       –5.5          2.4          –5.7
12.9   13.8         13.1            12.5           11.8          12.0      –14.9         –2.2          –8.8
48.4   49.2         45.3            45.9           46.1          47.4       –2.0          1.6            4.7
16.7   17.9         17.6            17.6           16.3          16.9       –3.1          2.6          –3.7
11.3   12.6         13.0            12.3           13.3          12.9       –3.9         –6.4          –0.2
25.2   26.4         25.4            25.3           25.2          25.8       –1.0          1.2            1.6
34.5   23.3         18.3            16.3           15.6          16.3      –60.8        –44.0         –10.6
14.3   14.7         14.2            13.0           11.9          11.9      –35.8        –20.4         –16.6
10.1   11.6         11.2            11.4           11.2          10.5      –10.4         –1.4          –5.8
16.0   15.0         13.9            13.0           12.3          12.2      –37.7        –23.2         –12.4
18.4   17.7         15.2            13.8           13.5          13.9      –58.2        –46.9          –8.6
12.9   14.3         13.8            13.1           12.5          12.6      –24.4        –14.2          –8.3
10.0   11.2         11.3            10.9           10.9          10.0      –20.1        –10.9         –10.9
13.9   14.5         13.5            12.7           12.3          12.2      –42.2        –31.7          –9.1
16.0   15.7         14.2            14.3           14.5          14.5      –21.9        –15.2            2.0
12.7   13.7         12.9            12.4           11.4          11.5      –27.7        –14.1         –10.5
10.2   11.7         11.5            10.9           11.3          10.6      –17.6         –8.3          –8.2
12.3   13.3         12.6            12.2           11.9          11.7      –23.0        –12.3          –7.1
23.3   21.9         17.9            17.0           17.2          17.4      –34.7        –17.9          –2.6
13.0   15.1         14.0            13.6           12.8          12.8      –21.5         –8.0          –8.1
10.7   12.8         12.3            12.0           13.1          12.7       –1.6         –1.2            3.4
12.9   14.5         13.5            13.1           13.5          13.4      –14.3         –6.7          –1.0
                                                                                                 (continued)


                          Page 67                                        GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix II
Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
Trip, 1990—98




                   State            Length of trip                1990             1991
San Jose           CA               Short                         29.8             26.2
                                    Medium                        19.6             18.1
                                    Long                          14.0             13.1
                                    Avg.                          20.9             18.9
Santa Ana          CA               Short                         32.3             23.6
                                    Medium                        19.7             17.8
                                    Long                          13.6             12.0
                                    Avg.                          20.1             17.1
Seattle            WA               Short                         35.9             32.8
                                    Medium                        17.9             16.6
                                    Long                          12.0             11.3
                                    Avg.                          18.0             16.8
St. Louis          MO               Short                         34.8             30.9
                                    Medium                        20.8             19.0
                                    Long                           N/A              N/A
                                    Avg.                          25.6             23.2
St. Petersburg/    FL               Short                          N/A             82.2
Clearwater
                                    Medium                         N/A             12.2
                                    Long                           N/A               3.0
                                    Avg.                          13.3             12.8
Tampa              FL               Short                         33.8             36.0
                                    Medium                        15.1             16.5
                                    Long                          10.7             11.0
                                    Avg.                          16.7             18.0
Washington         VA               Short                         43.4             41.6
Dulles
                                    Medium                        19.1             18.6
                                    Long                          14.9             13.6
                                    Avg.                          20.5             19.4
Washington         DC               Short                         41.4             40.1
Reagon National
                                    Medium                        18.9             19.0
                                    Long                          12.5             11.4
                                    Avg.                          24.4             23.8




Page 68                                              GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                          Appendix II
                          Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
                          Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
                          Trip, 1990—98




         Cents per passenger mile (constant dollars)
                                                                               Percent change
1992   1993        1994             1995          1996        1997-98    1990-98      1990-93       1994-98
26.8   19.6         15.0            14.6           14.0          14.9      –49.9        –34.2          –0.5
15.0   17.8         16.0            16.1           15.0          15.1      –23.0         –9.2          –5.7
11.4   13.7         13.2            13.3           13.5          12.6      –10.2         –2.6          –4.9
17.5   16.9         14.7            14.6           14.2          14.1      –32.3        –18.9          –3.7
26.3   24.8         20.8            20.9           21.3          19.5      –39.6        –23.3          –6.1
15.2   16.7         15.7            15.6           15.6          15.3      –22.3        –15.3          –2.3
11.5   13.4         13.2            12.5           13.6          12.7       –6.7         –1.1          –3.6
16.2   17.3         15.9            15.7           16.1          15.3      –24.1        –14.2          –3.9
28.8   19.8         16.0            14.1           13.5          14.4      –59.9        –44.8         –10.1
13.7   14.1         13.2            12.3           11.2          11.5      –35.9        –21.5         –13.4
 9.8   11.2         11.2            11.0           10.8          10.3      –14.6         –6.6          –8.1
14.3   13.8         12.9            12.1           11.4          11.4      –36.4        –23.4         –11.1
28.3   28.2         25.5            25.1           26.8          25.8      –25.9        –18.8            0.9
15.8   17.3         16.1            15.6           15.5          15.6      –24.8        –16.9          –3.1
 N/A    N/A         N/A              N/A           N/A            N/A       N/A           N/A           N/A
20.1   21.1         19.4            18.9           19.4          19.2      –24.8        –17.5          –0.8
59.6   22.3         40.3            24.1           18.8            9.2      N/A           N/A         –77.1

13.6   12.3         10.6            10.8            9.8          10.5       N/A           N/A          –0.8
 4.6    N/A         27.3             7.8            7.4            6.7      N/A           N/A         –75.6
14.1   12.5         12.2            11.1            9.9          10.3      –22.3         –5.8         –15.5
35.0   34.4         22.8            27.9           22.8          21.7      –35.8          1.7          –4.8
16.3   16.3         14.0            14.2           12.3          12.2      –19.4          7.6         –13.0
 9.6   11.0         10.7            10.3            9.9            8.6     –20.1          2.4         –19.8
17.6   17.7         14.6            15.3           13.2          12.9      –23.1          5.7         –12.1
40.2   41.3         33.1            29.9           29.5          26.3      –39.3         –4.9         –20.4

17.2   18.4         17.0            16.0           16.3          14.8      –22.8         –3.7         –12.8
11.6   14.1         13.7            13.5           14.4          14.5       –2.6         –5.1            6.1
17.7   19.5         17.8            16.9           17.4          16.5      –19.8         –4.9          –7.6
38.3   39.8         35.0            38.0           40.1          39.3       –5.1         –4.0          12.3

18.1   19.4         18.0            17.3           16.9          15.8      –16.4          2.5         –12.2
10.1   11.5         11.3            10.7           10.8          10.6      –15.3         –8.0          –6.0
22.5   23.9         21.8            22.2           22.7          21.9      –10.3         –1.8            0.3
                                                                                                 (continued)




                          Page 69                                        GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix II
Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
Trip, 1990—98




                   State            Length of trip                1990             1991
White Plains       NY               Short                         49.3             43.2
                                    Medium                        22.0             21.3
                                    Long                          14.4             13.6
                                    Avg.                          28.7             26.6




Page 70                                              GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                          Appendix II
                          Changes in Average Airfares Per Passenger
                          Mile by Size of Community and by Length of
                          Trip, 1990—98




         Cents per passenger mile (constant dollars)
                                                                              Percent change
1992   1993        1994             1995          1996        1997-98   1990-98      1990-93       1994-98
40.4   41.6         40.0            40.6           40.5          41.9     –14.9        –15.6            4.9
20.5   21.4         18.9            20.7           21.7          22.5       2.4         –2.6          19.0
11.5   13.5         13.4            12.5           14.0          15.3       5.9         –6.2          14.1
25.0   26.8         25.5            25.9           26.7          28.2      –1.8         –6.7          10.5




                          Page 71                                       GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix III

Number of Scheduled Departures and
Available Seats at Airports Serving Small,
Medium-Sized, Medium-Large, and Large
Communities, May 1978 Through May 1998
                                 Total          Total                                    Percent       Percent
                           departures,    departures,   Total seats,   Total seats,    change in     change in
                  State      May 1978       May 1998      May 1998       May 1998     departures         seats
Small-community airports
Amarillo          TX              705            720         72,113         61,305             2           –15
Asheville         NC              774            660         62,184         39,894           –15           –36
Bangor            ME              579          1,665         33,800         61,794           188            83
Billings          MT              836            843         78,386         54,790             1           –30
Binghamton        NY            1,051            806         29,527         25,275           –23           –14
Bismarck          ND              461            298         44,043         15,637           –35           –64
Burlington        VT              700          2,512         37,982         93,668           259           147
Cedar Rapids      IA              716          1,081         65,283         72,159            51            11
Champaign         IL              422            700         33,860         22,282            66           –34
Charleston        WV              871          1,163         68,712         53,563            34           –22
Duluth            MN              457            295         44,384         19,995           –35           –55
Elmira/Corning    NY              371            506         18,821         19,892            36             6
Erie              PA              321            445         28,393         21,102            39           –26
Evansville        IN              592          1,405         48,739         42,644           137           –13
Fargo             ND              514            343         54,488         25,138           –33           –54
Fayetteville      NC              488            477         51,051         25,456            –2           –50
Fayetteville      AR              711          1,252         24,209         42,988            76            78
Gainesville       FL              328            603         28,856         19,746            84           –32
Grand Junction    CO              360            547         24,166         18,641            52           –23
Great Falls       MT              395            434         43,004         39,965            10            –7
Green Bay         WI              987            772         86,360         48,244           –22           –44
Lincoln           NB              967            467         78,326         33,331           –52           –57
Lubbock           TX            1,082          1,041        107,235         90,853            –4           –15
Manchester        NH              619          1,342         19,146         92,876           117           385
Medford           OR              304            852         22,613         40,888           180            81
Midland/Odessa    TX              909            817         94,077         78,152           –10           –17
Missoula          MT              248            664         29,698         48,571           168            64
Myrtle Beach      SC              410            950         27,701         78,707           132           184
Pasco             WA              846          1,163         32,778         52,960            37            62
Portland          ME              861          2,838         52,248        136,851           230           162
Rapid City        SD              457            404         43,349         21,426           –12           –51
Reno              NV            1,681          3,792        160,709        499,716           126           211
Roanoke           VA            1,255          1,214        111,098         56,428            –3           –49
Rochester         MN              739            415         68,063         32,275           –44           –53
Savannah          GA              616            846         66,650         86,374            37            30
                                                                                                    (continued)



                                Page 72                                     GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                                       Appendix III
                                       Number of Scheduled Departures and
                                       Available Seats at Airports Serving Small,
                                       Medium-Sized, Medium-Large, and Large
                                       Communities, May 1978 Through May 1998




                                        Total           Total                                         Percent       Percent
                                  departures,     departures,       Total seats,    Total seats,    change in     change in
                    State           May 1978        May 1998          May 1998        May 1998     departures         seats
Sioux City          IA                   616               475            47,304         17,370           –23           –63
Sioux Falls         SD                   908               688            66,762         43,654           –24           –35
South Bend          IN                 1,006             1,344            54,173         69,263            34            28
Springfield         MO                   569               994            54,934         46,222            75           –16
Tallahassee         FL                   653             1,422            56,840         63,942           118            12
Valparaiso/Ft.      FL                   337               597            29,980         35,360            77            18
Walton Beach
Wilmington          NC                   391               685            31,711         35,873            75            13
Overall for                           28,113            40,537         2,233,756      2,485,270            44            11
small-community
airports
Medium-sized-community airports
Appleton            WI                   482               883             9,158         44,954            83           391
Atlantic City       NJ                   360               629             6,499         42,789            75           558
Augusta             GA                   627               522            62,507         38,719           –17           –38
Baton Rouge         LA                   711             1,035            67,079         70,507            46             5
Boise               ID                   978             2,727            90,470        242,693           179           168
Bristol/Kingsport   TN                   778               664            65,104         38,123           –15           –41
Charleston          SC                 1,120             1,095           112,485         94,839            –2           –16
Chattanooga         TN                   763               683            80,509         38,568           –10           –52
Colorado Springs    CO                 1,065             1,766            73,277        186,536            66           155
Columbia            SC                 1,558               781           106,355         76,512           –50           –28
Corpus Christi      TX                   838             1,020            59,072         69,061            22            17
Daytona Beach       FL                   635               277            76,357         37,195           –56           –51
Des Moines          IA                 1,520             1,617           147,194        108,303             6           –26
Eugene              OR                   587             1,363            41,245         67,468           132            64
Flint               MI                   441               696            39,272         32,887            58           –16
Fort Myers          FL                   507             1,960            48,429        190,784           287           294
Fort Wayne          IN                   800             1,201            62,971         59,831            50            –5
Gulfport            MS                   325               569            26,540         25,930            75            –2
Harlingen           TX                   318               596            31,436         59,123            87            88
Huntington          WV                   426               425            35,229         12,806             0           –64
Huntsville          AL                   712               842            65,033         78,339            18            20
Jackson             MS                 1,215             1,309           113,010        117,752             8             4
Kalamazoo County MI                      480             1,025            36,277         52,022           114            43
Lafayette           LA                   610               891            29,136         33,362            46            15
Lansing             MI                   728             1,153            66,351         49,300            58           –26
Lexington           KY                   709             1,350            72,153         82,268            90            14
                                                                                                                 (continued)


                                       Page 73                                           GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                                       Appendix III
                                       Number of Scheduled Departures and
                                       Available Seats at Airports Serving Small,
                                       Medium-Sized, Medium-Large, and Large
                                       Communities, May 1978 Through May 1998




                                        Total           Total                                         Percent       Percent
                                  departures,     departures,       Total seats,    Total seats,    change in     change in
                    State           May 1978        May 1998          May 1998        May 1998     departures         seats
Little Rock         AR                 1,466             2,121           132,555        177,085            45            34
Madison             WI                 1,234             1,243           117,461         85,588             1           –27
McAllen/Mission     TX                   178               286            16,020         31,655            61            98
Melbourne           FL                   372               215            44,082         30,530           –42           –31
Mobile              AL                   852               607            84,355         63,190           –29           –25
Moline              IL                   983               827            88,926         59,580           –16           –33
Montgomery          AL                   531               379            52,121         31,170           –29           –40
Newburgh            NY                     0               857                  0        54,773           N/A           N/A
Pensacola           FL                   364             1,187            43,955         89,188           226           103
Peoria              IL                   863               802            77,697         41,381            –7           –47
Saginaw/Midland     MI                   503               662            49,878         43,059            32           –14
Santa Barbara       CA                   782             2,446            36,912         88,500           213           140
Sarasota            FL                   778               881            78,830         86,242            13             9
Shreveport          LA                 1,399             1,174           135,214         63,210           –16           –53
Spokane             WA                 1,687             2,860           148,598        300,224            70           102
Wichita             KS                 1,347             1,517           131,413         96,118            13           –27
Overall for                           32,632            45,143         2,861,165      3,292,164            38            15
medium-sized-
community
airports
Medium-large-community airports
Akron               OH                   766             1,090            61,088         50,572            42           –17
Albany              NY                 1,941             3,065           117,418        173,690            58            48
Albuquerque         NM                 2,168             4,282           200,058        443,629            98           122
Allentown           PA                   880             1,187            60,860         84,256            35            38
Austin              TX                 1,512             3,461           146,326        414,032           129           183
Bakersfield         CA                   398             1,370            30,571         43,047           244            41
Birmingham          AL                 1,770             2,075           175,142        226,199            17            29
Buffalo             NY                 3,086             2,744           299,482        224,757           –11           –25
Charlotte/Douglas   NC                 3,540            15,178           308,204      1,436,896           329           366
Columbus            OH                 2,334             4,696           248,703        520,759           101           109
Dayton              OH                 2,179             2,359           235,098        159,943             8           –32
El Paso             TX                 1,587             2,195           169,580        282,128            38            66
Fort Lauderdale     FL                 2,689             5,004           353,887        578,505            86            63
Fresno              CA                 1,114             3,444            93,867        106,258           209            13
Grand Rapids        MI                 1,176             1,968            94,329        134,860            67            43
Greensboro          NC                 1,340             2,213           135,975        201,463            65            48
Greenville          SC                   724             1,265            69,483        103,822            75            49
                                                                                                                 (continued)


                                       Page 74                                           GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                                Appendix III
                                Number of Scheduled Departures and
                                Available Seats at Airports Serving Small,
                                Medium-Sized, Medium-Large, and Large
                                Communities, May 1978 Through May 1998




                                 Total           Total                                         Percent       Percent
                           departures,     departures,       Total seats,    Total seats,    change in     change in
                   State     May 1978        May 1998          May 1998        May 1998     departures         seats
Harrisburg         PA           1,217             1,643            56,397        106,016            35            88
Hartford/Bradley   CT           2,737             3,553           320,057        342,279            30             7
Indianapolis       IN           3,939             4,792           330,779        456,392            22            38
Jacksonville       FL           1,715             3,025           204,573        293,506            76            43
Knoxville          TN             999             1,528           100,017        124,945            53            25
Las Vegas          NV           4,781            13,500           504,280      1,826,692           182           262
Louisville         KY           2,828             2,668           272,373        275,718            –6             1
Memphis            TN           5,342             7,969           483,828        658,474            49            36
Nashville          TN           2,868             5,226           279,701        560,310            82           100
New Orleans        LA           4,631             5,076           516,729        593,731            10            15
Oklahoma City      OK           2,407             2,268           253,587        242,298            –6            –4
Omaha              NE           2,104             2,256           200,549        241,512             7            20
Orlando            FL           3,259            12,423           458,350      1,413,471           281           208
Providence         RI           1,842             3,140            98,512        257,246            70           161
Raleigh/Durham     NC           1,601             5,469           138,201        486,360           242           252
Richmond           VA           1,501             2,236           129,535        184,243            49            42
Rochester          NY           1,816             3,215           181,054        207,688            77            15
Salt Lake City     UT           3,492            10,303           314,987      1,210,458           195           284
San Antonio        TX           2,695             3,199           282,891        417,671            19            48
Syracuse           NY           1,700             3,021           145,968        175,230            78            20
Toledo             OH             647               916            68,924         49,839            42           –28
Tucson             AZ           1,630             2,054           167,022        261,957            26            57
Tulsa              OK           2,214             2,458           246,915        237,166            11            –4
West Palm Beach    FL           1,216             2,780           147,473        305,020           129           107
Wilkes-Barre/      PA             637               653            39,811         31,841             3           –20
Scranton
Overall for                    89,022           162,967         8,742,584     16,144,879            83            85
medium-large-
community
airports
Large-community airports
Atlanta            GA          20,397            31,924         2,572,539      4,094,744            57            59
Baltimore          MD           4,168             8,777           322,465        884,812           111           174
Boston             MA          10,023            22,148           915,009      1,653,201           121            81
Burbank            CA           1,275             2,609           163,101        338,249           105           107
Chicago Midway     IL              85             6,324             7,480        741,974         7,340         9,819
Chicago O’Hare     IL          26,772            31,976         3,163,510      3,849,401            19            22
Cincinnati         OH           3,435            15,447           344,081      1,375,822           350           300
                                                                                                          (continued)



                                Page 75                                           GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                                 Appendix III
                                 Number of Scheduled Departures and
                                 Available Seats at Airports Serving Small,
                                 Medium-Sized, Medium-Large, and Large
                                 Communities, May 1978 Through May 1998




                                  Total           Total                                         Percent       Percent
                            departures,     departures,       Total seats,    Total seats,    change in     change in
                    State     May 1978        May 1998          May 1998        May 1998     departures         seats
Cleveland           OH           5,253            10,332           562,089        767,565            97            37
Dallas              TX          15,117            31,701         1,628,184      3,323,882           110           104
Dallas Love Field   TX           1,862             3,915           166,948        513,735           110           208
Denver              CO          12,105            16,853         1,237,883      1,944,368            39            57
Detroit Wayne       MI           7,088            17,750           848,386      1,916,902           150           126
County
Houston Hobby       TX           1,457             5,588           135,080        657,592           284           387
Houston             TX           7,772            14,877           819,662      1,561,581            91            91
Intercontinental
Islip               NY             404             1,959            24,336         77,957           385           220
Kansas City         MO           5,976             7,662           531,124        736,827            28            39
Long Beach          CA             194               389            31,862         50,679           101            59
Los Angeles         CA          15,467            35,257         2,123,927      3,381,406           128            59
Miami               FL           6,620            10,358           851,673      1,030,243            56            21
Milwaukee           WI           3,400             5,471           320,652        404,198            61            26
Minneapolis         MN           5,944            16,780           690,937      1,799,370           182           160
Monterey            CA             405             1,892            41,343         59,847           367            45
New York Kennedy NY              6,445            11,435           911,941        940,871            77             3
New York            NY          10,495            13,200         1,098,284      1,394,262            26            27
LaGuardia
Newark              NJ           5,889            15,761           672,297      1,728,139           168           157
Norfolk             VA           1,622             2,626           168,755        198,858            62            18
Oakland             CA           2,344             5,372           244,169        704,633           129           189
Ontario             CA           1,611             3,830           120,454        453,183           138           276
Palm Springs        CA             604             2,214            45,483         95,196           267           109
Pheonix             AZ           4,217            20,370           470,034      2,546,605           383           442
Philadelphia        PA           9,782            16,263           810,920      1,428,831            66            76
Pittsburgh          PA          10,260            16,575           830,352      1,323,877            62            59
Portland            OR           4,106            11,807           449,211      1,124,122           188           150
Sacramento          CA           2,042             4,962           216,231        504,975           143           134
San Diego           CA           3,699            10,747           479,575      1,045,002           191           118
San Francisco       CA          10,804            17,392         1,423,889      2,158,729            61            52
San Jose            CA           2,471             5,879           278,682        748,220           138           168
Santa Ana           CA           2,087             4,207           154,840        543,495           102           251
Seattle             WA           5,931            21,324           641,926      2,259,434           260           252
St. Louis           MO           8,855            19,582           875,540      1,972,206           121           125
St. Petersburg/     FL               9               159               252         25,956         1,667        10,200
Clearwater
                                                                                                           (continued)



                                 Page 76                                           GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                               Appendix III
                               Number of Scheduled Departures and
                               Available Seats at Airports Serving Small,
                               Medium-Sized, Medium-Large, and Large
                               Communities, May 1978 Through May 1998




                                Total           Total                                         Percent       Percent
                          departures,     departures,       Total seats,    Total seats,    change in     change in
                  State     May 1978        May 1998          May 1998        May 1998     departures         seats
Tampa             FL           5,803             8,452           673,911        800,753            46            19
Washington Dulles VA           2,281            11,283           302,089        772,834           395           156
Washington        DC          10,524            10,489           989,939      1,109,516             0            12
Reagan National
White Plains      NY             571             1,858            17,686         81,125           225           359
Overall for                  267,671           535,776        29,378,731     55,125,177           100            88
large-community
airports




                               Page 77                                           GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix IV

Number of Destinations for Nonstop and
One-Stop Flights at Airports Serving Small,
Medium-Sized, Medium-Large, and Large
Communities, May 1978 Through May 1998
                                             Nonstops,   Nonstops,       One-stops,         One-stops,
                           State              May 1978    May 1998        May 1978           May 1998
Small-community airports
Amarillo                   TX                      10           5                10                   9
Asheville                  NC                      13           5                10                   6
Bangor                     ME                       6           5                  9                  3
Billings                   MT                      16          13                16                  15
Binghamton                 NY                      14          11                  6                  7
Bismarck                   ND                       8           3                10                   3
Burlington                 VT                      12          18                13                  16
Cedar Rapids               IA                      11           6                13                  20
Champaign                  IL                       6           6                  4                  3
Charleston                 WV                      15          10                15                   5
Duluth                     MN                       6           3                  8                  4
Elmira/Corning             NY                       5           8                  8                  5
Erie                       PA                       6           5                  5                  7
Evansville                 IN                      10          10                  9                  2
Fargo                      ND                       6           2                  7                  4
Fayetteville               NC                       9           2                  5                  3
Fayetteville               AR                       6           5                  7                  4
Gainesville                FL                       4           6                  4                  3
Grand Junction             CO                       7           5                  8                  1
Great Falls                MT                       5           8                  8                  5
Green Bay                  WI                      11           5                11                  11
Lincoln                    NB                      12           6                13                  12
Lubbock                    TX                      11           7                10                   7
Manchester                 NH                       6          10                  3                  7
Medford                    OR                       7           3                  7                  3
Midland/Odessa             TX                       9           8                  9                 11
Missoula                   MT                       6           8                  6                  5
Myrtle Beach               SC                       7          12                  6                 11
Pasco                      WA                      12           7                10                   3
Portland                   ME                       9          13                11                  22
Rapid City                 SD                       8           4                  8                  5
Reno                       NV                      14          22                16                  31
Roanoke                    VA                      19          12                15                   8
Rochester                  MN                       8           4                10                   8
Savannah                   GA                       6           5                10                  13
Sioux City                 IA                      10           3                  8                  2
                                                                                             (continued)


                                   Page 78                           GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                                      Appendix IV
                                      Number of Destinations for Nonstop and
                                      One-Stop Flights at Airports Serving Small,
                                      Medium-Sized, Medium-Large, and Large
                                      Communities, May 1978 Through May 1998




                                                      Nonstops,            Nonstops,          One-stops,         One-stops,
                              State                    May 1978             May 1998           May 1978           May 1998
Sioux Falls                   SD                               16                    7                14                  12
South Bend                    IN                               11                    8                  9                  9
Springfield                   MO                                9                    8                  8                 10
Tallahassee                   FL                                9                    8                11                   7
Valparaiso/Ft. Walton Beach   FL                                7                    5                  5                  5
Wilmington                    NC                                7                    4                  6                  6
Average for                                                   9.3                   7.3               9.1                 7.9
small-community airports
Medium-sized-community
airports
Appleton                      WI                                2                    8                  0                  4
Atlantic City                 NJ                                3                   12                  2                  0
Augusta                       GA                                6                    3                  7                  3
Baton Rouge                   LA                               10                    9                10                  10
Boise                         ID                               16                   14                15                  21
Bristol/Kingsport             TN                               15                    5                13                   1
Charleston                    SC                               10                    9                16                  19
Chattanooga                   TN                                9                    4                10                   2
Colorado Springs              CO                                6                   14                  5                 34
Columbia                      SC                               18                    6                15                  10
Corpus Christi                TX                                6                    4                10                   3
Daytona Beach                 FL                                6                    2                11                   5
Des Moines                    IA                               14                   14                17                  24
Eugene                        OR                                8                    5                  8                  5
Flint                         MI                                6                    5                  6                  7
Fort Myers                    FL                                4                   24                  9                 24
Fort Wayne                    IN                                8                   10                  7                  3
Gulfport                      MS                                4                    5                  5                  1
Harlingen                     TX                                5                    5                  3                  2
Huntington                    WV                                7                    4                  6                  1
Huntsville                    AL                               13                    8                11                  13
Jackson                       MS                               14                   14                19                  14
Kalamazoo County              MI                                4                    7                  6                  5
Lafayette                     LA                                7                    4                  5                  2
Lansing                       MI                                7                    8                10                  11
Lexington                     KY                               11                   11                10                   6
Little Rock                   AR                               15                   18                18                  24
Madison                       WI                               14                    9                15                  19
                                                                                                                  (continued)



                                      Page 79                                             GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                                 Appendix IV
                                 Number of Destinations for Nonstop and
                                 One-Stop Flights at Airports Serving Small,
                                 Medium-Sized, Medium-Large, and Large
                                 Communities, May 1978 Through May 1998




                                                 Nonstops,            Nonstops,          One-stops,         One-stops,
                         State                    May 1978             May 1998           May 1978           May 1998
McAllen/Mission          TX                                3                    2                  3                  8
Melbourne                FL                                4                    1                  9                  5
Mobile                   AL                                7                    6                12                   8
Moline                   IL                               15                    7                13                   3
Montgomery               AL                                8                    5                13                   2
Newburgh                 NY                                0                   10                  0                  8
Pensacola                FL                                6                   12                  8                 15
Peoria                   IL                               12                    5                  8                  4
Saginaw/Midland          MI                                8                    5                  6                 13
Santa Barbara            CA                                6                    6                  9                  4
Sarasota                 FL                                7                   13                11                   8
Shreveport               LA                               18                    8                19                   9
Spokane                  WA                               21                   16                24                  30
Wichita                  KS                               15                   13                25                  21
Average for                                              9.0                   8.3              10.2                 9.8
medium-sized-community
airports
Medium-large community
airports
Akron                    OH                               10                   10                10                   6
Albany                   NY                               20                   29                18                  26
Albuquerque              NM                               24                   35                23                  45
Allentown                PA                               10                   13                11                  13
Austin                   TX                               11                   32                16                  45
Bakersfield              CA                                7                    4                  4                  1
Birmingham               AL                               21                   22                20                  23
Buffalo                  NY                               26                   23                27                  35
Charlotte/Douglas        NC                               37                   94                28                  28
Columbus                 OH                               24                   35                30                  41
Dayton                   OH                               19                   19                23                  27
El Paso                  TX                               14                   17                16                  26
Fort Lauderdale          FL                               21                   35                32                  41
Fresno                   CA                               12                   11                  9                  8
Grand Rapids             MI                               14                   13                14                  25
Greensboro               NC                               16                   20                22                  32
Greenville               SC                               11                   12                10                  13
Harrisburg               PA                               11                   15                  3                 10
Hartford/Bradley         CT                               23                   31                33                  36
Indianapolis             IN                               35                   41                39                  54
                                                                                                             (continued)


                                 Page 80                                             GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                                   Appendix IV
                                   Number of Destinations for Nonstop and
                                   One-Stop Flights at Airports Serving Small,
                                   Medium-Sized, Medium-Large, and Large
                                   Communities, May 1978 Through May 1998




                                                   Nonstops,            Nonstops,           One-stops,         One-stops,
                           State                    May 1978             May 1998            May 1978           May 1998
Jacksonville               FL                               21                    28                19                  35
Knoxville                  TN                               18                    13                15                  15
Las Vegas                  NV                               42                    62                40                  48
Louisville                 KY                               31                    25                30                  38
Memphis                    TN                               47                    74                54                  30
Nashville                  TN                               29                    43                34                  45
New Orleans                LA                               43                    40                52                  53
Oklahoma City              OK                               23                    16                33                  29
Omaha                      NE                               19                    21                31                  35
Orlando                    FL                               27                    75                30                  50
Providence                 RI                               11                    26                16                  33
Raleigh/Durham             NC                               23                    39                23                  37
Richmond                   VA                               20                    19                21                  26
Rochester                  NY                               15                    25                19                  27
Salt Lake City             UT                               37                    87                42                  53
San Antonio                TX                               21                    21                29                  42
Syracuse                   NY                               18                    25                25                  24
Toledo                     OH                               11                     7                12                   3
Tucson                     AZ                               11                    13                25                  31
Tulsa                      OK                               19                    15                34                  27
West Palm Beach            FL                               14                    24                19                  32
Wilkes-Barre/Scranton      PA                                7                     8                  7                  6
Average for                                               20.8                   29.0              23.8               29.9
medium-large-community
airports
Large-community airports
Atlanta                    GA                             106                    127                99                  68
Baltimore                  MD                               37                    59                35                  47
Boston                     MA                               64                    73                77                  67
Burbank                    CA                               11                    10                  6                 20
Chicago Midway             IL                                1                    40                  2                 34
Chicago O’Hare             IL                             135                    123               155                  73
Cincinnati                 OH                               37                   100                36                  31
Cleveland                  OH                               49                    69                49                  47
Dallas                     TX                               83                   116                88                  71
Dallas Love Field          TX                               10                    13                  4                  4
Denver                     CO                               96                   101               105                  60
Detroit Wayne County       MI                               59                    98                73                  62
                                                                                                                (continued)



                                   Page 81                                              GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                                      Appendix IV
                                      Number of Destinations for Nonstop and
                                      One-Stop Flights at Airports Serving Small,
                                      Medium-Sized, Medium-Large, and Large
                                      Communities, May 1978 Through May 1998




                                                      Nonstops,            Nonstops,           One-stops,         One-stops,
                              State                    May 1978             May 1998            May 1978           May 1998
Houston Hobby                 TX                                8                    28                  4                 37
Houston Intercontinental      TX                               48                    86                53                  42
Islip                         NY                                7                    10                  4                  6
Kansas City                   MO                               46                    49                58                  56
Long Beach                    CA                                3                     3                  3                  7
Los Angeles                   CA                               70                    67                96                  62
Miami                         FL                               43                    47                61                  32
Milwaukee                     WI                               30                    45                38                  46
Minneapolis                   MN                               54                   108                68                  94
Monterey                      CA                                3                     2                  6                  4
New York Kennedy              NY                               55                    45                57                  18
New York LaGuardia            NY                               74                    60                90                  59
Newark                        NJ                               46                    73                63                  47
Norfolk                       VA                               22                    22                19                  23
Oakland                       CA                               22                    20                17                  31
Ontario                       CA                               14                    18                20                  36
Palm Springs                  CA                               10                     9                  9                  8
Pheonix                       AZ                               32                    76                48                  63
Philadelphia                  PA                               62                    87                59                  58
Pittsburgh                    PA                               68                   109                53                  36
Portland                      OR                               38                    43                47                  55
Sacramento                    CA                               21                    22                22                  32
San Diego                     CA                               26                    35                40                  50
San Francisco                 CA                               68                    59                77                  46
San Jose                      CA                               23                    24                22                  43
Santa Ana                     CA                               14                    24                  8                 37
Seattle                       WA                               38                    68                54                  69
St. Louis                     MO                               67                    98                73                  49
St. Petersburg/Clearwater     FL                                1                     4                  0                  2
Tampa                         FL                               41                    49                38                  42
Washington Dulles             VA                               30                    71                18                  40
Washington Reagan National    DC                               71                    60                90                  47
White Plains                  NY                                9                    17                  8                 18
Average for large-community                                  41.2                   54.8              45.6               41.8
airports




                                      Page 82                                              GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix V

Number of Scheduled Jet and Nonjet
Departures at Airports Serving Small,
Medium-Sized, Medium-Large, and Large
Communities, May 1978 Through May 1998
                                             Jet departures,   Jet departures, Nonjet departures, Nonjet departures,
                           State                   May 1978          May 1978           May 1978           May 1998
Small-community airports
Amarillo                   TX                           643               412                 62                 308
Asheville                  NC                           461               352                313                 308
Bangor                     ME                           240                93                339               1,572
Billings                   MT                           620               453                216                 390
Binghamton                 NY                            93                87                958                 719
Bismarck                   ND                           309               115                152                 183
Burlington                 VT                           302               281                398               2,231
Cedar Rapids               IA                           627               628                 89                 453
Champaign                  IL                           302                 0                120                 700
Charleston                 WV                           542               322                329                 841
Duluth                     MN                           368               145                 89                 150
Elmira/Corning             NY                            62               114                309                 392
Erie                       PA                           275               118                 46                 327
Evansville                 IN                           519                82                 73               1,323
Fargo                      ND                           398               204                116                 139
Fayetteville               NC                           426               121                 62                 356
Fayetteville               AR                             0                 0                711               1,252
Gainesville                FL                           236               124                 92                 479
Grand Junction             CO                           140                80                220                 467
Great Falls                MT                           372               368                 23                  66
Green Bay                  WI                           670               251                317                 521
Lincoln                    NB                           600               236                367                 231
Lubbock                    TX                           974               609                108                 432
Manchester                 NH                           178               656                441                 686
Medford                    OR                           217               123                 87                 729
Midland/Odessa             TX                           836               540                 73                 277
Missoula                   MT                           248               432                   0                232
Myrtle Beach               SC                           155               774                255                 176
Pasco                      WA                           248               156                598               1,007
Portland                   ME                           333               635                528               2,203
Rapid City                 SD                           372               211                 85                 193
Reno                       NV                          1619              3643                 62                 149
Roanoke                    VA                           732               363                523                 851
Rochester                  MN                           561               265                178                 150
Savannah                   GA                           461               722                155                 124
Sioux City                 IA                           368                54                248                 421
                                                                                                          (continued)


                                   Page 83                                        GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                                      Appendix V
                                      Number of Scheduled Jet and Nonjet
                                      Departures at Airports Serving Small,
                                      Medium-Sized, Medium-Large, and Large
                                      Communities, May 1978 Through May 1998




                                                Jet departures,    Jet departures, Nonjet departures, Nonjet departures,
                              State                   May 1978           May 1978           May 1978           May 1998
Sioux Falls                   SD                           393                  320               515                 368
South Bend                    IN                           403                  347               603                 997
Springfield                   MO                           538                  205                31                 789
Tallahassee                   FL                           607                  398                46               1,024
Valparaiso/Ft. Walton Beach   FL                           337                  268                  0                329
Wilmington                    NC                           182                  183               209                 502
Overall for small-community
airports                                                17,967             15,490              10,146              25,047
Medium-sized-community airports
Appleton                      WI                             0                  372               482                 511
Atlantic City                 NJ                             0                  310               360                 319
Augusta                       GA                           407                  180               220                 342
Baton Rouge                   LA                           596                  394               115                 641
Boise                         ID                           806                 2,155              172                 572
Bristol/Kingsport             TN                           507                  327               271                 337
Charleston                    SC                           848                  664               272                 431
Chattanooga                   TN                           763                  236                  0                447
Colorado Springs              CO                           453                 1,390              612                 376
Columbia                      SC                           744                  604               814                 177
Corpus Christi                TX                           503                  384               335                 636
Daytona Beach                 FL                           635                  277                  0                  0
Des Moines                    IA                         1,354                  935               166                 682
Eugene                        OR                           403                  272               184               1,091
Flint                         MI                           310                  200               131                 496
Fort Myers                    FL                           341                 1,253              166                 707
Fort Wayne                    IN                           527                  239               273                 962
Gulfport                      MS                           325                  182                  0                387
Harlingen                     TX                           318                  348                  0                248
Huntington                    WV                           240                   31               186                 394
Huntsville                    AL                           712                  643                  0                199
Jackson                       MS                         1,038                  828               177                 481
Kalamazoo County              MI                           217                  265               263                 760
Lafayette                     LA                           271                   31               339                 860
Lansing                       MI                           523                  207               205                 946
Lexington                     KY                           620                  658                89                 692
Little Rock                   AR                         1,084                 1,275              382                 846
Madison                       WI                         1,037                  609               197                 634
McAllen/Mission               TX                           178                  261                  0                 25
                                                                                                               (continued)


                                      Page 84                                          GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                                    Appendix V
                                    Number of Scheduled Jet and Nonjet
                                    Departures at Airports Serving Small,
                                    Medium-Sized, Medium-Large, and Large
                                    Communities, May 1978 Through May 1998




                                              Jet departures,    Jet departures, Nonjet departures, Nonjet departures,
                            State                   May 1978           May 1978           May 1978           May 1998
Melbourne                   FL                           372                  215                  0                  0
Mobile                      AL                           852                  457                  0                150
Moline                      IL                           805                  418               178                 409
Montgomery                  AL                           531                  153                  0                226
Newburgh                    NY                             0                  426                  0                431
Pensacola                   FL                           364                  552                  0                635
Peoria                      IL                           770                   62                93                 740
Saginaw/Midland             MI                           430                  366                73                 296
Santa Barbara               CA                           275                  268               507               2,178
Sarasota                    FL                           620                  526               158                 355
Shreveport                  LA                         1,185                  329               214                 845
Spokane                     WA                         1,240                 2,498              447                 362
Wichita                     KS                         1,015                  895               332                 622
Overall for
medium-sized-community
airports                                              24,219             22,695               8,413              22,448
Medium-large-community airports
Akron                       OH                           620                  235               146                 855
Albany                      NY                         1,180                  966               761               2,099
Albuquerque                 NM                         1,666                 3,183              502               1,099
Allentown                   PA                           461                  621               419                 566
Austin                      TX                         1,323                 3,113              189                 348
Bakersfield                 CA                           279                   30               119               1,340
Birmingham                  AL                         1,685                 1,798               85                 277
Buffalo                     NY                         2,832                 1,581              254               1,163
Charlotte/Douglas           NC                         2,545             10,649                 995               4,529
Columbus                    OH                         2,272                 3,720               62                 976
Dayton                      OH                         2,148                 1,223               31               1,136
El Paso                     TX                         1,367                 2,195              220                   0
Fort Lauderdale             FL                         2,569                 3,916              120               1,088
Fresno                      CA                           625                  241               489               3,203
Grand Rapids                MI                           701                  846               475               1,122
Greensboro                  NC                         1,158                 1,669              182                 544
Greenville                  SC                           631                  907                93                 358
Harrisburg                  PA                           360                  719               857                 924
Hartford/Bradley            CT                         2,532                 2,406              205               1,147
Indianapolis                IN                         3,050                 3,354              889               1,438
Jacksonville                FL                         1,715                 2,145                 0                880
                                                                                                             (continued)



                                    Page 85                                          GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                                   Appendix V
                                   Number of Scheduled Jet and Nonjet
                                   Departures at Airports Serving Small,
                                   Medium-Sized, Medium-Large, and Large
                                   Communities, May 1978 Through May 1998




                                             Jet departures,    Jet departures, Nonjet departures, Nonjet departures,
                           State                   May 1978           May 1978           May 1978           May 1998
Knoxville                  TN                           875                 1,094              124                 434
Las Vegas                  NV                         4,030             12,849                 751                 651
Louisville                 KY                         2,416                 2,321              412                 347
Memphis                    TN                         4,456                 4,603              886               3,366
Nashville                  TN                         2,621                 4,553              247                 673
New Orleans                LA                         4,022                 4,439              609                 637
Oklahoma City              OK                         2,057                 1,753              350                 515
Omaha                      NE                         1,582                 1,903              522                 353
Orlando                    FL                         3,259                 9,339                 0              3,084
Providence                 RI                           925                 1,743              917               1,397
Raleigh/Durham             NC                         1,081                 4,138              520               1,331
Richmond                   VA                           937                 1,362              564                 874
Rochester                  NY                         1,816                 1,319                 0              1,896
Salt Lake City             UT                         2,871                 8,473              621               1,830
San Antonio                TX                         2,273                 3,168              422                  31
Syracuse                   NY                         1,360                  990               340               2,031
Toledo                     OH                           647                  269                  0                647
Tucson                     AZ                         1,453                 2,054              177                   0
Tulsa                      OK                         2,025                 1,648              189                 810
West Palm Beach            FL                         1,216                 1,911                 0                869
Wilkes-Barre/Scranton      PA                           279                  271               358                 382
Overall for
medium-large-community
airports                                             73,920            115,717              15,102              47,250
Large-community airports
Atlanta                    GA                        19,209             26,576               1,188               5,348
Baltimore                  MD                         2,713                 5,756            1,455               3,021
Boston                     MA                         6,600                 9,185            3,423              12,963
Burbank                    CA                         1,190                 2,609               85                   0
Chicago Midway             IL                            85                 5,505                 0                819
Chicago O’Hare             IL                        22,204             25,282               4,568               6,694
Cincinnati                 OH                         2,957             12,677                 478               2,770
Cleveland                  OH                         4,891                 6,062              362               4,270
Dallas                     TX                        12,274             20,987               2,843              10,714
Dallas Love Field          TX                         1,619                 3,915              243                   0
Denver                     CO                         8,951             12,980               3,154               3,873
Detroit Wayne County       MI                         5,843             13,969               1,245               3,781
Houston Hobby              TX                         1,345                 4,910              112                 678
                                                                                                            (continued)



                                   Page 86                                          GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
                                      Appendix V
                                      Number of Scheduled Jet and Nonjet
                                      Departures at Airports Serving Small,
                                      Medium-Sized, Medium-Large, and Large
                                      Communities, May 1978 Through May 1998




                                                Jet departures,    Jet departures, Nonjet departures, Nonjet departures,
                              State                   May 1978           May 1978           May 1978           May 1998
Houston Intercontinental      TX                         5,992             11,438               1,780               3,439
Islip                         NY                           278                  248               126               1,711
Kansas City                   MO                         4,069                 5,653            1,907               2,009
Long Beach                    CA                           194                  389                  0                  0
Los Angeles                   CA                        12,607             18,697               2,860              16,560
Miami                         FL                         6,198                 5,618              422               4,740
Milwaukee                     WI                         2,538                 3,236              862               2,235
Minneapolis                   MN                         5,014             12,891                 930               3,889
Monterey                      CA                           405                   61                  0              1,831
New York Kennedy              NY                         5,302                 3,952            1,143               7,483
New York LaGuardia            NY                         9,114                 9,502            1,381               3,698
Newark                        NJ                         4,712             11,700               1,177               4,061
Norfolk                       VA                         1,440                 1,323              182               1,303
Oakland                       CA                         1,794                 5,310              550                  62
Ontario                       CA                           953                 3,339              658                 491
Palm Springs                  CA                           341                  342               263               1,872
Pheonix                       AZ                         3,754             18,592                 463               1,778
Philadelphia                  PA                         5,585             10,170               4,197               6,093
Pittsburgh                    PA                         7,408                 9,458            2,852               7,117
Portland                      OR                         3,265                 7,145              841               4,662
Sacramento                    CA                         1,682                 3,589              360               1,373
San Diego                     CA                         3,288                 6,544              411               4,203
San Francisco                 CA                         9,309             13,344               1,495               4,048
San Jose                      CA                         1,980                 5,383              491                 496
Santa Ana                     CA                         1,213                 3,495              874                 712
Seattle                       WA                         4,126             14,535               1,805               6,789
St. Louis                     MO                         7,354             15,028               1,501               4,554
St. Petersburg/Clearwater     FL                             0                  159                  9                  0
Tampa                         FL                         5,374                 5,025              429               3,427
Washington Dulles             VA                         2,081                 4,627              200               6,656
Washington Reagan National    DC                         7,952                 7,885            2,572               2,604
White Plains                  NY                           108                  464               463               1,394
Overall for large-community
airports                                               215,311            369,555              52,360             166,221




                                      Page 87                                          GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix VI

Major Contributors to This Report


                        Sonja Bensen
Resources,              Aaron Casey
Community, and          Tina Kinney
Economic                Steven Martin
                        Sara Ann Moessbauer
Development             Robert White
Division, Washington,
D.C.
                        Joseph Kile
Office of the Chief
Economist
                        David Hooper
Office of the General
Counsel




                        Page 88               GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix VI
Major Contributors to This Report




Page 89                             GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Appendix VI
Major Contributors to This Report




Page 90                             GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
Related GAO Products


              Aviation Competition: Effects on Consumers From Domestic Airline
              Alliances Vary (GAO/RCED-99-37, Jan. 15, 1999).

              Aviation Competition: Proposed Domestic Airline Alliances Raise Serious
              Issues (GAO/T-RCED-98-215, June 4, 1998).

              Domestic Aviation: Service Problems and Limited Competition Continue in
              Some Markets (GAO/T-RCED-98-176, Apr. 23, 1998).

              Aviation Competition: International Aviation Alliances and the Influence of
              Airline Marketing Practices (GAO/T-RCED-98-131, Mar. 19. 1998).

              Airline Competition: Barriers to Entry Continue in Some Domestic
              Markets (GAO/T-RCED-98-112, Mar. 5, 1998).

              Domestic Aviation: Barriers Continue to Limit Competition
              (GAO/T-RCED-98-32, Oct. 28, 1997).

              Airline Deregulation: Addressing the Air Service Problems of Some
              Communities (GAO/T-RCED-97-187, June 25, 1997).

              International Aviation: Competition Issues in the U.S.-U.K. Market
              (GAO/T-RCED-97-103, June 4, 1997).

              Domestic Aviation: Barriers to Entry Continue to Limit Benefits of Airline
              Deregulation (GAO/T-RCED-97-120, May 13, 1997).

              Airline Deregulation: Barriers to Entry Continue to Limit Competition in
              Several Key Domestic Markets (GAO/RCED-97-4, Oct. 18, 1996).

              Domestic Aviation: Changes in Airfares, Service, and Safety Since Airline
              Deregulation (GAO/T-RCED-96-126, Apr. 25, 1996).

              Airline Deregulation: Changes in Airfares, Service, and Safety at Small,
              Medium-Sized, and Large Communities (GAO/RCED-96-79, Apr. 19, 1996).

              International Aviation: Airline Alliances Produce Benefits, but Effect on
              Competition Is Uncertain (GAO/RCED-95-99, Apr. 6, 1995).

              Airline Competition: Higher Fares and Less Competition Continue at
              Concentrated Airports (GAO/RCED-93-171, July 15, 1993).




              Page 91                                     GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
           Related GAO Products




           Computer Reservation Systems: Action Needed to Better Monitor the CRS
           Industry and Eliminate CRS Biases (GAO/RCED-92-130, Mar. 20, 1992).

           Airline Competition: Effects of Airline Market Concentration and Barriers
           to Entry on Airfares (GAO/RCED-91-101, Apr. 26, 1991).

           Airline Deregulation: Trends in Airfares at Airports in Small and
           Medium-Sized Communities (GAO/RCED-91-13, Nov. 8, 1990).

           Airline Competition: Industry Operating and Marketing Practices Limit
           Market Entry (GAO/RCED-90-147, Aug. 29, 1990).

           Airline Competition: Higher Fares and Reduced Competition at
           Concentrated Airports (GAO/RCED-90-102, July 11, 1990).

           Airline Deregulation: Barriers to Competition in the Airline Industry
           (GAO/T-RCED-89-65, Sept. 20, 1989).

           Airline Competition: Fare and Service Changes at St. Louis Since the
           TWA-Ozark Merger (GAO/RCED-88-217BR, Sept. 21, 1988).

           Competition in the Airline Computerized Reservation Systems
           (GAO/T-RCED-88-62, Sept. 14, 1988).

           Airline Competition: Impact of Computerized Reservation Systems
           (GAO/RCED-86-74, May 9, 1986).

           Airline Takeoff and Landing Slots: Department of Transportation’s Slot
           Allocation Rule (GAO/RCED-86-92, Jan. 31, 1986).

           Deregulation: Increased Competition Is Making Airlines More Efficient and
           Responsive to Consumers (GAO/RCED-86-26, Nov. 6, 1985).




(348139)   Page 92                                     GAO/RCED-99-92 Airline Deregulation
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