oversight

Drug Crime and the Criminal Justice System: The Situation in the State of Michigan and Cities of Detroit and Adrian

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1990-03-19.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                          Testimony




For kelease               Drug      Crime       and       The       Criminal         Justice          System:
on Delivery               The      Situation             in   the      State       of      Michigan       and
Expected    at
9:b0   a.m.   EST         Cities        of     Detroit          and      Adrian
Monday
March      19,    1990
Detroit,         MI
                      l




                          Statement       of
                          Lowell      Dodge,             3:rector
                          Administration                   of Justice             Issues



                          Before    the
                          Permanent      Subcommittee                     on      Investigati          ons
                          Committee      on Governmental                          Affairs
                          United    States    Senate




                                                                                                        iiAOForm 160(12/37)
                DRUG CRIME AND THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM:
                  THE SITUATION IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN
                     AND CITIES OF DETROIT AND ADRIAN
                           SUMMARY OF STATEMENT BY
                                LOWELL DODGE
                 DIRECTOR, ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE ISSUES
                       U.S. GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE

The Senate Permanent          Subcommittee      on Investigations           asked that we
assess drug crime and its impacts               on criminal        justice      systems,
noting    the steps state       and local     officials       are currently         taking
to address the problem,           and identifying        policy      options.       Today's
testimony      presents   preliminary      findings;       we plan to address
policy    options     in our final    report.
                                                                              .
Arrests     for drug crime in the Detroit              metropolitan        area reached
almost    11,000 in 1988, up 156% over 1985. In Adrian,                       Michigan     the
comparable      increase    is 133%.     Statewide,        Michigan      drug crime
arrests     reached 27,000 in 1988, up 10% over 1985.
These increases     in drug arrests     increase    the workload     faced by
prosecutors,    courts,   jails,  prisons,     probation   and parole
programs as well as treatment        programs.      Because jail     and prison
 capacities  cannot be expanded overnight,          these facilities      have
'become more overcrowded.
Most notably,         in Wayne County itself,            where the jails         hold
accused felons          from Detroit     and its environs          awaiting      trial,
the overcrowding           has become the subject          of a court order.             To
maintain     compliance        with the order,      jail    officials        find it
necessary      to release        accused felons     on a weekly basis.               In a
recent    five month period,           900 inmates,       mostly     felons,     have been
released      under this practice.           Wayne County jails             have not had
room for misdemeanants             since 1984.      At the state          level,     half of
Michigan's       prisons      are over their     rated capacity.
Not surprisingly,       Michigan     jurisdictions       have responded       with a
range of programs       to cope with these burdens.              Under a pre-trial
diversion    program,     offenders      deemed unlikely      to repeat     their
offenses    are offered      probation.         To conserve   resources,      those who
commit offenses       on probation       are processed      as probation
violators,     rather   than prosecuted          for the actual    offense.
Similarly,     alternatives    to prison,          including  community  service,
boot camps, tethering        by electronic           device to enforce  home
confinement,      and half-way   houses,          have seen development   and
growth     in Michigan.
Mr.      Chairman       and Members            of the      Subcommittee:

I am pleased            to be here            today     to discuss           our       work     on the       problems
associated          with     drug     crime       and state             and local        criminal           justice
systems.          Mr.      Chairman,          you asked          that      we initiate           a study         that:

                                                                 .
          --      describes          the drug          problem,


          --      shows what           local      enforcement              officials          are doing          to
                  address       the       problem,


          --      examines          the    impact       of drug          crime       on the      justice
                  system,       and


          --      identifies           policy         options,          including        policies
                  recommended             in the       National          Drug Strategy,               for     local
                  criminal          justice       systems.


My testimony            presents          preliminary            results         from    that       work.        Today
we will         focus      on data        concerning            the     State       of Michigan             and the
cities         of Detroit       and Adrian.               We expect             to complete           our     final
report,         including       discussing             policy         options,         over     the    next
several         months.



                                                            1
My remarks            today       are based         on information                       we obtained             from
federal,           state',      and local          law enforcement                       agencies           and offices.
We have collected                  and assessed               information                 on drug           crime      in
Michigan          and in the           cities       of Detroit                and Adrian               and how these
jurisdictions'                 criminal         justice        systems             have        responded.


Before        I proceed,           I would         like       to note             that       when I refer              to drug
crime,        I am reterring                to arrests              for     violations                of    the narcotics
laws.         Everyone          who reads          the      newspapers                 knows         that    a wide
variety           of violent         and property              crime             including            murders,
robberies,            and assaults              are associated                    with       drug       trafficking              and
drug       use.       However,         the      crime       statistics                 do not         distinguish
between,           say,      a robbery          committed            to support                a drug        habit       and a
robbery           committed         for     a reason          unrelated                to drugs,            making          it
impossible            to get       a direct             measure           of crime            that      is drug-
related.             Thus,      because         we do not             include                "drug      related"         crimes,

the     picture           I am about         to present              is      incomplete               and most          likely
understated.


Our work           to date        shows that              arrests          for        drug     crime        is a serious
problem           nationally,             in Michigan,              in     Detroit,            and in Adrian.
Similarly,             there      is serious              overloading                 in the         Michigan         criminal
justice           systems,        particularly               in the          courts           and prisons
facilities.                  Between       1985 and 1988 narcotics                             arrests         have
increased            about       70 percent             in Michigan,                  156 percent            in Detroit,
3nd 133 percent                  in Adrian.              Plichi-Ian          officials               ha.-? r.?s:>onde:!            XC
    increased         arrests        and convictions             by building     more prisons      and
    making        greater        use of    special        programs     such as boot     camps,
    community         correctional            centers,      and more community         service.


    NATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
    ON DRUG CRIME



*   Data     on the drug            problem      in the United          States   and Michigan      show
    that     drug     activity          and drug     arrests       are a significant         and
    increasing          portion         of crime.         The extent      of the   problem      can be
    seen     in the         following       indicators:

             --       According           to the National          Institute  on Drug Abuse,
                      nationally,           drug related          emergency room admissions
                      increased           by 121 percent          between 1985 and 1988.
             --       During    fiscal    year 1988, Federal    law enforcement
                      officials      seized an estimated    198,000 pounds of
                      cocaine,      up 41 percent   from 1987.
             --        A December 1989, Drug Use Forecasting             Report covering
                       16 major cities,   including       Detroit,    shows t'hat between
                       56 and 84 percent    of male arrestees         tested   positive  for
                       one or more drugs.      Similarly,       between 58 and 88
                       percent  of female arrestees        tested    positive.
             --        According    to data presented     in the September      1989
                       National   Drug Control   Strategy,     about three-fourths       of
                       all robberies    and half   of all felony     assaults    committed
                       by young people today involve        drug users.
             --        FBI data show that between 1979 and 1988 combined
                       nationwide    arrests    for drug abuse violations      increased
                       89.9 percent,     rising    from 394,632 to 749,468,      while
                       burglary,   rape, larceny       and motor vehicle  theft,
                       robbery,   aggravated      assault,  and murder rose about 14
                       percent.
             --        The Judicial       Conference,     which governs the ;;.S. courts,
                       reported    that federal       drug c,asos h,ave nearly      quadrupled
                       from 138d tr, 1989, while          non-drug  r?l?t-‘ri  :a!;'?~ ha-:?
                       increased     on;;/ 33 percent.
                                                             3
          --        A 1989 Bureau of Justice        Statistics   bulletin   showed
                    that between 1979 and 1986 there was 90 percent
                    increase   in prisoners     in state prisons      who had been
                    actively   involved    in drugs,     either as users or by
                    conviction    for a drug offense.


As you can see,                   Mr.        Chairman,      the        drug      picture          nationally              is   not
encouraging.                   Now     let     me move to           our       information                  on Michigan.


DRUG CRIME IN MICHIGAN


Michigan           drug        crime         data    reflects          the     same trends                  as drug       crime
data      nationally.                   In Michigan,             while        arrests          for         serious       non-drug
crimes          increased              11 percent         from      73,048         in       1985 to 81,372                in
1988,          during           this     same period             arrests         for        narcotics             law
violations               increased            from    15,942        to     27,154           or 70 percent.1                    (See
attachment               I.)       According          to a January               1990 report                 published         by
Michigan's               Office         of Criminal             Justice,         cocaine              is    the       number   one
illegal          drug          in Michigan.              The crack            form      in particular,
continues            to be an increasing                    ly     serious         prob lem.


The state's                narcotics            enforcement            efforts          have been performed
primarily           by cooperative                   drug       teams        organized           by the Michigan
State          Police.            The typical            team consists                 of    state,           city,      and
county          police,           and prosecutors.                  Michigan's                first         cooperative


1The FBI refers     to serious     non-drug      crimes as Part 1 offenses
which include    murder,     rape, robbery,        aq?ravated    assal~lt,
burglary,   Lxceny,      motor vehi:Le      theft,     and arsrin.
                                                                   4
drug      team was organized                    in 1970.              Today,       there          are      eighteen

cooperative          drug        teams         throughout             the     state        covering            53 of
Michigan's        83 counties,                  including             Wayne County.                   In the         near

future,       according            to    a Michigan             State         Police           Official,
cooperative          drug        teams will             be instituted                   for      15 to 20 additional
counties.         These teams                  carry      out     local         street           level
investigations              as well            as interdiction                  efforts.


The Department              of     State        Police's          budget          for      drug       teams      for         fiscal
year       1990 is     approximately                   $7.8     million.                This      represents             a $2.3
million       OK 42 percent                 increase          over      the       $5.5         million         budgeted           in
1987.        In fiscal            year      1989 Michigan                   had 110 full-time                   narcotics
enforcement          officers             on the        drug      teams.           This          is an increase                 of     6
officers       or 5 percent                 over        1988.


DRUG CRIME IN DETROIT


In Detroit,          drug         arrests          are climbing               dramatically.                    Arrests          for
serious       non-drug            crimes         rose     from        19,418       to 22,564               (16 percent)
from       1985 to 1988.                 During         the     same years,              narcotics             law arrests
increased        from       4,285         to     10,959         (156 percent).                     (See attachment
II.)        As in the            State      as a whole,               Detroit           city       officials           also
report       cocaine        as the          number        one illegal              drug.


One indicator            of       the prevalence                 of     illegal          drug        abuse      is     its
effect       on ba'bies.                As of las t Jiily               in Detroit,                39 0'3K~Znlt ?f

                                                                 ‘5
children       born        at Hutzel              Hospital           tested        positive          for     exposure            to
cocaine       or heroin.


Narcotics           investigations                     in Detroit          are     conducted           by narcotic
division       officers             of      the        Detroit       Police        Department.               The

narcotics           unit      is     also       part           of a task        force      with      the Drug
Enforcement            Administration                     that      targets        high     level          drug
conspiracies.                 In 1989,             Detroit's           Narcotic           Division          employed         some
188 officers               and support                 staff      and had an operating                      budget     of
$12.2      million.            This         represents              an increase            of 44 persons             (a 31
percent       increase)              and $6.1             million         (a 100 percent               increase)
respectively               over      1985 levels.


Through       several             initiatives                  (see attachment             III),       officers         from
the     Narcotics            Division             of     the Detroit             Police       Department           conducted
2,533       raids      and made 5,700                     arrests         for     narcotics          law violations
 in   1988.         They also            seized           between         6 and 40 pounds                  of cocaine
each month            with        a year-end              total      of    193 pounds.
Some of        the most            highly          visible          initiatives             include:


                    --Pressure     Point - An enforcement       operation  begun                                            in
                       May, 1989 where several         raids are conducted
                       simultaneously     within    a small area in an effort                                                to
                       maximize    police  effectiveness.
                    --Buy And Bust - A drug enforcement         tool   instituted                                              in
                       December, 1988 where an undercover         drug purchase                                              is
                       followed    by an immediate  entry   into the location                                                to
                       arrest   the seller  and recover   the evidence.
                 --Padlock     - After    three raids on a drug distribution
                    establishment,      it is seized under the "Nuisance
                    Abatement"     Act and ownership     given to the inves-
                    tigating    agency.      This program started   in May, 1989.




DRUG CRIME IN ADRIAN


Although        there     have been fluctuations                       in narcotics                and other
arrests       over      the     years          in Adrian,      the     overall            trends      are up.
Serious       non-drug          arrests          increased       from      281 in           1985 to 467 in
1988 or 66 percent.                      During      this     same period,               arrests       for
narcotic        law violations                  increased       from       39 to 91 or 133 percent.
(See attachment                IV.)                              ?


Unlike       Michigan          and Detroit,           marijuana            is reported              to be the
illegal       drug      of choice              in Adrian.        Local       law enforcement
officials         indicated             that     Lenawee      County,        which          encompasses
Adrian,       is one of the               major      marijuana         growing            regions      in the
state.        According           to local          law enforcement                  officials,        cocaine        use
is    also    becoming          a problem.


Narcotic         investigations                 in the City          of Adrian            are conducted          by
the       Lenawee    Adrian           Narcotics        Crime     Enforcement                (LANCE) Unit         which
is    operated       jointly            by the Adrian           Police        and the             Lenawee County
Sheriff       Departments.                 In 1989,         Adrian's        LANCE Unit              employed     four
officers--two             from        the Adrian        Police         Department             and twc from        the
Lenawee       County          Sheriff          Department.           The    Unit’s          1399 oozr*i-in';
budget      was $164,380                 of which            Adrian          contributed            $67,056              .     In
addition,        the       Adrian            Police         Department             provides         a part-time
juvenile       division             officer            to give            lectures          on drugs.


During       1989,      officers              assigned            to the        LANCE Unit           made 179 arrests
and seized           '$70,811          of drug             assets.           Since      their       first          forfeiture
case       in November,             1987,        the        Adrian         Police      Department                 has received
$7,130       from      vehicles              and cash          seizures.


To sum up,           arrests           for      narcotic             law violations                in Michigan,
Detroit,       and Adrian                escalated             substantially                  between         1985 and
1988.        We found           that         Detroit         experienced              the       largest           increase          in
arrests--l56            percent--while                      the      increase         was 70 percent                     in
Michigan        and 133 percent                       in    Adrian.            (See attachment                    V.)


INCREASED BURDEN ON THE
CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM


Increased           drug      arrests           have contributed                     signif      icant ly          to
burdening        many components                       of     the     criminal          justice           systems:
prosecutors,            the        courts,            jail/prison              officials,           probation/parole
officers,           and public               treatment            centers.


On a national               basis,           we reported                 in November            1989 that               the
Federal        Bureau         of     Prisons           faces         unprecedented               crowding               in    its
correctional               facilities.                 We found             that     in October             1980 tie
 Eederal       prison         inmate           rsopuiation               '+~a'; at (:3?acit;',            ;:)I'    ixd        jr'>b;n
                                                                     8
from      24,162       to       48,017      prisoners,         56 percent               over    capacity,            by May
1989.          Thirty-eight              percent      of    the         prisoners         were serving              time

for     drug      offenses          in 1989.


Crowding          is     also      a major        problem         for      the   expanding           state         prison
systems.           According             to the     Bureau         of     Justice         Statistics,              the
states         had about           577,500        prisoners             at the      end of         1988 and were
operating          23 percent             over     capacity.               The American             Civil      Liberties
Union      reported             that,     as of April             1989,        35 states           and the         District
of     Columbia          faced      court        orders     and/or          consent        decrees          that
related          to prison          crowding         or the        conditions             caused        by crowding.


Our work          also       shows how the            increasing               levels      of arrests              are
having         significant              impacts      on the         judicial            and jail        systems.              For
example,          in Detroit:


          --     Narcotics    arraignments     increased     from 1,511 in 1985 to
                 4,780 in 1988 (up 216 percent)           compared to an 8 percent
                 increase   in serious     non-drug    arraignments    for this same
                 time period.
          --     Since 1986, the Wayne County Prosecutor's        Office  has
                 added 10 Assistant    Prosecuting     Attorneys as a result  of
                 increased  drug arrests.      Four of these ten were added in
                 1989. Also, seven support       staff  have been added since
                 1986.


In Michigan:

          --     A 1988 report      by the Michigan    Department                                  of Corrections,
                 stated     that 12 of the state's      26 prisons                                 were
                 overcrowded,     including   one facility      that                               nias 2,123 beds
                 sh 0 c t .
          --     Latest    estimates      by the Michigan   Department     of
                 Corrections      project    a shortage   of approximately                                      16,000
                 beds by the end of 1992 (see attachment             VI).

          --     The Sheriff's    Association     also reported.that      one in three
                 jails  currently   operate   at over 100 percent       capacity
                 during  an average month and all jails          are projected   to be
                 over 100 percent     of capacity     wit'hin the next ten years.


The recent              history         of overcrowding                in the Wayne County                    Jails
shows how the                  increasing         number          of prisoners             have overloaded                  the
system.               In June 1984,            the     Chief        Judge     of Wayne County's                     Circuit
Court          ordered         that     misdemeanants               could     not      be jailed        without
prior          approval          from    the     court.           In 1987,         Wayne County              Jail
officials              released         at    least       1,269      accused         felons,       53 sentenced
felons,          and 1,446            misdemeanants               because          of a lack       of adequate
jail        space.            Because        of continued            overcrowding,              on August             4,
1988,          the     Wayne County            Circuit         Court        ordered        a ceiling          of 1,552
prisoners              at the         Wayne County          Jail.           However,        through          September
1989,          the     Wayne County            Jail       Administrator              reported         that      the
average          daily         jail     population          was 1,774              or 222 more than                 the
limit          established             by the August              1988 court           order.         To lower             the
population               to court-directed                 levels,          less     violent       felons           awaiting
trial          are     released         from     the Wayne County                   Jail    on Fridays.
Between              August      and December             1989,      900 prisoners              were     released
under          this      practice--707               by reduc ing previously                    set    bail         and 193
direct          release.
As   jails        have become             increasingly                 overcrowded,                 Michigan          paroles
and probations                 have     increased.               For example,                    Michigan's           parole
caseload          increased            from     5,669       in     1986 to               6,990      in    1988       (23
percent).            In addition,               between           1986 and 1988,                    the     probation
caseload          increased            from     32,737       to 34,044.                     Over 17,150              of
Michigan's           1988 probation                cases          (50 percent),                   were attributable
to criminal              justice        initiatives               undertaken                in Detroit/Wayne
County.           Similarly,            54 percent           of        the        state's         parole        cases       were
attributable              to Detroit/Wayne                  County            initiatives.


The number           of prisoners               being       referred               for      substance           abuse
treatment           is    increasing.              For      example,               the      number        of    felons
recommended              for    substance          abuse          treatment               by the         Detroit          criminal
justice          system        increased          from      6,891            in    1985 to 7,621                in    1988          (11
percent).            According            to    Detroit           officials,                individuals              seeking
drug         treatment         through         public       assistance                   must wait          from      2 to      5
months.           In Adrian,            the     wait       time        for        drug      treatment           is    two
weeks.


MEASURES TO ADDRESS AN OVERBURDENED
CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM


Prosecutors,              courts,         and prisons                 are     trying         different             strategies
to cope with              the      increased            burden         placed            on the       system         by
increasing           crime,           including           drug        crime.             The strategies               are
intended          to eliminate                or reduce           bottlenecks                by pro.iiding
alternative              ways to more efficient!y                             process            cri,-itinal;        ?;lr,);lf;;?
                                                                 L!
the     criminal         justice             system.            These      strategies                include:            pre-
trial      diversion,           probation                 revocation,            community             service,           boot
camps,          community         residential                  programs,         electronic              tethering,               and
prison          construction.


Pre-Trial           Diversion


The Wayne County                 Frosecutor's                   Office         whose         jur isdiction              inc ludes
the      City      of Detroit,               has used pre-trial                    diversion             since          1974.
The purpose            of diversion                  is    to save court                and prosecutor                   time          by
identifying            offenders              not     likely          to have a further                      "brush"        with
the      law and offering                    them probation                in lieu            of prosecution.                     If
they      comply       with       the        terms        of    probation,             the        criminal       charges               are
dismissed.              In Wayne County,                       only     defendants                who are       first       time

offenders           charged        with        a non-assaultive                    crime           are considered                 for
diversion.             According              to the           Prosecutor,             this        procedure            results
in a swifter             resolution                 of charges            and savings                in court,
prosecutor,            and defense                  attorney           time.       During            1989,      535
defendants            avoided        trial           by going            through        the        diversion            program.


 Probation           Revocation              Program


 Under      this      Wayne County                  program,           offenders             who violate            probation
by committi           ng offenses,                  including            drug     offenses,             are     incarcerated
 under      the      p robation          violation              rather          than    being          tried      on the          new
 0fEense.            The goal           of    probation               revocation             is    to secure
    punishment             for     the     offenders              through      probation             revocation                rather
    than      through           a new trial.                Officials          believe          this         procedure              saves
    court,      prosecutor,               and defense               attorney          time.          This          program
    started       in November,                1989,         and as of March                   5, 1990,             19 offenders
    had been returned                     to prison.


    Community             Service         Program
#

    In this       Wayne County                program,             offenders          convicted              of minor            crimes
    such      as carrying             a concealed                 weapon and assault                       are     allowed          to
    perform       public           service          in     lieu     of    a specified               amount           of jail
    time.       For example,                 they        may perform             clean-up           jobs          that    otherwise
    would      not        get     done for          lack      of    funds,        while        at the             same    time
    saving       jail       space.           During         1989,        3,479     offenders                participated                 in
    this      program.


    Boot      Camp


    In Michigan,                 ma.les    between          the      ages of 17 and 25 can be sentenced
    to boot       camp.             The State-run                 boot    camp program                is     90 days           of
    strict       discipline,               hard      labor,         physical          training,              and drill
    modeled       after           the military.                   The philosophy               of     the         boot    camp
    program          is    to develop             self-esteem,              individual              responsibility,                      and
    a work       et'hic.            The program             objectives            include           offsetting             prison
    overcrowding,                 reducing          prison         costs,        and reducing                    recidivism.
    During       fiscal           year     1989,         383 of 630          ~lfE317dk?KS           (Ii?     pt?K:i?nt:
successfully                completed             the      boot      camp program.                  According               to a
Michigan            Senate         official,            the        boot     camp alternative                  resulted               in
a fiscal           year        1989 savings                of about           $20 million.




Community            Residential                 Program


To alleviate                  overcrowding                in Michigan              prisons,           inmates         serving
the      final       two years              of    their        sentences            may      be allowed             to serve
their        remaining             time        in halfway            houses         near      their      homes in order
to make an easier                      transition             back         into     society.            Inmates             serving
time       in these            facilities            are       allowed            to leave          them only              for     work
and occasional                    visits.           Inmates           found        guilty      of three             misconduct
violations                such as drug             or alcohol               use     are      sent      back        to prison               to
serve        out     their         remaining              time.           According          to state         corrections
officials,             some 2,669                prisoners            were        residing          in these          centers              as
of      February           1990.


Tethering             Program


Michigan's                tethering            program         allows         offenders             to serve          their             time
at home.              An electronic                device           is attached              to the      offender's
ankle        that         emits       a signal            to a monitoring                   system.          If      the
offender            leaves          his     home without                  authorization,               the        system          alerts
prison           officials.                 The goal          of     the program              is to minimize                     time
required            to monitor               parolees,             prooationers,              and half-way                  'louse
residents.             As of January                  1990,        some 1,600               offenders           were
participating              in the        tethering                program.


Additional            Jail/Prison             Construction


Michigan         is      also      building           additional             jails          to alleviate              prison
overcrowding.                   In 1989,        Michigan              added      5 regional                prisons         to   its
system        and by the            end of       1991,            6 additional                facilities             are
scheduled         to be opened.                  However,              as discussed                 earlier,          even      with
these      facilities,              Officials            still         expect         a shortage               of prison
space.          Other       actions        being         considered              by the          State         of Michigan
to alleviate              prison       overcrowding                   include         the       following:


         --     providing       financial    assistance                          toward           the      construction               of
                county    jails     or regional     jail                        camps,
         --     reducing          the length   of prison                        terms.    This action                      would
                require          changing   the statutes                        governing    sentences.


Mr. Chairman,              despite            these      efforts,            the      judicial             and prison
systems         have become             increasingly                  clogged,              imposing        ever-greater
costs      on society.                Building           the        effectiveness                of     law
enforcement,              while       a critical                 priority,           will       increase         the
burdens         on courts            and prisons.                   We will          be considering                  policy
options         for      Congress        to consider                  in our         final        report.
Mr. Chairman,               this      concludes            my remarks.                 I would          be happy           to
answer        any questions              that         you or mem'oers of                      the     Subcommittee              may
have .
-
UCR Drug and Non-drug   Arrests   -
Michigan (1985-l 988)
                                      90   Thousands    of Arrests

                                      80                                                            -

                                      70

                                      60

                                      50

                                      40

                                      30

                                      20

                                      10

                                       0


                                           1985                      1996             1997          1993
                                           Calendar    Years

                                           -




                                      source:             FBI's             Uniform   Crime   Reports      (UCR)
ATTACHMENT III                                                        ATTACHMENT III
                   DETROIT POLICE DEPARTMENT
                  DRUG ENFORCEMENT STRATEGIES

BUY AND BUST        The investigation         of an alleged     narcotics
                    distribution      location      where an undercover
                    narcotics     purchase      is made and followed      by
                    an immediate      arrest      of the seller   and
                    recovery     of the evidence.
CONSPIRACY CASE      A prolonged    investigation      to determine  those
                     responsible    for the source and distribution
                     of illegal   drugs within       an organization   in
                     order to prosecute        those persons on c'narges
                     of operating     a continuing     criminal
                     enterprise.      This strategy      is aimed at mid
                     and higher   level drug traffickers.
CRACK DOWN           A massive enforcement              effort       conducted     by
                     local,      state,     and Federal        law    enforcement
                     agencies       whereby a series           of    arrest    and
                     search warrants           are executed          on a specified
                     day in an effort            to dismantle         the illegal
                     drug distribution             network     of    a particular
                      individual        or organization.             This effort
                     usually      marks the conclusion               of a
                     conspiracy         investigation.
PADLOCK              The seizure       of a drug distribution
                     establishment        after   three consecutive
                     enforcement       efforts.      The establishment         is
                     seized    under the "nuisance           abatement"    act
                     and control       and ownership       of property      is
                     given to the investigating              agency.    The
                     property     can later      be forfeited      over to that
                     agency's     use.      Padlocking     is the actual
                     securing     of the establishment           to prevent
                     entry    by unauthorized        persons.

PRESSURE POINT       An enforcement       operation      where several
                     planned     raids are executed          simultaneously
                     within    a targeted       geographical        area in an
                     effort    to maximize       police     effectiveness.
                     This tactic       is performed       in response         to
                     complaints      and information         received       from
                     various     community based sources              i.e.,
                     police-community        relations       meetings,
                     telephone      complaints,       and other sources.
ATTACHMENT III                                                ATTACHMENT III


RIP RIDE OPERATION      An enforcement       strategy    conducted     in areas
                        of high illegal       drug activity       where, while
                        under police      surveillance,      customers     that
                        make drug transactions          while using a
                        vehicle   are detained.         Upon recovery      of the
                        purchased    drug,     the customer     is arrested     and
                        the vehicle     is confiscated       and forfeited      for
                        police   department       use.
STREET ENFORCEMENT      The application          of the various  provisions          of
                        the controlled        substances    act against     the
                        "open air"     street      corner merchant   who
                        distributes      illegal     drugs from street
                        locations.
WRAP AROUND OPERATION   A follow-up         action    taken by the regular
                        police       patrol    force in the aftermath         of a
                        recent       enforcement      action   at a drug
                        distribution         establishment       to insure    that
                        there      is no resumption         of illegal    drug
                        activity.
UCR Drug and Non-drug   Arresls   -
Adrian (1985-1988)
                                      500   Number     of Arrests
                                                                                                -
                                      450

                                      400

                                      350

                                      300
                                            -
                                      250

                                      200

                                      150

                                      100

                                       50

                                        0


                                            1995
                                            Calendar    Years




                                      Source:              FBI's    Uniform   Crime   Reports
                      ATTACHMENT   V
ATTACHMENT   V




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