oversight

Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal Funds Invested in Many Programs

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1999-05-05.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                          United States General Accounting Office

GAO                       Testimony
                          Before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education,
                          Training, and Life-Long Learning, Committee on Education
                          and the Workforce, House of Representatives


For Release on Delivery
Expected at 10:30 a.m.
Wednesday, May 5, 1999
                          TEACHER TRAINING

                          Over $1.5 Billion Federal
                          Funds Invested in Many
                          Programs
                          Statement of Marnie S. Shaul, Associate Director
                          Education, Workforce, and Income Security Issues
                          Health, Education, and Human Services Division




GAO/T-HEHS-99-117
Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal
Funds Invested in Many Programs

               Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee:

               We are pleased to be here today to discuss our ongoing work for the
               Subcommittee concerning federally funded teacher training programs.
               Over the last few years, teacher training has been recognized as an
               important component of education reform in the United States. In 1994,
               the Congress passed the Goals 2000: Educate America Act, which
               established a national goal of providing teachers with access to programs
               to continually improve their teaching skills. To help achieve this goal for
               the 3 million elementary and secondary school teachers in the United
               States, an array of federal programs support teacher training. Some of
               these programs were established several years ago, and others more
               recently. In addition, the Administration is proposing new teacher training
               programs in its fiscal year 2000 budget request. In light of the role that
               teacher training has in education reform, it is important to know whether
               current programs are effectively configured to meet national goals and the
               extent to which they are achieving these goals.

               Today, my testimony will focus on two main topics: (1) the number of
               agencies and the programs they administer that support teacher training,
               along with some general characteristics of these programs, and (2) the
               funding provided by these programs. I will also discuss some of the
               challenges posed by the number and diversity of programs in determining
               whether they are achieving desired outcomes. My statement is based on
               our preliminary observations from a study that we are conducting at your
               request.

               For this study, we reviewed programs listed in the Catalog of Federal
               Domestic Assistance (CFDA) and sent a survey to agencies administering
               programs that support training for elementary and secondary school
               teachers. Our survey was designed to classify programs by the extent to
               which they supported teacher training and obtain information on the types
               of training and amount of funding they provided to support teacher
               training. The Department of Education is still reviewing funding data for a
               few programs included in our review.

               In summary, our preliminary results indicate that 13 agencies administer
               87 programs that support teacher training to varying degrees. The
               Department of Education administers the majority of these programs. The
               programs support training in a variety of ways, including paying for
               training-related materials, such as books on teaching strategies, and
               teachers’ travel expenses associated with attending conferences.



               Page 1                                                    GAO/T-HEHS-99-117
                        Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal
                        Funds Invested in Many Programs




                        Federal funding for teacher training is estimated to exceed $1.5 billion
                        during fiscal year 1999. Education’s programs account for over 86 percent
                        of total funding.

                    •   Over $579 million will be provided by programs that agencies classified as
                        focusing exclusively on supporting teacher training.
                    •   About $933 million will be provided by programs that agencies classified
                        as supporting teacher training to a significant degree. For example,
                        according to the Department, teacher training is an important activity of
                        the title I program, but the program’s primary purpose is broader—to
                        provide services to educationally disadvantaged children.
                    •   Funding estimates are generally unavailable for programs where teacher
                        training is an allowable but not a significant activity.

                        The number and diverse nature of programs—as well as the number of
                        agencies responsible for administering them—create challenges in
                        determining whether the programs are achieving national goals.
                        Coordination among programs and agencies as well as the conduct of
                        program evaluations are essential, given the diversity of existing programs.
                        The Results Act can provide a structured approach to such coordination
                        and evaluation activities and help measure progress toward achieving
                        national goals. For example, agencies’ annual performance plans can
                        provide important information on how agencies are tracking and
                        evaluating program results. We will be developing information in this area
                        as we continue with our review.


                        Based on our survey, 13 agencies administer 87 programs that support
Thirteen Agencies       teacher training. While some of these programs were created specifically
Administer 87           for the purpose of supporting teacher training, many others support
Programs That           teacher training as a means of achieving other purposes. As a result, the
                        extent to which the programs support training varies. We asked agencies
Support Teacher         to classify their programs into three categories based on these differences:
Training                (1) programs designed exclusively to support teacher training,
                        (2) programs that support a significant amount of teacher training but also
                        support other activities, and (3) programs that allow teacher training but
                        such training is not significant compared to other program activities. Table
                        1 shows how agencies classified the 87 programs into these three
                        categories.




                        Page 2                                                     GAO/T-HEHS-99-117
                                         Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal
                                         Funds Invested in Many Programs




Table 1: Classification of 87 Programs
That Support Teacher Training, Based                                                             Program
on Amount of Training Provided                                                 Program        supports a
                                                                       supports training       significant     Program allows
                                         Agency                             exclusively amount of training            training
                                         Department of Education                       8               28                  26
                                         Department of Agriculture                     0                0                   1
                                         Department of Interior                        0                0                   2
                                         Department of Health and
                                         Human Services                                1                3                   1
                                         National Aeronautics and
                                         Space Administration                          2                1                   0
                                         National Science
                                         Foundation                                    0                1                   0
                                         Corporation for National
                                         Service                                       0                1                   1
                                         Environmental Protection
                                         Agency                                        0                0                   2
                                         National Endowment for
                                         the Arts                                      0                0                   2
                                         National Endowment for
                                         the Humanities                                0                2                   0
                                         United States Information
                                         Agency                                        0                3                   0
                                         James Madison Memorial
                                         Fellowship Foundation                         1                0                   0
                                         United States Institute of
                                         Peace                                         0                0                   1
                                         Total                                         12              39                  36

                                         As shown in table 1, four agencies administer 12 programs that are
                                         designed only, or exclusively, to support teacher training. Education
                                         administers eight of these programs, which includes the Eisenhower State
                                         Grant program, the largest teacher training program. Under this program,
                                         most funds are allocated to school districts through states, while
                                         15 percent is provided competitively through states to higher education
                                         institutions and nonprofit agencies. All of these fund are used to promote
                                         teacher training, primarily in math and science.

                                         Seven agencies administer 39 programs that are designed to achieve
                                         purposes other than just teacher training but support a significant amount
                                         of teacher training, according to survey respondents. These programs
                                         include Education’s title I program, which provides financial support to
                                         states and school districts for programs designed to address the needs of




                                         Page 3                                                              GAO/T-HEHS-99-117
Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal
Funds Invested in Many Programs




educationally disadvantaged children, especially in high-poverty areas.
Title I funds may be used for a variety of expenses to achieve program
purposes, such as employee salaries and computer equipment, as well as
for teacher training. Another example of a program in this category is the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Aerospace
Education Services Program. The purpose of this program is to increase
public awareness and understanding of scientific research and
technological development. As a part of this program, NASA funds
workshops for K-12 teachers intended to improve science teaching and
learning and thus help achieve program purposes.

Finally, eight agencies administer 36 programs that allow teacher training
as an activity but do not provide a significant amount of teacher training
compared with other program activities. Education, for example, classified
its Fund for the Improvement of Education Program in this category.
Under this program, Education awards grants on a competitive basis to
support a wide variety of activities intended to further education reform
and improve teaching and learning. While the program may support
teacher training, such training is only one of many activities funded under
the program. Another example of a program in this category is the
Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Environmental Education Grants
Program. Under this program, EPA provides grants to educational
institutions and nonprofit organizations to address a wide range of
environmental issues. These organizations can use funds to study and
assess specific environmental issues or problems. Grantees may also
provide teacher training for K-12 teachers and other educators.

Across all three categories, the majority of programs are designed to
support training for teachers who already teach (in-service training) rather
than those preparing to become teachers (preservice training). Our survey
indicated that of the 87 programs, 78 percent primarily support in-service
training and 6 percent primarily support preservice training; 16 percent
support both in-service and preservice training about equally. Appendixes
I through III identify each agency’s programs and the types of training
supported, by program category, respectively.

In general, programs support teacher training by providing funds that can
pay for a variety of training-related expenses. The most frequently
reported eligible use of funds was for materials, such as books on teaching
strategies (95 percent of programs), followed by travel, such as
transportation and accommodation costs for attending conferences
(93 percent of programs). Other uses included direct instruction, tuition,



Page 4                                                     GAO/T-HEHS-99-117
                                         Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal
                                         Funds Invested in Many Programs




                                         stipends, release time by paying for substitute teachers, and graduate
                                         credit. (See fig. 1.)



Figure 1: Percentage of Responses by Eligible Expense Category




                                         Agency officials estimate that at least $1.5 billion dollars will be used to
Over $1.5 Billion Will                   support teacher training in fiscal year 1999. Education’s programs account
Support Teacher                          for over 86 percent of total funding. As figure 2 shows, programs that
Training in Fiscal Year                  support teacher training exclusively account for 38 percent of total
                                         estimated funding. Programs that support a significant amount of teacher
1999                                     training account for over 61 percent of total estimated funding, while
                                         programs that allow teacher training account for less than 1 percent.
                                         However, officials for many programs—especially those that allow teacher
                                         training—were unable to estimate the amount of funds used to support
                                         teacher training.



                                         Page 5                                                     GAO/T-HEHS-99-117
                                      Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal
                                      Funds Invested in Many Programs




Figure 2: Share of Estimated Fiscal
Year 1999 Teacher Training Funding
Contributed by Three Program
Categories




Education Provides Nearly             Funding for the 12 programs designed exclusively to support teacher
All the Funding for                   training totals over $579 million; Education’s programs provide nearly all
Programs That Exclusively             of these funds. Table 2 lists the number of programs and funding levels
                                      that exclusively support teacher training, by agency.
Support Teacher Training




                                      Page 6                                                     GAO/T-HEHS-99-117
                                        Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal
                                        Funds Invested in Many Programs




Table 2: Number of Programs
Administered and Estimated Funding                                                              Estimated         Share of total
Provided by Programs That                                                     Number of        funding for          funding for
Exclusively Support Teacher Training,   Agency                                 programs    teacher training           category
by Agency                               Department of Education                       8      $574,365,000                  99.2
                                        Department of Health and
                                        Human Services                                1          1,000,000                  0.2
                                        National Aeronautics and
                                        Space Administration                          2          2,678,940                  0.5
                                        James Madison Memorial
                                        Fellowship Foundation                         1            978,400                  0.2
                                        Total                                         12     $579,022,340                 100.1a
                                        a
                                        Total does not add due to rounding.



                                        Education’s Eisenhower State Grant Program, funded at $355 million for
                                        fiscal year 1999, accounts for over half of the total funding for programs in
                                        this category. Appendix I provides the funding levels for each of the 12
                                        programs in this category.


Over Half of Total                      Programs that support teacher training to a significant extent—but are not
Estimated Funding Is                    designed exclusively to support teacher training—are estimated to provide
Provided by Programs That               almost $933 million for training in fiscal year 1999. As shown in table 3,
                                        Education’s programs provide about 79 percent of this funding.
Support Teacher Training
to a Significant Extent




                                        Page 7                                                                GAO/T-HEHS-99-117
                                      Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal
                                      Funds Invested in Many Programs




Table 3: Number of Programs and
Funding for Programs That Provide a                                                                   Estimated       Share of total
Significant Amount of Support for                                               Number of            funding for        funding for
Teacher Training, by Agency           Agency                                     programs        teacher training program category
                                      Department of Education                            28          $735,925,452                      78.9
                                      National Science
                                      Foundation                                           1a         173,230,000                      18.6
                                      National Endowment for
                                      the Humanities                                       2             7,236,000                          0.8
                                      Department of Health and
                                      Human Services                                       3             5,552,303                          0.6
                                      United States Information
                                      Agency                                               3             4,547,528                          0.5
                                      National Aeronautics and
                                      Space Administration                                 1             3,324,500                          0.4
                                      Corporation for National
                                      Service                                              1             3,180,000                          0.3
                                      Total                                              39          $932,995,783                     100.1b
                                      a
                                       The National Science Foundation reported information on two projects using a single survey
                                      because both projects are listed under one program listing in CFDA.
                                      b
                                          Total does not add due to rounding.



                                      Of the estimated $933 million in teacher training funding from programs in
                                      this category, over 60 percent will be provided by four Education
                                      programs: title I ($191 million); Goals 2000 ($167 million); title VI,
                                      Innovative Education Program Strategies ($43 million); and the Class-Size
                                      Reduction Program ($180 million).1

                                      Total program funding and the proportion of program funds used for
                                      teacher training varies considerably among these four programs. For
                                      example, the estimated $191 million of title I funds used to support teacher
                                      training represents less than 3 percent of the nearly $8 billion program. On
                                      the other hand, the estimated $167 million of Goals 2000 funds used to
                                      support teacher training represents about 36 percent of this program’s
                                      total funding of $491 million. While proportionally small, the amount of
                                      title I funds supporting teacher training ($191 million) is significant
                                      compared to other programs, including the $335 million Eisenhower State
                                      Grant program, the largest program designed exclusively to support
                                      teacher training.


                                      1
                                       The Class-Size Reduction Program allows up to 15 percent of funds to be used for teacher training.
                                      The program received $1.2 billion for fiscal year 1999, the only year it has been funded. The
                                      Administration is requesting additional funding for fiscal year 2000.



                                      Page 8                                                                         GAO/T-HEHS-99-117
                                        Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal
                                        Funds Invested in Many Programs




                                        Figure 3 shows the share of total estimated funding for this category of
                                        programs contributed by each of these four programs and all other
                                        programs.


Figure 3: Proportion of Funding
Provided by Four Education Programs
of Total Funding for Programs That
Provide a Significant Amount of
Teacher Training Support, Fiscal Year
1999




                                        While these four programs contribute a significant amount of funds to
                                        support teacher training, the programs provide states and localities
                                        flexibility in how to use the funds, including whether to support teacher
                                        training or other activities. Consequently, overall funding used to support
                                        teacher training can vary from year to year. Under the Goals 2000 program
                                        for example, states in aggregate used about 37 percent of their fiscal year
                                        1995 funds (about $110 million) and about 44 percent of their fiscal year
                                        1996 funds (about $151 million) to support teacher training. In each of
                                        these 2 fiscal years, more than a dozen states used most of their Goals




                                        Page 9                                                     GAO/T-HEHS-99-117
                           Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal
                           Funds Invested in Many Programs




                           2000 funding to support teacher training, while nearly as many states did
                           not fund teacher training at all.2 Appendix II provides the funding levels of
                           programs that respondents classified in this program category.


Many Respondents Unable    Training-related funding estimates for programs that allow teacher training
to Estimate Funding        but do not provide a significant amount of training were generally
Amounts Provided by        unavailable. Because teacher training is not a significant focus of these
                           programs, agency officials often do not collect such detailed data. Of the
Programs That Allow but    estimates provided by agency officials, amounts ranged from $130,000
Do Not Significantly       under the United States Institute of Peace’s International Peace and
Support Teacher Training   Conflict Management Research and Education program to almost
                           $5,000,000 under the Corporation for National Service’s Learn and Serve
                           America Program—a school-and community-based program. Appendix III
                           provides the funding levels, if available, for each program in this category.


                           As we have shown, during fiscal year 1999, the federal government will
Tracking Progress          invest over $1.5 billion in programs that provide or support teacher
Toward National            training. An investment of this magnitude makes it important to know
Teacher Training           whether programs are achieving desired results. However, such a
                           determination is not easy because of the number of agencies and programs
Goals Is as Important      involved. It is made even more difficult because a significant portion of the
as It Is Challenging       federal investment is made through programs that have objectives broader
                           than only supporting teacher training, such as Education’s title I and Goals
                           2000 programs. Such programs may not be designed to measure
                           performance in areas as specific as teacher training.

                           As part of our ongoing review, we plan to assess whether identified federal
                           programs are effectively configured to achieve national goals. One vehicle
                           for doing this is by reviewing agencies’ efforts under the Government
                           Performance and Results Act of 1993. The act’s emphasis on results
                           implies that federal programs contributing to the same or similar
                           outcomes should be closely coordinated, consolidated, or streamlined, as
                           appropriate, to ensure that goals are consistent and that program efforts
                           are mutually reinforcing.

                           Annual performance plans, required under the act, are an appropriate
                           place for agencies to identify multiple programs—within and outside the
                           agency—that contribute to the same or similar goals and to describe their


                           2
                            These data were obtained during a prior study that resulted in our report Goals 2000: Flexible Funding
                           Supports State and Local Education Reform (GAO/HEHS-99-10; Nov. 16, 1998).



                           Page 10                                                                         GAO/T-HEHS-99-117
Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal
Funds Invested in Many Programs




coordination efforts so that goals are consistent and program efforts are
mutually reinforcing. Through a preliminary review of Education’s fiscal
year 2000 plan, we learned that the Department—which administers a
majority of the programs and the funds that support teacher training—has
taken steps to address this issue internally. For example, Education notes
in its plan that it has created a cross-office “professional development
team” to share information and strategies in an effort to coordinate the
Department’s teacher training programs. Education’s plan also describes
efforts to coordinate with other federal agencies, such as the National
Science Foundation. We will review in more detail Education’s and other
agencies’ efforts in this regard as we continue our work.

Other sources of information for assessing program effectiveness are
agencies’ strategic plans required under the Results Act. These plans are to
include descriptions of program evaluations used to develop their plans
and provide a schedule for future evaluations. Such evaluations can
provide important information not only for tracking agencies’ progress
toward achieving their performance goals but also for identifying
particularly effective program strategies or best practices. Based on our
preliminary review of its plan and evaluation activities, Education has also
taken steps in this regard. For example, Education is currently funding a
3-year national evaluation of its Eisenhower program that is expected to
provide information that could be used to measure its progress toward
achieving established performance goals. The study is designed to provide
information such as (1) the types and quality of teacher training provided
under the program, (2) the characteristics of teachers who participate in
funded training, and (3) the contribution such training makes toward
teachers’ instructional practices.

In addition to providing information useful for managing the Eisenhower
program, such an evaluation, combined with others, could be useful for
informing an overall federal strategy. Evaluation results could be used to
guide teacher training activities conducted under other programs, where
such program evaluations might not normally be undertaken. For example,
Education recently reported that few data are available concerning the
quality of teacher training activities funded under its title I, Innovative
Education Program Strategies (title VI), or Bilingual Education (title VII)
programs. Given the size of the investment made in teacher training
through these programs—over $280 million during fiscal year 1999—it is
important to ensure that teacher training funded under these programs use
available resources effectively. We will also be reviewing these and similar
issues as we proceed with our study.



Page 11                                                    GAO/T-HEHS-99-117
Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal
Funds Invested in Many Programs




Mr. Chairman, this concludes my prepared statement. I would be happy to
answer any questions that you or other Members of the Subcommittee
may have.




Page 12                                                GAO/T-HEHS-99-117
Page 13   GAO/T-HEHS-99-117
Appendix I

Programs Classified by Agencies as
Exclusive Teacher Training Programs, by
Type of Service Provided and Estimated
Fiscal Year 1999 Funding
                                                                         Primary training type
CFDA                                                                                              Both about
number   Agency program                               Preservice           In-service             equally                 FY 1999 fundinga
Department of Education
84.168   Eisenhower Professional Development—                              X                                                     $23,300,000
         Federal Activities
84.195   Bilingual Education—Professional                                                         X                               50,000,000
         Development
84.281   Eisenhower Professional                                           X                                                     335,000,000
         Development—State Grants
84.286   Telecommunications Demonstration                                  X                                                       5,000,000
         Project for Mathematics
84.299   Indian Education—Professional                                                            X                                1,865,000
         Development
84.336   Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants           X                                                                           77,200,000
84.342   Preparing Tomorrow’s Teachers to Use         X                                                                           75,000,000
         Technology
84.928   National Writing Project                                          X                                                       7,000,000
Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health
93.113   K-12 Teacher Enhancement and                                      X                                                       1,000,000
         Development
James Madison Memorial Fellowship Foundation
85.500   James Madison Memorial Fellowship                                                        X                                  978,400b
         Program
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
None     NASA Educational Workshops                                        X                                                       1,603,940
None     NASA Opportunity for Visionary               X                                                                            1,075,000
         Academics
                                            a
                                            Funding estimates are preliminary.
                                            b
                                             Funding represents the amount estimated for teacher training; program funding is derived from
                                            interest earned on U.S. securities.




                                            Page 14                                                                     GAO/T-HEHS-99-117
Appendix II

Programs Classified by Agencies as
Programs That Provide Significant Teacher
Training, by Type of Service Provided and
Estimated Fiscal Year 1999 Funding
                                                  Primary training type                 FY 1999 program fundinga
CFDA                                                                Both about                       Training   Percent of
number   Agency program                  Preservice    In-service   equally      Total funding    obligations       funds
Corporation for National Service
94.005   Learn and Serve                 X                                        $10,750,000     $3,180,000          29.6%
         America—Higher Education
Department of Education
84.002   Adult Education—State Grant                   X                          365,000,000     36,500,000          10.0
         Program
84.004   Civil Rights Training and                     X                            7,334,000       Unknown             NA
         Advisory Services
84.010   Title I Grants to Local                       X                         7,676,020,000   191,000,000b           2.5
         Educational Agencies
84.013   Title I Program for Neglected                 X                           40,311,000       Unknown             NA
         and Delinquent Children
84.021   International: Overseas                       X                            2,325,430        930,172          40.0
         Group Projects Abroad
84.083   Women’s Educational Equity                    X                            3,000,000       Unknown             NA
         Act Program
84.116   Fund for the Improvement of                                X              50,000,000        500,000            1.0
         Postsecondary Education
84.203   Star Schools                                  X                           45,000,000     22,500,000          50.0
84.206   Javits Gifted and Talented                    X                            6,500,000       Unknown             NA
         Students Education Grant
         Program
84.276   Goals 2000—State and Local                    X                          461,000,000    166,950,000c         36.2
         Education Systemic
         Improvement Grants (Goals
         2000 State Grants)
84.283   Comprehensive Regional                        X                           28,000,000       Unknown             NA
         Assistance Centers
84.289   Bilingual Education—                          X                            9,818,043       Unknown             NA
         Program Enhancement Grants
84.297   Native Hawaiian Curriculum                                 X               4,800,000        500,000          10.4
         Development, Teacher
         Training and Recruitment
84.298   Innovative Education                          X                          375,000,000     42,800,000b         11.4
         Program Strategies
84.302   Regional Technical Support                    X                           10,000,000      8,500,000          85.0
         and Professional
         Development Consortia
84.303   Technology Innovation                         X                          115,100,000       Unknown             NA
         Challenge Grants
84.304   International Education                       X                            7,000,000      4,200,000          60.0
         Exchange
                                                                                                                (continued)



                                             Page 15                                                    GAO/T-HEHS-99-117
                                              Appendix II
                                              Programs Classified by Agencies as
                                              Programs That Provide Significant Teacher
                                              Training, by Type of Service Provided and
                                              Estimated Fiscal Year 1999 Funding




                                                   Primary training type                         FY 1999 program fundinga
CFDA                                                                   Both about                             Training   Percent of
number   Agency program                   Preservice    In-service     equally            Total funding    obligations       funds
84.318   Technology Literacy                            X                                  425,000,000       Unknown             NA
         Challenge Fund Grants
84.319   Eisenhower Regional                            X                                   15,000,000     11,800,000          78.7
         Mathematics and Science
         Education Consortia
84.320   Alaska Native Educational                                     X                     5,030,000        327,780            6.5
         Planning, Curriculum
         Development, Teacher
         Training and Recruitment
         Program
84.323   Special Education—State                                       X                    35,200,000       Unknown             NA
         Program Improvement Grants
         for Children With Disabilities
84.325   Special Education—               X                                                 82,139,000     68,000,000          82.8
         Personnel Preparation to
         Improve Services and
         Results for Children With
         Disabilities
84.332   Comprehensive School                           X                                  145,000,000       Unknown             NA
         Reform Demonstrations
84.338   Reading Excellence                             X                                  260,000,000       Unknown             NA
84.340   Class-Size Reduction                           X                                 1,200,000,000   180,000,000          15.0
84.929   Civic Education                                X                                    7,500,000      1,417,500          18.9
None     Arts in Education                              X                                   10,500,000       Unknown             NA
None     Ellender Fellowships                           X                                    1,500,000              0             0
Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
93.865   Cooperative Agreements to                      X                                   49,422,582      5,166,933          10.5
         Support Comprehensive
         School Health Programs to
         Prevent the Spread of HIV
         and Other Important Health
         Problems
Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health
93.279   Drug Abuse Research                            X                                    1,958,989       Unknown             NA
         Programs
93.938   Early Interventions for                                       X                     2,154,334        385,370          17.9
         Children With Reading
         Problems
                                                                                                                         (continued)




                                              Page 16                                                            GAO/T-HEHS-99-117
                                           Appendix II
                                           Programs Classified by Agencies as
                                           Programs That Provide Significant Teacher
                                           Training, by Type of Service Provided and
                                           Estimated Fiscal Year 1999 Funding




                                                 Primary training type                               FY 1999 program fundinga
CFDA                                                                    Both about                                    Training       Percent of
number   Agency program                 Preservice     In-service       equally             Total funding          obligations           funds
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
43.001   Aerospace Education                           X                                         6,649,000           3,324,500               50.0
         Services Program
National Endowment for the Humanities
45.162   Promotion of the                              X                                         4,875,000           3,900,000               80.0
         Humanities—Education
         Development and
         Demonstration
45.163   Promotion of the Humanities—                  X                                         6,465,000           3,336,000               51.6
         Seminars and Institutes
National Science Foundation
47.076   Education and Human                                            X                     662,000,000         173,230,000                26.2
         Resources
United States Information Agency
82.012   Teacher Exchange—                             X                                         1,550,000             930,000               60.0
         New Independent State
         Partners in Education
82.013   Educational Exchange—                         X                                         3,117,528           3,117,528              100.0d
         Teacher From Secondary
         and Postsecondary Levels
         (Fulbright Programs)
82.034   Exchange—English Teaching                                      X                        1,007,848             500,000               49.6
         Fellows

                                           Note: “Unknown” denotes that survey respondents were unable to estimate the amount of funding
                                           dedicated to teacher training; “NA” denotes that a percent is not applicable.
                                           a
                                            Funding estimates are preliminary.
                                           b
                                            The source of these estimates is Education’s 1999 report Federal Education Legislation Enacted
                                           in 1994: An Evaluation of Implementation and Impact.
                                           c
                                            This was the estimate provided in response to our survey. However, in its 1999 report, Education
                                           estimates that $187 million will be used for teacher training.
                                           d
                                            Although 100 percent of program funding is used to support teacher training, at least 75 percent
                                           of funds are used for stipends to assist foreign teachers with living expenses in the United States.




                                           Page 17                                                                         GAO/T-HEHS-99-117
Appendix III

Programs Classified by Agencies as
Programs That Allow Teacher Training, by
Type of Service Provided and Estimated
Fiscal Year 1999 Funding
                                                Primary training type                 FY 1999 program fundinga
CFDA                                                              Both about                       Training   Percent of
number   Agency program                Preservice   In-service    equally      Total funding    obligations       funds
Corporation for National Service
94.004   Learn and Serve                            X                           $32,250,000     $4,837,500          15.0%
         America—School- and
         Community-Based Programs
Department of Agriculture, Food, and Nutrition Services
10.574   Team Nutrition Grants                      X                             4,000,000       Unknown             NA
Department of Education
84.011   Migrant Education—                         X                           346,189,000       Unknown             NA
         Basic State Grant Program
84.018   International: Overseas                    X                             1,123,400        748,933          66.7
         Seminars Abroad—
         Bilateral Projects
84.027   Special Education—                         X                          4,310,700,000      Unknown             NA
         Grants to States
84.048   Vocational Education—                                    X            1,013,128,950      Unknown             NA
         Basic Grants to States
84.051   Vocational Education—                      X                            13,497,000      3,660,000          27.1
         National Activities
84.060   Indian Education—Grants to                 X                            62,000,000       Unknown             NA
         Local Educational Agencies
84.144   Migrant Education—                         X                             8,500,000       Unknown             NA
         Coordination Program
84.162   Immigrant Education                        X                           150,000,000       Unknown             NA
84.173   Special Education Preschool                X                           373,985,000       Unknown             NA
         Grants
84.184   Safe and Drug-Free Schools                 X                           125,000,000       Unknown             NA
         and Communities—
         National Programs
84.186   Safe and Drug-Free Schools                 X                           441,000,000       Unknown             NA
         and Communities—
         State Grants
84.196   Education for Homeless                                   X              28,800,000       Unknown             NA
         Children and Youth
84.210   Native Hawaiian Gifted and                               X               2,000,000        200,000          10.0
         Talented
84.213   Even Start—State                           X                           125,250,000       Unknown             NA
         Educational Agencies
84.214   Even Start—Migrant                         X                             4,050,000       Unknown             NA
         Education
84.215   Fund for the Improvement of                X                           147,000,000       Unknown             NA
         Education
84.229   Language Resource Centers                  X                             2,450,000       Unknown             NA
                                                                                                              (continued)


                                          Page 18                                                     GAO/T-HEHS-99-117
                                               Appendix III
                                               Programs Classified by Agencies as
                                               Programs That Allow Teacher Training, by
                                               Type of Service Provided and Estimated
                                               Fiscal Year 1999 Funding




                                                     Primary training type                       FY 1999 program fundinga
CFDA                                                                   Both about                             Training     Percent of
number    Agency program                    Preservice   In-service    equally            Total funding    obligations         funds
84.243    Tech-Prep Education                            X                                 106,000,000       Unknown               NA
84.257    National Institute for Literacy                              X                     6,000,000       Unknown               NA
84.258    Even Start—Indian Tribes                       X                                   2,025,000       Unknown               NA
          and Tribal Organizations
84.282    Charter Schools                                X                                 100,000,000       Unknown               NA
84.288    Bilingual Education—                           X                                  16,512,243       Unknown               NA
          Program Development and
          Implementation Grants
84.290    Bilingual Education—                           X                                  90,624,010       Unknown               NA
          Comprehensive School
          Grants Program
84.291    Bilingual Education—                           X                                  42,062,579       Unknown               NA
          Systemwide Improvement
          Grants
84.293    Foreign Language Assistance                    X                                   6,000,000       Unknown               NA
84.995    School-to-Work National                        X                                 250,000,000      2,150,000              0.9
          Activities
Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health
93.389    Research Infrastructure                        X                                   5,994,000       Unknown               NA
Department of Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs
15.042    Indian School Equalization                     X                                 308,518,000       Unknown               NA
          Program
15.043    Indian Child and Family                        X                                   5,513,000       Unknown               NA
          Education
Environmental Protection Agency
66.950    Environmental Education and                    X                                   1,625,000       Unknown               NA
          Training Program
66.951    Environmental Education                        X                                   2,470,000        575,000             23.3
          Grants
National Endowment for the Arts
45.024    Promotion of the Arts—Grants                   X                                  38,770,480       Unknown               NA
          to Organizations and
          Individuals
45.025    Promotion of the Arts—                         X                                  27,686,000       Unknown               NA
          Partnership Agreements
United States Institute of Peace
91.001    International Peace and                        X                                  13,506,000b       130,000              1.0
          Conflict Management—
          Research and Education

                                                                                                             (Table notes on next page)




                                               Page 19                                                           GAO/T-HEHS-99-117
           Appendix III
           Programs Classified by Agencies as
           Programs That Allow Teacher Training, by
           Type of Service Provided and Estimated
           Fiscal Year 1999 Funding




           Note: “Unknown” denotes that survey respondents were unable to estimate the amount of funding
           dedicated to teacher training; “NA” denotes that a percent is not applicable.
           a
           Funding estimates are preliminary.
           b
            The Institute of Peace was unable to provide funding at the program level. The funding amount
           shown represents the total funding for the agency.




(104961)   Page 20                                                                      GAO/T-HEHS-99-117
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