United States General Accounting Office GAO Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education, Training, and Life-Long Learning, Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives For Release on Delivery Expected at 10:30 a.m. Wednesday, May 5, 1999 TEACHER TRAINING Over $1.5 Billion Federal Funds Invested in Many Programs Statement of Marnie S. Shaul, Associate Director Education, Workforce, and Income Security Issues Health, Education, and Human Services Division GAO/T-HEHS-99-117 Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal Funds Invested in Many Programs Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee: We are pleased to be here today to discuss our ongoing work for the Subcommittee concerning federally funded teacher training programs. Over the last few years, teacher training has been recognized as an important component of education reform in the United States. In 1994, the Congress passed the Goals 2000: Educate America Act, which established a national goal of providing teachers with access to programs to continually improve their teaching skills. To help achieve this goal for the 3 million elementary and secondary school teachers in the United States, an array of federal programs support teacher training. Some of these programs were established several years ago, and others more recently. In addition, the Administration is proposing new teacher training programs in its fiscal year 2000 budget request. In light of the role that teacher training has in education reform, it is important to know whether current programs are effectively configured to meet national goals and the extent to which they are achieving these goals. Today, my testimony will focus on two main topics: (1) the number of agencies and the programs they administer that support teacher training, along with some general characteristics of these programs, and (2) the funding provided by these programs. I will also discuss some of the challenges posed by the number and diversity of programs in determining whether they are achieving desired outcomes. My statement is based on our preliminary observations from a study that we are conducting at your request. For this study, we reviewed programs listed in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) and sent a survey to agencies administering programs that support training for elementary and secondary school teachers. Our survey was designed to classify programs by the extent to which they supported teacher training and obtain information on the types of training and amount of funding they provided to support teacher training. The Department of Education is still reviewing funding data for a few programs included in our review. In summary, our preliminary results indicate that 13 agencies administer 87 programs that support teacher training to varying degrees. The Department of Education administers the majority of these programs. The programs support training in a variety of ways, including paying for training-related materials, such as books on teaching strategies, and teachers’ travel expenses associated with attending conferences. Page 1 GAO/T-HEHS-99-117 Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal Funds Invested in Many Programs Federal funding for teacher training is estimated to exceed $1.5 billion during fiscal year 1999. Education’s programs account for over 86 percent of total funding. • Over $579 million will be provided by programs that agencies classified as focusing exclusively on supporting teacher training. • About $933 million will be provided by programs that agencies classified as supporting teacher training to a significant degree. For example, according to the Department, teacher training is an important activity of the title I program, but the program’s primary purpose is broader—to provide services to educationally disadvantaged children. • Funding estimates are generally unavailable for programs where teacher training is an allowable but not a significant activity. The number and diverse nature of programs—as well as the number of agencies responsible for administering them—create challenges in determining whether the programs are achieving national goals. Coordination among programs and agencies as well as the conduct of program evaluations are essential, given the diversity of existing programs. The Results Act can provide a structured approach to such coordination and evaluation activities and help measure progress toward achieving national goals. For example, agencies’ annual performance plans can provide important information on how agencies are tracking and evaluating program results. We will be developing information in this area as we continue with our review. Based on our survey, 13 agencies administer 87 programs that support Thirteen Agencies teacher training. While some of these programs were created specifically Administer 87 for the purpose of supporting teacher training, many others support Programs That teacher training as a means of achieving other purposes. As a result, the extent to which the programs support training varies. We asked agencies Support Teacher to classify their programs into three categories based on these differences: Training (1) programs designed exclusively to support teacher training, (2) programs that support a significant amount of teacher training but also support other activities, and (3) programs that allow teacher training but such training is not significant compared to other program activities. Table 1 shows how agencies classified the 87 programs into these three categories. Page 2 GAO/T-HEHS-99-117 Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal Funds Invested in Many Programs Table 1: Classification of 87 Programs That Support Teacher Training, Based Program on Amount of Training Provided Program supports a supports training significant Program allows Agency exclusively amount of training training Department of Education 8 28 26 Department of Agriculture 0 0 1 Department of Interior 0 0 2 Department of Health and Human Services 1 3 1 National Aeronautics and Space Administration 2 1 0 National Science Foundation 0 1 0 Corporation for National Service 0 1 1 Environmental Protection Agency 0 0 2 National Endowment for the Arts 0 0 2 National Endowment for the Humanities 0 2 0 United States Information Agency 0 3 0 James Madison Memorial Fellowship Foundation 1 0 0 United States Institute of Peace 0 0 1 Total 12 39 36 As shown in table 1, four agencies administer 12 programs that are designed only, or exclusively, to support teacher training. Education administers eight of these programs, which includes the Eisenhower State Grant program, the largest teacher training program. Under this program, most funds are allocated to school districts through states, while 15 percent is provided competitively through states to higher education institutions and nonprofit agencies. All of these fund are used to promote teacher training, primarily in math and science. Seven agencies administer 39 programs that are designed to achieve purposes other than just teacher training but support a significant amount of teacher training, according to survey respondents. These programs include Education’s title I program, which provides financial support to states and school districts for programs designed to address the needs of Page 3 GAO/T-HEHS-99-117 Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal Funds Invested in Many Programs educationally disadvantaged children, especially in high-poverty areas. Title I funds may be used for a variety of expenses to achieve program purposes, such as employee salaries and computer equipment, as well as for teacher training. Another example of a program in this category is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Aerospace Education Services Program. The purpose of this program is to increase public awareness and understanding of scientific research and technological development. As a part of this program, NASA funds workshops for K-12 teachers intended to improve science teaching and learning and thus help achieve program purposes. Finally, eight agencies administer 36 programs that allow teacher training as an activity but do not provide a significant amount of teacher training compared with other program activities. Education, for example, classified its Fund for the Improvement of Education Program in this category. Under this program, Education awards grants on a competitive basis to support a wide variety of activities intended to further education reform and improve teaching and learning. While the program may support teacher training, such training is only one of many activities funded under the program. Another example of a program in this category is the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Environmental Education Grants Program. Under this program, EPA provides grants to educational institutions and nonprofit organizations to address a wide range of environmental issues. These organizations can use funds to study and assess specific environmental issues or problems. Grantees may also provide teacher training for K-12 teachers and other educators. Across all three categories, the majority of programs are designed to support training for teachers who already teach (in-service training) rather than those preparing to become teachers (preservice training). Our survey indicated that of the 87 programs, 78 percent primarily support in-service training and 6 percent primarily support preservice training; 16 percent support both in-service and preservice training about equally. Appendixes I through III identify each agency’s programs and the types of training supported, by program category, respectively. In general, programs support teacher training by providing funds that can pay for a variety of training-related expenses. The most frequently reported eligible use of funds was for materials, such as books on teaching strategies (95 percent of programs), followed by travel, such as transportation and accommodation costs for attending conferences (93 percent of programs). Other uses included direct instruction, tuition, Page 4 GAO/T-HEHS-99-117 Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal Funds Invested in Many Programs stipends, release time by paying for substitute teachers, and graduate credit. (See fig. 1.) Figure 1: Percentage of Responses by Eligible Expense Category Agency officials estimate that at least $1.5 billion dollars will be used to Over $1.5 Billion Will support teacher training in fiscal year 1999. Education’s programs account Support Teacher for over 86 percent of total funding. As figure 2 shows, programs that Training in Fiscal Year support teacher training exclusively account for 38 percent of total estimated funding. Programs that support a significant amount of teacher 1999 training account for over 61 percent of total estimated funding, while programs that allow teacher training account for less than 1 percent. However, officials for many programs—especially those that allow teacher training—were unable to estimate the amount of funds used to support teacher training. Page 5 GAO/T-HEHS-99-117 Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal Funds Invested in Many Programs Figure 2: Share of Estimated Fiscal Year 1999 Teacher Training Funding Contributed by Three Program Categories Education Provides Nearly Funding for the 12 programs designed exclusively to support teacher All the Funding for training totals over $579 million; Education’s programs provide nearly all Programs That Exclusively of these funds. Table 2 lists the number of programs and funding levels that exclusively support teacher training, by agency. Support Teacher Training Page 6 GAO/T-HEHS-99-117 Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal Funds Invested in Many Programs Table 2: Number of Programs Administered and Estimated Funding Estimated Share of total Provided by Programs That Number of funding for funding for Exclusively Support Teacher Training, Agency programs teacher training category by Agency Department of Education 8 $574,365,000 99.2 Department of Health and Human Services 1 1,000,000 0.2 National Aeronautics and Space Administration 2 2,678,940 0.5 James Madison Memorial Fellowship Foundation 1 978,400 0.2 Total 12 $579,022,340 100.1a a Total does not add due to rounding. Education’s Eisenhower State Grant Program, funded at $355 million for fiscal year 1999, accounts for over half of the total funding for programs in this category. Appendix I provides the funding levels for each of the 12 programs in this category. Over Half of Total Programs that support teacher training to a significant extent—but are not Estimated Funding Is designed exclusively to support teacher training—are estimated to provide Provided by Programs That almost $933 million for training in fiscal year 1999. As shown in table 3, Education’s programs provide about 79 percent of this funding. Support Teacher Training to a Significant Extent Page 7 GAO/T-HEHS-99-117 Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal Funds Invested in Many Programs Table 3: Number of Programs and Funding for Programs That Provide a Estimated Share of total Significant Amount of Support for Number of funding for funding for Teacher Training, by Agency Agency programs teacher training program category Department of Education 28 $735,925,452 78.9 National Science Foundation 1a 173,230,000 18.6 National Endowment for the Humanities 2 7,236,000 0.8 Department of Health and Human Services 3 5,552,303 0.6 United States Information Agency 3 4,547,528 0.5 National Aeronautics and Space Administration 1 3,324,500 0.4 Corporation for National Service 1 3,180,000 0.3 Total 39 $932,995,783 100.1b a The National Science Foundation reported information on two projects using a single survey because both projects are listed under one program listing in CFDA. b Total does not add due to rounding. Of the estimated $933 million in teacher training funding from programs in this category, over 60 percent will be provided by four Education programs: title I ($191 million); Goals 2000 ($167 million); title VI, Innovative Education Program Strategies ($43 million); and the Class-Size Reduction Program ($180 million).1 Total program funding and the proportion of program funds used for teacher training varies considerably among these four programs. For example, the estimated $191 million of title I funds used to support teacher training represents less than 3 percent of the nearly $8 billion program. On the other hand, the estimated $167 million of Goals 2000 funds used to support teacher training represents about 36 percent of this program’s total funding of $491 million. While proportionally small, the amount of title I funds supporting teacher training ($191 million) is significant compared to other programs, including the $335 million Eisenhower State Grant program, the largest program designed exclusively to support teacher training. 1 The Class-Size Reduction Program allows up to 15 percent of funds to be used for teacher training. The program received $1.2 billion for fiscal year 1999, the only year it has been funded. The Administration is requesting additional funding for fiscal year 2000. Page 8 GAO/T-HEHS-99-117 Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal Funds Invested in Many Programs Figure 3 shows the share of total estimated funding for this category of programs contributed by each of these four programs and all other programs. Figure 3: Proportion of Funding Provided by Four Education Programs of Total Funding for Programs That Provide a Significant Amount of Teacher Training Support, Fiscal Year 1999 While these four programs contribute a significant amount of funds to support teacher training, the programs provide states and localities flexibility in how to use the funds, including whether to support teacher training or other activities. Consequently, overall funding used to support teacher training can vary from year to year. Under the Goals 2000 program for example, states in aggregate used about 37 percent of their fiscal year 1995 funds (about $110 million) and about 44 percent of their fiscal year 1996 funds (about $151 million) to support teacher training. In each of these 2 fiscal years, more than a dozen states used most of their Goals Page 9 GAO/T-HEHS-99-117 Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal Funds Invested in Many Programs 2000 funding to support teacher training, while nearly as many states did not fund teacher training at all.2 Appendix II provides the funding levels of programs that respondents classified in this program category. Many Respondents Unable Training-related funding estimates for programs that allow teacher training to Estimate Funding but do not provide a significant amount of training were generally Amounts Provided by unavailable. Because teacher training is not a significant focus of these programs, agency officials often do not collect such detailed data. Of the Programs That Allow but estimates provided by agency officials, amounts ranged from $130,000 Do Not Significantly under the United States Institute of Peace’s International Peace and Support Teacher Training Conflict Management Research and Education program to almost $5,000,000 under the Corporation for National Service’s Learn and Serve America Program—a school-and community-based program. Appendix III provides the funding levels, if available, for each program in this category. As we have shown, during fiscal year 1999, the federal government will Tracking Progress invest over $1.5 billion in programs that provide or support teacher Toward National training. An investment of this magnitude makes it important to know Teacher Training whether programs are achieving desired results. However, such a determination is not easy because of the number of agencies and programs Goals Is as Important involved. It is made even more difficult because a significant portion of the as It Is Challenging federal investment is made through programs that have objectives broader than only supporting teacher training, such as Education’s title I and Goals 2000 programs. Such programs may not be designed to measure performance in areas as specific as teacher training. As part of our ongoing review, we plan to assess whether identified federal programs are effectively configured to achieve national goals. One vehicle for doing this is by reviewing agencies’ efforts under the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993. The act’s emphasis on results implies that federal programs contributing to the same or similar outcomes should be closely coordinated, consolidated, or streamlined, as appropriate, to ensure that goals are consistent and that program efforts are mutually reinforcing. Annual performance plans, required under the act, are an appropriate place for agencies to identify multiple programs—within and outside the agency—that contribute to the same or similar goals and to describe their 2 These data were obtained during a prior study that resulted in our report Goals 2000: Flexible Funding Supports State and Local Education Reform (GAO/HEHS-99-10; Nov. 16, 1998). Page 10 GAO/T-HEHS-99-117 Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal Funds Invested in Many Programs coordination efforts so that goals are consistent and program efforts are mutually reinforcing. Through a preliminary review of Education’s fiscal year 2000 plan, we learned that the Department—which administers a majority of the programs and the funds that support teacher training—has taken steps to address this issue internally. For example, Education notes in its plan that it has created a cross-office “professional development team” to share information and strategies in an effort to coordinate the Department’s teacher training programs. Education’s plan also describes efforts to coordinate with other federal agencies, such as the National Science Foundation. We will review in more detail Education’s and other agencies’ efforts in this regard as we continue our work. Other sources of information for assessing program effectiveness are agencies’ strategic plans required under the Results Act. These plans are to include descriptions of program evaluations used to develop their plans and provide a schedule for future evaluations. Such evaluations can provide important information not only for tracking agencies’ progress toward achieving their performance goals but also for identifying particularly effective program strategies or best practices. Based on our preliminary review of its plan and evaluation activities, Education has also taken steps in this regard. For example, Education is currently funding a 3-year national evaluation of its Eisenhower program that is expected to provide information that could be used to measure its progress toward achieving established performance goals. The study is designed to provide information such as (1) the types and quality of teacher training provided under the program, (2) the characteristics of teachers who participate in funded training, and (3) the contribution such training makes toward teachers’ instructional practices. In addition to providing information useful for managing the Eisenhower program, such an evaluation, combined with others, could be useful for informing an overall federal strategy. Evaluation results could be used to guide teacher training activities conducted under other programs, where such program evaluations might not normally be undertaken. For example, Education recently reported that few data are available concerning the quality of teacher training activities funded under its title I, Innovative Education Program Strategies (title VI), or Bilingual Education (title VII) programs. Given the size of the investment made in teacher training through these programs—over $280 million during fiscal year 1999—it is important to ensure that teacher training funded under these programs use available resources effectively. We will also be reviewing these and similar issues as we proceed with our study. Page 11 GAO/T-HEHS-99-117 Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal Funds Invested in Many Programs Mr. Chairman, this concludes my prepared statement. I would be happy to answer any questions that you or other Members of the Subcommittee may have. Page 12 GAO/T-HEHS-99-117 Page 13 GAO/T-HEHS-99-117 Appendix I Programs Classified by Agencies as Exclusive Teacher Training Programs, by Type of Service Provided and Estimated Fiscal Year 1999 Funding Primary training type CFDA Both about number Agency program Preservice In-service equally FY 1999 fundinga Department of Education 84.168 Eisenhower Professional Development— X $23,300,000 Federal Activities 84.195 Bilingual Education—Professional X 50,000,000 Development 84.281 Eisenhower Professional X 335,000,000 Development—State Grants 84.286 Telecommunications Demonstration X 5,000,000 Project for Mathematics 84.299 Indian Education—Professional X 1,865,000 Development 84.336 Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants X 77,200,000 84.342 Preparing Tomorrow’s Teachers to Use X 75,000,000 Technology 84.928 National Writing Project X 7,000,000 Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health 93.113 K-12 Teacher Enhancement and X 1,000,000 Development James Madison Memorial Fellowship Foundation 85.500 James Madison Memorial Fellowship X 978,400b Program National Aeronautics and Space Administration None NASA Educational Workshops X 1,603,940 None NASA Opportunity for Visionary X 1,075,000 Academics a Funding estimates are preliminary. b Funding represents the amount estimated for teacher training; program funding is derived from interest earned on U.S. securities. Page 14 GAO/T-HEHS-99-117 Appendix II Programs Classified by Agencies as Programs That Provide Significant Teacher Training, by Type of Service Provided and Estimated Fiscal Year 1999 Funding Primary training type FY 1999 program fundinga CFDA Both about Training Percent of number Agency program Preservice In-service equally Total funding obligations funds Corporation for National Service 94.005 Learn and Serve X $10,750,000 $3,180,000 29.6% America—Higher Education Department of Education 84.002 Adult Education—State Grant X 365,000,000 36,500,000 10.0 Program 84.004 Civil Rights Training and X 7,334,000 Unknown NA Advisory Services 84.010 Title I Grants to Local X 7,676,020,000 191,000,000b 2.5 Educational Agencies 84.013 Title I Program for Neglected X 40,311,000 Unknown NA and Delinquent Children 84.021 International: Overseas X 2,325,430 930,172 40.0 Group Projects Abroad 84.083 Women’s Educational Equity X 3,000,000 Unknown NA Act Program 84.116 Fund for the Improvement of X 50,000,000 500,000 1.0 Postsecondary Education 84.203 Star Schools X 45,000,000 22,500,000 50.0 84.206 Javits Gifted and Talented X 6,500,000 Unknown NA Students Education Grant Program 84.276 Goals 2000—State and Local X 461,000,000 166,950,000c 36.2 Education Systemic Improvement Grants (Goals 2000 State Grants) 84.283 Comprehensive Regional X 28,000,000 Unknown NA Assistance Centers 84.289 Bilingual Education— X 9,818,043 Unknown NA Program Enhancement Grants 84.297 Native Hawaiian Curriculum X 4,800,000 500,000 10.4 Development, Teacher Training and Recruitment 84.298 Innovative Education X 375,000,000 42,800,000b 11.4 Program Strategies 84.302 Regional Technical Support X 10,000,000 8,500,000 85.0 and Professional Development Consortia 84.303 Technology Innovation X 115,100,000 Unknown NA Challenge Grants 84.304 International Education X 7,000,000 4,200,000 60.0 Exchange (continued) Page 15 GAO/T-HEHS-99-117 Appendix II Programs Classified by Agencies as Programs That Provide Significant Teacher Training, by Type of Service Provided and Estimated Fiscal Year 1999 Funding Primary training type FY 1999 program fundinga CFDA Both about Training Percent of number Agency program Preservice In-service equally Total funding obligations funds 84.318 Technology Literacy X 425,000,000 Unknown NA Challenge Fund Grants 84.319 Eisenhower Regional X 15,000,000 11,800,000 78.7 Mathematics and Science Education Consortia 84.320 Alaska Native Educational X 5,030,000 327,780 6.5 Planning, Curriculum Development, Teacher Training and Recruitment Program 84.323 Special Education—State X 35,200,000 Unknown NA Program Improvement Grants for Children With Disabilities 84.325 Special Education— X 82,139,000 68,000,000 82.8 Personnel Preparation to Improve Services and Results for Children With Disabilities 84.332 Comprehensive School X 145,000,000 Unknown NA Reform Demonstrations 84.338 Reading Excellence X 260,000,000 Unknown NA 84.340 Class-Size Reduction X 1,200,000,000 180,000,000 15.0 84.929 Civic Education X 7,500,000 1,417,500 18.9 None Arts in Education X 10,500,000 Unknown NA None Ellender Fellowships X 1,500,000 0 0 Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 93.865 Cooperative Agreements to X 49,422,582 5,166,933 10.5 Support Comprehensive School Health Programs to Prevent the Spread of HIV and Other Important Health Problems Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health 93.279 Drug Abuse Research X 1,958,989 Unknown NA Programs 93.938 Early Interventions for X 2,154,334 385,370 17.9 Children With Reading Problems (continued) Page 16 GAO/T-HEHS-99-117 Appendix II Programs Classified by Agencies as Programs That Provide Significant Teacher Training, by Type of Service Provided and Estimated Fiscal Year 1999 Funding Primary training type FY 1999 program fundinga CFDA Both about Training Percent of number Agency program Preservice In-service equally Total funding obligations funds National Aeronautics and Space Administration 43.001 Aerospace Education X 6,649,000 3,324,500 50.0 Services Program National Endowment for the Humanities 45.162 Promotion of the X 4,875,000 3,900,000 80.0 Humanities—Education Development and Demonstration 45.163 Promotion of the Humanities— X 6,465,000 3,336,000 51.6 Seminars and Institutes National Science Foundation 47.076 Education and Human X 662,000,000 173,230,000 26.2 Resources United States Information Agency 82.012 Teacher Exchange— X 1,550,000 930,000 60.0 New Independent State Partners in Education 82.013 Educational Exchange— X 3,117,528 3,117,528 100.0d Teacher From Secondary and Postsecondary Levels (Fulbright Programs) 82.034 Exchange—English Teaching X 1,007,848 500,000 49.6 Fellows Note: “Unknown” denotes that survey respondents were unable to estimate the amount of funding dedicated to teacher training; “NA” denotes that a percent is not applicable. a Funding estimates are preliminary. b The source of these estimates is Education’s 1999 report Federal Education Legislation Enacted in 1994: An Evaluation of Implementation and Impact. c This was the estimate provided in response to our survey. However, in its 1999 report, Education estimates that $187 million will be used for teacher training. d Although 100 percent of program funding is used to support teacher training, at least 75 percent of funds are used for stipends to assist foreign teachers with living expenses in the United States. Page 17 GAO/T-HEHS-99-117 Appendix III Programs Classified by Agencies as Programs That Allow Teacher Training, by Type of Service Provided and Estimated Fiscal Year 1999 Funding Primary training type FY 1999 program fundinga CFDA Both about Training Percent of number Agency program Preservice In-service equally Total funding obligations funds Corporation for National Service 94.004 Learn and Serve X $32,250,000 $4,837,500 15.0% America—School- and Community-Based Programs Department of Agriculture, Food, and Nutrition Services 10.574 Team Nutrition Grants X 4,000,000 Unknown NA Department of Education 84.011 Migrant Education— X 346,189,000 Unknown NA Basic State Grant Program 84.018 International: Overseas X 1,123,400 748,933 66.7 Seminars Abroad— Bilateral Projects 84.027 Special Education— X 4,310,700,000 Unknown NA Grants to States 84.048 Vocational Education— X 1,013,128,950 Unknown NA Basic Grants to States 84.051 Vocational Education— X 13,497,000 3,660,000 27.1 National Activities 84.060 Indian Education—Grants to X 62,000,000 Unknown NA Local Educational Agencies 84.144 Migrant Education— X 8,500,000 Unknown NA Coordination Program 84.162 Immigrant Education X 150,000,000 Unknown NA 84.173 Special Education Preschool X 373,985,000 Unknown NA Grants 84.184 Safe and Drug-Free Schools X 125,000,000 Unknown NA and Communities— National Programs 84.186 Safe and Drug-Free Schools X 441,000,000 Unknown NA and Communities— State Grants 84.196 Education for Homeless X 28,800,000 Unknown NA Children and Youth 84.210 Native Hawaiian Gifted and X 2,000,000 200,000 10.0 Talented 84.213 Even Start—State X 125,250,000 Unknown NA Educational Agencies 84.214 Even Start—Migrant X 4,050,000 Unknown NA Education 84.215 Fund for the Improvement of X 147,000,000 Unknown NA Education 84.229 Language Resource Centers X 2,450,000 Unknown NA (continued) Page 18 GAO/T-HEHS-99-117 Appendix III Programs Classified by Agencies as Programs That Allow Teacher Training, by Type of Service Provided and Estimated Fiscal Year 1999 Funding Primary training type FY 1999 program fundinga CFDA Both about Training Percent of number Agency program Preservice In-service equally Total funding obligations funds 84.243 Tech-Prep Education X 106,000,000 Unknown NA 84.257 National Institute for Literacy X 6,000,000 Unknown NA 84.258 Even Start—Indian Tribes X 2,025,000 Unknown NA and Tribal Organizations 84.282 Charter Schools X 100,000,000 Unknown NA 84.288 Bilingual Education— X 16,512,243 Unknown NA Program Development and Implementation Grants 84.290 Bilingual Education— X 90,624,010 Unknown NA Comprehensive School Grants Program 84.291 Bilingual Education— X 42,062,579 Unknown NA Systemwide Improvement Grants 84.293 Foreign Language Assistance X 6,000,000 Unknown NA 84.995 School-to-Work National X 250,000,000 2,150,000 0.9 Activities Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health 93.389 Research Infrastructure X 5,994,000 Unknown NA Department of Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs 15.042 Indian School Equalization X 308,518,000 Unknown NA Program 15.043 Indian Child and Family X 5,513,000 Unknown NA Education Environmental Protection Agency 66.950 Environmental Education and X 1,625,000 Unknown NA Training Program 66.951 Environmental Education X 2,470,000 575,000 23.3 Grants National Endowment for the Arts 45.024 Promotion of the Arts—Grants X 38,770,480 Unknown NA to Organizations and Individuals 45.025 Promotion of the Arts— X 27,686,000 Unknown NA Partnership Agreements United States Institute of Peace 91.001 International Peace and X 13,506,000b 130,000 1.0 Conflict Management— Research and Education (Table notes on next page) Page 19 GAO/T-HEHS-99-117 Appendix III Programs Classified by Agencies as Programs That Allow Teacher Training, by Type of Service Provided and Estimated Fiscal Year 1999 Funding Note: “Unknown” denotes that survey respondents were unable to estimate the amount of funding dedicated to teacher training; “NA” denotes that a percent is not applicable. a Funding estimates are preliminary. b The Institute of Peace was unable to provide funding at the program level. The funding amount shown represents the total funding for the agency. (104961) Page 20 GAO/T-HEHS-99-117 Ordering Information The first copy of each GAO report and testimony is free. Additional copies are $2 each. Orders should be sent to the following address, accompanied by a check or money order made out to the Superintendent of Documents, when necessary. VISA and MasterCard credit cards are accepted, also. Orders for 100 or more copies to be mailed to a single address are discounted 25 percent. Orders by mail: U.S. General Accounting Office P.O. Box 37050 Washington, DC 20013 or visit: Room 1100 700 4th St. NW (corner of 4th and G Sts. NW) U.S. General Accounting Office Washington, DC Orders may also be placed by calling (202) 512-6000 or by using fax number (202) 512-6061, or TDD (202) 512-2537. Each day, GAO issues a list of newly available reports and testimony. 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Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal Funds Invested in Many Programs
Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1999-05-05.
Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)