oversight

Five Latin American Countries' Controls Over the Registration and Use of Pesticides

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1990-03-28.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

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                _-________._
                          ---- .--.--_   -----_l__   United     States General Accounting
                                                         ...------_-             --         Office   /+0      I,$$$
                                                                                                               ____-----   -. -
                                                     Testimony
‘I GAO
                                                                                                     Illlllllllllll
                                                                                                              II
                                                                                                           140968

                March    28,    1990                 Fjve   Latin American        Countries'       Controls
                                                     Over   the Registration        and Use      of Pesticides




                                                     Statement   for the Record          by
                                                     John W . Harman,      Director,
                                                     Food and Agriculture          Issues
                                                     Resources,    Community,        and Economic
                                                     Development    Division

                                                     Submitted       to the Committee       on Agriculture,
                                                     Nutrition,        and Forestry
                                                     United     States    Senate
Mr.     Chairman           and Members                of     the     Committee:


      We are pleased                       to submit,    for your hearing                                  record    on the
proposed   “Pesticide                      Export   Reform Act of 1990,”                                   this   statement              on
five      Latin         American           countries’               controls           over         the     registration               and
use     of     pesticides.                 The      information                 is    based         on a report               we did      at
the     request           of     Representatives                    Leon        Panetta        and Frank               Horton
(GAO/RCED-90-55,                    Mar.      22,          1990).


      As part    of that review,                              we visited                Chile,    Mexico,   Costa                  Rica,
Guatemala,    and the Dominican                               Republic               during    1988   to determine                    what
their        governments,                 exporters,            and export                growers           were       doing      to
ensure        that  produce                grown for            U.S.       markets            would         meet       U.S.
pesticide              requirements.                  We also            obtained           information                on
(1) assistance                   that      U.S. agencies     have provided                                 to   help        these
countries    meet                U.S.      pesticide   requirements     and                               (2)   U.S.        agencies’
responsibilities                    for      safety          and quality               of     imported           produce          and
international                   agencies’         roles         in       developing            food         safety          systems.
In     addition,           we identified                    issues        for        congressional                 consideration
related           to    these       oblectives.


      As you requested,                          this    statement                   focuses    on the               five
governments  ’ regulatory                          controls     over                 the registration                    and use         of
pesticides.                It      includes           information                about        the      regulatory              status,
in     these       five         countries,            of     pesticides               whose         registrations               the
Environmental       Protection                        Agency         (EPA) has canceled  or suspended                                     or
whose registrations          U.S.                     chemical         companies have voluntarily
withdrawn.


          Overall,           we found            that     each           of the five            countries   has laws and
regulations               controlling              pesticide               availability            and use.    However,
government       officials         in all   of the countries,            except      Chile,     told                                          us
that    Government         monitoring      and enforcement          activities,         particularly
monitoring       of pesticide         availability          and field       sampling      for
residue     testing,        were generally         limited.       For example,          these

                                                                     1
 countries              lacked            resources,                     such         as inspectors,                      transportation                       to
monitor           distributors                       and perform                      field         sampling,              and adequate
residue           testing              facilities,                        Resource                 constraints               had          also          limited
some of           these governments’    ability     to                                             obtain          information       on U.S.
pesticide            requirements   and disseminate                                                 it      to     export     growers.


           Although                some         of     these             countries                 did      not     have          adequate
information                   about      U.S.           pesticide/crop                             requirements,     we found                              that
they have               all        prohibited,               restricted,                           or not registered      many
pesticides                that  EPA has canceled       or suspended                                                 or     that           U.S.          chemical
manufacturers                have withdrawn.      The constraints                                                     in the              countries’
monitoring                and enforcement    capabilities      may,                                                however,               promote
lingering               concern             that        these             pesticides,                    although            not          allowed,             ma;
be     available                for       use        on the              countries'                 domestic              and exported
produce.


           By way of                  background,                   a rapid              growth             in     U.S.      fruit              and
vegetable     imports  during  the 1980s     raised   concerns    about tne
safety    and quality   of imported    foods and the presence         of pesticide
residues.       In May 1988 we reported      that,  from 1980 to 1986,'         the
import    share of the U.S. market       for major    fresh    and frozen   fruits
rose       from         about          26     percent               to      about             33    percent,              while           the      share          for
major   fresh                 vegetables     rose from about 5 percent                                                     to    about
7 percent.                    Latin   American    and Caribbean  countries                                                      supply             most
U.S.  imports                  of fruits     and vegetables--5.5   million                                                      metric             tons,          or
77 percent,                   in      1988.           The      countries                      we visited              accounted                   for     over
hdlf       of     the         Latin         American/Caribbean                                 import            volume         in        1988.


        While            international                      guidelines       on the registration                                            and use               of
pesticides               on food              exist,         their     adoption    by individual                                           countries                   is
voluntary.                    Each      .-ountry            sets            its        own laws              for     pesticide
registration                   and use.                These              laws         vary         considerably                     in
sophistication                        and degree               of         implementation                         among       countries.

'Agricultural                 Tradra:   Causes    and Imr acts of Increased                                                               Fruit          and
vI:-qC’taL,ll:-         Impc:.A<    (GAG/i?%E-88-149bk,      Kay 10, 1988).
                                                                                  2
            We looked               at      the     five       governments              ’ practices                  that          may       affect
the      presence             and         composition               of     pesticide             residues              on U.S.                imported
produce.                These        practices               included             (1)      registering                 pesticides:
(2)      considering                     a pesticide’s                 U.S.       status         during             registration;
(3)      canceling,                 restricting,                  or      not     registering                 pesticides                  that         EPA
has      canceled             or     suspended;                and        (4)     registering                 pesticides                  that         do
not      have          EPA tolerances.2


FIVE        COUNTRIES ’ PESTICIDE                           REGULATORY MECHANISMS


           Registration                    is necessary                   to    provide    for the proper   and safe
use      of pesticides                     and to protect                      people   and the environment    from
ineffective                  or     detrimental                chemicals.                  Each      of       the      five            countries
has      laws      and regulations                         requiring              pesticides               to       be registered
before    they can be sold or used,                                            and --with         the exception      of the
Dominican     Republic-- each country                                          required          pesticide   registrations
to    specify            crop        use.3              Because           each      country          registers                   pesticides
based        on its           own climate,                  crops,             and pest          problem:.                 an exporting
country           may ha,Je different                          pesticides               registered                  than         its      importing
countries.                   Furthermore,                  pesticides              may be approved                         for         use      on a
certain           crop        in     the        exporting              country          and      a different                     crop        or       no
crops        in    the        importing                 country.


            In    these           five       countries              the        registrants                (usually               chemical
manufacturers)                      had      to    provide             much       of    the      same         type         of      information
EPA requires                  for         a U.S.         registration.                   This        information                       includes
the      pesticide’s                 name,         chemical              composition,                and use               instruct             ions;
health           and environmental                         safety          studies;            and residue                  information.
Officials               of    four         of     the      five        countries              told      us,      however,                 that
because           of     a lack            of     scientific               and budgetary                   resources,                   their


2A p$Sticide      residue      tolerance    is   the maximum legal                                                         level         of       a
pesticide    residue      that    may exist    in or on a food.
3The Dominican      Republic      revised     its  pesticide     statute   in 1988                                                                    to
include,     among other     things,      a requirement      for a pesticide
registration      to be crop-specific.            At the time of our visit,
however,     the statute     had not received         final    approval.
governments             generally             do not        validate             the        scientific             studies
presented             by the          registrants.


        Instead,    government      officials        require     registrants                                            to         submit,
as part      of the registration          application,       a “certificate                                                  of     free
sale ” from the country          of origin.          The certificate         is                                        the
registrant’s       certification        that    the pesticide         is legal                                           for        use          in
the country     where it is manufactured--         usually                                           an industrialized
country --where     the pesticide’s     health     effects                                           will  probably                   have
been independently       validated.     The government                                               officials                 these
                                                                                                                             use
certificates     to protect      their countries      from                                         registration              and
indiscriminate      sale of untested      chemicals        or                                      chemicals            that   have
been proven             unsafe.      While   each of                     the      five            countries            required                  a
certificate             of free     sale,   verification                          by        the      corresponding
government             agency--such       as EPA-- in                    the      country             of      origin           was         not
required         in     any      of      these        countries.              We did           not       verify         the
countries’        registration                   processes             or      their         use      of      information
during       those processes.


        All  five           countries     use              international                    maximum    residue      limits
(tolerances)              in establishing                    the amount                of    acceptable      pesticide
residue         on foods.               These         international               standards                are    developed                  by
the  Codex Alimentarius                         Commission,  a subsidiary    body of the                                              U.N.‘s
Food and Agriculture                         Organization   (FAO) and World Health
Organization    (WHO).                       Codex sets international     food standards                                                to
protect         the     health          of    consumers            and      to    facilitate                international
trade      in    food.4           The        United       States         is      an active               participant                  in
Codex.




4Codex has published        international         standards     for the hygienic           and
nutritional    quality    of food;        food additives:       pesticide       residues,
including    maximum residue        limlits    (tolerance     levels);       crntaminants;
labeling    and presentat     ion;    and methods       of analysis       and sampling,
                                                                   4
CONSIDERING               PESTICIDES'                  U.S.        STATUS DURING REGISTRATION


        In each            country,              government                officials                told         us that,           during         the
registration               process,              they try to determine,                                through      use             of     the
certificates               of      free         sale and other  available                                information,                    the
pesticide's              status           in     industrialized                     countries,                   including            the
United         States.             However,             the     use        of     information                    other       than        the
certificates               of      free         sale        varied         among        the         five         countries,
depending          on the           degree             of     access         to     this       information.


         Three       of     ttie       countries--Costa                         Rica,         the      Dominican               Republic,
and Guatemala--                 lacked           official             U.S.        regulatory                    information,                such    as
title      40,     part         180,       of     the         Code of           Federal         Regulations                    (which
provides          tolerances               and exemptions                       from       tolerances                 for      pesticide
chemicals     in          or on raw               agricultural                    commodities),       or                    other
comprehensive              commercial                publications                   that    incorporate                        U.S.
regulatory           information.                       Government                officials                in     these        countries
said     that      they         would          like         more      information               on U.S.               pesticide
requirements.


        Officials     of all   five    countries      said that   they consider    such
information       as EPA notifications           to foreign   governments    about
exports      of unregistered      pesticides       and about changes      in a
pesticide's           U.S. status,                      such         as cancelation                    or        suspension,                if
available,           when making                  pesticide                registration                    decisions.5                   However,


5Section       17(a) of the Federal              Insecticide,          Fungicide,        and
Rodenticide         Act establishes          notification          requirements          for the
export      of pesticides         that    are not registered              for domestic           use in
the United        States.       In a series         of steps,        the foreign         purchaser
must acknowledge,           and the government              is subsequently            notified,       that
the pesticide           is not registered           and cannot         be sold for use in the
United      States.       Section      17(b) requires          EPA to notify           foreign
governments         and a;,;ropriate         international          agencies        about
significant         changes     in a pesticide's            U.S. status,          such as
cancelation         or suspension.           The notices         generally        contain
information         on when EPA took the action,                   background        on what
precipitated          the action,       an explanation           of the action,            and the
basis     EPA had for taking            the action.           The notices         also     identify      EPA
contacts.
                                                                       5
in    an April           1989         report,6          we said that     EPA had                        not issued            notices
to    foreign           governments                 for all   pesticides    when                        significant            action
had     been     taken          and that             EPA's         1985       booklet           entitled          Suspended,
Cancelled,         and Restricted                          Pesticides       was outdated.                         We said         that
the     type     of information                          in this    booklet,    if updated                        and
disseminated,               would alert    countries       using   the included   pesticides
to initiate              actions   or request      additional      data as a basis     for
making     their          own risk/benefit       analysis      concerning    use.


         We believe     that  EPA's notices     of exports      of unregistered
pesticides        and about   changes  in   a pesticide's       U.S. status     can                                                    be
valuable     to foreign      countries    in properly     evaluating     the risk                                                      of
registering              or     continuing                 use    of       a pesticide.                 They alert    these
countries          to     imports              of    pesticides               into      their          countries   that   are
not    registered               for      use        in     the    United          States         because          of    health
concerns         or      other          reasons            or    about        the     reasons           for     significant
regulatory            actions            the        United        States          has     taken.


       On February     12, 1993,   EPA published        a notice                                                in the Federal
Register     on proposed   changes    in its   notification                                                   process.      The
notice   cited   our April    1989  report   recommendations                                                      and issues
discussed          in     May         1989      hearings             on pesticide                exports          before         the
Environment,    Energy,  and Natural     Resources   Subcommittee                                                        of the
House Committee     on Government    Operations    as some of the                                                        reasons            for
the changes.


CANCELING         OR RESTRICTING                         PESTICIDES
THAT ARE ILLEGAL                      IN THE UNITED                  STATES


         While    the           five    countries       do not generally                               register          pesticides
to    meet    another             country's       import   requirements,                               we found          that    the
goverraments            have          prohibited,                restricted,             or      not       registered          many
pesticides            that       the      United            States          has      canceled          or      suspended,

6Pesticidec:            Export      of Unreoistered                             Pesticides      Is              Not     Adequately
Monitored         ti;' ET;:/-. (GkO/RCED-69-128,                             Apr.    25, 1989).
                                                                       6
usually            because              of         health         or      environmental                   reasons.                        As a result,
the     legal            availability                       of     these        pesticides,                 as well                  as the
potential                for         their          use        on export           crops            destined              for             the        United
States,             is        decreased.


          We reviewed                        the        1987-88           registration                   status           in         the         5
countries                of         52 pesticides                   whose         U.S.         registrations                         EPA said                it        had
canceled             and/or             suspended,                  for      various            reasons,             as of                 October                25,
1988.          These             52 pesticides                      included             26 whose                registrations                         had
been      voluntarily                        withdrawn              by chemical                 manufacturers.                              We analyzed
the     five         countries’                     registration                  data         to    determine                  if         these
pesticides                were          registered                  in     those  countries.                         As the tables                                in
appendixes                    I and          II     show,         the      five  governments                        had prohibited,
restricted,                    or     not          registered              many of             these        pesticides.                              For
example,  Chile    had not registered                                              or had prohibited   use of                                              49 of
the 52 pesticides,     or 94 percent;                                              Guatemala  and Costa Rica,                                               47, or            .
90 percent;                    the      Dominican                 Republic,              44,        or    85 percent:                           and Mexico,
42,     or     81        percent.


          Each           of     the          five        governments’               regulations                    provided                      for
(1)     reregistration                             procedures              or     reviews            and/or           (2)            procedures                    for
revoking      a pesticide’s                               registration                   when adverse    health,      safety,                                            or
environmental        factors                             become known.                    However,   these    countries--like
the     United            States         --do            not      always         remove             canceled             pesticides                         from
registration                    lists              or    from       commercial              channels                at      the            time        of
cancelation.                        As a result,                    pesticides              that          are       not         approved                    for        use
in    a country                 may sometimes                       be legally              found           in     distribution
channels.


          For        example,                     some countries’                  regulations,                     such             as the
Dominican                Republic’s                     and Costa            Rica’s,            specify             that             if     a chemical
is voluntarily                        canceled              by a manufacturer,           the registration     will   be
maintgined     for                    2 years             until     existing      stocks    are used.     In Mexico,
when officials                        determine                that   a pesticide       should    be removed  from
the     official                pesticide                 list,     it is still       legal    for use for 2 years.
In    Guatemala,                    pesticides                   that      have     had         their        registrations                             canceled
                                                                              7
are      allowed            to    remain             in      commercial              channels                  for         a time     to     allow
existing             supplies           to          be depleted.


           For       example,
                           Guatemala      canceled    18 pesticides         in 1987.         As of
May   1988    its  list    of registrations        continued     to include          several     of
these    chemicals      because,     according     to government        officials,        they
gave the chemical          companies      6 months    to sell    existing         stocks,     and
use   of        these pesticides                           was to be allowed                       to continue    until
supplies           were exhausted.                           Similarly,   the                     Dominican    Republic
canceled              a series   of             pesticides               during     the                   1970s;            some,    however,
had not             been   removed              from the               government's                     list          of     registered
products             as of        October                 1988.        For        example,            distribution                    and     sale         of
the      pesticide               2,4,5-T             is     prohibited;                  yet      the          chemical's
registration                 was      still           listed           in        1988.


PESTICIDES             REGISTERED                    WITHOUT EPA TOLERANCES


          We identified                       110     pesticides                  that         had    been            legally         registered
for   use as of 1987-88     in 1 or more                                           of the 5 countries,                                but which do
not   have EPA tolerances     established                                            for a food use in                              the United
States.     (See app. III.)      Although                                          we do not know the                               reasons   EPA
has      not       established                 tolerances                  for     these          pesticides,                    in   some      cases,
EPA may not have e,aluated              these pesticides      or may have denied                                                                      a
U.S.     tolerance   or registration.          However,    it may be appropriate                                                                          to
register       these pesticides       in these   countries      because of the
countries'              specific               pest         problems,               crops,           and        climates;             because             the
pesticides             are        suitable                 for     nonfood           uses;           or        because           exporters            need
alternative                 pesticides                to         be legally              available                   to     enable     them          to
meet       their       export          markets'                   differing              requirements.                        While
registering             these           pesticides                   may    therefore    be appropriate      to the
countries'             needs,           using    such                pesticides       on exported    produce   could
resul:         in     the        produce            being          refused           entry           into            the     United        States          if
the      Food        and Drug          Administration                            (FDA)         detects               residues.




                                                                            8
Most         Violations                      on Imported                   Produce
Are      No-Tolerance                         Violations


             According                   to     FD>*, which                   samples          imported    foods                for        illegal
pesticide                 residues               and other                    prohibited           substances,                  its        data have
consistently                      shown             that         most         pesticide              residue          violations              on
imported             produce                  involve             no-tolerance                   violations              rather            than
residue             levels              that         exceed             EPA tolerance                   levels.           No-tolerance
violations                    result           when          FDA detects                  residues             of     pesticides      that                 do
not      have        U.S.              tolerances                 established                  for     use      on a particular                       crop
in     the        United           States.                   In     contrast,                 over-tolerance                  violations--
which         are        far       fewer --result                        when pesticide                    residues             exceed            EPA's
established                 tolerances                      on permitted                      pesticides.                The         over-tolerance
violations                 most often                      occur  because                     of pesticide               misuse,             unusual
weather            conditions,                       or      poor        agricultural                  practice.

             Each        of      the          five         countries              has         experienced              no-tolerance
violations                 on produce                      exported              to     the      United         States.               In     many
cases,            U.S.         tolerances                   had         not      been         established              for      the        specific
export            crop,          although                  a tolerance                  may      have      been        established                  for      a
related            crop.                Some         commodities,                      such      as chayote,                 yucca,          and
Chinese     vegetables,                          either                 are not grown or are not                                grown
commercially         in                   significant                    quantities  in the United                               States             and
tend         to    have          few,          or      no,        U.S.         tolerances.                 As a result,                    t.,ese
countri,             ' growers                   may        have         their          produce          rejected             at      U.S.        entry
points   because                        of     no-tolerance                      pesticide             violations               if     FDA detects
the pesticides.

           Our       analysis                  of      FDA import                 monitoring               data        for      1986         (the         most
readily            accessible                    at        the      time         of     the      analysis),              which         covered             all
countries                exporting                   produce             to      the      United         States,             showed          that         230,
or   9,O percent,                   of that                 year's  256 import  violations                                   occurred
because     U.S.                 tolerances                  had not been established                                    for the food
commodities                    sampled.                    The      remainder                 resulted          from         residues             that
exceeded             established                      EPA tolerance                       levels.              About         two-thirds               of     the
no-tolerance                     violations                      involved              pesticides              that      had U.S.
                                                                                  9
tolerances                for     commodities,                including       fruits             and vegetables,                   other
than         the     type        cited      for      violation.


             In    summary,  much of                     the difficulty             the         five    countries             we
visited            had in considering                       U.S. pesticide             requirements                 related           to
the       absence    of           U.S. pesticide     tolerances  for certain                                    export     crops
and       incomplete              information    about what pesticides      are                                 acceptable       for
use on produce                    destined           for the United    States.                       These        countries
have designed                    pesticide           regulatory   systems    to                    control        the
registration          and use of pesticides          in their     countries.     They have
expressed        an interest      in knowing     more about the status          of
pesticides         in the United      States--   which    they try to incorporate          into
their     registration       decisions--      and in keeping       known pesticides     of
concern      from being available           in their    countries       for use on either
domestic             or     export         crops.


           Despite              a general           lack      of   information             about        U.S.
pesticide/crop         requirements                           in   some of         these         countries,            they        have
all    prohibited,       restricted,                          or   not registered                  a large      number of
pesticides         EPA has canceled                           or   suspended     and             that    U.S.    chemical
manufacturers         have withdrawn.                              While  pesticide                 registration        systems
are     in        place         and many known                chemicals       of     concern            are     not     legall17
sanctioned                in these   countries,      constraints      in the countries'
monitoring                and enforcement       capabilities       may contribute    to concern
that    these             pesticides    may be available         for use on the countries'
domestic             and exported                 produce.          The extent             to      which,       and     in     what
ways,         U.S.        agencies          should          increase       their       involvement                in    dealing
with       these          countries'              need      for    more    information                 and     additional            U.S.
tolerances                are     issues          with      implications        for food                safety,   U.S.
competitiveness,                     and U.S.              agencies'       responsibilities                   and resources.




                                                                   10
APPENDIX          I                                                                                APPENDIX           I


 Status          in Five      Countries        of Pesticides           on EPA's        October    25,     1988,
                 Revised      List   of      Canceled   and/or         Suspended        Chemicals
                                                         Costa       Dominican
Pesticide                                    Chile       Rica        Republic          Guatemala         Mexico

Aldrina                                         P/L              P                P                 P         NR

Aspon                                            NR           NR                 NR             NR            NR

Brominated                                       NR           NR                 NR             NR            NR
salicylanilide
Carbophenothionb                                 NR           NR                  R             NR                R

Chlordanea/                                          P           R               RSd           P/L                R
Heptachlorc

Cycloheximideb                                   NR           NR                 NR             NR            NR
DBCP                                             NR              P           P/L               P/L            NR
(dibromochloropropane)
DDD (TDE)                                        NR           NR                 NR                NR         NR
(l,l-dichloro-2,2                    bis
[p-cnlorophenyl]                   ethane)
DDT                                                  P           P               NR                 P             Re
(dichloro       diphenyl
trichloroethane)
Demetonb                                         NR           NR                 NR             NR            NR

Dialiforb                                        NR           NR                 NR             NR            NR

Dieldrina                                       P/L              P           P/L                    P         NR

Dinitramineb                                     NR           NR                 NR             NR            NR

Dinosebb                                         NR              P               NR            P/L            NR

EDBb                                                 P           P                P                 P             R
(ethylene             dibromide)
Fenam$nosulf                                         R           R               NR                  R        NR
Fluchloralinb                                    NR           NR                   R               NR         NR
Kepone                                           NR              P               RS             NR            NR
(Chlordecone)

                                                         11
APPENDIX          I                                                                                                   APPENDIX             I


                                                                Costa          Dominican
Pesticide                                       Chile
                                                --              Rica           Republic                 Guatemala           Mexico

Mirex                                                 NR              NR                      NR                      R              NR

Monuron      TCA                                      NR              NR                      NR                     NR              NR
(trichloroacetic
acid)
Perfluidoneb                                           NR             NR                      NR                     NR              N F.
Potassium                                              NR             NR                      NR                     NR              NR
permanganate
Silvexb                                                NR                P                    NR                     NR              NR

2,4,5-T          (2,4,5-                               NR                P                  P/L                     P/L              KR
trichlorophenoxy-
acetic     acid)
Thiophanate                                           NR              NR                      NR                     NR              NR
Toxapheneb                                             NR                P                    NR                    P/L                R


Legend
NR        = Not registered       for use
P         = Prohibited     or suspended
P/L       = Prohibited:      not removed                      from       country's            list        of   registered
               pesticides
R         = Registered     for use
RS        = Restricted

aEPA has          action        levels         for     this      pesticide.

bEPA has          a tolerance(s)                for      this        pesticide.

'EPA       has    tolerances             and    action          levels          for    this          pesticide.

dThe       Dominican           Republic         permits          use         only     for     termites.
eKexico's             health     ministry             uses      DDT to          control         malaria.

SourcUe:       EPA's Office       of Pesticide       Programs'      Oct.     25, 1988,
revised     list      of canceled     and/or     suspended      chemicals;      official
pesticide        registration      documents,       statutes,      resolutions,          and
proclamations           from five    countries;       40 C.F.R.     parts     180 and 185
 (revised     as of July       1, 1989);      and The Pesticide          Chemical       News Guide?
 (Washington,         D.C.:    Louis    Rothschild,       Jr.),    June 1, 1988.
                                                                 12
APPENDIX         II                                                                         APPENDIX        II


 Status   in Five            Countries     of       Pesticides       on EPA's      October     25, 1988,
   evised    List           of Voluntarily            Canceled      Chemicals       of Siqnificance
                                                      Costa       Dominican
Pesticide                               Chile         Rica        Republic         Guatemala       Mexico

Acrylonitrile                               NR              NR                NR            NR          NR
Arsenic         trioxide                    NR              NR                NR            NR          NR

Benzene                                     NR              NR                NR            NR          NR
(all  products)

BHC                                         NR              NR                NR               P            R
(benzene         hexachloride)
Captafola                                       R             R                R               R            R

Carbon      tetrachloride                   NR              NR                 R            NR          NR
Chloranil                                   NR              NR                NR            NR          NR

Copper      acetoarsenite                   NR              NR                NR            NR          NR

Copper      arsenate                        NR              NR                NR            NR          NR
(basic)

Cyhexatina                                      R             R               NR            NR              R

Endrinb                                         P             R           P/L                  P        NR
EPNa                                        NR              NR                 R               R            R
(O-ethyl    O-p-
nitrophenyl
phenylphosphonothioate)
Erbon                                       NR              NR                NR            NR          NR

Hexachlorobenzene                           NR              NR                NR            NR          NR

Lead      arsenatea                         NR              NR                NR            NR          NR

Monuron                                     NR              NR                NR            NR          NR

Nitrogen         (TOKc)                     NR                P                R            NR          NR
OMPA                                                        NR                NR            NE          NR
(Octamethylpyro-
phosphoramide)


                                                       13
1
.


    APPENDIX       II                                                                                 APPENDIX        II

                                                         Costa         Dominican
    Pesticide                             Chile
                                          PP             Rica          Republic           Guatemala          Mexico

    Pentachlorophenol                           NR             NR                  NR                 RS              R
    (some nonwood            uses
    continue)
    Perthane                                    NR             NR                  NR                 NR          NR

    Phenarsazine            chloride            NR             NR                  NR                 NR          NR
    Ronneia                                     NR             NR                  NR                 NR          NR
    Safrole                                     NR             NR                  NR                 NR          NR

    Sodi urn arsenitea                          NR             NR                  NR                 NR          h'R
    Strobane                                    NR             NR                  NR                 NR          NR

    Trysben                                     NR             NR                  NR                 NR          NR


    Legend

    NR    = Not registered       for use
    P     = Prohibited
    P/L   = Prohibited;      not removed               from      country's         list    of   registered
               pesticides
    R     = Registered     for use
    RS    = Restricted

    aEPA has       a tolerance(s)         for     this        pesticide.
    bEPA has       action       levels   for    this      pesticide.

    CTrade      name.

    Source:      EPA's Office        of Pesticide       Programs'       Oct.    25, 1988,
    revised    list     of voluntarily       canceled      chemicals        of significance:
    official     pesticide      registration       documents,       statutes,        resolutions,
    and proclamations         from five      countries;       40 C.F.R.        parts    180 and                  185
    (revised     as of July       1, 1989);     and The Pesticide             Chemical     News
    Guide,   June 1. 1988.




                                                         14
APPENDIX         III                                                                 APPENDIX       III


                 Status  in Five   Countries    of          Pesticides   That Do Not
          Have    EPA Tolerances    Established             for the Active    Ingredients
                                                Costa        Dominican
Pesticide                          Chile
                                   --           Rica         Republic         Guatemala        Mexico

Alachlora          + Nudolin           NR            NR                   R           NR            NR

Aldrinb                                    RC        NR                  NR               NR        NR

Amitrole                               NR            NR                   R               NR        NR

Azamethiphos                           NR            NR                  NR           NR                R

Azinphos-ethyl                             R         NR                   R               NR        NR
Azocyclotind                               R         NR                  NR           NR            NR

BHC (benzene
hexachloride)e                         NR            NR                  NR           NR                R

Bioallethrin                           NR               R                NR           NR            NR

Bitertanold                                R         NR                  NR           NR                R

Blasticidin-S                          NR               R                 R           NR            NR

BPMC                                   NR               R                NR           NR            NR
(Fenobucarb)
Brodifacoum                            NR               R                NR                R            R
Bromadiolone                           NR            NR                  NR           NR                R

Bupirimate                                 R         NR                  NR           NR            NR

Buprofezin                             NR            NR                  NR                R        NR

Buthidazole                            NR            NR                   R               R         NR

Butocarboxim                           NR            NR                  NR               R         NR

Caldo Bordeles                         NR            NR                   R           NR            NR
+ Cufraneb
Captan -f +                            NR            NR                   R           NR            NR
Metoxicloro
Carbaxim         + Captanf             NR            NR                   R           NR            NR


                                                15
APPENDIX         III                                                               APPENDIX       111

                                              Costa       Dominican
Pesticide                         Chile       Rica        Republic          Guatemala        Mexico
Cartapd                               NR                              NR            NR            NR
ChlordaneS                            NR                               R                Rc            R
Chlordaneg             +              NR                              NR            NR            NR
Pentacl
Chlorophacinone                       NR              R                R            NR            NR

Chlorotoluron                         NR           NR                 NR            NR                R
Ciometrinilo                          NR              R               NR            NR            NR

Citrolina                             NR           NR                 NR            NR                R

Colecalciferol                        NR           NR                 NR            NR                R .
Coumachlor                            NR           NR                 NR            NR                R

Coumachlor             +              NR           NR                  R            NR            NR
Sulfamilamide
Coumatetralyl                         NR              R                                 R             R
Cyfloxylate                           NR           NR                               NR            NR

Cymoxanil         -+                  NR           NR                               NR            NR
Mancozebf
DBCP                                  NR           NR                  Rc               Rc        NR
(dibromochloropropane)
Demeton-(0             or   S)-           R           R                R                R             R
methyl
Dichlofluanidd                            R           R               NR                R         NR

Dieldrinh                             NR           NR                  Rc           NR            NR
Dienochlor                                R           R                R                R             R

Dietanolamina                         NR              R               NR            NR            NR

Difenacoum                            NH           NR                  R            NR            NR

Dimetk,irimol                         NR           NR                  R            NR            NR


                                              16
APPENDIX         III                                                       APPENDIX        III


                                       Costa       Dominican
Pesticide                  Chile       Rica        Republic         Guatemala         Mexico

Dimethylamine                  NR              R               NR                R         NR

Dimethyl         urea          NR           NR                  R                R         NR

Dinobuton                      NR           NR                  R           NR             NR

Dioctil        Sulfosun.       NR              R               NR           NR             NR

Diphacinone                    NR           NR                  R                R             R
Dodemorph                      NR              R                R                R             R

Edifenphosd                    NR              R                R                R             R

Epibloc                        NR           NR                 NR                R         NR

Ethidimuron                    NR           NR                 NR               NR             R
Ethiofencarbd                      R        NR                 NR               NR         NR

Fenaminosulf                       R           R               NR                R         NR

Fentin        acetate              R           R                R                R             R

Flamprop-methyl                NR           NR                 NR               NR             R
Flocoumafen                    NR           NR                 NR                R         NR

Flubenzimine                       R        NR                 NR               NR         NR

Flumetrina                     NR           NR                 NR               NR             R

Fluorodifen                    NR           NR                  R               NR         NR

Fluosilicato                   NR           NR                  R               :;R        NR

Flutriafol                         R        NR                 NR               NR         NR

Fonofos                        NR           NR                  R               NR         NR

Glufosinate                    NR           NR                 NR               NR             R
Guazafined                     NR           NR                  R               NR         NR
Hexaconazole                   NR           NR                 NR                R         NR

IBP       (Iprobenfos)         NR              R               NR               NR         NR

                                       17
APPENDIX       III                                                               APPENDIX       III


                                             Costa       Dominican
Pesticide                        Chile       Rica        Republic         Guatemala        Mexico
Ioxynil       + 2,4-Df               NR              R               NR           NR            NR

Ioxynil       octanoate              NR            NR                 R           NR            NR
Isazofos                             NR              R                R                R        NR
Isoforona                            NR              R               NR           NR            NR
Isoproturon                          NR            NR                NR               NR            R
Kasugamycin                              R           R                R                R            R

MAFA                                 NR              R               NR                R        NR
MCCEP                                NR            NR                 R               NR        NR

Mephosfolan                          NR              R                R                R        NR

Metaldehydeh             +           NR            NR                 R               NR        NR
Tri.   Arsenate
Methabenzthiazuron           +       NR              R               NR               NR        NR
Amitrole
Metham-sodium                        NR            NR                 R                R            R

Methyl      isothiocyanate           NR            NR                NR               NR            R

Mirex                                NR            NR                NR                R        Nh
Naptalam                             NR            NR                 R               NR        NR

Nitrofen       (DCP)                 NR            NR                 R               NR        NR

Ofurace                              NR              R               NR               NR        NR

Omethoated                               R         NR                NR               NR            R
Oxycarboxin                          NR              R                R                R            R

Penconazole                        - NR            NR                NR                R        NR
      0
Penconazole          +                   R         NR                NR               NR        NR
Mancozebf
Pentachlorophenol                    NR            NR                NR                R            R


                                              18
APPENDIX       III                                                       APPENDIX      III


                                     Costa       Dominican
Pesticide                Chile       Rica        Republic         Guatemala       Mexico
Phenothiol                   NR              R               NR           NR           NR

Phenothrini                  NR              R               NR           NR           NR
Phenthoated                      R        NR                  R               R            R
Phoximd                          R           R                R               R            R
Piperophos    +              NR              R                R               R        NR
Dimethametryn
Pirimicarbd                      R           R               NR               R            R
Pirimidil                    NR           NR                  R           NR           NR

Propamocarbd                 NR           NR                  R               R        NR
Prothiofos                       R           R               NR               R        NR

Prothoate                    NR           NR                  R           NR           NR

Pyracarbolid                 NR           NR                 NR               R        NR

Pyrazophos                       R           R                R           NR               R

Quinalphos                       R        NR                 NR           NR           NR
Sal    Sodio     Disp        NR              R               NR           NR           NR
Sal    Sodio    Naft.        NR              R               NR           NR           NR

Tetracloruro        de       NR           NR                  R           NR           NR
Carbon0      + Acrylo

Tetramethrin                 NR              R               NR           NR               R

Thiometond                       R        NR                 NR           NR           NR

Tiocarbazil                  NR           NR                  R           NR           NR

Tolclofos-methyl             NR              R               NR           NR           NR
         u)
Triazophosi                  NR           NR                  R               R            R
Triflumuron                      R        NR                 NR           NR               R

Xiligen                      NR              R               NR           NR           NR

                                     19
APPENDIX        III                                                                                           APPENDIX        III




Legend
NR   = Not    registered            for        use
R=     Registered      for         use
aEPA has        tolerances            for     this       chemical,             but   not    for          combination
shown.
bEPA has        action    levels             and Codex              has    maximum       residue           limits         (MRLs)
for this        chemical.
CThis pesticide       is on the                      country's            registration            list       but    has     been
officially    prohibited.

dCodex      has MRLs for              this         chemical.

eEPA has        action       levels          for      this       chemical.

fEPA     has    tolerances            and Codex              has MRLs for            this    chemical.

gEPA has action              levels          and Codex              has    extraneous        residue            limits       for
this chemical.
h40 C.F.R.            185.4025   allows preharvest                           use of this      chemical                 on
strawberries,             but sets a zero tolerance                             for residues.
iCodex      has       temp orary       MRLs for              this     chemical.

Source:       Government          pesticide        registration         lists    for Chile,         Costa
Rica,     the Dominican           Republic,        Guatemala,        and Mexico        for     1987 or
1988.       EPA verified          in 1989 that,           according       to its     records,       the
pesticides        (except       as shown in the footnotes)                    do not have
tolerances        established          for any food use in the United                      States.
Where possible,             English      spellings        and other       information         on
chemicals       were obtained            from the Code of Federal                Regulations,           tit le
40 parts       180 and 185 (revised                as of July        1, 1989):       Farm Chemicals
Handbook       (Willoughby,          Ohio:       Meister       Publishing       Co.),      198.,7:
Glossary       of Pesticide          Chemicals,          FDA, Sept.        1988; Guide to Codex
Maximum      Limits       for Pesticide          Residues,       Part 2, CAC/PR 2 - 1988,
Apr.    1988, issued           by The Netherlands:              The Pesticide          Chemical       News
Guide,      Reo, P.D.,         and M.B. Duggan,            eds.     (Was1?ington,        D.C.:      Louis
Rothschild,         Jr.),'June         1, 1988; and The Pesticide                  Manual,       A World
Compeadium,         8th ed.,        C.R. Worthing,           ed. (Thorton        Heath:         The
British      Crop Protection             Council),        1987.




                                                               20