oversight

City Housing Policies City of Kansas City, Missouri

Published by the Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Inspector General on 2000-04-06.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

          Telephone: (913) 551-5870     http://www.hud.gov/oig/oigindex.html                Fax: (913) 551-5877




                                                           U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
                                                           Great Plains Office of District Inspector General
                                                             for Audit, 7AGA
                                                           Gateway Tower II - 5th Floor
                                                           400 State Avenue
                                                           Kansas City, Kansas 66101-2406




         April 6, 2000                                                         Audit Related Memorandum
                                                                               00-KC-231-1801

         MEMORANDUM FOR:              William B. Rotert, Director, Office of Community Planning and
                                        Development, 7AD


         FROM:       Ronald J. Hosking, Acting District Inspector General for Audit, 7AGA

         SUBJECT:        City Housing Policies
                         City of Kansas City, Missouri

         We have completed a review of the City of Kansas City, Missouri’s City housing policy,
         strategies and activities. This was a joint review conducted with the Kansas City, Missouri
         City Auditor. Attached is a copy of the jointly issued report detailing the results of this
         review.

         In short, we found that the City of Kansas City needs a housing policy. It currently bases its
         housing policy on what is contained in its Consolidated Housing and Community
         Development Plan, which includes only vague descriptions of the City’s housing strategies.
         When these strategies are used to measure performance, any outcome can be viewed as a
         success. We also found that the City did not maintain current housing related data that
         could be used for identifying and developing effective housing policy, strategies and
         activities.

         This report recommends that the City Manager take certain actions to ensure that the City
         develops and maintains an effective housing policy and accurate housing related data.

         We did not identify any instances of non-compliance with HUD’s requirements related to
         the City’s Consolidated Housing and Community Development Plan. Therefore, the report
         does not contain any recommendations for action by your office. The report does,
         however, suggest that the City involve your office by seeking advice and assistance while
         implementing the recommendations.

         We are providing you with a copy of this report to assist you in your future monitoring and
         technical assistance responsibilities. If you or your staff have any questions or comments,
         please feel free to call me at (913)551-5870.




Distribution                                                                                              Attachment
 Telephone: (913) 551-5870        http://www.hud.gov/oig/oigindex.html        Fax: (913) 551-5877




DISTRIBUTION:

Deputy Secretary, SD, Room 10100
Chief of Staff, S, Room 10000
Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary for Project Management, SD, Room 10100
Acting Assistant Secretary for Administration, S, Room 10110
Assistant Secretary for Congressional and Intergovernmental Relations, J, Room 10120
Senior Advisor to the Secretary, Office of Public Affairs, S, Room 10132
Deputy Assistant Secretary of Administrative Services/Director of Executive Secretariat,
   AX, Room 10139
Director of Scheduling and Advance, AL, 10158
Counselor to the Secretary, S, 10234
Deputy Chief of Staff, S, Room 10226
Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations, S, 10226
Deputy Chief of Staff for Programs and Policy, S, Room 10226
Director, Office of Special Actions, AK, Room 10226
Deputy Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs, W, Room 10222
Special Assistant for Inter-Faith Community Outreach, S, 10222
Executive Officer for Administrative Operations and Management, S, Room 10220
Senior Advisor to the Secretary for Pine Ridge Project, W, Room 10216
General Counsel, C, Room 10214
Director, Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight, O, 9th Floor Mailroom
Assistant Secretary for Housing/Federal Housing Commissioner, H, Room 9100
Office of Policy Development and Research, R, Room 8100
Inspector General, G, Room 8256
Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and Development, D, Room 7100
Assistant Deputy Secretary for Field Policy and Management, SDF, Room 7108
Government National Mortgage Association, T, Room 6100
Assistant Secretary for Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity, E, Room 5100
Chief Procurement Officer, N, Room 3152
Assistant Secretary for Public and Indian Housing, P, Room 4100
Chief Information Officer, Q, Room 3152
Director, Office of Departmental Equal Employment Opportunity, U, Room 5128
Director, Office of Departmental Operations and Coordination, I, Room 2124
Chief Financial Officer, F, Room 2202
Director, Enforcement Center, V, 200 Portals Building
Director, X, Real Estate Assessment Center, X, 1280 Maryland Avenue, SW, Suite 800
Director, Office of Multifamily Assistance Restructuring, Y, 4000 Portals Building
Secretary’s Representative, 7AS (2)
Director, Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity, 7AEH
Director, Public Housing, 7APH
Director, Community Planning and Development, 7DD
Director, Community Planning and Development, 7ED
Director, Multifamily Housing, 7AHM
Audit Liaison Officer, Community Planning and Development, DOT, Room 7220

Audit Related Memorandum                           2



                                                                                         Attachment
 Telephone: (913) 551-5870      http://www.hud.gov/oig/oigindex.html      Fax: (913) 551-5877




Deputy Secretary, Special Assistant, SD, Room 10126
Field Audit Liaison Officer, 6AF, (2)
Assistant to the Deputy Secretary for Field Management, SDF, Rm. 7108
Deputy Chief Financial Officer for Finance, FF, Room 2202
Acquisitions Librarian, Library, AS, Room 8141
Deputy Office of Budget, FO, Room 3270
Departmental Audit Liaison Officer, FM, Room 2206
State/Area Coordinators, Great Plains District

Ranking Member, Committee on Governmental Affairs, 706 Hart Senate Office Building,
   United States Senate, Washington, DC, 20510
Chairman; Committee on Governmental Affairs, 340 Dirksen Senate Office Building,
   United States Senate, Washington, DC, 20510
Chairman, Committee on Government Reform, 2185 Rayburn Building, House of
   Representatives, Washington, DC, 20515
Ranking Member, Committee on Government Reform, 2204 Rayburn Building, House of
   Representatives, Washington, DC, 20515
Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Room 212, O’Neil House Office Building,
   Washington, DC, 20515
Director, Housing and Community Development Issue Area, United States General
   Accounting Office, 441 G Street, NW, Room 2474, Washington, DC, 20548
Deputy Staff Director, Counsel, Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, B373 Rayburn House
  Office Building, Washington, DC, 20515
Chief, Housing Branch, Office of Management and Budget, 725 17th Street, NW,
  Room 9226, New Executive Office Building, Washington, DC, 20503




Audit Related Memorandum                         3



                                                                                     Attachment
Transmittal Memo   Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
____________________________________________________________________________________
Special Report: Kansas City Needs A Housing Policy

______________________________________________________________________________
Table of Contents

Introduction                                                                                       1
        Purpose and Authority                                                                      1
        Report Objectives                                                                          1
        Scope and Methodology                                                                      2
        Background                                                                                 3
               Federal Housing Efforts Date Back to the 1930’s                                     3
               City Government’s Interest in Housing Dates Back More Than 30 Years                 5
               Housing-Related Spending Is Nearly $47 Million Annually                             6
               Non-Governmental Agencies Also Provide Housing-Related Services                     7

Findings and Recommendations                                                                       9
        Summary                                                                                    9
        Kansas City Needs A Housing Policy                                                        10
                Consolidated Plan Details Activities, But Does Not Clearly Identify Policies or
                   Performance Outcomes                                                           10
                Reported Housing Strategies Are Too Vague to Represent Policy                     11
                Housing Service Providers Were Unaware of City Policies                           15
                A Comprehensive Housing Policy Should Be Established                              15
                Service Providers, FOCUS, and HUD Can Serve as Resources                          16
        Current Housing Data Is Not Available                                                     18
                Perceptions on Housing Problems Differ                                            18
                Information on Current Housing Conditions Is Inadequate                           19
                Housing Data Should Be Interpreted Carefully                                      20
                The City Needs Current Housing Data to Determine the Type and Severity of
                   Problems                                                                       21
        Recommendations                                                                           22

Appendix A: Housing Questions and Housing Representatives Interviewed                             23
Appendix B: Director of HUD's Office of Community Planning & Development's Response               29
Appendix C: City Manager's Response                                                               33
______________________________________________________________________________
Special Report: Kansas City Needs A Housing Policy

____________________________________________________________________________________
List of Exhibits


Exhibit 1:   HUD Funding to Kansas City, 1998                                      4
Exhibit 2:   Estimated Expenditures for Housing-Related Activities                 7
Exhibit 3:   Housing-Related Spending by Funding Source                            7
Exhibit 4:   Problems/Obstacles Identified in Interviews                          19
Exhibit 5:   Selected Information on Housing Conditions                           20
______________________________________________________________________________
Introduction
______________________________________________________________________________
Purpose and Authority

                        This special report on city housing policies, strategies, and activities was
                        initiated by the city auditor pursuant to Article II, Section 13 of the
                        Charter of Kansas City, Missouri, which establishes the Office of the City
                        Auditor and outlines the city auditor’s primary duties. The report was
                        completed jointly with the local Office of Inspector General, U. S.
                        Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), pursuant to the
                        Inspector General Act of 1978 as amended.

                        In the past, council members have requested information regarding the
                        effectiveness of outside agencies that receive city funding for housing-
                        related efforts. Present council members have expressed concerns
                        regarding the overall effectiveness of the city’s housing efforts. This
                        special report provides information on housing-related activities currently
                        performed by city departments, HUD, and non-city agencies. It is the
                        first of two reports we will complete on housing activities. A subsequent
                        performance audit will be completed during fiscal year 2001, reporting on
                        the activities of the city’s Housing and Community Development
                        Department.
______________________________________________________________________________
Objectives

                        This report was designed to answer the following questions:

                        •   What are the city’s missions, goals, and strategies for addressing
                            housing conditions in the city?

                        •   Are the developed missions, goals, and strategies appropriate for the
                            city?

                        •   Is there consistency between the city’s missions, goals, and strategies
                            and federal housing objectives?

                        •   Does the city request and receive appropriate levels and types of
                            federal cooperation and assistance?

                        •   What are the quality, affordability, and availability of housing in the
                            city?


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                                                                                 Table of Contents
Special Report: Kansas City Needs A Housing Policy

______________________________________________________________________________
Scope and Methodology

                                This special report is intended to provide the mayor and City Council
                                information on housing-related activities currently performed by city
                                departments, HUD, and non-governmental agencies.

                                Our work on this report was completed in accordance with applicable
                                government auditing standards and included the following procedures:

                                •   Identifying and evaluating available data on housing such as internal
                                    housing reports, census information, and housing-related department
                                    documents.

                                •   Reviewing literature on housing conditions, policies, or strategies.

                                •   Interviewing city staff, HUD officials, representatives of local
                                    agencies involved in housing-related activities, and area housing
                                    experts.

                                •   Reviewing reports and other materials generated as part of the
                                    Forging Our Comprehensive Urban Strategy (FOCUS) Kansas City
                                    process.

                                •   Reviewing materials related to the activities of the U. S. Department
                                    of Housing and Urban Development, including the city’s 1999
                                    Consolidated Housing and Community Development Plan.

                                •   Attending HUD’s Building a Better Tomorrow: 1999 Best Practices
                                    and Technical Assistance Symposium and the September 1, 1999,
                                    HUD/city staff consultation conference.

                                This report was completed jointly by the Office of the City Auditor and
                                the Office of Inspector General, U. S. Department of Housing and Urban
                                Development.

                                No information was omitted from this report because it was deemed
                                privileged or confidential.




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                                                                                         Table of Contents
                                                                                     Introduction

______________________________________________________________________________
Background

                        Federal Housing Efforts Date Back to the 1930’s

                        The Housing Act of 1934 created the Federal Housing Administration in
                        response to a national housing crisis resulting from the stock market crash
                        of 1929. The Federal Housing Administration provided insurance for
                        private mortgage loans on residential property, thereby protecting lenders
                        against loss, while encouraging the use of long-term mortgages. The act
                        was expanded in 1937 as the government began to build, own, and operate
                        housing. Subsequent acts in 1949 and 1954 addressed issues of urban
                        blight and urban renewal. In 1965, the Department of Housing and Urban
                        Development (HUD) was established, consolidating a number of agencies
                        created in earlier legislation.

                        HUD’s mission is to provide housing. The statutory mission of HUD is
                        to provide a decent, safe, and sanitary home and suitable living
                        environment for every American. The six HUD objectives are:

                        •   Fighting for fair housing.
                        •   Increasing affordable housing and home ownership.
                        •   Reducing homelessness.
                        •   Promoting jobs and economic opportunity.
                        •   Empowering people and communities.
                        •   Restoring the public trust.

                        HUD programs are intended to increase the availability of housing and
                        shelters through expanded economic opportunities and social and
                        supportive services for low- and moderate-income individuals, the
                        homeless, and the disabled.

                       Programs have specific purposes. HUD supports a number of targeted
                       housing programs. Particular objectives of the programs include
                       promoting local government’s development of housing strategies,
                       providing financial and technical assistance to develop affordable low-
                       income housing programs, and promoting partnerships among all levels of
                       the government and the private sector. Individual HUD programs and
                       their objectives are described below.

                       •    Community Development Block Grant Entitlement Program.
                            Focuses on providing decent housing and expanding economic
                            opportunities for individuals of low to moderate income.

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Special Report: Kansas City Needs A Housing Policy



                                   •   Emergency Shelter Grant Program. Supports emergency shelters
                                       and social services for the homeless; tries to restrict the increase of
                                       homelessness through preventive programs and activities.

                                   •   Supportive Housing Program. Assists homeless persons in the
                                       transition from homelessness.

                                   •   Shelter Plus Care. Provides supportive services for hard to serve
                                       homeless persons with disabilities and their families.

                                   •   Home Investment Partnerships Program. Assists local
                                       governments and the private sector in the production and operation of
                                       affordable housing for low-income persons.

                                   •   Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS. Provides states and
                                       municipalities with resources and incentives to meet the housing needs
                                       of persons with AIDS or related diseases and their families.

                                   HUD provides more than $29 million annually to Kansas City.
                                   Representatives of housing-related agencies both within and outside city
                                   government indicated through interviews that they believe the city receives
                                   its fair share of HUD dollars. A combination of grants and contracts
                                   provided over $29 million in funding to Kansas City during 1998. (See
                                   Exhibit 1.)

                                Exhibit 1. HUD Funding to Kansas City, 19981
                                               HUD Funding to Kansas City                              Amount
                                 Entitlement Grants
                                 Community Development Block Grant                                   $11,324,000
                                 Home Investment Partnership                                           2,618,000
                                 Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS                             778,000
                                 Emergency Shelter Grant                                                 445,000

                                 Competitive Grants
                                 Continuum of Care—Shelter Plus Care                                   7,363,140
                                 Economic Development Initiative—Special Purpose Grants                4,600,000
                                 Brownfields Economic Development                                      1,250,000
                                 Continuum of Care—Sheffield Place                                       483,660
                                 Local Lead Hazard Awareness Campaign                                    190,257

                                 Other
                                 Fair Housing Contract                                                   191,910
                                  Total HUD Funding                                                  $29,243,967

1
 Figures for fiscal year 1998 are reported because not all awards for fiscal year 1999 were made when this report
was completed.
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                                                                                              Table of Contents
                                                                                                   Introduction
                                  Source: HUD-OIG calculations.
                                      The City has broad latitude in how it spends HUD funds. HUD
                                      programs are designed to give recipients discretion in how to use federal
                                      funds to address their housing needs. HUD programs allow substantial
                                      flexibility within the broad federal guidelines governing each program.
                                      For example, although HUD requires that at least 70 percent of the
                                      Community Development Block Grant funding be spent on programs
                                      benefiting low- and moderate-income persons, the city has broad latitude
                                      in the way it meets the requirement. Similarly, although the Housing
                                      Opportunity for Persons with AIDS, Home Investment Partnership, and
                                      Brownfields programs include restrictions to ensure the funds are used
                                      only to benefit the respective program, the city can design its own
                                      program within those guidelines.

                                      City Government’s Interest in Housing Dates Back More Than 30
                                      Years

                                      Ordinance 33012 (passed on November 8, 1966) established the
                                      Community Services Department to replace the Welfare Department. The
                                      duties of the Community Services Department included serving:

                                               In a liaison capacity between city government and
                                               citizens, churches, schools, community organizations, law
                                               enforcement agencies and others, in such areas as
                                               housing, education, job training, employment and crime
                                               and delinquency control.2

                                      Housing-related activities span several city departments. Seven city
                                      departments provide housing-related services. The departments and their
                                      housing-related responsibilities are described below.

                                      •   Housing and Community Development. Responsible for increasing
                                          new housing construction as well as increasing the rehabilitation of
                                          existing housing within the city.

                                      •   Neighborhood and Community Services. Responsible for
                                          neighborhood preservation through code enforcement efforts and the
                                          demolition of property that cannot be rehabbed. The department also
                                          provides assistance to persons who are homeless while seeking to
                                          prevent others from becoming homeless through rent and utility
                                          assistance.

                                      •   Health. Contracts with a local agency to provide housing services for
                                          persons with HIV/AIDS, inspects dwellings upon suspicion of lead

2
    Charter of Kansas City, Missouri, Article III, Section 39.
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                                                                                              Table of Contents
Special Report: Kansas City Needs A Housing Policy

                                          poisoning, and provides lead hazard remediation to privately owned
                                          homes and rental properties of low- and moderate-income individuals.

                                     •    Codes Administration. Ensures compliance with building codes by
                                          providing residential plans review, testing and licensing tradesmen and
                                          contractors, issuing building and demolition permits, and conducting
                                          structural, mechanical, fuel gas, electrical, and plumbing inspections
                                          on new construction, renovations, and demolitions. Enforces the
                                          zoning and floodplain management ordinances.


                                     •    City Planning and Development. Reviews and makes
                                          recommendations on zoning applications for development of property.
                                          Provides staff to the City Plan Commission; the Planning, Zoning and
                                          Economic Development Committee; the Board of Zoning Adjustment;
                                          and the Landmark’s Commission and is a liaison with the Economic
                                          Development Corporation.

                                     •    Human Relations. Focuses on fair housing issues, investigating
                                          claims of discrimination in mortgage, rental, and real estate areas.

                                     •    Municipal Court. Assists other city departments in their enforcement
                                          of property maintenance codes, building codes, and the zoning
                                          ordinance by adjudicating citations written against property owners,
                                          tenants, and permit holders through the Housing Court.

                                     Housing-Related Spending Is Nearly $47 Million Annually

                                     The city spends an estimated $47 million annually on housing-related
                                     activities. (See Exhibit 2.) If all city spending on housing-related efforts
                                     were consolidated in a single department, the nearly $47 million in annual
                                     spending would place the department third in total expenditures, trailing
                                     only police ($115 million) and fire protection ($56 million).3




3
    Total expenditure figures for Police and Fire are from the fiscal year 2000 adopted budget.
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                                                                                                  Table of Contents
                                                                                                   Introduction

                                  Exhibit 2. Estimated Expenditures for Housing-Related Activities
                                                     Department                         Expenditures
                                   HUD Contributions not otherwise included4                $16,760,103
                                   Housing and Community Development                          14,313,689
                                   Neighborhood and Community Services                        10,611,225
                                   Health                                                       2,793,091
                                   Codes Administration                                         1,380,000
                                   City Planning and Development                                  572,499
                                   Human Relations                                                140,778
                                   Municipal Court                                                 79,860
                                    Total                                                   $46,651,245
                                  Sources: Adopted Budget FY 2000, conversations with department staff, and
                                           HUD-OIG/City Auditor’s Office calculations.


                                  Most housing funds come from grants. Almost $32 million in estimated
                                  city funding comes from state and federal grants. The city provides
                                  approximately $8 million (about 17%) from the general fund. (See
                                  Exhibit 3.)

                                  Exhibit 3. Housing-Related Spending by Funding Source
                                                    Funding Source                 Total Expenditures
                                   Grants                                                 $31,663,775
                                   General Fund                                             7,913,419
                                   Local Use Tax                                            2,519,768
                                   Capital Improvement Fund                                 2,375,000
                                   Permit Fees                                              1,380,000
                                   Infrastructure and Maintenance Fund                        315,000
                                   Special Housing Rehabilitation                             260,000
                                   Domestic Violence Shelter Operations                       105,000
                                   State General Fund                                          83,283
                                   Police Drug Enforcement                                     36,000
                                     Total                                                $46,651,245
                                  Sources: Adopted Budget FY 2000, conversations with department staff, and
                                           HUD-OIG/City Auditor’s Office calculations.


                                  Non-Governmental Agencies Also Provide Housing-Related Services

                                  In addition to HUD and city departments, there are a number of other non-
                                  governmental agencies involved in housing activities including developers,
                                  financial institutions, economic development organizations, community
                                  development corporations, and organizations for persons with special
                                  needs. The following briefly describes some of the organizations involved
                                  in housing-related activities.


4
  The figures included in the individual department budgets do not reflect all annual HUD contributions. For
consistency with Exhibits 1 and 3, we included here HUD funding not already shown in this exhibit.
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                                                                                             Table of Contents
Special Report: Kansas City Needs A Housing Policy

                                •   Developers. Responsible for the construction of housing and rental
                                    properties.

                                •   Financial institutions. Supply the funds for the development or
                                    purchase of housing.

                                •   Economic development organizations. Assist developers or other
                                    parties interested in housing construction.

                                •   Community development corporations. Develop or rehabilitate
                                    housing, generally in a specific area or neighborhood.

                                •   Special needs organizations. Provide assistance to those in need,
                                    such as the homeless or poverty stricken, by providing advocacy
                                    services or combating discrimination.




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                                                                                      Table of Contents
______________________________________________________________________________
Findings and Recommendations

______________________________________________________________________________
Summary

                        Limited information on the city’s missions, goals, and strategies for
                        housing exists, although the city’s housing efforts appear consistent with
                        federal housing objectives. While HUD provides a significant portion of
                        the city’s housing funds, it allows cities broad latitude in determining how
                        its funds should be spent. This autonomy gives Kansas City the
                        opportunity to direct its own efforts, but also places responsibility on the
                        city to identify housing problems and the best methods to address them.
                        The city has not adequately met this responsibility as the city lacks a
                        comprehensive housing policy. The lack of a housing policy reduces the
                        city’s ability to determine the effectiveness of its efforts or evaluate their
                        appropriateness.

                        Current information on the quality, affordability, and availability of
                        housing in the city is largely non-existent. Information on housing
                        conditions reported in the city’s 1999 consolidated plan is at least ten
                        years old and consequently should not be used to identify current
                        conditions. Interviews with more than 60 frontline housing service
                        providers identified problems that include deteriorating physical condition,
                        lack of affordable units, and problems with city bureaucracy. Adequate
                        knowledge of housing conditions is crucial for identifying problems,
                        determining their severity, and developing policies that might address and
                        correct them.

                        We recommend the city begin the process of developing a clear,
                        comprehensive housing policy that addresses all housing in the city,
                        answers questions of city priorities, describes the methods to be used, and
                        identifies program outcomes. A task force that includes city staff, local
                        housing service providers, and housing experts should be established to
                        develop the city’s housing policy. HUD, which currently provides
                        adequate levels of cooperation and assistance, should also be used as a
                        resource in the policy’s development, along with information developed
                        from FOCUS. Information on housing conditions should be collected and
                        used in these efforts. Once developed, the policies should be
                        communicated to the City Council for deliberation and approval, then
                        communicated to all interested parties and serve as the basis for
                        evaluating efforts to address housing problems in Kansas City.

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                                                                                  Table of Contents
Special Report: Kansas City Needs A Housing Policy

______________________________________________________________________________
Kansas City Needs A Housing Policy

                                Kansas City does not have a unified, clearly articulated policy directing its
                                housing efforts. Part of the reason is that HUD allows cities to apply for
                                and receive funds for housing efforts without requiring the establishment
                                of city policies directing these efforts. The city annually develops a
                                consolidated plan that provides little direction on the city’s housing
                                objectives and strategies, allowing any change in housing conditions to be
                                interpreted as a success.

                                Interviews with more than 60 representatives of housing-related agencies
                                found that 75 percent thought the city should assume the role of leadership
                                or policy facilitator in housing, while just over ten percent felt the city
                                currently accomplishes this role. We also found poor communication of
                                the city’s goals and objectives to non-governmental organizations
                                providing housing services. Although not specifically asked about city
                                policies, several area frontline housing service providers stated that they
                                were unaware the city had any housing policies.

                                A comprehensive city housing policy is needed. The policy should
                                address all housing in the city, regardless of the department providing the
                                service. It should establish city priorities, describe the methods used to
                                accomplish objectives, and identify desired program outcomes. A task
                                force that includes city staff, HUD staff, developers, housing experts, and
                                members of financial entities, special interest organizations, and
                                neighborhood groups should be established and given responsibility for
                                developing a comprehensive housing policy. Once developed, the policy
                                should be communicated to the City Council for deliberation and
                                approval, then used as a basis for identifying the duties and
                                responsibilities individual city departments will accomplish. The
                                developed policy should be communicated so that it is known and
                                understood by all interested parties both within and outside city
                                government and serve as the basis for measuring the effectiveness of city
                                departments and outside agencies receiving city funding to resolve Kansas
                                City’s housing problems.

                                Consolidated Plan Details Activities, But Does Not Clearly Identify
                                Policies or Performance Outcomes

                                HUD requires cities to submit a consolidated plan as a condition of the
                                city’s receipt of $15 million in entitlement grants from the numerous


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                                                                              Findings and Recommendations
                                     federal housing assistance programs.5 The consolidated plan should
                                     assess various housing needs in the community, and design affordable,
                                     special-needs housing strategies and action programs to meet those needs.
                                     The city’s Housing and Community Development Department develops
                                     the city’s plan with the assistance of other departments. Once developed,
                                     the consolidated plan is reviewed and approved by council resolution, then
                                     submitted to HUD for approval. The city’s 1999 Consolidated Housing
                                     and Community Development Plan was approved by Council Resolution
                                     990088.

                                     HUD staff report that their agency’s role is one of oversight and
                                     monitoring to ensure funds are used within the broad parameters of its
                                     programs. As a result, it is the city’s responsibility to establish its own
                                     controls to ensure programs are effectively developed, coordinated, and
                                     communicated to all necessary parties.

                                     Reported Housing Strategies Are Too Vague to Represent Policy

                                     The information contained in the 1999 consolidated plan is inadequate to
                                     serve as an effective city housing policy. For example, one section of the
                                     plan includes directives such as “increase the supply of decent affordable
                                     housing” and “provide a variety of housing types.” These statements
                                     came from documents resulting from Forging Our Comprehensive Urban
                                     Strategy (FOCUS), an effort began in 1992 to design a clear vision and
                                     strategic direction for Kansas City to be used to develop a new
                                     community-driven, fact-based, cohesive policy framework to guide the
                                     city’s public policy discussions into the next century.6

                                     The city’s five-year housing goal, also included in the 1999 consolidated
                                     plan, was similarly derived from FOCUS efforts. This goal is equally
                                     broad:

                                              To create a city for people that fosters stable, livable,
                                              economically-viable and diverse neighborhoods by
                                              substantially increasing opportunities for families –
                                              especially those of low and very-low income and those
                                              with special needs – which enables them to afford a
                                              standard dwelling unit in a suitable living environment.7



    5
      This requirement is a central provision of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act of 1990.
6
  FOCUS was an effort by city staff and volunteers to replace Kansas City’s comprehensive plan, which was written in
1947. FOCUS is an interconnected plan that provides a new decision-making framework for complex issues. The resulting
comprehensive and strategic plan, FOCUS Kansas City, was adopted by the City Council in 1997.
7
  Kansas City, Missouri’s 1999 Consolidated Housing and Community Development Plan, pp. 74 and 75.
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    Special Report: Kansas City Needs A Housing Policy

                                      The results of the city’s FOCUS efforts were not intended to represent
                                      city policies, but to begin the discussion for policy development. When
                                      substituted for policy in the city’s consolidated plan, their lack of
                                      specificity makes it difficult to determine how these directives will be
                                      accomplished, the city’s role in these efforts, and which of the seven city
                                      departments will be responsible for achieving them. In addition, the lack
                                      of specific objectives limits opportunities to determine whether the
                                      objectives were successfully accomplished.

                                      The 1999 consolidated plan cannot substitute for comprehensive
                                      statements of the city’s goals for housing and the specific strategies it
                                      expects to employ. Not having this information leaves city staff with little
                                      direction for determining the best method of accomplishing the city’s
                                      housing goals or objectives.

                                      City strategies have apparently evolved without formal discussion or
                                      decision-making. Policy is a "standing decision," characterized by
                                      behavioral consistency and repetitiveness on the part of both those who
                                      make it and those who abide by it.8 While lacking policies, the city
                                      appears to have made some decisions regarding its housing efforts without
                                      formal deliberations or discussion. HUD staff report that Kansas City
                                      tends to distribute its funding to various neighborhoods throughout the
                                      city, although concentrating efforts in a particular area is another
                                      successful strategy. Determining whether the city should focus its efforts
                                      (and dollars) in specific geographic locations of the city or scatter them
                                      everywhere should be part of the policy development process.

                                      HUD staff also noted that Kansas City has many subgrantees and runs a
                                      mini-entitlement program based on its application process. The staff
                                      believe a better strategy for the city might be to identify specific projects it
                                      wants done, request proposals and award contracts based on the value of
                                      the proposals in relation to the city’s housing policy. Development of a
                                      city policy could provide a forum for determining which strategy will best
                                      achieve the city’s identified goals and objectives.

                                      Further, the manner in which these strategies were established is unclear.
                                      The city's housing activities are described in documents such as the
                                      consolidated plan and adopted budgets but information is limited on the
                                      policies, how they were developed, and who participated in their
                                      development.


8
  Heinz Eulau and Kenneth Prewitt, Labyrinths of Democracy, (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1973), p. 465, quoted by
Charles O. Jones, An Introduction To The Study Of Public Policy, 3rd ed., (Monterey: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company,
1984), p. 26.
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Minimal efforts could be viewed as success. Evaluating the
effectiveness of the city’s housing activities becomes difficult if the city
lacks clear goals or objectives against which operations can be compared.
The strategies included in the consolidated plan allow any outcome to be
declared a success, simply because conditions have changed. For
example, if one house were constructed as a result of the city’s efforts, it
would be considered a success because the city managed to “increase the
supply of decent affordable housing.”

Specific policies and goals would help to better evaluate whether such an
effort was, indeed, a success. For example, specific goals relating to cost
or viability of the developed housing could be used to determine whether
the new construction was suitable for the neighborhood in which it was
built, had a value in line with the cost of surrounding homes, and was
constructed using quality materials and workmanship.

The lack of housing policies increases the possibility that the nearly $47
million in annual citywide spending for housing-related activities may not
be utilized in an efficient, effective, and equitable manner. Obtaining the
greatest benefit from the city’s housing efforts requires that they grow out
of a unified vision, articulated through guiding policies focusing on
desired outcomes. By clearly articulating the goals and expectations in a
housing policy, the city would be better able to determine whether its
programs and activities are achieving the desired result.

                      Components of Public Policy

•   Intentions: The true purposes of an action.

•   Goals: The stated ends to be achieved.

•   Plans or proposals: Specified means for achieving the goals.

•   Programs: Authorized means for achieving goals.

•   Decisions or choices: Specific actions taken to set goals, develop
    plans, implement and evaluate programs.

•   Effects: The measurable impacts of programs (intended and
    unintended; primary and secondary).

                                                                         rd
Source: Charles O. Jones, An Introduction to the Study of Public Policy, 3 ed.,
        (Monterey: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1984), pp. 26 and 27.




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Special Report: Kansas City Needs A Housing Policy

                                             Successful Efforts of the CIC Committee Provide a
                                              Model for Effective Housing Policy Development

                                   On September 11, 1997, the Community Infrastructure Committee (CIC)
                                   presented their final report, describing a strategy for planning, financing
                                   and administering the city’s capital improvement program.9 Problems
                                   the committee identified mirror those found in the city’s housing efforts:

                                   •   lack of an orderly and understandable process;
                                   •   lack of a standardized, consistent methodology for establishing
                                       priorities; and
                                   •   lack of guiding principles and policies that would direct the course of
                                       the city’s efforts and standards for managing the city’s program.

                                   The CIC developed a decision-making framework by which
                                   infrastructure needs can be identified, prioritized, and sensibly financed,
                                   providing an orderly, predictable, understandable, and inclusive process
                                   which enhances public confidence, trust, and participation in the system,
                                   and better assures a consistent outcome. The committee proposed a
                                   number of recommendations that:

                                   •   identifies the roles and responsibilities of the program participants;
                                   •   identifies the process for program development;
                                   •   describes how the program will be administered;
                                   •   identifies objective and standardized criteria for use in establishing
                                       priorities;
                                   •   includes a mechanism for systematic citizen involvement in planning
                                       and priority setting;
                                   •   suggests balance, over time, between types of projects and
                                       geographic locations;
                                   •   recommends coordination with the efforts of other jurisdictions and
                                       agencies; and
                                   •   suggests methods of monitoring and reporting progress and
                                       consistency with the plan be formally adopted, user friendly, and
                                       published often.

                                   The committee reported that by instituting orderly procedures,
                                   standards, guidelines, and benchmarks and by better managing
                                   resources and exercising patience, the city can make more efficient use
                                   of monies available and have a greater positive impact. Development
                                   and implementation of a similar system could improve housing efforts.

                                   Source:   Community Infrastructure Committee, “Closing the Gap” A New
                                             FOCUS On Capital Improvements, September 11, 1997.


9
  The CIC was created by City Council Resolution 951551. It was charged with reviewing the city’s capital asset
condition and needs, establishing goals to guide the development of annual and five-year capital budgets and plans,


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                                    Housing Service Providers Were Unaware of City Policies

                                    We asked more than 60 frontline housing service providers for their
                                    impressions of the city’s housing efforts. While 75 percent of those
                                    interviewed thought the city should assume the role of leadership or policy
                                    facilitator, just over 10 percent felt the city currently accomplishes this
                                    role. In addition, several of those interviewed brought up the issue of a
                                    city housing policy, describing it as inadequate or non-existent.

                                    As part of our efforts for this report, we interviewed more than 60
                                    individuals, including representatives of agencies involved in housing-
                                    related activities, members of the local HUD office, and local academic
                                    experts on housing issues. Each was asked a series of open-ended
                                    questions, including:

                                    •   How would you describe Kansas City’s housing conditions?
                                    •   What do you feel should be the city’s role concerning housing issues?
                                    •   How does this role compare to the city’s current role in housing?10

                                    When asked what should be the city’s role in housing, 75 percent of those
                                    interviewed thought the city should assume the role of leadership or policy
                                    facilitator. However, when asked how well the city currently
                                    accomplishes this role, just over 10 percent found the city’s efforts
                                    satisfactory. Similarly, almost 50 percent of those interviewed thought the
                                    city should facilitate partnerships between private organizations, non-
                                    profit agencies, and government entities, while just over 10 percent
                                    thought the city was currently successful in these efforts.

                                    Several providers identified the lack of a city policy. Although not
                                    specifically asked, several of those interviewed also spoke about the city’s
                                    housing policies. A few said they could not identify a coherent or
                                    cohesive housing message being disseminated from City Hall. Some
                                    thought the city has little or no housing policy. One person responded that
                                    most of the problems in housing result from the lack of a policy
                                    framework. Effectively accomplishing the city’s leadership role requires
                                    the development and communication of a comprehensive housing policy.

                                    A Comprehensive Housing Policy Should Be Established



developing policies for prioritizing needs, identifying funding options, assessing current planning efforts, and
developing long-term strategies to resolve capital improvement and deferred maintenance needs.
10
   A complete list of the questions asked can be found in Appendix A.
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                                Kansas City needs a comprehensive housing policy. The policy should
                                explain the rationale behind decisions, describe methods to be used, and
                                state anticipated program outcomes. Policy setting involves answering
                                questions regarding issues and priorities. Aspects of a city housing
                                policy, for example, should include decisions on the following types of
                                issues:

                                •   Income level. On what income level (if any) should the city
                                    concentrate its resources?
                                •   Level of involvement. Should the city simply set the overall direction
                                    of housing policy and allow external actors to implement that policy
                                    or should it take a more active role in home construction?
                                •   Size. Should the city focus on small, in-fill projects or emphasize
                                    large-scale projects?
                                •   Type of activity. Should the city focus on improving rental
                                    opportunities or homeownership opportunities?
                                •   Priority. Should the city’s economic development strategy focus on
                                    commercial development in hopes that housing will follow, or should
                                    incentives be granted to residential projects first in hopes that new
                                    housing will attract commercial development?
                                •   Geographic location. Should specific areas of the city be targeted
                                    for housing initiatives or should all parts of the city receive equal
                                    housing resources?

                                Establishing its policy on these issues would give the city a framework for
                                developing criteria for prioritizing housing needs, identify methods that
                                would be best to address these needs, and provide guidance in the
                                development of long-term strategies to resolve housing problems in the
                                city. This information should also provide a basis for evaluating the
                                effectiveness of city departments and those agencies contracted by the city
                                to accomplish specific housing goals and objectives.

                                Service Providers, FOCUS, and HUD Can Serve as Resources

                                The FOCUS documents contain resources useful in the development of a
                                city housing policy. These documents should serve as a policy framework
                                or “reference manual” for policy development. In addition, our interviews
                                with frontline housing service providers and HUD representatives
                                indicated their willingness to aid in the development of a city housing
                                policy. A task force that includes city staff, local housing service
                                providers and experts, and HUD staff should be formed to develop a city
                                housing policy for deliberation and approval by the City Council.




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                                                                         Findings and Recommendations
                                                 Housing Objectives Derived from FOCUS

                                  The FOCUS Kansas City Plan includes draft objectives for developing
                                  housing programs. These include:

                                  •   Leveraging
                                  •   Involving partners/anchors
                                  •   Having an impact on surrounding properties
                                  •   Helping historic properties
                                  •   Being located close to employment areas
                                  •   Preserving/contributing to the variety of building densities/types

                                  Source: City Planning and Development Department.

                                FOCUS report can assist in policy development. In the area of housing
                                programs, FOCUS addresses issues such as where housing programs
                                should be concentrated and emphasizes targeting incentives and
                                partnership development.

                                FOCUS strategies were not intended to replace policy decisions.
                                Information contained in the FOCUS documents was developed to begin
                                policy discussions, not replace them. FOCUS strategies on housing are
                                included in the city’s consolidated plan prepared for HUD. FOCUS
                                provides policy direction for the city; however, it should not be used in
                                place of public decision-making.

                                         FOCUS frames the public debate about important issues
                                         facing our city and pulls in the entire community to help
                                         with innovative solutions. FOCUS provides a mechanism
                                         for integrated decision-making, not only at City Hall, but
                                         throughout the entire city. . . .The plan is intended to be
                                         used as a “reference manual” to guide our public policy
                                         decisions, not an encyclopedia with all the answers.11

                                HUD recommends partnerships be part of the policy development
                                process. HUD identifies partnering as one of the “best practices” in
                                housing. Developing strong relationships with those who have a direct
                                interest in the outcome allows each participant to contribute valuable
                                insights, skills, resources, and connections to create a group capability
                                greater than the sum of its parts. HUD recommends partnerships




11
  FOCUS Kansas City, Phase 1: The Policy Plan, A Strategic and Comprehensive Plan for Kansas City,
Missouri, February 1994, pp. 3 and 9.
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                                 throughout program planning, implementation, operation and
                                 monitoring.12

                                 Service providers and HUD should be involved in policy development.
                                 Some of the frontline housing service providers we interviewed indicated
                                 that they believed that the city should consult with them when developing
                                 or carrying out the city’s housing policies. This would provide important
                                 ideas and feedback to the city’s efforts. Because of HUD’s awareness of
                                 “best practices” in housing, knowledge of housing efforts by other cities,
                                 and access to and analysis of nationwide information on housing
                                 conditions, we recommend they also be included when the city develops its
                                 comprehensive housing policy.

                                 We recommend the city develop a housing policy that addresses all
                                 housing efforts of the city, answers questions of city priorities, describes
                                 the methods that will be used, and clearly articulates the desired outcomes
                                 to be achieved. The policy should be developed by a task force of city
                                 staff, HUD employees, representatives of area housing-related
                                 organizations, and local housing experts. Once developed, the policies
                                 should be communicated to the City Council for deliberation and
                                 approval. After approval, the policy should be communicated to all
                                 interested parties both within and outside city government and used to
                                 evaluate efforts to address Kansas City housing problems.



______________________________________________________________________________
Current Housing Data Is Not Available

                                 Current information on the quality, affordability, and availability of
                                 housing in the city is largely non-existent. Information on housing
                                 conditions reported in the city’s 1999 consolidated plan is at least ten
                                 years old and consequently should not be used. Interviews with area
                                 representatives of housing-related agencies identified problems including
                                 deteriorating physical conditions, difficulties in dealing with city
                                 bureaucracy, and a lack of affordable units; however, we found little data
                                 that could identify other problems or confirm the perceptions of the
                                 representatives interviewed. The lack of current data adversely impacts
                                 the city’s ability to best address its housing issues. It also contributes to a
                                 lack of accountability for the city's housing activities and limits measuring
                                 the impact of these efforts. Adequate knowledge of housing conditions is

12
   Center for Visionary Leadership for the U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Celebrate the
Spirit of Success!, A Guide to Best Practices, July 1998, p. 51.
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                                          Findings and Recommendations
crucial for identifying problems, determining their severity, and
developing policies that might address and correct them.

Perceptions on Housing Problems Differ

We asked more than 60 individuals representing agencies providing
housing-related services a series of open-ended questions to solicit their
opinions regarding Kansas City housing conditions. Some identified
Kansas City housing conditions as good as or better than most major
cities. Others identified significant problems. Most cited obstacles, but
also reported opportunities unique to the city.

All were asked to identify any housing-related problems or obstacles they
see in Kansas City. Exhibit 4 identifies the problems reported most often,
arranged by the frequency in which each was mentioned in interviews.

Exhibit 4. Problems/Obstacles Identified in Interviews
                 Problem/Obstacle                  Frequency Mentioned
 Lack of affordable housing units/high costs              48%
 Deteriorating physical condition                         41%
 City bureaucracy – cooperation                           34%
 Lack of credit/income                                    30%
 City bureaucracy – timeliness                            30%
 City bureaucracy – inconsistency                         23%
 City bureaucracy – communication                         23%
 Crime                                                    18%
 City bureaucracy – fairness                              16%
 Schools                                                  16%
 Inability to charge high rents                           16%
Sources: Interviews with housing service providers.


Almost half of those interviewed cited a lack of affordable units or high
costs as a problem, while less than 20 percent cited problems with crime,
schools, rental rates, or fairness in city bureaucracy. While the interviews
are not conclusive evidence that the problems identified actually exist,
they do identify potential areas to explore when seeking to improve
housing in the city. Determining the validity of these opinions requires
current housing information.

Information on Current Housing Conditions Is Inadequate

We found little current data that we could use to identify problems or
confirm perceptions or opinions regarding housing conditions. A few
local studies have been undertaken to assess current housing conditions in
Kansas City. The data that was available was limited in quantity,
questionable in quality, and out of date. For example, the city last
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Special Report: Kansas City Needs A Housing Policy

                                conducted a study of housing conditions in 1988. More recent studies
                                (most notably the Mid-America Regional Council’s 1993 Urban Core
                                Study and 1997 Analysis of Impediments to Housing Choice) relied
                                heavily upon 1990 U. S. census data that is now 10 years old.

                                Information in the city’s 1999 consolidated plan was derived from data
                                developed by the city in 1988 and 1989, and information from the 1980
                                and 1990 U. S. census. As such, the information is too old to be useful
                                for current policy making efforts. Some of it is also inaccurate.

                                The age of this information adversely impacts using it to evaluate current
                                conditions. For example, the 1999 consolidated plan states that almost
                                15,000 persons are homeless. (See Exhibit 5.) That figure, however, was
                                developed for the 1994 U. S. Conference of Mayors. Using it to evaluate
                                the relative significance of the city’s homeless problem would be unwise.
                                Further, developing policies or setting priorities based on this information
                                would also be ill-advised. For example, the 1999 consolidated plan also
                                reports that 10,000 housing units need to be demolished, an estimate
                                developed in 1988. Devoting current resources to the demolition of these
                                10,000 homes could either result in an over-commitment of resources if
                                current conditions show improvement, or result in limited success if the
                                number of homes needing demolition has increased.

                                Exhibit 5. Selected Information on Housing Conditions
                                Information                                    Number          Percentages
                                Housing Units
                                  Owner-occupied                               101,108                 50%
                                  Renter-occupied                                76,493                38%
                                  Vacant                                         24,172                12%

                                Housing Condition
                                 Sound condition                                   110,000             54%
                                 Needs minor repair                                 39,000             19%
                                 Needs major repair                                 43,000             21%
                                 Needs demolition                                   10,000              5%

                                Homeless                                             14,872             N/A
                                Estimated Shortage of Affordable Housing             20,000             N/A
                                Sources:   1999 Consolidated Housing and Community Development Plan and
                                           City Auditor’s Office calculations.


                                Housing Data Should Be Interpreted Carefully

                                We also found that some housing data has been used incorrectly. In 1988,
                                City Planning and Development evaluated the condition of every fifth

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                                  house within the city limits.13 Surveyors were given a book containing
                                  photographs of various housing conditions and asked to judge the
                                  condition of the houses in their sample by comparing them to the
                                  photographs.

                                  Summer interns charged with the task of observing and rating the
                                  condition of housing units began in the city’s most deteriorated
                                  neighborhoods. Funding limitations prevented completion of survey
                                  observations in newer sections in the north, far south and far east sections
                                  of the city. As a result, the interns were only able to sample homes in 87
                                  percent of the city’s neighborhoods.

                                  The sections of the city that were not surveyed are generally considered to
                                  contain a greater proportion of newer units, which could be expected to be
                                  some of the best housing stock. Although the survey data came primarily
                                  from older neighborhoods with greater concentrations of houses in poorer
                                  condition, the information obtained from the survey was assumed to
                                  represent housing conditions citywide. As a result, the information
                                  reported as citywide housing conditions in the 1999 consolidated plan (and
                                  included in Exhibit 5) reports greater percentages of the city’s housing
                                  stock as needing repair and lower percentage of housing in sound
                                  condition than probably actually existed.

                                  The City Needs Current Housing Data to Determine the Type and
                                  Severity of Problems

                                  Adequate knowledge of housing conditions is crucial for identifying
                                  problems, determining their severity, and developing policies that might
                                  address and correct them. Without current housing information,
                                  identifying housing problems is difficult. It also adversely impacts city
                                  staff’s ability to address the city’s housing issues.

                                  We recommend the development of a mechanism for routinely gathering
                                  information on housing conditions in Kansas City. The mechanism should
                                  specifically identify what information will be gathered, how it will be
                                  collected, the departments responsible for collection, and the frequency in
                                  which the new information will be obtained. Once established, the
                                  information should be considered during deliberations for or modifications
                                  to established city housing policy.




13
     1988 Housing Condition Survey, City Planning and Development.
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______________________________________________________________________________
Recommendations

                                1. The city manager should prepare for City Council consideration a
                                   resolution for the establishment of a broad-based task force to develop
                                   an integrated housing policy that describes all facets of the city’s
                                   housing efforts. Participants in the task force should include city and
                                   HUD staff, individuals involved in housing-related activities and area
                                   housing experts. The policy developed by the committee should state
                                   the city’s strategies and clearly articulate the desired outcomes from
                                   its housing efforts. These outcomes should be stated in such a way
                                   that performance against them can be measured. The policy should at
                                   least address the following areas:

                                    •   The income level on which the city’s efforts should be
                                        concentrated;
                                    •   The degree of involvement on the part of the city in the actual
                                        development of new home construction;
                                    •   The city’s priorities regarding project size (large scale
                                        redevelopment or small, in-fill houses);
                                    •   The emphasis on renting or homeownership;
                                    •   The emphasis on commercial development or residential projects;
                                        and
                                    •   The geographic areas on which the city’s efforts will be focused.

                                2. The city manager should ensure the developed housing policy is
                                   communicated to the City Council for review and approval.

                                3. The city manager should develop mechanisms for routinely gathering
                                   information on housing conditions. The mechanism should identify
                                   the information that will be obtained, how it will be collected, who is
                                   responsible for gathering it, and the frequency in which the new
                                   information will be collected.

                                4. The city manager should ensure the developed housing policy is
                                   communicated to all interested parties both within and outside city
                                   government.

                                5. The city manager should ensure departments utilize the developed
                                   housing policy when measuring the outcome of the city’s housing-
                                   related activities and programs, and as a basis for measuring the
                                   performance of agencies which provide housing-related services in
                                   return for city funding.
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Appendix A

______________________________________________________________________________
Housing Questions and Housing Representatives Interviewed




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Housing Questions

We interviewed more than 60 individuals involved in housing-related activities including members of the
local HUD office; developers; academic housing experts; representatives of financial entities, economic
development organizations and non-profit organizations; and members of agencies that address special
housing needs and fair housing concerns involved in housing-related activities. We asked them a series of
open-ended questions designed to solicit their opinions on housing conditions and city efforts to address
housing problems. We asked the following questions:

1. How would you describe Kansas City’s housing conditions?

2. What would you say are the problems, threats, and opportunities of housing in Kansas City?

3. How is the housing situation reflected in the goals and objectives of your agency?
   a. Do you have a mission statement?
   b. How do you determine how well your mission is achieved?
   c. How do you fund your agency’s activities?

4. What do you feel should be the city’s role concerning housing issues?

5. How does this role compare to the city’s current role in housing?

6. What are the opportunities or obstacles to your efforts?

7. What more can the city do to help you in your housing efforts? (Potential follow-up for question 6.)

8. Do you feel that the city requests and HUD provides enough and the right kinds of assistance?
   (Question for HUD staff only.)

9. Does the city maximize the use of housing programs available to it? Is funding available that is not
   being used? (Question for HUD staff only.)

Housing Service Providers Interviewed

Below is a list of the individuals interviewed and the organizations they represent.

Sam Alpert, Heartland Apartment Association
John Bills, Landlords Inc.
Andy Boeddeker, U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Bill Boyd, U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Damon Broadus, United Services Community Action Agency
Bill Brown, Fannie Mae
Flora Buford, East Meyer Community Association
Tom Corwin, U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Debra Crouch, Salvation Army
Bill Dana, Central Bank
Floyd Davis, Landlords Inc.
Jenifer Degen, Old Northeast, Inc.

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Michael Duffy, Legal Aid Of Western Missouri
Joe Egan, Housing and Economic Development Finance Corporation
Dr. Nolan Ellison, University of Missouri - Kansas City
Deana Ervin, U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Charles Garney, Briarcliff West Development Company
Chuck Gaston, Community Builders of K. C.
Patricia Gilmore-Wilkins, Housing Information Center
Dr. Nathanial Gordon, Urban Housing Management & Development Council
Reverend Steve Gordon, Urban Housing Management & Development Council
Richard Gross, Missouri Housing Development Commission
Mike Grube, Bank of America
Matthew Hall, Landlords Inc.
Rick Hamblin, U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Greg Harris, U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Lance Henning, Habitat for Humanity Northland
Colleen D. Hernandez, Kansas City Neighborhood Alliance
Sylvester Holmes, The Black Economic Union of Greater Kansas City
Ken Hopgood, Metropolitan Lutheran Ministry Homeless Services Center
Lorin Hunt, U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Ed Jardak, Landlords Inc.
Charmaine Johnson-Davis, Housing Authority of Kansas City, Missouri
Ellen King, SAVE Inc.
Nancy Kwilas, Old Northeast Inc.
Michael Lester, SAVE Inc.
Edwin Lowndes, Housing Authority of Kansas City, Missouri
Ray Mendes, Landlords Inc.
Kirk McClure, University of Kansas
Rose Mitchell, Metropolitan Lutheran Ministry Homeless Services Center
Don Moore, Land Clearance for Redevelopment Authority
Mark Murfield, U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Larry Myer, Landlords Inc.
Jim Nutter, James B. Nutter & Company
Dallas Parks, Housing Authority of Kansas City, Missouri
Thomas H. Randolph Jr., Kansas City Fair Housing Center
Sandra Rayford, Community Builders of K. C.
Joe Remke, U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Michael Rogers, Sr., Landlords Inc.
Diane Rojas, Guadalupe Center
Alese Romano, Landlords Inc.
Bonnie Rosen-Cowherd, Mid America Assistance Coalition
Bill Rotert, U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Tony Salazar, McCormack Baron
Gerald Shechter, Westside Housing Organization
Eric Scott, Housing Authority of Kansas City, Missouri
Stephen Summers, Landlords Inc.
Gary Ultican, U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Chris Vedros, Planned Industrial Expansion Authority and the Industrial Development Authority
Carolyn Vellar, Northland Neighborhoods, Inc.
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                                                                  Appendices
Catherine Wagner, Old Northeast, Inc.
Kathryn Walker, Kansas City Neighborhood Alliance
Jan Wallace, Twelfth Street Heritage Development Corporation
Jim White, Local Initiative Support Corporation
Laura Whitener, Economic Development Corporation
Janice Williams, Community Builders of K. C.
Jeff Williams, Legal Aid Of Western Missouri
Craig Wolfe, Craig Wolf & Company
Tim Underwood, Home Builders Association
Ron Yaffee, J. C. Nichols




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____________________________________________________________________________________
Appendix B

______________________________________________________________________________
Director of HUD’s Office of Community Planning & Development’s Response




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Appendix C

________________________________________________________________________
City Manager’s Response




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