oversight

The State of Connecticut Did Not Always Administer Its Neighborhood Stabilization Program in Compliance With HUD Regulations

Published by the Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Inspector General on 2016-06-28.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                       State of Connecticut
                 Neighborhood Stabilization Program




Office of Audit, Region 1          Audit Report Number: 2016-BO-1003
Boston, MA                                               June 28, 2016
To:           Alanna Kabel
              Director, Hartford Field Office, Community Planning and Development, 1ED


              //SIGNED//
From:         Edward Jeye
              Regional Inspector General for Audit, 1AGA
Subject:      The State of Connecticut Did Not Always Administer Its Neighborhood
              Stabilization Program in Compliance With HUD Regulations


Attached are the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Office of
Inspector General’s (OIG) final results of our review of the State of Connecticut’s
administration of its Neighborhood Stabilization Program.

HUD Handbook 2000.06, REV-4, sets specific timeframes for management decisions on
recommended corrective actions. For each recommendation without a management decision,
please respond and provide status reports in accordance with the HUD Handbook. Please furnish
us copies of any correspondence or directives issued because of the audit.
The Inspector General Act, Title 5 United States Code, section 8M, requires that OIG post its
publicly available reports on the OIG Web site. Accordingly, this report will be posted at
http://www.hudoig.gov.
If you have any questions or comments about this report, please do not hesitate to contact John
Harrison, Acting Assistant Regional Inspector General for Audit, at 212-264-4174, or me at 617-
994-8380.
                     Audit Report Number: 2016-BO-1003
                     Date: June 28, 2016

                     The State of Connecticut Did Not Always Administer Its Neighborhood
                     Stabilization Program in Compliance With HUD Regulations




Highlights

What We Audited and Why
We audited the State of Connecticut’s Neighborhood Stabilization Program (NSP) based on the
amount of NSP1 funding received. The State received more than $25 million in NSP1 funds in
program year 2009, making it the second highest funded State in New England, and had not
recently been audited by the Office of Inspector General. Our overall audit objective was to
determine whether State officials administered the State’s NSP in accordance with U.S.
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) program regulations.

What We Found
State officials did not always administer the State’s NSP in accordance with program regulations.
Specifically, they did not always ensure that (1) costs were eligible, reasonable, and supported;
(2) national objectives were met; (3) proper affordability restrictions were in place; (4) properties
were acquired at a discount; and (5) program income was properly administered. These
deficiencies occurred because State officials did not provide adequate oversight of their
subrecipients to ensure that they administered NSP funds in accordance with program
regulations. As a result, the State incurred $670,778 in ineligible costs, $29,106 in unreasonable
costs, more than $2 million in unsupported costs, and $212,496 in program income that was not
accounted for and returned to the State by the subrecipient, which could be reallocated to other
eligible NSP activities.

What We Recommend
We recommend that the Director of HUD’s Hartford Office of Community Planning and
Development require State officials to (1) repay $670,778 in ineligible costs, (2) justify or repay
$29,106 in unreasonable costs, (3) provide adequate documentation to support the eligibility of
or repay more than $2 million in NSP costs, (4) provide support to show that $212,496 in
program funds have been remitted and reallocated to eligible NSP activities, (5) amend the
affordability restrictions in place for five properties, and (6) strengthen controls over subrecipient
monitoring to provide greater assurance that NSP funds will be properly administered.
Table of Contents
Background and Objective......................................................................................3

Results of Audit ........................................................................................................4
         Finding 1: State Officials Did Not Always Administer the State’s NSP in
                   Accordance With HUD Regulations.............................................................. 4

Scope and Methodology .........................................................................................14

Internal Controls ....................................................................................................16

Appendixes ..............................................................................................................18
         A. Schedule of Questioned Costs and Funds To Be Put to Better Use ...................... 18
         B. Auditee Comments and OIG’s Evaluation ............................................................. 20
         C. Schedule of Deficiencies and Questioned Costs by Property (Numbers Are
            Rounded).................................................................................................................... 32




                                                                   2
Background and Objective
The Neighborhood Stabilization Program (NSP), authorized under Title III of the Housing and
Economic Recovery Act of 2008, was established for the purpose of stabilizing communities that
suffered from foreclosures and abandonment. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Housing and
Urban Development (HUD) allocated $3.92 billion for NSP11 on a formula basis to States,
territories, and local governments. The goal of NSP1 was to purchase and redevelop foreclosed-
upon and abandoned homes and residential properties. The funding was provided through
HUD’s Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) program. NSP1 provided grants to
every State, certain local communities, and other organizations to purchase foreclosed-upon or
abandoned homes and rehabilitate, resell, or redevelop these homes to stabilize neighborhoods
and stop the decline in value of neighboring homes.

On March 9, 2009, HUD awarded the State of Connecticut $25 million in NSP1 funds. The
State’s Office of Housing, which was responsible for administering its NSP, awarded $24.4
million, including administrative funds, to 10 subrecipients to administer the program.

According to the State’s revised NSP substantial amendment, dated September 1, 2010, which
outlined the State’s planned uses for the NSP1 funding, the State planned to use NSP funds for
the following types of activities.

       Establishing financing mechanisms for purchase and redevelopment of foreclosed-upon
        homes and residential properties, including subsidized second mortgages, loan loss
        reserves, and shared equity loans for low- and moderate-income home buyers;
       Purchasing and rehabilitating homes and residential properties that have been abandoned
        or foreclosed upon to sell, rent, or redevelop such homes and properties;
       Demolishing blighted structures and redeveloping demolished or vacant properties; and
       Redeveloping demolished or vacant properties.

The audit objective was to determine whether the State, through its subrecipients, properly
administered its NSP in accordance with HUD regulations. Specifically, we wanted to determine
whether NSP funds were spent for eligible activities and costs that were eligible and supported.




1
  Congress appropriated a second round of NSP funding (NSP2) totaling $1.93 billion under the American Recovery
and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and a third round (NSP3) totaling $1 billion under Section 1497 of the Wall Street
Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010. The State of Connecticut did not receive any NSP2 funds but did
receive NSP3 funds. This report addresses only NSP1 funding.



                                                       3
Results of Audit

Finding 1: State Officials Did Not Always Administer the State’s
NSP in Accordance With HUD Regulations
State officials did not always administer the State’s NSP in accordance with program regulations.
Specifically, they did not always ensure that (1) costs were eligible, reasonable, and supported;
(2) national objectives were met; (3) proper affordability restrictions were in place; (4) properties
were acquired at a discount; and (5) program income was properly administered. These
deficiencies occurred because State officials did not provide adequate monitoring and oversight
of their subrecipients to ensure that they followed NSP requirements and had implemented
adequate policies and procedures. As a result, the State incurred $670,778 in ineligible costs,
$29,106 in unreasonable costs, more than $2 million in unsupported costs, and $212,496 in
program income that was not remitted by the subrecipient, which could be reallocated to other
eligible NSP activities (appendix C).

Costs Were Not Always Eligible, Reasonable, or Adequately Supported
State officials did not ensure that subrecipient acquisition, rehabilitation, and administrative costs
were always eligible, reasonable, or adequately supported. The Office of Management and
Budget cost principles at 2 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) Part 225, appendix A, paragraph
(C)(1)(j), require NSP grantees and their subrecipients to ensure that all costs incurred are
adequately documented, and paragraph (C)(1)(a) requires that grantees and their subrecipients
ensure that all costs incurred are reasonable and necessary for proper and efficient performance
and administration of Federal awards. The State was not able to support that more than $2.8
million in NSP funds disbursed was eligible, reasonable, and supported.

Funds Disbursed for Ineligible and Unreasonable Costs
Officials disbursed $666,668 for ineligible2 and $29,106 for unreasonable costs for nine
properties:

           -- $604,331 was disbursed for costs that were not eligible because the subrecipient
           committed NSP funds prior to completing an environmental review determination for this
           property. The environmental review was completed after the property was acquired and
           rehabilitation work was almost completed, and the documentation for the review was
           inadequate to determine that environmental requirements had been met, contrary to
           regulations at 24 CFR 570.200(a)(4) and Part 58. Further, the subrecipient paid the
           developer for acquisition and some rehabilitation costs incurred before there was a
           written agreement in place.




2
    Ineligible costs of $4,110 were questioned under the section, Properties Not Acquired at a Discount.



                                                            4
         -- $4,000 was disbursed for costs that were also paid by another Federal program.
         -- $4,193 was paid for duplicate items or services paid with NSP funds and costs paid that
         should have been part of the developer fee.
         -- $54,144 in ineligible costs was paid for four properties where the developer did not
         fully perform on the contract.3
         -- $29,1064 in unreasonable costs was paid to a developer for a 15 percent acquisition fee
         on the property, while the typical acquisition fee for other developers was 3 percent for
         this subrecipient. State officials said the higher percentage was reasonable because they
         did not want to penalize developers that purchased properties needing only a small
         amount of rehabilitation.

Funds Disbursed for Inadequately Supported Costs
Subrecipient staff did not always document that costs of more than $1.8 million were supported
for 14 properties and the State paid $123,108 in unsupported administrative fees to two
developers. Specifically, the files did not always include (1) the scope of work, cost estimates,
and a review of cost reasonableness; (2) initial, progress, or final inspections; and (3) adequate
support for all NSP funds requisitioned. An initial inspection of the property was necessary to
show what work was required, a cost estimate or cost reasonableness review was necessary
before awarding the NSP funds, and progress or final inspections of the work performed were
necessary to document that the repairs were made and met NSP requirements. Regulations at 2
CFR Part 225, appendix A, paragraph (C)(1)(a), require NSP grantees and their subrecipients to
ensure that all costs are necessary and reasonable for proper and efficient performance and
administration of Federal awards, and (C)(1)(e) requires that costs be consistent with policies,
regulations, and procedures that apply uniformly to both Federal awards and other activities of
the government unit. Additionally, 24 CFR Part 85.36, "Administrative Requirements for Grants
and Cooperative Agreements to State, Local and Federally Recognized Indian Tribal
Governments," requires grantees to perform a cost or price analysis for every procurement
action, including contract modifications.

One subrecipient included a fixed 15 percent project delivery cost totaling $45,576 for two
properties with no documentation showing the basis for the percentage. Office of Management
and Budget cost principles at 2 CFR Part 225, appendix A, paragraph (C)(1)(j), require NSP
grantees and their subrecipients to ensure that all costs incurred are adequately documented.




3
  We questioned costs paid for these four properties, such as attorney fees, design and development costs, zoning,
and insurance. Invoices were billed for all seven properties at times; therefore, we calculated the costs attributable
to the four properties if the invoice was not specific to the property. The developer did not perform on the contract
for these properties; however, the costs related to these properties were charged against the three other properties
that were partially completed by the developer in our sample. Therefore, we prorated the ineligible costs evenly to
the three properties in our sample.
4
  This is the amount paid above the customary 3 percent acquisition fee.



                                                           5
According to subrecipient officials, that is what they charged for all of their activities, and it was
not based on actual time spent on the activity.
In another case, while the subrecipient was provided $272,492, the file lacked documentation for
an initial inspection to show what work was necessary, a cost estimate or other documentation
showing that the subrecipient had reviewed the costs for reasonableness, and progress
inspections. While the file included some emails regarding inspections, there was only one
documented inspection report in the file relating to rehabilitation work and one to address
deficiencies cited by the home buyer’s inspection report. The developer also put the property up
for sale before completing the work, and the home buyer’s inspection report identified several
deficiencies with the condition of the property, completeness of work, and workmanship.
Additionally, the subrecipient went significantly over budget for this property without
justification; $272,492 was disbursed for this property, while the initial NSP budget according to
the developer agreement was $135,775. While a subrecipient official attributed the cost overruns
partially to vandalism, there was no support showing vandalism at the property. According to
the subrecipient official, the developer did not file a police report or an insurance claim for the
damage and loss, which would have ensured that insurance proceeds would have paid for some
of the costs in accordance with the developer contract and subrecipient agreement with the State.
In some cases, the subrecipients obtained missing documentation from the developers and
provided it to us for review, and while one subrecipient did not maintain NSP files for five
properties reviewed, some documents were located on a subrecipient official’s computer.
The State also paid $123,108 in unsupported administrative fees to two developers. Specifically,
one of the State’s subrecipients paid two developers both an administrative and a developer fee
for the properties that they acquired and in some cases rehabilitated. The subrecipient executed
subrecipient agreements with the developers, which provided for payment of both fees. While
the subrecipient official said the developers provided other services, such as acquiring the
properties and providing financing, they were paid an acquisition fee for this service, the
financing was not NSP funded, and a separate agreement should have been executed if the
developer provided other NSP services to the subrecipient. NSP Policy Alert, Guidance on the
Procurement of Developers and Subrecipients, dated June 1, 2012, provides that when selecting a
nonprofit as a partner, a grantee must decide whether the nonprofit will be treated as a
subrecipient, a developer, or both, in which case separate agreements must be executed. Costs
must be tracked carefully, and developer fees cannot be assessed on services provided as a
subrecipient.
Achievement of a National Objective Was Not Ensured
State officials did not ensure that their subrecipients supported that six activities met a national
objective. We questioned $254,1835 provided to five6 properties as unsupported costs because




5
  To not double count questioned costs, we did not include $863,247 in costs related to this deficiency here as we
questioned the costs in the section, Costs Were Not Always Eligible, Reasonable, or Adequately Supported.
6
  Four of the five properties had not been completed by one subrecipient.



                                                          6
the properties were not completed within the timeframe stipulated in the subrecipient agreement
and to a sixth property for which beneficiary information was not adequate to ensure that the
home buyer was income eligible. We attributed these deficiencies to inadequate oversight by
both State and subrecipient officials and a lack of follow-up by subrecipient officials when
inadequate information was provided by the home buyer. As a result, it was uncertain whether
these assisted properties would meet a national objective.

A subrecipient executed a contract with a developer in August 2010 to complete seven modular
home-ownership units by September 2012 and then amended the contract in February 2011 to
extend completion to December 2012. However, the developer experienced difficulty in meeting
the expected performance so the subrecipient adjusted the budget in August 2012 and reduced
the number of properties to three but did not change the completion date. As of March 2015, the
developer had not completed and sold the three properties. We performed a subsequent
inspection in March 2016, and found the properties were still not completed and one property
(pictured below) appeared to have mold covering the ceiling and walls.




                                76 White Street, Bridgeport, CT

The subrecipient also provided NSP funds to another developer for a fourth property (pictured on
the next page) in August 2012 to stabilize it, but it was boarded up at the time of our review.
Therefore, we regarded the $104,882 disbursed for this property as an unsupported cost.




                                                7
                NSP funds used to stabilize property at 354 and 360 Main Street, Bridgeport, CT

Another subrecipient provided funds to a developer to demolish a house and put in a parking lot
(pictured on the next page), but a parking lot was determined not to be feasible due to the
grading of the land. Therefore, with subrecipient approval, the developer transferred the
property in November 2013 to another developer, which intended to build a two-family home on
the land. While the deed provided that the grantee would promptly begin improvements and
construction would begin within 30 days, the lot was vacant at the time of our review, a year and
a half later. The subrecipient stated that the developer would not start the construction until it
had an eligible home buyer for the property. Therefore, we regarded the $50,828 disbursed for
this property as an unsupported cost.




                                                 8
                    Vacant lot at 384 Blatchley Avenue, New Haven, CT, without activity after a
                    year and a half

The State’s action plan substantial amendment, dated December 1, 2008,7 and the subrecipient
agreements required that funds be spent for 100 percent of the activities within 720 days and 100
percent of units be occupied or sold within 900 days of the subrecipient agreements.8

In addition, family income information in the file for an assisted home buyer was inconsistent,
and the subrecipient did not obtain additional information to ensure the eligibility of the home
buyer. The Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008, section 2301(f)(3), requires that all
funds appropriated or otherwise made available under this section be used with respect to
individuals and families whose income does not exceed 120 percent of area median income
($69,100). However, information in the file was not adequate to support that the home buyer’s
income did not exceed the median income limit. We questioned $98,473 disbursed for this
property as an unsupported cost.9




7
  Amended September 1, 2010
8
  The subrecipient agreements for the incomplete properties were dated May 29, 2009, and April 15, 2009.
9
  State officials disbursed $273,100 for this property, of which $147,462 was paid back in program income.
Therefore, we reduced the amount of questioned costs to $125,638. Of this amount, $98,473 was questioned here,
and $27,165 was questioned under the section, Costs Were Not Always Eligible, Reasonable, or Adequately
Supported, for unsupported project delivery costs.



                                                       9
Proper Affordability Restrictions Were Not Always Put Into Place
State officials did not always ensure that their subrecipients adequately documented that the
proper affordability restrictions were in place for five properties reviewed. The State adopted the
HOME Investment Partnerships Program standards at 24 CFR 92.252(a), (c), (e), and (f) and
92.254 (Affordable Rents and Continued Affordability) as a minimal standard for any unit
acquired or rehabilitated with NSP resources, which required that assisted housing meet the
affordability requirements for not less than the applicable period beginning after project
completion. However, in two cases, one subrecipient did not ensure that the affordability
restriction covered the required affordability period. Specifically, the subrecipient provided that
the affordability period would begin when the developer executed the declaration of land use
restrictive covenant rather than when the property was occupied, which was more than 2½ years
before the property was sold and occupied by an income-eligible home buyer. In another two
cases, the subrecipient did not specify what the income limits would be for the rental units. In a
fifth case, involving a home-ownership and rental unit assisted property, the subrecipient used a
declaration of land use restrictive covenant for home-ownership housing without rentals.
Therefore, the home buyer had not provided the lease and income information for the tenant to
the subrecipient.10 We attributed this deficiency to inadequate monitoring by State officials. As
a result, more than $1.2 million in NSP funds was invested in five properties, which were at risk
of not remaining affordable for the entire affordability period required.

Properties Were Not Acquired at a Discount
State officials did not ensure that two properties acquired with NSP funds were purchased at the
required discount. The Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008, section 2301(d)(1),
provides that any purchase of a foreclosed-upon home or residential property must be at a
discount from the current market appraised value, taking into account its current condition, and
such discount must ensure that purchasers pay below market value for the property. Federal
Register 74 FR 29225 (June 19, 2009), requires the discount to be at least 1 percent from the
current market appraised value. We attributed this overpayment to subrecipient officials’
unfamiliarity with HUD regulations and inadequate monitoring by the State. As a result, $4,110,
the amount above the 1 percent discount, was an ineligible use of NSP funds. The address,
appraised value, purchase offer amount, and discount amount of each property purchased must
be documented in the grantee’s program records.
Program Income Was Not Properly Administered
The developer for one subrecipient, which developed three properties, had not remitted
approximately $212,496 in program income upon the sale of the properties. The agreement
between the State and the subrecipient required that all program income derived from eligible
activities funded with NSP funds be remitted to the State upon receipt. Program income, which
may be reallocated to a municipality at the discretion of the State, may be used only for eligible
NSP activities in accordance with 73 FR 58330 (October 6, 2008). The three properties were




10
  At our request, the subrecipient obtained the current tenant information from the home buyer, including the lease
and income information, to show that the current tenant was income eligible.



                                                          10
sold by the developer in June and September 2012 and November 2014. The program income
had not been remitted by the developer to the subrecipient as of June 30, 2015; however, the
State provided additional documentation on August 21, 2015, showing that the developer had
remitted $107,496 in program income to the subrecipient for two of the three properties on
August 6, 2015. This condition occurred because the State did not enforce its agreement with the
subrecipient when the program income was not accounted for and returned to the State as
required. Therefore, the $212,496 in program income funds should be returned to the State and
reallocated to eligible NSP activities.
State Officials Did Not Provide Adequate Oversight and Monitoring of Their Subrecipients
The State delegated the administration of its NSP allocation11 to 10 subrecipients but remained
accountable for the administration and monitoring of those funds. HUD has developed various
guidebooks to assist grantees with grant administration, and HUD’s Managing CDBG: A
Guidebook for Grantees on Subrecipient Oversight provides grantees, such as the State, with
detailed information “for the major steps in selecting, training, managing, monitoring and
supporting subrecipients” and notes that “together, these elements constitute the basic
components of a subrecipient oversight system.” However, State officials performed limited
monitoring and oversight of their subrecipients.
According to the Guidebook, “Monitoring should not be a ‘one-time event.’ To be an effective
tool for avoiding problems and improving performance, monitoring must involve an on-going
process of planning, implementation, communication, and follow-up.” However, State officials
did not adequately monitor their subrecipients to ensure that they followed program rules and
regulations. Based on the monitoring letters provided by State officials, the State performed an
onsite monitoring review of its subrecipients once during our review period. For two
subrecipients, there was no monitoring letter regarding the results of their review. One of the
subrecipients that did not receive a monitoring report from State officials had significant
deficiencies for the properties reviewed and with its record keeping. It appeared that an onsite
review had been performed as there were checklists in the file, but the State did not provide
written results to the subrecipient. Based on a follow-up letter from HUD to the State, the State
indicated that there were no findings for these two properties.
Additionally, our review of one subrecipient’s monitoring file of its quarterly performance
reports did not show a documented review. State officials said that they may have
communicated verbally or through email, but emails were not included in the file.
During HUD’s monitoring of the State in March 2012, HUD concluded that the State had not
conducted appropriate reviews and audits of its NSP as required and had not maintained accurate
or timely records of overall grant performance in the Disaster Recovery Grant Reporting12



11
  Excluding administrative costs
12
  The Disaster Recovery Grant Reporting system was developed by HUD’s Office of Community Planning and
Development for the CDBG Disaster Recovery program and other special appropriations such as NSP. Data from
the system are used by HUD staff to review activities funded under these programs and for required quarterly
reports to Congress.



                                                       11
system as required. HUD attributed the deficiencies to the State’s failure to dedicate adequate
staff resources to administering its NSP. State officials told us that the deficiencies identified
were also a result of high turnover, layoffs, consolidation and reorganization of departments,
leadership changes, and changes to NSP program rules throughout this period. However, they
and HUD officials said that the State had entered information for the quarterly performance
reports and made necessary corrections.

Conclusion
State officials did not ensure that the State’s NSP was always administered in accordance with
program regulations. We attributed these deficiencies to the State’s not implementing adequate
oversight controls and monitoring sufficient to ensure compliance with all applicable regulations.
As a result, the State incurred $670,778 in ineligible costs, $29,106 in unreasonable costs, more
than $2 million in unsupported costs, and $212,496 in program income that was not remitted by
the subrecipient, which could be reallocated to other eligible NSP activities.
Recommendations
We recommend that the Director of HUD’s Connecticut Office of Community Planning and
Development instruct State officials to
       1A.     Repay to the Treasury from non-Federal funds the $666,668 in NSP funds spent
               for ineligible activity costs and funds that had already been paid by another
               Federal program.
       1B.     Justify the reasonableness of or repay to the Treasury from non-Federal funds the
               $29,106 in NSP funds spent for unreasonable activity costs.
       1C.     Provide documentation to support that $1,807,359 in NSP funds was spent for
               reasonable, necessary, and supported costs. Any amount for which adequate
               support cannot be provided should be repaid to the Treasury from non-Federal
               funds.
       1D.     Provide documentation that $123,108 in NSP funds paid to two developers for
               administrative expenses was supported and that work performed was completed in
               accordance with their contracts. Any amount for which adequate support cannot
               be provided should be repaid to the Treasury from non-Federal funds.
       1E.     Strengthen the State’s financial controls to provide greater assurance that NSP
               funds are used for eligible and reasonable costs.
       1F.     Strengthen controls to ensure that environmental review assessments are
               completed in accordance with regulations at 24 CFR 570.200(a)(4) and Part 58.
       1G.     Provide a plan for the completion within acceptable timeframes of the five
               unfinished properties or cancel the activities and deobligate and reprogram the
               $254,183 in funds to other allowable activities, thus ensuring that the funds will
               be put to their intended use.




                                                  12
1H.   Amend the affordability restrictions in place for the five properties for which the
      affordability restrictions were not adequate, thus ensuring that HUD’s interest in
      the properties is protected and the funds allocated to these properties will be put to
      their intended use.
1I.   Strengthen controls over the enforcement of affordability restrictions to ensure
      that HUD’s interest in NSP-assisted properties is protected.
IJ.   Repay to the Treasury from non-Federal funds the $4,110 disbursed for properties
      in excess of the required discount.
IK.   Strengthen controls over property purchases to ensure that properties are acquired
      at the applicable discount.
1L.   Provide support showing that $212,496 in program funds was remitted to the
      State and reallocated to eligible NSP activities and that any additional program
      income owed by the developer has been remitted.
1M.   Strengthen controls over the administration of program income to ensure that it is
      properly accounted for and disbursed before drawing down funds from the
      program line of credit.

1N.   Strengthen controls over monitoring and oversight of its subrecipients to ensure
      that they comply with their agreements and program requirements.




                                        13
Scope and Methodology
The audit focused on whether State officials established and implemented adequate controls to
ensure that the State’s NSP was administered in accordance with program requirements. We
performed the audit fieldwork from November to July 2015 at the State’s Office of Housing, 505
Hudson Street, Hartford, CT, and at 7 of the 10 subrecipient offices. Our audit covered the
period March 2009 through March 2013 and was extended when necessary to meet our audit
objective.

To accomplish our objective, we

          Reviewed applicable laws, regulations, HUD handbooks, HUD notices, and State and
           subrecipient policies and procedures.

          Conducted discussions with State and subrecipient officials to gain an understanding
           of the organizational structure and administration of the State’s NSP.

          Conducted discussions with HUD.

          Reviewed records of independent public auditors’ reports and monitoring reviews of
           the State’s subrecipients performed by the State and a HUD monitoring review of the
           State.

          Reviewed the State’s substantial amendment, grant agreement executed between
           HUD and the State for the NSP funds, and subrecipient agreements.

          Reviewed various Disaster Recovery Grant Reporting system reports to document the
           State’s activities and disbursements. Our assessment of the reliability of the data in
           this system was limited to data reviewed and reconciled with State records.
           Therefore, we did not assess the reliability of this system. However, the data were
           sufficiently reliable for our purposes.

          Selected a sample of 24 NSP-assisted properties from a universe of 83 assisted
           properties during the audit period for which more than $6.9 million was committed,
           representing 39 percent of the more than $17.8 million obligated by the State, to test
           for compliance with HUD regulations. Specifically, we tested whether (1) the
           activity met a national objective, was in an eligible target area, was purchased at the
           required 1 percent discount, and had the proper affordability restrictions in place; (2)
           the State supported the necessity and reasonableness of costs; (3) the resale price was




                                                 14
             set in accordance with requirements and the rental price was affordable; and (4)
             program income was properly administered. These properties were selected based on
             risk that considered the potential payment of both administrative and developer fees,13
             for-profit developers, uncompleted projects, and higher dollar rehabilitation costs per
             unit. Our results apply to the sample and cannot be projected to the universe.

            Performed a limited review of another five NSP rehabilitation properties, with an
             authorized amount of $771,894 to determine whether the subrecipients supported that
             they met a national objective, program income was remitted and reported to the State,
             or the property was purchased with the required purchase price discount.

            Performed a limited inspection of 29 activities in our sample to determine the
             condition of the properties.

We conducted the audit in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards.
Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain sufficient, appropriate
evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit
objective(s). We believe that the evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings
and conclusions based on our audit objective.




13
  Our review of administrative costs was limited to one subrecipient that paid administrative costs to two
developers.



                                                          15
Internal Controls
Internal control is a process adopted by those charged with governance and management,
designed to provide reasonable assurance about the achievement of the organization’s mission,
goals, and objectives with regard to

   Effectiveness and efficiency of operations,
   Reliability of financial reporting, and
   Compliance with applicable laws and regulations.
Internal controls comprise the plans, policies, methods, and procedures used to meet the
organization’s mission, goals, and objectives. Internal controls include the processes and
procedures for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling program operations as well as the
systems for measuring, reporting, and monitoring program performance.

Relevant Internal Controls
We determined that the following internal controls were relevant to our audit objective:

   Effectiveness and efficiency of operations – Policies and procedures that management has
    implemented to reasonably ensure that a program meets its objectives.

   Reliability of financial data – Policies and procedures that management has implemented to
    reasonably ensure that valid and reliable data are obtained, maintained, and fairly disclosed
    in reports.

   Compliance with applicable laws and regulations – Policies and procedures that management
    has implemented to reasonably ensure that resource use is consistent with laws and
    regulations.

   Safeguarding of resources – Policies and procedures that management has implemented to
    reasonably ensure that resources are safeguarded against waste, loss, and abuse.

We assessed the relevant controls identified above.
A deficiency in internal control exists when the design or operation of a control does not allow
management or employees, in the normal course of performing their assigned functions, the
reasonable opportunity to prevent, detect, or correct (1) impairments to effectiveness or
efficiency of operations, (2) misstatements in financial or performance information, or (3)
violations of laws and regulations on a timely basis.
Significant Deficiencies
Based on our review, we believe that the following items are significant deficiencies:




                                                  16
   The State did not have adequate controls over efficiency and effectiveness of program
    operations when officials did not adequately monitor and oversee the State’s subrecipients to
    ensure that they followed NSP requirements and had implemented adequate policies and
    procedures (finding).

   The State did not have adequate controls over the reliability of financial data when officials
    did not establish adequate financial controls to ensure that the requisitions for funds were
    adequately supported and costs were eligible, necessary, and reasonable (finding).

   The State did not have adequate controls over compliance with laws and regulations when
    officials did not always comply with HUD regulations to ensure that activities met a national
    objective, the purchase price discount was properly supported, and the environmental review
    was performed in a timely manner (finding).

   The State did not have an adequate system to ensure that resources were properly
    safeguarded when officials did not always ensure that the proper affordability restrictions
    were put into place and program income was accounted for and returned as required
    (finding).




                                                  17
Appendixes

Appendix A


           Schedule of Questioned Costs and Funds To Be Put to Better Use
Recommendation                                    Unreasonable or      Funds to be put
                Ineligible 1/ Unsupported 2/       unnecessary 3/      to better use 4/
    number
      1A.           $666,668
      1B.                                                    $29,106
      1C.                             $1,807,359
      1D.                              123,108
      1G.                              254,183
       1J.            4,110
      IL.                                                                         $212,496

     Totals          670,778          2,184,650              29,106                212,496



1/     Ineligible costs are costs charged to a HUD-financed or HUD-insured program or activity
       that the auditor believes are not allowable by law; contract; or Federal, State, or local
       policies or regulations.
2/     Unsupported costs are those costs charged to a HUD-financed or HUD-insured program
       or activity when we cannot determine eligibility at the time of the audit. Unsupported
       costs require a decision by HUD program officials. This decision, in addition to
       obtaining supporting documentation, might involve a legal interpretation or clarification
       of departmental policies and procedures.
3/     Unreasonable or unnecessary costs are those costs not generally recognized as ordinary,
       prudent, relevant, or necessary within established practices. Unreasonable costs exceed
       the costs that would be incurred by a prudent person in conducting a competitive
       business.
4/     Recommendations that funds be put to better use are estimates of amounts that could be
       used more efficiently if an Office of Inspector General (OIG) recommendation is
       implemented. These amounts include reductions in outlays, deobligation of funds,
       withdrawal of interest, costs not incurred by implementing recommended improvements,


                                                 18
avoidance of unnecessary expenditures noted in pre-award reviews, and any other savings
that are specifically identified. In this instance, if the State implements our
recommendation to recover $212,496 in program income, it can assure HUD that these
funds will be available for other NSP activities and put to better use.




                                       19
Appendix B
             Auditee Comments and OIG’s Evaluation



Ref to OIG    Auditee Comments
Evaluation




Comment 1




                               20
Ref to OIG   Auditee Comments
Evaluation




                           21
Ref to OIG   Auditee Comments
Evaluation




                          22
Ref to OIG   Auditee Comments
Evaluation




Comment 2


Comment 1




                        23
Ref to OIG   Auditee Comments
Evaluation




Comment 3




Comment 4


Comment 5




Comment 6




                      24
Ref to OIG   Auditee Comments
Evaluation




Comment 7


Comment 8




Comment 9




Comment 10




Comment 11




                     25
Ref to OIG   Auditee Comments
Evaluation




Comment 12




Comment 13




Comment 14




Comment 15




                      26
Ref to OIG   Auditee Comments
Evaluation




Comment 16




Comment 17




                     27
                         OIG Evaluation of Auditee Comments


Comment 1   State officials provided the basis for their agreement and disagreement with the
            report’s recommendations below; we provided our response below where they
            provided their basis.
Comment 2   We adjusted the report to remove the duplicate recommendation in 1L.
Comment 3   We disagree with the State’s interpretation of NSP frequently asked question 774
            that acquisition and rehabilitation costs incurred before the execution of the
            contract were allowable. Further, we maintain that the developer was not eligible
            for acquisition assistance under eligible use B, purchase and rehabilitation, since
            the property did not meet the definition of a foreclosed-upon or abandoned
            property at the time the funds were awarded to the developer. (The property
            would be eligible for rehabilitation assistance under eligible use E,
            redevelopment, as it was a vacant property.) Further, while we acknowledge that
            the State identified the untimely environmental review during its monitoring and
            may have ensured that an environmental review was conducted, completion of an
            environmental review before commitment of funds is a statutory requirement.
            Regulations at 24 CFR 570.5 permit the Secretary to waive requirements only
            under the CDBG regulations that are not required by law. Therefore, we maintain
            that $604,331 paid for acquisition and rehabilitation costs incurred before
            completion of an environmental review was an ineligible expense, and we have
            revised the wording to clarify our position.
Comment 4   State officials are confirming any duplicate payments and agreed to reimburse any
            such payments. HUD will need to confirm whether there were duplicate
            payments and ensure repayment of such during the audit resolution process.

Comment 5   State officials maintain that $2,053 paid for a “Clerk of the Works” fee is an
            eligible project cost that should not be paid from the developer fee. We maintain
            that the fee represents a project management cost, which should be covered by the
            developer fee. State officials are determining whether the $1,640 was a duplicate
            payment and if so, will make reimbursement as they will for the $500, which they
            agree was an overpayment. HUD will need to ensure that any ineligible costs are
            reimbursed during the audit resolution process.
Comment 6   State officials maintain that the developer went bankrupt and while the projects
            were not completed, the costs incurred were an eligible cost of doing business.
            However, the developer defaulted on its contract with the subrecipient, as it did
            not meet contract timeframes and the subrecipient renegotiated with the developer
            to complete three rather than seven of the modular homes. For the four modular
            homes that it did not complete, the funds should have been repaid by the
            developer at that point. If the developer was bankrupt at that time, as the State
            indicated in its response, the subrecipient should not have continued to work with
            the developer on the other three modular homes. The developer was paid a total


                                             28
            of $836,082 in NSP funds under the contract and did not complete any of the
            projects.
Comment 7   State officials maintain that the costs were reasonable based on industry standards
            and the State’s policy that allowed a 15 percent or less developer fee. We
            maintain that the developer purchased the property and spent $7,920 in
            rehabilitation costs yet received a $36,383 developer fee and was also reimbursed
            for closing costs and other fees it incurred. The City gave the developer a 15
            percent developer fee rather than a 3 percent acquisition fee, which was typically
            given to other developers. According to NSP frequently asked question 566,
            “Reasonable developer fees are defined in relation to the functions and
            responsibilities the developer undertakes. There are various factors that can help
            NSP grantees determine what is reasonable, including the risk of the project and
            what is customary for similar types of projects in their community.” Given the
            lack of complexity and limited risk taken by the developer in this case, the fee
            was not reasonable. Although a 15 percent developer fee was typical for the
            larger, more complex projects reviewed, in this case, the developer fee was not
            appropriate for the amount of work and risk taken by the developer.
Comment 8   State officials stated that HUD guidance had not been issued when they included
            services for both administrative work and development in the same contract and
            that the developer completed both administrative tasks and development.
            Therefore, we revised the questioned costs from $123,108 in ineligible costs to
            unsupported costs to give State officials the opportunity to support that the
            developer earned both a developer fee and administrative fees in accordance with
            its contract.
Comment 9   State officials stated that competitive proposals were used as necessary, costs
            were determined to be reasonable and necessary, and that all projects received
            periodic and final inspections as evidenced by the occupancy certificate issued by
            the local building departments. State officials further stated that payments were
            not made without a detailed review of invoices to ensure the eligibility and
            reasonableness of costs. We maintain that the State’s subrecipients did not
            always use competitive proposals as the State maintains, and its developers did
            not always obtain competitive bids for rehabilitation work, nor were they required
            to according to NSP Policy Alert, “Guidance on NSP-Eligible Acquisition &
            Rehabilitation Activities,” dated December 11, 2009. However, the subrecipients
            were required to review the developers’ proposals for each project for cost
            reasonableness in accordance with 24 CFR 85.36. The subrecipients entered into
            agreements with developers based on budgets submitted by the developers
            without documenting an independent cost estimate or a review of cost
            reasonableness for the specific properties. Further, subrecipients did not always
            document that initial, interim, and final inspections were conducted to verify that
            the work was necessary and performed in accordance with the scope of work.
            Some subrecipient staff members told us that they did not perform inspections,
            cost estimates, or cost reasonableness reviews and relied on the developers. In


                                             29
              addition, subrecipients did not always support all costs with adequate invoices.
              Without an initial inspection performed by the subrecipients to determine
              necessary costs, an independent cost estimate, and a review for cost
              reasonableness, it is unclear how State officials could conclude that all work was
              necessary, reasonable, and adequately supported. State officials will need to
              provide additional documentation to HUD during the audit resolution process to
              support their position.
Comment 10 State officials’ position is that the 15 percent developer fee is the standard fee
           charged on all the developer’s redevelopment activities and referred to regulations
           at 2 CFR Part 225 appendix A (C)(1)(c), which requires that costs be consistent
           with policies, regulations, and procedures that apply uniformly to both Federal
           awards and other activities of the governmental unit. We disagree because they
           charge this fixed fee on other developments that they were allowed to do so
           without supporting the costs. Regulations at 2 CFR Part 225 appendix A (C)(1)(j)
           requires that costs also be adequately documented. Accordingly, charging a fixed
           percentage of cost to each project without adequate documentation to support the
           costs, regardless of whether it typically charged a 15 percent fee on all of its
           housing development activities, would not be appropriate.
Comment 11 State officials’ position is that the questioned activities were failed attempts at
           developing difficult properties in difficult neighborhoods where the original
           developer went out of business in mid-development or experienced other issues
           that led to the current conditions. State officials stated that they are working to
           complete these projects. We maintain that while regulations do not state a
           specific timeframe for when an activity must meet a national objective, the
           projects identified not only exceeded the timeframes identified in the written
           agreements between the developers and the subrecipients and the agreements
           between the subrecipient and State, but also extended what would be considered a
           reasonable timeframe. For instance, as noted in the report, while a subrecipient
           for four of the incomplete projects told us in December 2014 that it was working
           with a nonprofit developer to take over three of the properties, as of April 2016,
           there was no agreement in place with the nonprofit developer. Further, our
           inspection in March 2016 of one of the properties that had been partially
           renovated disclosed that the walls and ceilings appeared to be covered in mold
           and another property appeared to have a squatter living in the property. These
           properties should have been completed within a reasonable timeframe, or the
           activities should have been canceled and the funds deobligated and
           reprogrammed.
Comment 12 While State officials acknowledged that there are questions as to the source of
           beneficiary revenues, they maintained that there was sufficient information to
           ensure that the home buyer was income eligible. We maintain that although the
           tax return showed that the income reported met the income limits and the
           subrecipient obtained current income information to make a determination, the
           subrecipient should have followed up on discrepancies between the tax returns


                                                30
               and all of the deposits shown on the bank statements. Therefore, the available
               information was not adequate to conclude that the beneficiary was income eligible
               and the activity met a national objective.
Comment 13 We agree that that the State recorded the restriction at the time of acquisition;
           however, the restrictions were not updated as the State explained was its process.
           The restrictions in place for two of the properties did not cover the entire
           affordability period and did not identify the income limit requirements for the
           rental units for three of the properties as required. The State did not revise the
           affordability restriction at the time of sale to the home buyers, which was more
           than 2½ years after the affordability restrictions were put into place. Therefore,
           HUD lacked assurance that the State would update these restrictions at a later
           date.
Comment 14 State officials provided documentation at the exit conference supporting that
           $204,323 had been recovered as program income and stated that they would
           continue to work with the subrecipient to address the remaining balance. These
           actions are responsive to our recommendation, and HUD will need to verify
           during the audit resolution process that amounts recovered have been properly
           reported and reallocated to eligible NSP activities.
Comment 15 Additional guidance from HUD allowed grantees to go outside of the target areas
           for a limited number of properties if they were in an adjacent neighborhood,
           eligible census tract, and the activity was included in the action plan.
           Accordingly, we adjusted the report, recommendations, and internal controls
           section to remove any deficiency related to obtaining public comment and HUD
           approval for action plan amendments.
Comment 16 State officials’ position is that NSP has no requirement regarding the frequency of
           monitoring and that they performed onsite and desk monitoring of their
           subrecipients and continue to work with them to identify and address deficiencies.
           We maintain that although HUD does not specify how much monitoring should
           be performed, State officials should consider risk when determining how often
           and to what extent it should monitor its subrecipients. The State should have
           more closely monitored the subrecipients that had higher risk, such as those not
           completing projects within the required timeframes. One of the subrecipients did
           not maintain files for some of its projects and did not always provide timely and
           adequate source documentation as requested by us. Further, the State and
           subrecipient could not provide the State’s monitoring letter to the subrecipient to
           indicate what was found during its monitoring. Our review of this subrecipient
           showed significant deficiencies, including incomplete projects.
Comment 17 State officials disagreed with the characterization of the control deficiencies as
           significant, but nevertheless agreed that controls could be strengthened. We
           maintain that the deficiencies noted were significant given the conditions
           identified. No changes were made to this section except to remove the condition
           related to revising the action plan for the property that was outside the target area.


                                                31
         Appendix C
         Appendix C

                                  Schedule of Deficiencies and Questioned Costs by Property (Numbers Are Rounded)


                                            Property
                              National                    Proper         Necessity and     Program
                                               not                                                                                                               Funds to       Total
                              objective                affordability    reasonableness    income not
               Address                     purchased                                                    Unsupported costs     Ineligible costs                   be put to    questioned
                                 not                    restrictions      of costs not     properly                                              Unreasonable
                                              at a                                                                                                               better use     costs
                             supported                 not in place       supported      administered                                               costs
                                            discount
Sample selection results (24 properties)
             354 Lynne
   1           Place,                                                         X                                                                     $29,106                    $29,106
             Bridgeport
           12 Armstrong
   2           Place,                                       X                 X               X             $270,852              $1,640                          $52,047     $324,539
             Bridgeport
              85 White
   3           Street,          X                                             X                             $260,646             $18,048                                      $278,694
            Bridgeport14
              76 White
   4           Street,          X                                             X                             $260,646             $18,048                                      $278,694
             Bridgeport
             727 Arctic
   5           Street,          X                                             X                             $260,646             $18,048                                      $278,694
             Bridgeport
               27-29
              Columbia
   6           Court,                                                         X                             $196,093              $2,053                                      $198,146
             Bridgeport




         14
           We prorated the ineligible costs for 76 White Street, 85 White Street, and 727 Arctic Street as invoices submitted were for all seven properties and it was
         not clear which specific properties the costs were charged against.



                                                                       32
                                              Property
                                 National                   Proper         Necessity and     Program
                                                 not                                                                                                            Funds to       Total
                                 objective               affordability    reasonableness    income not
                  Address                    purchased                                                    Unsupported costs   Ineligible costs                  be put to    questioned
                                    not                   restrictions      of costs not     properly                                            Unreasonable
                                                at a                                                                                                            better use     costs
                                supported                not in place       supported      administered                                             costs
                                              discount
               337 Knowlton
     7             Street,                                                      X                             $155,620                                                       $155,620
                 Bridgeport
               405 Knowlton
     8             Street,                                                                                                                                                      $0
                 Bridgeport
               645 Knowlton
     9             Street,                                                                                                                                                      $0
                 Bridgeport
                 15 Scuppo
     10          Road, Unit                                                                                                                                                     $0
               1501, Danbury
                 97-99 Park
                Avenue, Unit                    X                                                                                 $1,660                                      $1,660
11
               43B, Danbury
                  68 Booth
     12         Street, New                                                     X                                               $604,331                                     $604,331
                  Britain15
               44 Greenwood
     13         Street, New         X                                           X                             $125,638                                                       $125,638
                   Britain
               144 Winthrop
     14         Street, New                                                     X                             $18,411                                                         $18,411
                   Britain
                 212 Dover
                Street, New
     15            Haven                                                        X                                                  $500                                        $500




          15
               The City of New Britain also did not perform the environmental review before committing and spending funds. Therefore, the funds were ineligible.



                                                                         33
                                          Property
                             National                   Proper         Necessity and     Program
                                             not                                                                                                            Funds to       Total
                             objective               affordability    reasonableness    income not
               Address                   purchased                                                    Unsupported costs   Ineligible costs                  be put to    questioned
                                not                   restrictions      of costs not     properly                                            Unreasonable
                                            at a                                                                                                            better use     costs
                            supported                not in place       supported      administered                                             costs
                                          discount
             76 Perkins
   16        Street, New                                                                                                                                                    $0
                Haven
               69 West
   17        Street, New                                  X                 X                             $26,000                                                         $26,000
               London
            94 Williams
   18        Street, New                                  X                 X                             $71,154                                                         $71,154
               London
            13 Brainard
   19        Street, New                                                    X                             $25,454                                                         $25,454
               London
            154 Prospect
   20           Street,                                                     X                             $24,600                                                         $24,600
              Norwich
            39 Oakridge
   21           Street,                                                     X                             $76,396             $4,000                                      $80,396
              Norwich
            500 Boswell
   22         Avenue,                                                       X                             $133,675                                                       $133,675
              Norwich
           92 West North
   23           Street,                                   X                                                                                                                 $0
              Stamford
             54 Liberty
   24         Street #4,                                  X                                                                                                                 $0
              Stamford

   Total results of 24
                                4           1             5                17               1            $1,905,832         $668,328           $29,106      $52,047      $2,655,313
      properties

Limited review results (5 properties)
             354 & 360
   1        Main Street,        X                                                                         $104,882                                                       $104,882
             Bridgeport



                                                                     34
                                             Property
                                National                   Proper         Necessity and     Program
                                                not                                                                                                             Funds to       Total
                                objective               affordability    reasonableness    income not
                 Address                    purchased                                                     Unsupported costs   Ineligible costs                  be put to    questioned
                                   not                   restrictions      of costs not     properly                                             Unreasonable
                                               at a                                                                                                             better use     costs
                               supported                not in place       supported      administered                                              costs
                                             discount
               123 Read
   2             Street,                                                                       X                                                                $105,000     $105,000
              Bridgeport
              2 Williams
    3            Place,                                                                        X                                                                $55,449       $55,449
              Bridgeport
              34 Benedict
    4        Avenue, Unit                      X                                                                                  $2,450                                      $2,450
              B, Danbury
             384 Blatchley
    5        Avenue, New           X                                                                          $50,828                                                         $50,828
                 Haven
Total results of 5
                                   2           1             0                 0               2              $155,710            $2,450             $0         $160,449     $318,609
properties
Grand total of sample
and limited review                 6           2             5                17               3             $2,061,542         $670,778           $29,106      $212,496     $2,973,922
results (29 properties)
                                                                                   Administrative costs
Not applicable16                                                                                              $123,108                               $0            $0         $123,108
Total administrative costs                                                                                    $123,108                               $0            $0         $123,108
Grand total of questioned costs for 29 properties and administrative costs                                   $2,184,650         $670,778           $29,106      $212,496     $3,097,030




         16
              City of Bridgeport



                                                                        35