oversight

Audit of the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Operations at QualChoice

Published by the Office of Personnel Management, Office of Inspector General on 2017-02-22.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

  U.S. OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
     OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL
              OFFICE OF AUDITS




                Final Audit Report

         AUDIT OF THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH
            BENEFITS PROGRAM OPERATIONS AT
                       QUALCHOICE

                                           Report Number 1C-DH-00-16-025
                                                  February 22, 2017


                                                                -- CAUTION --

This report has been distributed to Federal officials who are responsible for the administration of the subject program. This non-public version may
contain confidential and/or proprietary information, including information protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, and the Privacy Act,
5 U.S.C. § 552a. Therefore, while a redacted version of this report is available under the Freedom of Information Act and made publicly available on
the OIG webpage (http://www.opm.gov/our-inspector-general), this non-public version should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG.
             EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
                Audit of the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Operations at
                                            QualChoice
Report No. 1C-DH-00-16-025                                                                                                                  February 22, 2017


Why Did We Conduct The Audit?                                  What Did We Find?

The primary objectives of this                                 This report questions $301,910 for inappropriate health benefit
performance audit were to determine                            charges to the FEHBP in contract years 2011 and 2012, and
whether QualChoice (Plan) developed                            recommends an area for program improvement. Specifically,
the Federal Employees Health                                   our audit identified the following:
Benefits Program (FEHBP) premium
rates using complete, accurate and                                        In contract year 2011 we found that the FEHBP’s rates
current data, and that the rates are                                       were developed with incorrect loadings, copay values,
equivalent to the Plan’s Similarly-                                        and factors. We also determined that an SSSG received
Sized Subscriber Groups (SSSG), as                                         a      percent discount not applied to the FEHBP rates.
provided in the Federal Employees                                          Based on these errors and the SSSG discount, we found
Health Benefits Acquisition                                                the FEHBP was overcharged $173,283.
Regulations 1652.215-70(a).
Additional tests were performed to                                        In contract year 2012 we found that the FEHBP’s rates
determine if the Plan was in                                               were developed with incorrect factors and did not
compliance with the provisions of the                                      properly account for the grandfathering of our benefits.
laws and regulations governing the                                         We also determined that an SSSG received a
FEHBP.                                                                     percent discount not applied to the FEHBP rates. Based
                                                                           on these errors and the SSSG discount, we found the
What Did We Audit?                                                         FEHBP was overcharged $99,131.

Under Contract CS 2921, the Office                                        The FEHBP is due $29,496 for lost investment income
of the Inspector General (OIG)                                             on the defective pricing overcharges calculated through
completed a performance audit of the                                       February 28, 2017.
FEHBP’s rates offered for contract
years 2011 and 2012. Our audit                                            The Plan did not maintain original source
fieldwork was conducted from                                               documentation for various components of the rate
April 11, 2016, through August 11,                                         developments.
2016, at the Plan’s office in Little
Rock, Arkansas, and in our OIG                                            The Plan does not currently have fraud and abuse
offices.                                                                   detection software in place to analyze claims data, as
                                                                           required under FEHBP Carrier Letters.
 _______________________
 Michael R. Esser
 Assistant Inspector General
 for Audits
                                                                              i
       This report is non-public and should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG, because it may contain confidential and/or proprietary
                       information that may be protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, or the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a.
                                            ABBREVIATIONS


    ACR                           Adjusted Community Rating



    CRC                           Community Rating by Class
    FEHBAR                        Federal Employees Health Benefits Acquisition Regulations
    FEHBP                         Federal Employees Health Benefits Program
    OIG                           Office of the Inspector General
    OPM                           U.S. Office of Personnel Management
    Plan                          QualChoice
    SSSG                          Similarly Sized Subscriber Group
    U.S.C.                        United States Code




                                                                       ii
This report is non-public and should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG, because it may contain confidential and/or proprietary
               information that may be protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, or the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a.
IV. MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS REPORT
          TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                                                                           Page 

                 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......................................................................................... i 


                 ABBREVIATIONS ..................................................................................................... ii 


     I.          BACKGROUND ..........................................................................................................1 


     II.         OBJECTIVES, SCOPE, AND METHODOLOGY ..................................................3 


     III.        AUDIT FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.................................................5


                 A. Defective Pricing .....................................................................................................5 


                 B. Lost Investment Income...........................................................................................9 


                 C. Record Retention ...................................................................................................10 


                 D. Program Improvement Area ..................................................................................11 


                 EXHIBIT A (Summary of Questioned Costs) 


                 EXHIBIT B (Defective Pricing Questioned Costs)


                 EXHIBIT C (Lost Investment Income)


                 APPENDIX (QualChoice’s November 29, 2016 response to the draft report) 


                 REPORT FRAUD, WASTE, AND MISMANAGEMENT





 This report is non-public and should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG, because it may contain confidential and/or proprietary
                 information that may be protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, or the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a.
IV. MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS
            I. BACKGROUND
                       TO THIS REPORT

This final report details the audit results of the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program
(FEHBP) operations at QualChoice (Plan). The audit was conducted pursuant to FEHBP
contract CS 2921; 5 United States Code (U.S.C.) Chapter 89; and 5 Code of Federal Regulations
Chapter 1, Part 890. The audit was performed by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management’s
(OPM) Office of the Inspector General (OIG), as established by the Inspector General Act of
1978, as amended.

The FEHBP was established by the Federal Employees Health Benefits Act (Public Law 86-
382), enacted on September 28, 1959. The FEHBP was created to provide health insurance
benefits for Federal employees, annuitants, and dependents and is administered by OPM’s
Healthcare and Insurance Office. Health insurance coverage is provided through contracts with
health insurance carriers who provide service benefits, indemnity benefits, or comprehensive
medical services.

Community-rated carriers participating in the FEHBP are subject to various Federal, state and
local laws, regulations, and ordinances. In addition, participation in the FEHBP subjects the
carriers to the Federal Employees Health Benefits Act and implementing regulations
promulgated by OPM.
                                                                                        FEHBP Contracts/Members
The FEHBP should pay a premium rate                                                            March 31
that is equivalent to the best rate given to
                                                                                400
either of the two groups closest in
                                                                                350
subscriber size to the FEHBP. In
                                                                                300
contracting with community-rated
                                                                                250
carriers, OPM relies on carrier
                                                                                200
compliance with appropriate laws and
                                                                                150
regulations and, consequently, does not
                                                                                100
negotiate base rates. OPM negotiations
                                                                                  50
relate primarily to the level of coverage
                                                                                   0
and other unique features of the FEHBP.                                                          2011                     2012
                                                                            Contracts             140                      173
                                                                            Members              326                      394
The chart to the right shows the number
of FEHBP contracts and members
reported by the Plan as of March 31 for each contract year audited.




                                                                        1                           Report No. 1C-DH-00-16-025
 This report is non-public and should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG, because it may contain confidential and/or proprietary
                 information that may be protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, or the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 55
The Plan has participated in the FEHBP since 2010 and provides health benefits to FEHBP
members in the State of Arkansas. This is our first audit of the Plan.

The preliminary results of this audit were discussed with Plan officials at an exit conference and
in subsequent correspondence. A draft report was also provided to the Plan for review and
comment. The Plan’s response was considered in preparation of this report and is included, as
appropriate, as the Appendix to the report.




                                                                       2                            Report No. 1C-DH-00-16-025
This report is non-public and should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG, because it may contain confidential and/or proprietary
                information that may be protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, or the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a.
IV. OBJECTIVES,
II.  MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS
                SCOPE, ANDTO THIS REPORT
                          METHODOLOGY

 OBJECTIVES

 The primary objectives of the audit were to determine if the FEHBP premium rates were
 developed using complete, accurate and current data, and were equivalent to the Plan’s
 Similarly-Sized Subscriber Groups (SSSG), as provided in Federal Employees Health Benefits
 Acquisition Regulation (FEHBAR) 1652.215-70(a). Additional tests were performed to
 determine whether the Plan was in compliance with the provisions of the laws and regulations
 governing the FEHBP.

 SCOPE

 We conducted this performance audit in
                                                                                               FEHBP Premiums Paid to Plan
 accordance with generally accepted government
 auditing standards. Those standards require that
 we plan and perform the audit to obtain sufficient,                                       $2.00

 appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis
                                                                               Millions




                                                                                           $1.50
 for our findings and conclusions based on our
 audit objectives. We believe that the evidence                                            $1.00

 obtained provides a reasonable basis for our
                                                                                           $0.50
 findings and conclusions based on our audit
 objectives.                                                                               $0.00
                                                                                                          2011                     2012
                                                                                          Revenue         $1.4                     $1.7

 This performance audit covered contract years
 2011 and 2012. For these years, the FEHBP paid
 approximately $3.2 million in premiums to the Plan.

 OIG audits of community-rated carriers are designed to test carrier compliance with the FEHBP
 contract, applicable laws and regulations, and the rate instructions. These audits are also
 designed to provide reasonable assurance of detecting errors, irregularities, and illegal acts.

 We obtained an understanding of the Plan’s internal control structure, but we did not use this
 information to determine the nature, timing, and extent of our audit procedures. However, the
 audit included such tests of the Plan’s rating system and such other auditing procedures
 considered necessary under the circumstances. Our review of internal controls was limited to the
 procedures the Plan had in place to ensure that:


                                                                        3                            Report No. 1C-DH-00-16-025
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                 information that may be protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, or the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a.
           The appropriate SSSGs were selected;

           the rates charged to the FEHBP were developed using complete, accurate, and current
            data, and were equivalent to the best rate given to the SSSGs; and

           the loadings to the FEHBP rates were reasonable and equitable.

In conducting the audit, we relied to varying degrees on computer-generated billing, enrollment,
and claims data provided by the Plan. We did not verify the reliability of the data generated by
the various information systems involved. However, nothing came to our attention during our
audit utilizing the computer-generated data to cause us to doubt its reliability. We believe that
the available data was sufficient to achieve our audit objectives. Except as noted above, the audit
was conducted in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards, issued by
the Comptroller General of the United States.

The audit fieldwork was performed from April 11, 2016, through August 11, 2016, at the Plan’s
office in Little Rock, Arkansas and in our OIG offices. Additional audit work was completed at
our Cranberry Township, Pennsylvania; Jacksonville, Florida; and Washington, D.C. offices.

METHODOLOGY

We examined the Plan’s Federal rate submission and related documents as a basis for validating
its Certificates of Accurate Pricing. In addition, we examined the rate development
documentation and billings to other groups, such as the SSSGs, to determine if the FEHBP rates
were reasonable and equitable. Finally, we used the contract, the FEHBAR, and the rate
instructions to determine the propriety of the FEHBP premiums and the reasonableness and
acceptability of the Plan’s rating system.

To gain an understanding of the internal controls in the Plan’s rating system, we reviewed the
Plan’s rating system policies and procedures, interviewed appropriate Plan officials, and
performed other auditing procedures necessary to meet our audit objectives.




                                                                       4                            Report No. 1C-DH-00-16-025
This report is non-public and should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG, because it may contain confidential and/or proprietary
                information that may be protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, or the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a.
III. AUDIT FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 A. DEFECTIVE PRICING                                                                                                             $272,414

      The Certificates of Accurate Pricing QualChoice signed for contract years 2011 and 2012
      were defective. In accordance with Federal regulations, the FEHBP is, therefore, due a rate
      reduction for these years. Application of the defective pricing remedy shows that the FEHBP
      is due a premium adjustment totaling $272,414 (see Exhibit A).

      FEHBAR 1652.215-70 provides that carriers proposing rates to OPM are required to submit
      a Certificate of Accurate Pricing certifying that the proposed subscription rates are complete,
      accurate and current. Furthermore, FEHBAR 1652.216-70 states that the subscription rates
      agreed to in the contract shall be equivalent to the subscription rates given to the community-
      rated carrier’s SSSGs as defined in FEHBAR 1602.170-13. SSSGs are the Plan’s two
      employer groups closest in subscriber size to the FEHBP. If it is found that the FEHBP rates
      were increased because of defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data, then the rates
      shall be reduced in the amount by which the price was increased because of the defective
      data or information.

      1. 2011

            We found that the Plan overcharged the FEHBP by $173,283 in contract year 2011. The
            Plan rated the FEHBP and both SSSGs using a blended adjusted community rating
            (ACR) and community rating by class (CRC) methodology. The ACR methodology
            utilizes a group’s own claims experience data, while the CRC methodology relies on a
            community pool of claims data and adjusts it by group specific factors such as age,
            industry, and class. The Plan selected                                              and
                           as the SSSGs for contract year 2011. We agree with the Plan’s selections.
            Our analysis of the rates charged shows that        received a     percent discount,
            which was not applied to the FEHBP’s rates. Our review also showed that
            did not receive a discount.

            Additionally, we determined that the Plan was inconsistent in its application of the
            children's loading charged to the FEHBP and SSSGs rates. In regards to children's
            loadings, the rate instructions state, "A carrier may add a loading to the FEHBP only if it
            adds a loading to all of its commercial business. The loading added to the FEHBP must
            be calculated with the same method that is used for all of its other groups." In deriving
            the SSSGs rates, the Plan charged a         percent children's loading to the CRC portion of
            the rates for both SSSGs. However, we found this loading should have been
                                                                        5                            Report No. 1C-DH-00-16-025
  This report is non-public and should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG, because it may contain confidential and/or proprietary
                 information that may be protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, or the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a.
          percent. The Plan did not charge this loading to the FEHBP’s CRC rates. Consequently,
          based on the above guidance, we applied this loading to the audited FEHBP CRC rates
          and we removed it from the overall blended rate.

          We also found that the FEHBP’s audited benefit relativity was slightly higher for the
          CRC rate than it should have been. This was caused by the Plan’s use of an 80%
          coinsurance level for inpatient stays when the benefit brochure required no copay. We
          adjusted the FEHBP’s audited CRC rates to reflect the correct copay level.

          Moreover, we analyzed the underwriting factor for each group based on the formula
          provided by the Plan. The underwriting factor for the FEHBP was calculated to be
                 . However, the Plan discounted this factor by percent to a factor of         . We
          also found that the Plan discounted         ’s underwriting factor by     percent. Since
                 received a higher discount for their underwriting factor, we applied the same
          discount amount of        percent to the calculated FEHBP underwriting factor, which
          resulted in an audited underwriting factor of        .


   The Plan did not                  Finally, we found that the Plan used a     industry factor in deriving
       follow the                    the FEHBP’s rates. However, the rate instructions state, "The Federal
    regulations and                  group industry factor must be no larger than the lowest industry factor
  rating instructions                used for an SSSG and must be no larger than 1.0."          received the
   in developing the                 lowest industry factor of     so we applied this industry factor to the
    FEHBP’s 2011                     FEHBP rates.
  rates, resulting in
        Program              In reviewing the rates developed for        we found the Plan only
    overcharges of           used 11 months of claims experience instead of 12 months of
       $173,283.             experience. Therefore, we updated the audited claims amount using
                             the full 12 months of experience. We also revised the children's
          loading to reflect a load of     percent, which is the same used in our audited FEHBP
          analysis mentioned above.

          Moreover, for all groups in 2011, the enrollment reports the Plan provided were not the
          same reports that were used at the time of the rating. The Plan did not maintain the
          original documentation and had to recreate the enrollment reports during the audit. The
          enrollment figures affect many parts of the rating which also contributed to the findings.
          In this case, because we were unable to confirm the enrollment data in the Plan’s rating
          workbooks, we had to use the supporting data provided during the audit.



                                                                       6                            Report No. 1C-DH-00-16-025
This report is non-public and should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG, because it may contain confidential and/or proprietary
                information that may be protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, or the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a.
          In conclusion, we applied the         percent discount given to       and we also updated
          the rates to reflect the revised factors and other adjustments mentioned above to derive
          the FEHBP’s audited rates. A comparison of our audited rates to the Plan's reconciled
          rates shows that the FEHBP was overcharged $73,887 and $99,396 for the high and
          standard options respectively in contract year 2011 (see Exhibit B).

          Plan Response:

          The Plan concurs with the audit finding and agrees to return $173,283 to the FEHBP
          for defective pricing in 2011.

          Recommendation 1

          We recommend that the contracting officer require the Plan to return $173,283 to the
          FEHBP for defective pricing in contract year 2011.

    2. 2012

          We found that the Plan overcharged the FEHBP by $99,131 in contract year 2012. The
          FEHBP and the SSSGs were rated using the same blended ACR and CRC methodology
          that was used in contract year 2011. The Plan selected
          (      ) and                                     as the SSSGs for contract year 2012.
          We agree with the Plan’s selections. Our analysis of the rates charged shows that both
          SSSGs received a discount.          received the highest discount of      percent.


   The Plan did not                  Our audit also showed that the Plan did not apply an experience period
       follow the                    benefit change factor to the FEHBP claims experience, even though
    regulations and                  there were benefit changes during the experience period that should
  rating instructions                have been considered in deriving a factor. We calculated an audited
   in developing the                 benefit change factor based on these benefit changes and applied this
    FEHBP’s 2012                     factor to the claims experience.
  rates, resulting in
        Program             Additionally, we analyzed the copay changes of the FEHBP high and
    overcharges of          standard option benefits from 2010 to 2012 to determine if the FEHBP
        $99,131.            retained grandfathering status as it relates to the Affordable Care Act.
                            Grandfathering status means benefit packages do not have to follow the
          Affordable Care Act’s rules and regulations or offer the same benefits, rights and
          protections as new plans. Benefit copays can increase and retain grandfathering status as


                                                                       7                            Report No. 1C-DH-00-16-025
This report is non-public and should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG, because it may contain confidential and/or proprietary
                information that may be protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, or the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a.
          long as the increase does not exceed medical inflation. If a group maintains
          grandfathering status, the Plan applies a credit to the manual medical base rate. The Plan
          correctly defined the high option as non-grandfathered, however, the Plan incorrectly
          identified the standard option as grandfathered. We found the standard option was non-
          grandfathered as well due to copay increases of surgical procedures exceeding medical
          inflation. As a result, the grandfathering factor should have been 1.00 for both the high
          and standard options. Instead, the Plan applied a grandfathering factor of       to both
          options.

          Moreover, the Plan applies a class factor which is calculated one time when a group
          begins coverage with the Plan. The class factor remains the same for the life of the
          group. The data used to calculate this factor was not available and could not be recreated.
          However, our review showed that            received a    class factor, which was the best
          factor applied to either SSSG. As the Plan calculated a      class factor for the FEHBP,
          we adjusted the factor to    in order to receive the lowest factor given to        .

          The Plan also uses an underwriting factor for each group. The underwriting factor for the
          FEHBP was calculated to be       , however, the Plan applied a higher underwriting factor
          of    . Therefore, we adjusted the FEHBP underwriting factor to        .

          Finally, we found that the Plan used a       industry factor to rate the FEHBP. However,
          the rate instructions state, "The Federal group industry factor must be no larger than the
          lowest industry factor used for an SSSG and must be no larger than 1.0."            received
          the lowest industry factor of      , so we applied this industry factor to the FEHBP rates.

          In reviewing the rates developed for        , we calculated different plan relativity factors
          when determining the plan change factor from 2011 to 2012. We also calculated slightly
          different benefit package adjustments for the CRC rate.

          We also found that the Plan was unable to fully support       ’s Rx claims figures for
          the five months of experience in 2011. The monthly totals in the support provided were
          less than what was originally used. Therefore, we used the original figures in our audited
          rate development.

          Finally for all groups in 2012, the enrollment reports the Plan provided were not the same
          reports that were used at the time of the rating. The Plan did not maintain the original
          documentation and had to recreate the enrollment reports during the audit. The
          enrollment figures affect many parts of the rating which also contributed to the findings.


                                                                       8                            Report No. 1C-DH-00-16-025
This report is non-public and should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG, because it may contain confidential and/or proprietary
                information that may be protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, or the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a.
          In this case, because we were unable to confirm the enrollment data in the Plan’s rating
          workbooks, we had to use the supporting data provided during the audit.

          In conclusion, we applied the         percent discount given to     , and we also made
          the adjustments stated above to derive the FEHBP’s audited rates. A comparison of our
          audited rates to the Plan's reconciled rates shows that the FEHBP was overcharged
          $37,929 and $61,202 for the high and standard options, respectively, in 2012 (see Exhibit
          B).

          Plan Response:

          The Plan concurs with the audit finding and agrees to return $99,131 to the FEHBP
          for defective pricing in 2012.

          Recommendation 2

          We recommend that the contracting officer require the Plan to return $99,131 to the
          FEHBP for defective pricing in contract year 2012.

B. LOST INVESTMENT INCOME                                                                                                        $29,496

    We found that the FEHBP is due $29,496 for lost investment income on the defective pricing
    overcharges, calculated through February 28, 2017.

    In accordance with the FEHBP regulations and the contract between OPM and the Plan, the
    FEHBP is entitled to recover lost investment income on the defective pricing findings in
    contract years 2011 and 2012. We determined that the FEHBP is due $29,496 for lost
    investment income, calculated through February 28, 2017 (see Exhibit C). In addition, the
    FEHBP is entitled to lost investment income for the period beginning March 1, 2017, until all
    defective pricing finding amounts have been returned to the FEHBP.

    FEHBAR 1652.215-70 provides that, if any rate established in connection with the FEHBP
    contract was increased because the carrier furnished cost or pricing data that was not
    complete, accurate, or current as certified in its Certificate of Accurate Pricing, the rate shall
    be reduced by the amount of the overcharge caused by the defective data. In addition, when
    the rates are reduced due to defective pricing, the regulation states that the government is
    entitled to a refund and simple interest on the amount of the overcharge from the date the
    overcharge was paid to the carrier until the overcharge is liquidated.


                                                                       9                            Report No. 1C-DH-00-16-025
This report is non-public and should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG, because it may contain confidential and/or proprietary
                information that may be protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, or the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a.
    Our calculation of lost investment income is based on the United States Department of the
    Treasury's semiannual cost of capital rates.

    Plan Response:

    The Plan concurs that the FEHBP is due lost investment income for the defective pricing
    findings.

    Recommendation 3

    We recommend that the contracting officer require the Plan to return $29,496 to the FEHBP
    for lost investment income, calculated through February 28, 2017. We also recommend that
    the contracting officer recover lost investment income on amounts due for the period
    beginning March 1, 2017, until all defective pricing finding amounts have been returned to
    the FEHBP.

C. RECORD RETENTION                                                                                                        Procedural

    The Plan did not provide original source documentation for various components of the rate
    development in both years. This includes enrollment data for all groups, benefit approval
    letters needed to determine grandfathering status for three of the four SSSGs that we audited
    over the two year audit scope, and original demographic information for new groups to
    determine the class factor and pharmacy claims for the SSSGs in 2012.

    FEHBAR 1652.204-70 states, “the carrier will retain and make available all records
    applicable to a contract term … for a period of six years after the end of the contract term to
    which the records relate.”

    Without appropriate source documentation, it is difficult to not only determine if the FEHBP
    received market rates, but also to determine whether the rates were established in accordance
    with the Plan’s contract, applicable regulations, and the rate instructions. Under these
    circumstances, we may have to depend on other data, and at times, different rating
    methodologies to determine the appropriateness of the FEHBP rates. Due to this, the
    outcome of our analysis may result in a less desirable outcome to the Plan and to the
    enrollees and Federal taxpayers who are responsible for paying the health care premiums.




                                                                      10                            Report No. 1C-DH-00-16-025
This report is non-public and should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG, because it may contain confidential and/or proprietary
                information that may be protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, or the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a.
    Plan Response:

    The Plan concurs with the audit finding and stated, “We have taken numerous steps to
    guarantee the safety and integrity of our data and detailed rate-development
    documentation. We have also improved our processes and procedures ensuring that we
    maintain original copies of all pertinent rating documents that support the calculations
    used in the rate development.”

    OIG Comment

    While the Plan states that it has taken numerous steps to guarantee the safety and the integrity
    of their data and rate development documentation, as well as updating their policies and
    procedures for maintaining source documentation, no formal documents were provided to the
    auditors, as part of the Plan’s response to the draft report, to evaluate these updated policies.
    Consequently, we cannot express an opinion on whether these new policies sufficiently
    address the FEHBAR’s record retention requirement, nor can we comment on the
    effectiveness of any new policies implemented since the conclusion of our audit fieldwork.

    Recommendation 4

    We recommend the contracting officer inform the Plan that:

          	 OPM expects it to fully comply with the record retention provision of the contract and
             all applicable regulations;

          	 it should maintain original copies of all pertinent rating documents that support the
             calculations used in the rate development; and

          	 the applicable community-rated performance factors described in FEHBAR
             1609.7101-2 will be enforced if information requested during an audit is not
             provided.

D. PROGRAM IMPROVEMENT AREA	                                                                                                Procedural

    1.	 Fraud Protection and Detection Software

          During our review of the Plan’s responses to our Fraud and Abuse questionnaire, it was
          determined that the Plan does not currently have fraud protection and detection software,

                                                                      11 	                          Report No. 1C-DH-00-16-025
This report is non-public and should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG, because it may contain confidential and/or proprietary
                information that may be protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, or the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a.
          which became a requirement under an FEHBP Carrier Letter issued in contract year
          2014. Consequently, we expanded our review to determine why and for how long they
          have been operating without this software. The software is necessary to not only protect
          the Program from improper payments related to fraud and abuse, but also to protect
          Program members from potential harm.

  The Plan is not                    The Plan terminated their contract with          , which provided fraud
    adequately                       protection and detection software, in the middle of 2013 because they
protecting Program                   were not satisfied with the reports and services         was providing.
funds from risks of                  The Plan is not expected to have a new fraud protection and detection
 fraud and abuse.                    software provider until early 2017.

          Although the Plan has taken steps to mitigate the impact of not having fraud protection
          and detection software during this time period, these steps were not formally encoded
          into policies and procedures. Therefore, we are unable to comment on the effectiveness
          of these steps.

          The regulations regarding fraud detection and prevention software can be found in
          multiple FEHBP Carrier Letters. During the time period in which the Plan was operating
          without fraud prevention and detection software, there was a regulatory language change
          in the Carrier Letters from “expects” to “must have” as it relates to the fraud and abuse
          industry standards.

          FEHBP Carrier Letter 2003-23 regarding Fraud, Waste and Abuse was issued on June 18,
          2003. Industry Standard #6 expects carriers to use fraud protection and detection
          software.

          FEHBP Carrier Letter 2014-29 regarding Fraud, Waste and Abuse was issued on
          December 19, 2014. Industry Standard #4 states carriers must have fraud protection and
          detection software.

          While the Plan was in compliance with the Carrier Letter requirements during the scope
          of our audit, without effective fraud protection and detection software beginning in
          mid-2013, the Plan is less likely to detect real-time instances of fraud in the claims data
          they are processing. They are also unable to look at historic data trends and perform
          fraud analysis of their claims data. Additionally, there is a heightened risk that fraudulent
          claims were being processed by the Plan, that FEHBP funds were being used to pay for



                                                                      12                            Report No. 1C-DH-00-16-025
This report is non-public and should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG, because it may contain confidential and/or proprietary
                information that may be protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, or the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a.
          these claims, and that FEHBP members were placed at potential risk by receiving care
          from these types of providers.

          Plan Response:

          “QualChoice has contracted with                  to conduct reviews of claims data for
          fraudulent activity.              uses a fraud protection and detection software called
                                   . This tool is an advanced fraud, waste, and abuse detection
          and data mining system that leverages sophisticated rules-based analytics to identify
          and prioritize the cases that are potentially most likely to achieve the best results.
                      will initially review historical claims data from January 1, 2013, on, for
          fraud, waste, and abuse. After that,                will review claims data on a quarterly
          basis.”

          OIG Comment:

          The Plan's contract with              is a positive step forward in the prevention and
          detection of fraud, waste, and abuse. However, the Plan only provided a narrative
          response regarding their agreement with                 and the steps they aim to take once
          the software is implemented. No official contract documentation was provided to
          confirm the contract or the effective date of the software implementation with
                     . Because of this, we cannot express an opinion on whether the software has
          been implemented or the effectiveness of the software.

          Recommendation 5

          We recommend the Contracting Officer verify the exact implementation date for the
                   fraud protection and detection software.

          Recommendation 6

          We recommend the Contracting Officer require the Plan to provide the results of the
          scheduled historical FEHBP claims review from January 1, 2013, on, for fraud, waste,
          and abuse.




                                                                      13                            Report No. 1C-DH-00-16-025
This report is non-public and should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG, because it may contain confidential and/or proprietary
                information that may be protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, or the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a.
                                                      EXHIBIT A

                                                   QualChoice 

                                             Summary of Questioned Costs 




    Defective Pricing Questioned Costs


            Contract Year 2011                                                                $173,283
            Contract Year 2012                                                                  $99,131


            Total Defective Pricing Questioned Costs                                                                            $272,414


    Lost Investment Income                                                                                                        $29,496


    Total Questioned Costs                                                                                                      $301,910




                                                                                                    Report No. 1C-DH-00-16-025
This report is non-public and should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG, because it may contain confidential and/or proprietary
                information that may be protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, or the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a.
                                                       EXHIBIT B


                                                    QualChoice
                                         Defective Pricing Questioned Costs


Contract Year 2011 - High Option
                                                                                                         Self       Family
FEHBP Line 5 - Reconciled Rate                                                                      $               $
FEHBP Line 5 - Audited Rate                                                                         $               $

Bi-weekly Overcharge                                                                                 $               $

To Annualize Overcharge:
   March 31, 2011 enrollment                                                                             26              26
   Pay Periods                                                                                           26              26
Subtotal                                                                                            $               $                 $73,887

Contract Year 2011 - Standard Option
                                                                                                         Self       Family
FEHBP Line 5 - Reconciled Rate                                                                      $               $
FEHBP Line 5 - Audited Rate                                                                         $               $

Bi-weekly Overcharge                                                                                 $               $

To Annualize Overcharge:
   March 31, 2011 enrollment                                                                             29              52
   Pay Periods                                                                                           26              26
Subtotal                                                                                            $               $                 $99,396


Total Defective Pricing Questioned Costs - 2011                                                                                      $173,283




                                                                                                    Report No. 1C-DH-00-16-025
This report is non-public and should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG, because it may contain confidential and/or proprietary
                information that may be protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, or the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a.
                                                             QualChoice
                                     Defective Pricing Questioned Costs - 2012




Contract Year 2012 - High Option
                                                                                     Self               Family
FEHBP Line 5 - Reconciled Rate                                                  $                       $
FEHBP Line 5 - Audited Rate                                                     $                       $

Bi-weekly Overcharge                                                             $                       $

To Annualize Overcharge:
   March 31, 2012 Enrollment                                                         28                      28
   Pay Periods                                                                       26                      26
Subtotal                                                                        $                                                    $37,929

Contract Year 2012 - Standard Option
                                                                                     Self               Family
FEHBP Line 5 - Reconciled Rate                                                  $                       $
FEHBP Line 5 - Audited Rate                                                     $                       $

Bi-weekly Overcharge                                                             $                       $

To Annualize Overcharge:
   March 31, 2012 Enrollment                                                         39                      66
   Pay Periods                                                                       26                      26
Subtotal                                                                        $                       $                            $61,202


Total Defective Pricing Questioned Costs - 2012                                                                                      $99,131




                                                                                                    Report No. 1C-DH-00-16-025
This report is non-public and should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG, because it may contain confidential and/or proprietary
                information that may be protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, or the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a.
Total Defective Pricing Questioned Costs                  EXHIBIT C                                                                 $272,414




                                                            QualChoice 

                                                      Lost Investment Income 




       Year                                 2011         2012        2013         2014         2015         2016     28-Feb-2017          Total
     Audit Findings:


     1. Defective Pricing                 $173,283      $99,131           $0           $0           $0          $0            $0          $272,414




     Totals (per year):                   $173,283    $272,414            $0           $0           $0          $0            $0          $272,414

     Cumulative Totals:                   $173,283    $272,414     $272,414     $272,414     $272,414     $272,414     $272,414


     Avg. Interest Rate (per year):       2.5625%      1.8750%      1.5625%     2.0625%      2.2500%      2.1875%     2.50000%


     Interest on Prior Years Findings:           $0      $3,249       $4,256      $5,619       $6,129       $5,959        $1,135          $26,347


     Current Years Interest:                $2,220         $929           $0           $0           $0          $0            $0           $3,149

    Total Cumulative Interest
    Calculated Through February 28,
    2017:                                   $2,220       $4,178       $4,256      $5,619       $6,129       $5,959          $568          $29,496




                                                                                                    Report No. 1C-DH-00-16-025
This report is non-public and should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG, because it may contain confidential and/or proprietary
                information that may be protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, or the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a.
                                                             APPENDIX



QUALCHOICE Health
 10050 Crosstown Circle Suite 250 - Eden Prairie, MN 55344 Phone: 763-321-3620



 November 29, 2016




 Chief, Community-Rated
 Audits Group Office of the
 Inspector General
 1900 E Street NW, Suite 6400
 Washington, DC 20415

 Dear                 :

 This memo is in response to the draft audit report you sent to me in your memorandum dated
 November 4, 2016. QualChoice choses to accept all recommendations as detailed in your audit for
 FEHBPenrollees in the QualChoice planfor years 2011 and 2012.

 We agree to the following:

 Recommendation 1- return of $173,283 to FEHBP for defective pricing in 2011.

 Recommendation 2 - return of $99,131 to FEHBP for defective pricing in 2012.

 Recommendation 3 - return of $27,864 for lost investment income.

 Recommendation 4 - Record retention -We have taken numerous steps to guarantee the safety and
 integrity of our data and detailed rate-development documentation. We have also improved our
 processes and procedures ensuring that we maintain original copies of all pertinent rating documents
 that support the calculations used in the rate development.

Recommendations 5 and 6 - Fraud Protection and Detection Software - QualChoice has contracted with
                to conduct reviews of claims data for fraudulent activity.                                    uses a fraud protection
and detection software called I                                         . This tool is an advanced fraud, waste and abuse



                                                                                                    Report No. 1C-DH-00-16-025
This report is non-public and should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG, because it may contain confidential and/or proprietary
                information that may be protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, or the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a.
detection and data mining system that leverages sophisticated rules-based analytics to identify and
prioritize the cases that are potentially most likely to achieve the best results.                                         will initially
review historical claims data from January 1, 2013, on, for fraud, waste, and abuse. After that,
will review claims data on a quarterly basis.

If you have any further questions or comments, please contact me at                                                   or email me at
              @QualChoiceHealth.co m



Sincerely,




VP, Chief Underwriting Officer




                                                                                                    Report No. 1C-DH-00-16-025
This report is non-public and should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG, because it may contain confidential and/or proprietary
                information that may be protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, or the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a.
                                                                                                                          



                                      Report Fraud, Waste, and 

                                          Mismanagement 

                                                 Fraud, waste, and mismanagement in
                                              Government concerns everyone: Office of
                                                  the Inspector General staff, agency
                                               employees, and the general public. We
                                             actively solicit allegations of any inefficient
                                                   and wasteful practices, fraud, and
                                              mismanagement related to OPM programs
                                             and operations. You can report allegations
                                                         to us in several ways:


                      By Internet:               http://www.opm.gov/our-inspector-general/hotline-to-
                                                 report-fraud-waste-or-abuse


                       By Phone:                 Toll Free Number:                                (877) 499-7295
                                                 Washington Metro Area:                           (202) 606-2423


                          By Mail:               Office of the Inspector General
                                                 U.S. Office of Personnel Management
                                                 1900 E Street, NW
                                                 Room 6400
                                                 Washington, DC 20415-1100
                   
                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                          




                                                                 -- CAUTION --

This report has been distributed to Federal officials who are responsible for the administration of the subject program. This non-public version may
contain confidential and/or proprietary information, including information protected by the Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1905, and the Privacy
Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a. Therefore, while a redacted version of this report is available under the Freedom of Information Act and made publicly available
on the OIG webpage (http://www.opm.gov/our-inspector-general), this non-public version should not be further released unless authorized by the OIG.

                                                                                                                Report No. 1C-DH-00-16-025