U.S. OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL OFFICE OF AUDITS Final Audit Report AUDIT OF THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM OPERATIONS AT HEALTHPLUS OF MICHIGAN Report Number 1C-X5-00-17-032 April 24, 2018 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Audit of the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Operations at HealthPlus of Michigan Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 April 24, 2018 Why Did We Conduct the Audit? What Did We Find? The primary objective of the audit was to This report questions $527,027 for overstating the OPM MLR credits determine if HealthPlus of Michigan in contract years 2013 through 2015. Specifically, our audit (Plan) was in compliance with the identified the following: provisions of its contract and the laws and regulations governing the Federal In contract year 2013, we determined that the Plan used its own Employees Health Benefits Program unsupported premium amount and an inaccurate adjusted (FEHBP). To accomplish this objective, incurred claims amount in its MLR calculation. These errors we verified whether the Plan met the resulted in an overstatement of the Plan’s 2013 OPM MLR credit Medical Loss Ratio (MLR) requirements totaling $188,957. and thresholds established by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM). In contract year 2014, we found errors in the Plan’s adjusted incurred claims total, in the coordination of benefits claims Because of Program changes resulting review, and in the high dollar pharmacy prescriptions review. from OPM’s roll-out of its MLR These errors resulted in an overstatement of the Plan’s 2014 Program, we are no longer performing a OPM MLR credit totaling $315,052. review of the FEHBP’s rates. Consequently, this change to our audit process only allows us to verify whether In contract year 2015, we identified errors within the adjusted the calculated percentage of the premium incurred claims total, as well as the expense allocations for the paid is spent on patient related health Quality Healthcare Improvement and the Health Insurance care expenses. It does not allow us to Provider Fee expenses. These errors resulted in an assess the fairness of the premium paid overstatement of the Plan’s 2015 OPM MLR credit totaling for benefits received. $23,018. What Did We Audit? Material weaknesses in the Plan’s internal control structure that resulted in their inability to adequately support the 2013 through Under Contract CS 2712, the Office of 2015 MLRs filed with OPM. the Inspector General (OIG) completed a performance audit of the FEHBP For contract years 2013 and 2014, the Plan did not maintain a MLR submissions to OPM for contract required Fraud, Waste, and Abuse (FWA) Manual or provide all FWA potential case notifications to the OPM OIG, as required years 2013 through 2015. Our audit by Carrier Letters 2011-13 and 2014-29. fieldwork was conducted from May 15, 2017, through October 11, 2017, at the Our audit did not disclose any findings related to the Plan’s Plan’s office in Flint, Michigan and in policies and procedures for debarment or off-shore contracting. our OIG offices. Additionally, our audit did not disclose any findings related to our claim reviews for deceased members, dependent eligibility, member eligibility, or non-covered benefits. _______________________ Michael R. Esser Assistant Inspector General for Audits i ABBREVIATIONS CFR Code of Federal Regulations Contract OPM Contract CS-2712 FAR Federal Acquisition Regulation FEHBAR Federal Employees Health Benefits Acquisition Regulations FEHBP Federal Employees Health Benefits Program FWA Fraud, Waste, and Abuse HIPF Health Insurance Providers Fee MLR Medical Loss Ratio OIG Office of the Inspector General OPM U.S. Office of Personnel Management Plan HealthPlus of Michigan QHI Quality Healthcare Improvement SSSG Similarly-Sized Subscriber Group ii IV. MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS REPORT TABLE OF CONTENTS Page EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................ i ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................... ii I. BACKGROUND ..........................................................................................................1 II. OBJECTIVES, SCOPE, AND METHODOLOGY ..................................................4 III. AUDIT FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................9 A. Medical Loss Ratio Review ............................................................................................... 9 1. Overstated Medical Loss Ratio Credit ......................................................................... 9 a. Adjusted Incurred Claims ............................................................................... 10 b. MLR Claims Data ........................................................................................... 12 c. QHI and HIPF Expenses.................................................................................. 14 d. 2013 Premium Income ..................................................................................... 14 B. Internal Controls Review .................................................................................................. 15 C. Fraud, Waste and Abuse Review ..................................................................................... 17 D Debarment Review ........................................................................................................... 17 E. Offshore Contracting Review ........................................................................................... 17 Exhibit A (Summary of MLR Credit Adjustment) Exhibit B (2013 MLR Credit Adjustment) Exhibit C (2014 MLR Credit Adjustment) Exhibit D (2015 MLR Credit Adjustment) APPENDIX (HealthPlus of Michigan’s December 21, 2017 Response to the Draft Report) REPORT FRAUD, WASTE, AND MISMANAGEMENT IV. MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS REPORT I. BACKGROUND This final report details the audit results of the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP) operations at HealthPlus of Michigan (Plan). The audit was conducted pursuant to the provisions of Contract CS 2712 (Contract); 5 United States Code (U.S.C.) Chapter 89; and 5 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Chapter 1, Part 890. The audit covered contract years 2013 through 2015, and was conducted at the Plan’s office in Flint, Michigan. The FEHBP was established by the Federal Employees Health Benefits Act (Public Law 86- 382), enacted on September 28, 1959. The FEHBP was created to provide health insurance benefits for Federal employees, annuitants, and dependents, and is administered by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management’s (OPM) Healthcare and Insurance Office. The provisions of the Federal Employees Health Benefits Act are implemented by OPM through regulations codified in 5 CFR Chapter 1, Part 890. Health insurance coverage is provided through contracts with health insurance carriers who provide service benefits, indemnity benefits, or comprehensive medical services. In April 2012, OPM issued a final rule establishing an FEHBP-specific Medical Loss Ratio (MLR) requirement to replace the similarly-sized subscriber group (SSSG) comparison requirement for most community-rated FEHBP carriers (77 FR 19522). MLR is the proportion of FEHBP premiums collected by a carrier that is spent on clinical services and quality health improvements. The MLR for each carrier is calculated by dividing the amount of dollars spent for FEHBP members on clinical services and health care quality improvements by the total amount of FEHBP premiums collected in a calendar year. The MLR was established to ensure that healthplans are meeting specified thresholds for spending on medical care and health care quality improvement measures, and thus limiting spending on administrative costs, such as executive salaries, overhead, and marketing. For example, the threshold of 85 percent requires carriers to spend 85 cents of every premium dollar on patient care and limits the amount that can go to administrative expenses and profit to 15 cents of every dollar. However, the MLR does not provide an assessment of the fairness of the premium paid for benefits received, only that the calculated percentage of the premium paid is spent on patient related health care expenses. The FEHBP-specific MLR rules are based on the MLR standards established by the Affordable Care Act (P.L. 111-148) and defined by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in 45 CFR Part 158. In 2012, community-rated FEHBP carriers could elect to follow the FEHBP- specific MLR requirements, instead of the SSSG requirements. Beginning in 2013, however, the MLR methodology was required for all community-rated carriers, except those that are state- 1 Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 mandated to use traditional community rating. State-mandated traditional community-rated carriers continue to be subject to the SSSG comparison rating methodology. Starting with the pilot program in 2012 and for all non-traditional community-rated FEHBP carriers in 2013, OPM required the carriers to submit an FEHBP-specific MLR. This FEHBP- specific MLR calculation required carriers to report information related to earned premiums and expenditures in various categories, including reimbursement for clinical services provided to enrollees, activities that improve health care quality, and all other non-claims costs. If a carrier fails to meet the FEHBP-specific MLR threshold, it must make a subsidization penalty payment to OPM within 60 days of notification of amounts due. Community-rated carriers participating in the FEHBP are subject to various Federal, state and local laws, regulations, and ordinances. In addition, participation in the FEHBP subjects the carriers to the Federal Employees Health FEHBP Contracts/Members Benefits Act and implementing March 31 regulations promulgated by OPM. 4,000 3,500 The number of FEHBP contracts and 3,000 members reported by the Plan as of 2,500 March 31 for each contract year audited 2,000 is shown in the chart to the right. 1,500 1,000 The Plan has participated in the FEHBP 500 since 1995 and provides health benefits 0 2013 2014 2015 to FEHBP members in the eastern Contracts 1,514 1,528 1,326 Members 3,807 3,603 3,058 Michigan area. However, effective January 1, 2017, the Plan merged with Health Alliance Plan. Consequently, it is no longer a participating FEHBP carrier. There were no previous MLR audits of the Plan. However, a prior audit of the Plan covered contract years 2011 and 2012. The audit found that the FEHBP premium rates were developed in accordance with the Office of Personnel Management's rules and regulations for contract year 2011. However, the Plan was not compliant with its FEHBP record retention clause in contract year 2012. The audit report did not identify any questioned costs, but recommended that the Contracting Officer assess the maximum allowed penalty in the Plan's contract with OPM for breach of the record retention clause and to inform the Plan that they are expected to fully comply with the record retention provisions of the Contract and applicable regulations. 2 Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 The preliminary results of this audit were discussed with Plan officials at an exit conference and in subsequent correspondence. A draft report was also provided to the Plan for review and comment. The Plan’s comments were considered in preparation of this report and are included, as appropriate, as an Appendix to the report. 3 Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 IV. OBJECTIVES, II. MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS SCOPE, ANDTO THIS REPORT METHODOLOGY OBJECTIVES The primary objective of this performance audit was to determine whether the Plan was in compliance with the provisions of its Contract and the laws and regulations governing the FEHBP. Specifically, we verified whether the Plan met the MLR requirements and thresholds established by OPM and paid the correct amount to the Subsidization Penalty Account, if applicable. Additional tests were also performed to determine whether the Plan was in compliance with the provisions of other applicable laws and regulations. Further, we reviewed the Plan’s internal controls; compliance with fraud, waste, and abuse (FWA) requirements; debarment; and offshore contracting program areas to ensure that the Plan had adequate policies and procedures covering these areas. Our audits of the MLR submission filed with OPM are completed in accordance with the criteria expressed in OPM’s rating instructions. The MLR audit evaluation includes an assessment of key components of the MLR calculation, including allowable claims, health care expenses, and quality health improvements (numerator), and the premium received, excluding applicable tax expenses (denominator). The result of the MLR calculation must meet OPM’s prescribed thresholds. If the calculation falls below the threshold, the health plan must pay a penalty determined by the variance between the actual MLR ratio and the established threshold. Although the FEHBP premiums used in the MLR calculation are ultimately determined by the premium rates proposed by the Plan and certified and paid by OPM, the OPM rating instructions no longer provide sufficient criteria to evaluate the fairness of those rates against the standard market value of similarly-sized groups. Furthermore, per the OPM rating instructions, health plans can utilize OPM’s total reported premium, as the denominator in the MLR calculation, which when utilized is not subject to audit. Since the majority of health plans choose this option, the premiums utilized in the MLR calculation are very frequently not available for audit and the fairness of the FEHBP premium rates cannot be evaluated. SCOPE We conducted this performance audit in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe that the evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. 4 Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 This performance audit covered contract years 2013 through 2015. For these years, the FEHBP paid approximately $56.7 million in premiums to the Plan. The Office of the Inspector General’s FEHBP Premiums Paid to Plan (OIG) audits of community-rated carriers are designed to test carrier $20.0 compliance with the FEHBP contract, $18.0 $16.0 applicable laws and regulations, and the $14.0 Millions rate instructions. These audits are also $12.0 $10.0 designed to provide reasonable assurance $8.0 of detecting errors, irregularities, and $6.0 illegal acts. $4.0 $2.0 $0.0 2013 2014 2015 We obtained an understanding of the Revenue $19.6 $19.1 $18.0 Plan’s internal control structure, but we did not use this information to determine the nature, timing, and extent of our audit procedures. Our review of internal controls was limited to the procedures the Plan has in place to ensure that: The FEHBP MLR calculations were accurate, complete, and valid; claims were processed accurately; appropriate allocation methods were used; and, that any other costs associated with its MLR calculations were appropriate. In conducting the audit, we relied to varying degrees on computer-generated billing, enrollment, and claims data provided by the Plan. We did not verify the reliability of the data generated by the various information systems involved. However, nothing came to our attention during our audit utilizing the computer-generated data to cause us to doubt its reliability. We believe that the available data was sufficient to achieve our audit objectives. Except as noted above, the audit was conducted in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards, issued by the Comptroller General of the United States. The audit fieldwork was performed from May 15, 2017, through October 11, 2017, at the Plan’s office in Flint, Michigan and in our offices in Jacksonville, Florida; Cranberry Township, Pennsylvania; and Washington, D.C. METHODOLOGY We examined the Plan’s MLR calculations and related documents as a basis for validating the MLR. Further, we examined claim payments, quality health expenses, taxes and regulatory fees 5 Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 and any other applicable costs to verify that the cost data used to develop the MLR was accurate, complete, and valid. We also examined the methodology used by the Plan in determining the premium in the MLR calculations. Finally, we used the Contract, the Federal Employees Health Benefits Acquisition Regulations (FEHBAR), and the rate instructions to determine the propriety of the Plan’s MLR calculations. To gain an understanding of the internal controls over the Plan’s MLR process, we reviewed the Plan’s MLR policies and procedures and interviewed appropriate Plan officials regarding the controls in place to ensure that MLR calculations were completed accurately and appropriately. Other auditing procedures were performed as necessary to meet our audit objectives. We also interviewed Plan officials and reviewed the Plan's policies and procedures associated with its internal controls over the claims processing system, FWA, debarment and offshore contracting programs. The tests performed, along with the methodology, are detailed in the following charts by Medical and Pharmacy claims: Medical Claims Sample Selection Criteria/Methodology Results Sample Medical Claims Universe Universe Universe Sample Projected Criteria and Review Area Criteria (Number) (Dollars) Type to the Size Universe? Judgmentally Queried high selected 14 dollar medical Coordination of claims greater claims for 7,333 Benefits with $1,678,198 than or equal to Judgmental No members claims Medicare 2014 $8,000 totaling greater than or $387,085 for 10 equal to age 65 members Queried medical claims Randomly (excluding high selected 15 Coordination of dollar claims claims from the 7,319 Benefits with from the COB $1,291,113 universe using Random No claims Medicare 2014 sample above) SAS EG, for members totaling $2,901 greater than or for 12 members equal to age 65 6 Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 Queried Randomly members with selected 25 Member at least one 3,294 N/A members from Random No Eligibility 2014 medical claim members the universe during FY using SAS EG 2014. Queried members Selected the full Dependent greater than or 42 N/A universe of 42 N/A N/A Eligibility 2014 equal to age 26 members members designated as dependent Queried medical claims Selected the full Deceased 12 for members N/A universe of 12 N/A N/A Member 2014 members greater than or members equal to age 80 Pharmacy Claims Sample Selection Criteria/Methodology Results Pharmacy Sample Universe Sample Projected Claims Review Universe Universe Criteria and Criteria Type to the Area (Number) (Dollars) Size Universe? Selected all members that Queried were NOT part members of the medical Dependent greater than or 40 N/A dependent N/A N/A Eligibility 2014 equal to age 26 members eligibility designated as review sample, dependent which totaled 2 members Queried Selected all pharmacy pharmacy High Dollar claims greater claims, Pharmacy 28 than or equal to $227,996 representing 9 N/A N/A Prescriptions claims $5,000 members, from 2014 the universe. 7 Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 Finally, we examined the Plan’s financial information and evaluated the Plan’s financial condition and ability to continue operations as a viable ongoing business concern. 8 Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 III. AUDIT FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Effective January 1, 2017, the Plan merged with Health Alliance Plan. Consequently, it is no longer a participating FEHBP carrier. As a result of the merger, this report does not offer recommendations on audit issues that could only be remedied if the Plan continued to operate as a going concern. A. Medical Loss Ratio Review 1. Overstated Medical Loss Ratio Credit $527,027 Beginning with its pilot program in 2012, OPM’s MLR program replaced SSSG requirements with an MLR threshold. Simply stated, the MLR is the ratio of the FEHBP incurred claims (including expenses for health care quality improvements (QHI)) to total premium revenue determined by OPM. For contract years 2013 through 2015, OPM established The Plan’s non- an MLR threshold of 85 percent and created an MLR compliance with corridor. This threshold requires carriers to spend 85 Program requirements cents of every health care premium dollar on health care and its inability to expenses. If a carrier’s MLR falls between 85 and 89 support its MLR percent, no penalty is due. If a carrier’s MLR is less than calculations resulted in a 85 percent, the carrier will owe a subsidization penalty total overstated MLR equal to the difference between the threshold and the credit of $527,027 for carrier’s actual MLR, multiplied by the denominator of contract years 2013 the MLR. If the MLR is over 89 percent, the carrier through 2015. receives a credit equal to the difference between the carrier’s reported MLR and 89 percent, multiplied by the denominator of the MLR. For contract year 2013, the credit can be used to offset any future MLR penalties and is available until it is used up by the Plan or the Plan exits the FEHBP. For the remaining contract years, the credit can be used to offset any future MLR penalties for a period of five years subsequent to the current contract year. The Plan calculated an MLR of 96.82 percent, 102.49 percent, and 106.30 percent for contract years 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively. Since these ratios exceeded the OPM established threshold of 89 percent, the Plan received a 2013 MLR credit of $1,539,615, a 2014 MLR credit of $2,562,532, and a 2015 MLR credit of $3,033,892. However, during our review of the Plan’s MLR submissions in each of these years, we identified issues 9 Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 that resulted in audited MLR percentages that were lower than those calculated by the Plan. Consequently, this audit determined that the Plan’s MLR credits should be reduced by $188,957, $315,052, and $23,018 for contract years 2013 through 2015, respectively. The specific issues that led to the overstated credits include the following. a. Adjusted Incurred Claims During our claims review, we determined that the Plan's adjusted incurred claims were not fully supported and included erroneous prior year adjustments. Specifically, it erroneously included prior year medical claim adjustments in the 2013 and 2014 medical claims, it included unsupported indirect healthcare expenses in its 2015 incurred claims amount, and we identified variances within the Plan's pharmacy rebates, as well as unexplained medical claims variances in the 2013 through 2015 incurred claims. OPM's Carrier Letters 2014-18 and 2015-11 require carriers to only include claims incurred during the current calendar year and paid through June 30 of the following year as part of their MLR calculation. Additionally, the 2013, 2014, and 2015 OPM Rating Instructions require that Carriers "maintain all MLR documentation ... to fully support all claim values." OPM Contract Section 1.11(b) further requires insurance carriers to maintain all records relating to the Contract and to make these records available for a period of time specified by the FEHBAR 1652.204-70. The referenced clause is also incorporated at Section 3.4, which requires the carrier to maintain individual enrollee and/or patient claim records "for six years after the end of the contract term to which the claim records relate.” Finally, Section 5.7(f) of the Contract states that “The Contractor shall make available at its office at all reasonable times the records, materials, and other evidence ... for examination, audit, or reproduction, until 3 years after final payment under this contract or for any shorter period specified in Subpart 4.7, Contractor Records Retention, of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), or for any longer period required by statute or by other clauses of this contract.” The Plan explained that its actuarial reports used to support the medical claims totals included claims paid through June 30 of the following calendar year. However, those claims also included prior year dates of service claims totaling $83,035 and ($17,742) for 2013 and 2014, respectively. The Plan did not adjust its claims totals to remove 10 Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 the unallowable prior years' claims. As a result, we did not include the unallowable claim amounts in our audited 2013 and 2014 claims figures. The Plan also included indirect healthcare expenses for the Affordable Care Act Vision/Dental and Other categories, totaling $12,964, in its 2015 adjusted incurred claims. Due to its merger with another health plan and key personnel no longer being available to provide supporting documentation, the Plan was unable to support the indirect healthcare expenses. Consequently, we removed it from our audited MLR calculation for 2015. After incorporating the adjustments for the prior year’s claims and the indirect healthcare expenses in the medical claims for 2013 through 2015, variances still existed. The Plan was unable to account for the remaining medical claim variances of $125,307, $49,761, and ($5,065) for 2013 through 2015, respectively. Therefore, these medical claims variances were removed from our audited 2013 through 2015 MLR calculations. Finally, the Plan stated that pharmacy claim variances of $44,971, $96,385, and $62,487 for 2013 through 2015, respectively, were due to the pharmacy rebates. The variances occurred because of the difference between the estimated pharmacy rebates used at the time of the original MLR submissions and the actual rebate amounts reported a year later, which the Plan provided as support during the audit. The Plan was unable to duplicate the data used for the estimated pharmacy rebates to quantify the pharmacy variances. Consequently, we removed the pharmacy claims variances from our audited 2013 through 2015 MLR calculations. As a result of the issues explained above, our audited adjusted incurred claims varied from the Plan's calculated totals for 2013 through 2015. The results are summarized in the following table. As stated above, we used our audited incurred claims amounts in our audited MLR calculations for each contract year. Initial Adjusted Audited Adjusted Contract Incurred Claims Incurred Claims Years Totals Totals Variance 2013 $18,128,545 $17,875,232 $253,313 2014 $18,666,717 $18,538,313 $128,404 2015 $17,953,896 $17,883,510 $70,386 11 Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 b. MLR Claims Data During our 2014 claims review, we determined that the Plan included unsupported medical and pharmacy claim amounts in its MLR calculation. i. Coordination of Benefits The Plan could not We reviewed a combined sample of 29 claims for support that seven 20 unique members (2 members were included in claims, totaling $164,081 both samples) age 65 or over from the 2014 were properly medical claims data to determine whether the coordinated with sampled claims were properly coordinated with Medicare. Medicare and paid by the Plan. The results of our review identified seven claims, totaling $164,081, which the Plan could not support, in spite of numerous requests for the documentation. The 2014 OPM rating instructions require that Carriers “maintain all MLR documentation ... to fully support all claim values.” As mentioned previously, Section 1.11(b) of the Contract additionally requires the Plan to maintain all records relating to the Contract and to make the records available for a period of time specified by FEHBAR 1652.204-70. The referenced clause is also incorporated at Section 3.4, which requires the carrier to maintain individual enrollee and/or patient claim records “for six years after the end of the contract term to which the claim records relate.” Because the Plan could not support the proper coordination with Medicare for these seven claims totaling $164,081, they were removed from our audited 2014 MLR numerator. ii. High Dollar Pharmacy Prescriptions We reviewed a sample of 28 claims for nine members from the 2014 pharmacy claims data, The Plan could not where the amount paid was greater than or equal support three high dollar to $5,000, to determine if the claims were pharmacy claims, totaling supported by an original prescription. The $22,567. results of our review identified two claims that were not supported by an original prescription. 12 Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 As stated previously, OPM’s 2014 Community Rating Guidelines require the Plan “to maintain all MLR documentation ... to fully support all claim values.” Furthermore, Section 1.11(b) of the Contract requires the Plan to maintain all records relating to the Contract and to make the records available for a period of time specified by FEHBAR 1652.204-70. The referenced clause is also incorporated at Section 3.4, which requires the carrier to maintain individual enrollee and/or patient claim records “for six years after the end of the contract term to which the claim records relate.” The Plan stated that it had attempted several times to obtain the original prescriptions from its pharmacy benefit manager but was unable to do so. We extracted all additional prescription refills associated with both of the impacted prescription numbers. Consequently, we removed three unsupported claims, totaling $22,567, from our audited 2014 MLR numerator. iii. Deceased Member Based on our review, we concluded that the Plan did not pay any medical or pharmacy claims for deceased members. iv. Dependent Eligibility Based on our review, we concluded that the Plan did not pay any medical or pharmacy claims for ineligible dependents age 26 and over. v. Member Eligibility Based on our review, we concluded that the Plan did not pay any medical benefits for members after they were terminated by the Plan, dropped coverage, or during a gap in coverage. vi. Non-Covered Benefits Based on our review, we concluded that the Plan did not pay for benefits not covered in the FEHBP Plan brochure. 13 Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 c. QHI and HIPF Expenses The Plan's 2015 administrative expense percentage used to allocate its QHI and Health Insurance Providers Fee (HIPF) expenses QHI and HIPF expenses was inaccurate due to the removal of an were understated due to unsupported $154,170 tax credit. allocation errors. Section 1.11(b) of the Contract requires insurance carriers to maintain all records relating to the Contract and to make these records available for a period of time specified by FEHBAR 1652.204-70. The referenced clause is also incorporated at Section 3.4, which requires the carrier to maintain individual enrollee and/or patient claim records “for six years after the end of the contract term to which the claim records relate.” Furthermore, Section 5.7(f) of the Contract states that “The Contractor shall make available at its office at all reasonable times the records, materials, and other evidence ... for examination, audit, or reproduction, until 3 years after final payment under this contract or for any shorter period specified in Subpart 4.7, Contractor Records Retention, of the [FAR], or for any longer period required by statute or by other clauses of this contract.” In spite of numerous requests for documentation, the Plan was unable to support the removal of the $154,170 tax credit. Consequently, the $154,170 was added back into the audited FEHBP administrative expense total for 2015. Adding the tax credit back into the administrative expense total increased the overall allocation percentage from 9.25 percent to 9.99 percent. This percentage increase raised the QHI expenses by $16,977, resulting in an audited expense total of $228,763, which decreased the FEHBP MLR claims total. Similarly, the percentage increase raised the HIPF expense by $34,147, resulting in an audited Federal and State Taxes and Regulatory Fees expense total of $460,105, which increased the Plan's allowable deduction from its premium totals for 2015. d. 2013 Premium Income The Plan used its own internal premium income amount of $19,685,242 in its 2013 FEHBP MLR filing. OPM's 2013 Community Rating Guidelines state that the Plan may use its own premium income, but it will be subject to audit and must be justified with supporting 14 Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 documentation at the time of audit. The Plan stated that it could not support its internal premium income amount because personnel who could have explained and supported the amount were no longer with the Plan at the time of our audit. Consequently, we adjusted the premium income amount used in the 2013 MLR calculation to OPM's premium income amount of $19,612,931. The Plan stated that it agreed with the use of OPM's premium income amount. Conclusion We recalculated the Plan’s 2013 through 2015 MLRs, incorporating the adjustments mentioned above. A comparison of our audited MLR calculations to those submitted by the Plan showed overstated MLR credits of $188,957 for 2013, $315,052 for 2014, and $23,018 for 2015. (see Exhibits B, C, and D) Plan Response: The Plan agrees with all of our findings. Recommendation 1 We recommend that the contracting officer instruct OPM’s Office of the Actuary to reduce the Plan’s 2013 credit by $188,957. Recommendation 2 We recommend that the contracting officer instruct OPM’s Office of the Actuary to reduce the Plan’s 2014 credit by $315,052. Recommendation 3 We recommend that the contracting officer instruct OPM’s Office of the Actuary to reduce the Plan’s 2015 credit by $23,018. B. Internal Controls Review The Plan did not have any written policies and procedures regarding the FEHBP MLR process and was unable to provide all of the necessary supporting documentation during the audit. 15 Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 Section 5.64(c)(2)(ii)(A) of the Contract states that A lack of internal controls over the Contractor's internal control system will at a the MLR process resulted in minimum provide for "Assignment of responsibility inaccurate MLR submissions to at a sufficiently high level and adequate resources to OPM and overstated MLR ensure effectiveness of the business ethics awareness credits for 2013 through 2015. and compliance program and internal control system.” The Contract further states at Section 5.64(c)(2)(ii)(C)(1), (2) and (3) that the Contractor’s internal control system should provide “Periodic reviews of company business practices, procedures, policies, and internal controls for compliance with the Contractor's code of business ethics and conduct and the special requirements of Government contracting, including-- (1) Monitoring and auditing to detect criminal conduct; (2) Periodic evaluation of the effectiveness of the business ethics awareness and compliance program and internal control system, especially if criminal conduct has been detected; and (3) Periodic assessment of the risk of criminal conduct, with appropriate steps to design, implement, or modify the business ethics awareness and compliance program and the internal control system as necessary to reduce the risk of criminal conduct identified through this process.” Additionally, Section 1.11(b) of the Contract requires insurance carriers to maintain all records relating to the Contract and to make these records available for a period of time specified by FEHBAR 1652.204-70. The referenced clause is also incorporated at Section 3.4, which requires the carrier to maintain individual enrollee and/or patient claim records “for six years after the end of the contract term to which the claim records relate.” Furthermore, Section 5.7(f) of the Contract states that “The Contractor shall make available at its office at all reasonable times the records, materials, and other evidence described ... for examination, audit, or reproduction, until 3 years after final payment under this contract or for any shorter period specified in Subpart 4.7, Contractor Records Retention, of the [FAR], or for any longer period required by statute or by other clauses of this contract.” The Plan did not maintain written policies and procedures regarding its FEHBP MLR process for the scope of our audit. As mentioned previously, effective January 1, 2017, the Plan merged with another health plan. Due to the merger, key staff members at the Plan were not available to answer audit requests and provide supporting documentation. As a result of the lack of written policies and procedures, we were unable to determine if the Plan had sufficient oversight over its MLR calculation for our audit scope and were unable to obtain supporting documentation for various pieces of the MLR calculation in each year. 16 Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 C. Fraud, Waste and Abuse Review During our review of the Plan's FWA policies and procedures, we found that it did not provide all potential case notifications to the OPM OIG for contract years 2013 and 2014 as required by Carrier Letter 2011-13, and it did not have a separate FWA Manual as required by OPM's Carrier Letter 2014-29. According to Carrier Letter 2011-13, Carriers “are required to submit a written notification to The Plan did not make the OPM OIG … within 30 working days of becoming the OPM OIG aware of aware of a fraud, waste, or abuse issue where there is a potential fraud, waste, reasonable suspicion that a fraud has occurred or is or abuse issues which occurring against the Federal Employees Health Benefits … could have impacted Program. … Furthermore, it is understood that in order to premium rates and meet the 30 day notification requirement, Carriers may patient safety of FEHBP provide notification on cases where their investigation is still members. in the early stages and the Carrier has not yet determined whether there is sufficient evidence to substantiate the allegation.” Additionally, Carrier Letter 2014-29 required carriers to publish a FWA manual that includes all plans, policies, and procedures, which are involved in the Carrier's FWA program. As a result of its non-compliance with Carrier Letters 2011-13 and 2014-29, OPM OIG was not aware of potential fraud, waste, or abuse that could have negatively impacted the premium rates charged during our audit scope, as well as impacted the safety of FEHBP members enrolled in the Plan during this time. D. Debarment Review Based on our review, we concluded the Plan had procedures in place to identify providers that are debarred or suspended from participation in the FEHBP. Also, we determined the Plan had procedures in place to notify both the provider and the subscriber and to stop payment to debarred or suspended providers. E. Offshore Contracting Review Based on our review, we concluded that the Plan had adequate procedures to ensure oversight of its offshore activities. 17 Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 EXHIBIT A HealthPlus of Michigan Summary of MLR Credit Adjustment 2013 Overstated MLR Credit ($188,957) 2014 Overstated MLR Credit ($315,052) 2015 Overstated MLR Credit ($23,018) Total Overstated MLR Credit ($527,027) Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 EXHIBIT B HealthPlus of Michigan 2013 MLR Credit Adjustment Plan Audited 2013 FEHBP MLR Lower Corridor (a) 85% 85% 2013 FEHBP MLR Upper Corridor (b) 89% 89% Claims Expense Incurred Claims (Medical and Pharmacy) $18,128,545 $18,128,545 Less: Claims from prior year date of service $0 $83,035 Less: Unexplained Medical Variance $0 $125,307 Less: Pharmacy Claims Variance $0 $44,971 Adjusted Incurred Claims $18,128,545 $17,875,232 Paid Medical Incentive Pools and Bonuses $532,587 $532,587 Expenses to Improve Health Care Quality $398,348 $398,348 Total MLR Numerator $19,059,480 $18,806,167 Premium Expense Premium Income $19,685,242 $19,612,931 Total MLR Denominator (c) $19,685,242 $19,612,931 FEHBP MLR Calculation (d) 96.82% 95.89% Penalty Calculation (If (d) is less than (a), ((a-d)*c) $0 $0 Credit Calculation (If (d) is greater than (b), ((d-b)*c) $1,539,615 $1,350,658 Overstated Credit Amount ($188,957) Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 EXHIBIT C HealthPlus of Michigan 2014 MLR Credit Adjustment Plan Audited 2014 FEHBP MLR Lower Corridor (a) 85% 85% 2014 FEHBP MLR Upper Corridor (b) 89% 89% Claims Expense Incurred Claims (Medical and Pharmacy) $18,666,717 $18,666,717 Less: Claims from prior year date of service $0 ($17,742) Less: Unexplained Medical Variance $0 $49,761 Less: Pharmacy Claims Variance $0 $96,385 Less: Coordination of Benefits Claims Finding $0 $164,081 Less: Prescription High Dollar Finding $0 $22,567 Adjusted Incurred Claims $18,666,717 $18,351,665 Paid Medical Incentive Pools and Bonuses $371,356 $371,356 Expenses to Improve Health Care Quality $433,405 $433,405 Total MLR Numerator $19,471,478 $19,156,426 Premium Expense Premium Income $19,150,647 $19,150,647 Federal and State Taxes and Regulatory Fees $151,831 $151,831 Total MLR Denominator (c) $18,998,816 $18,998,816 FEHBP MLR Calculation (d) 102.49% 100.83% Penalty Calculation (If (d) is less than (a), ((a-d)*c) $0 $0 Credit Calculation (If (d) is greater than (b), ((d-b)*c) $2,562,532 $2,247,480 Overstated Credit Amount ($315,052) Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 EXHIBIT D HealthPlus of Michigan 2015 MLR Credit Adjustment Plan Audited 2015 FEHBP MLR Lower Corridor (a) 85% 85% 2015 FEHBP MLR Upper Corridor (b) 89% 89% Claims Expense Incurred Claims (Medical and Pharmacy) $17,953,896 $17,953,896 Less: Indirect Healthcare Expenses $0 $12,964 Less: Unexplained Medical Variance $0 ($5,065) Less: Pharmacy Claims Variance $0 $62,487 Adjusted Incurred Claims $17,953,896 $17,883,510 Paid Medical Incentive Pools and Bonuses $478,090 $478,090 Expenses to Improve Health Care Quality $211,786 $228,763 Total MLR Numerator $18,643,772 $18,590,363 Premium Expense Premium Income $17,965,149 $17,965,149 Federal and State Taxes and Regulatory Fees $425,958 $460,105 Total MLR Denominator (c) $17,539,191 $17,505,044 FEHBP MLR Calculation (d) 106.30% 106.20% Penalty Calculation (If (d) is less than (a), ((a-d)*c) $0 $0 Credit Calculation (If (d) is greater than (b), ((d-b)*c) $3,033,892 $3,010,874 Overstated Credit Amount ($23,018) Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 APPENDIX December 21, 2017 Plan X5 Response to Draft Audit Report From: To: Cc: Subject: RE: HealthPlus (Plan Code X5) Draft Report and Transmittal Letter Date: Thursday, December 21, 2017 11:14:20 AM Attachments: image001.png Hi , This email is to let you know that we are in agreement with the draft report findings for HealthPlus (X5) and will not be disputing anything. Please proceed accordingly. Best regards, Senior Director, Revenue Management 2050 S. Linden Rd, Flint, MI, 48532 Phone: | Fax: @hap.org CONFIDENTIALITY NOTICE: This communication contains information from HAP that may be CONFIDENTIAL, LEGALLY PRIVILEGED, PROPRIETARY, or otherwise protected from disclosure. The communication is intended for use only by the person to whom it is addressed. If you are not the intended recipient, any use, disclosure, copying, distribution, printing, or any action taken in reliance on the contents of this communication, is strictly prohibited. If you received this communication in error, please contact the sending party at the above telephone number and shred or delete the communication. Report No. 1C-X5-00-17-032 Report Fraud, Waste, and Mismanagement Fraud, waste, and mismanagement in Government concerns everyone: Office of the Inspector General staff, agency employees, and the general public. We actively solicit allegations of any inefficient and wasteful practices, fraud, and mismanagement related to OPM programs and operations. You can report allegations to us in several ways: By Internet: http://www.opm.gov/our-inspector-general/hotline-to- report-fraud-waste-or-abuse By Phone: Toll Free Number: (877) 499-7295 Washington Metro Area: (202) 606-2423 By Mail: Office of the Inspector General U.S. Office of Personnel Management 1900 E Street, NW Room 6400 Washington, DC 20415-1100
Audit of the Federal Employee Health Benefit Program Operation at HealthPlus of Michigan
Published by the Office of Personnel Management, Office of Inspector General on 2018-04-24.
Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)